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UMTS Long Term Evolution

(LTE)
Reiner Stuhlfauth
Reiner.Stuhlfauth@rohde-schwarz.com
Training Centre
Rohde & Schwarz, Germany
Subject to change Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG. Trade names are trademarks
of the owners.
2011 ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Test & Measurement Division
- Training Center -
This folder may be taken outside ROHDE & SCHWARZ facilities.
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH reserves the copy right to all of any part of these course notes.
Permission to produce, publish or copy sections or pages of these notes or to translate them must first
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ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG, Training Center, Mhldorfstr. 15, 81671 Munich, Germany
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 2
3GPP work plan
GERAN
EUTRAN
UTRAN
Up from Rel. 8
Rel. 9
Rel. 10
Evolution
Also contained in
Phase 1
Phase 2, 2+
Rel. 95
>
Rel.7
New
RAN
Rel. 97
Rel. 99
>
Rel. 7
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 3
Overview 3GPP UMTS Evolution
Driven by Data Rate and Latency Requirements
WCDMA
384 kbps downlink
128 kbps uplink
RoundTripTime~150ms
HSDPA/HSUPA
14 Mbps peak downlink
5.7 Mbps peak uplink
RoundTripTime<100ms
HSPA+
28 Mbps peak downlink
11 Mbps peak uplink
RoundTripTime <50 ms
3GPP Release 99/4
3GPP Release 99/4
3GPP Release 5/6
3GPP Release 5/6
3GPP Release 7
3GPP Release 7
3GPP Release 8
3GPP Release 8
Approx. year of specification freezing
2003/4 2005/6 (HSDPA)
2007/8 (HSUPA)
2008/9 2009/10
LTE
100 Mbps peak downlink
50 Mbps peak uplink
RoundTripTime~10 ms
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 4
Overview 3GPP UMTS evolution
WCDMA WCDMA
HSDPA/
HSUPA
HSPA+
LTE and
HSPA+
LTE-
advanced
3GPP Release 7
3GPP
release
2010 2008/2009
2005/6 (HSDPA)
2007/8 (HSUPA)
App. year of
network rollout
Round
Trip Time
11 Mbps (peak)
128 kbps (typ.)
28 Mbps (peak)
384 kbps (typ.)
3GPP Release 8 3GPP Release 5/6 3GPP Release 99/4
2003/4
< 50 ms < 100 ms ~ 150 ms
LTE: 75 Mbps (peak)
HSPA+: 11 Mbps (peak)
11 Mbps (peak)
5.7 Mbps (peak) 128 kbps (typ.)
Uplink
data rate
LTE: 150 Mbps* (peak)
HSPA+: 42 Mbps (peak)
28 Mbps (peak) 14 Mbps (peak) 384 kbps (typ.)
Downlink
data rate
LTE: ~10 ms
100 Mbps high mobility
1 Gbps low mobility
*based on 2x2 MIMO and 20 MHz operation
3GPP Study
Item initiated
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 5
Overview TD-SCDMA evolution towards LTE TDD
TD-SCDMA TD-SCDMA HSDPA HSDPA HSUPA HSUPA
TD-LTE
HSPA+
TD-LTE
HSPA+
3GPP Release 8 3GPP Release 7 3GPP Release 5 3GPP Release 4 3GPP release
LTE: 50 Mbps (req.) 2.2 Mbs (peak)* 128 kbps (typ.) 128 kbps (typ.) Uplink data rate
LTE:100 Mbps(req.) 2.8 Mbps (peak)* 2.8 Mbps (peak) 384/128 kbps (typ.)
Downlink
data rate
* Higher data rate with the use of multi carrier possible
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 6
Why LTE?
Ensuring Long Term Competitiveness of UMTS
l LTE is the next UMTS evolution step after HSPA and HSPA+.
l LTE is also referred to as
EUTRA(N) = Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (Network).
l Main targets of LTE:
l Peak data rates of 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink)
l Scaleable bandwidths up to 20 MHz
l Reduced latency
l Cost efficiency
l Operation in paired (FDD) and unpaired (TDD) spectrum
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 7
Peak data rates and real average throughput
(UL)
0,174
0,473
2 2
0,947
0,153
1,8
5,76
11,5
58
0,1
15
0,1
0,03
0,1
0,2
0,5
0,7
2
5
0,01
0,1
1
10
100
GPRS
(Rel. 97)
EDGE
(Rel. 4)
1xRTT WCDMA
(Rel. 99/4)
E-EDGE
(Rel. 7)
1xEV-DO
Rev. 0
1xEV-DO
Rev. A
HSPA
(Rel. 5/6)
HSPA+
(Rel. 7)
LTE 2x2
(Rel. 8)
Technology
D
a
t
a

r
a
t
e

i
n

M
b
p
s
max. peak UL data rate [Mbps] max. avg. UL throughput [Mbps]
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 8
Round trip time latency aspects
RNC
GMSC MSC
SGSN GGSN
circuit-
switched
packet-
switched
nodeB
UE
NSS
Circuit switched
Packet switched
RAN
Server
client
Latency = end to end
time duration
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 9
Comparison of network latency by technology
710
190
320
46
158
85
70
30
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
GPRS
(Rel. 97)
EDGE
(Rel. 4)
WCDMA
(Rel. 99/4)
HSDPA
(Rel. 5)
HSUPA
(Rel. 6)
E-EDGE
(Rel. 7)
HSPA+
(Rel. 7)
LTE
(Rel. 8)
Technology
2
G

/

2
.
5
G

l
a
t
e
n
c
y
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
3
G

/

3
.
5
G

/

3
.
9
G

l
a
t
e
n
c
y
Total UE Air interface Node B Iub RNC Iu + core Internet
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 10
Round Trip Time, RTT
Serving
RNC
MSC
SGSN
Iub/Iur
Iu
ACK/NACK
generation in RNC
MME/SAE Gateway
ACK/NACK
generation in node B
Node B
eNode B
TTI
~10msec
TTI
=1msec
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 11
Multi-RAT requirements
(GSM/EDGE, UMTS, CDMA)
MIMO multiple antenna
schemes
Timing requirements
(1 ms transm.time interval)
New radio transmission
schemes (OFDMA / SC-FDMA)
Major technical challenges in LTE
Throughput / data rate
requirements
Scheduling (shared channels,
HARQ, adaptive modulation)
System Architecture
Evolution (SAE)
FDD and
TDD mode
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 12
Introduction to UMTS LTE: Key parameters
Downlink: Wide choice of MIMO configuration options for transmit diversity, spatial
multiplexing, and cyclic delay diversity (max. 4 antennas at base station and handset)
Uplink: Multi user collaborative MIMO
MIMO
technology
Downlink: 150 Mbps (UE category 4, 2x2 MIMO, 20 MHz)
300 Mbps (UE category 5, 4x4 MIMO, 20 MHz)
Uplink: 75 Mbps (20 MHz)
Peak Data Rate
Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Multiple Access
Downlink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Uplink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM (optional for handset)
Modulation
Schemes
100
Resource
Blocks
75
Resource
Blocks
50
Resource
Blocks
25
Resource
Blocks
15
Resource
Blocks
6
Resource
Blocks
20 MHz 15 MHz 10 MHz 5 MHz 3 MHz 1.4 MHz
Channel
bandwidth,
1 Resource
Block=180 kHz
UMTS FDD bands and UMTS TDD bands
Frequency
Range
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 13
FDD 3600 MHz - 3510 MHz 3500 MHz - 3410 MHz 22
FDD 1510.9 MHz - 1495.9 MHz 1462.9 MHz - 1447.9 MHz 21
FDD 821 MHz - 791 MHz 862 MHz - 832 MHz 20
E-UTRA
Operating
Band
FDD 890 MHz 875 MHz 845 MHz 830 MHz 19
FDD 875 MHz 860 MHz 830 MHz 815 MHz 18
FDD 746 MHz 734 MHz 716 MHz 704 MHz 17
FDD 768 MHz 758 MHz 798 MHz 788 MHz 14
FDD 756 MHz 746 MHz 787 MHz 777 MHz 13
FDD 746 MHz 728 MHz 716 MHz 698 MHz 12
FDD 1500.9 MHz 1475.9 MHz 1452.9 MHz 1427.9 MHz 11
FDD 2170 MHz 2110 MHz 1770 MHz 1710 MHz 10
FDD 1879.9 MHz 1844.9 MHz 1784.9 MHz 1749.9 MHz 9
FDD 960 MHz 925 MHz 915 MHz 880 MHz 8
FDD 2690 MHz 2620 MHz 2570 MHz 2500 MHz 7
FDD 885 MHz 875 MHz 840 MHz 830 MHz 6
FDD 894MHz 869 MHz 849 MHz 824 MHz 5
FDD 2155 MHz 2110 MHz 1755 MHz 1710 MHz 4
FDD 1880 MHz 1805 MHz 1785 MHz 1710 MHz 3
FDD 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 1850 MHz 2
FDD 2170 MHz 2110 MHz 1980 MHz 1920 MHz 1
F
DL_low
F
DL_high
F
UL_low
F
UL_high
Duplex Mode
Downlink (DL) operating band
BS transmit UE receive
Uplink (UL) operating band
BS receive UE transmit
LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (FDD)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 14
LTE/LTE-A Frequency Bands (TDD)
TDD 2400 MHz 2300 MHz 2400 MHz 2300 MHz 40
TDD
3400 MHz
3600MHz
3400 MHz
3600MHz
41
E-UTRA
Operating
Band
TDD 1920 MHz 1880 MHz 1920 MHz 1880 MHz 39
TDD 2620 MHz 2570 MHz 2620 MHz 2570 MHz 38
TDD 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 1930 MHz 1910 MHz 37
TDD 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 1990 MHz 1930 MHz 36
TDD 1910 MHz 1850 MHz 1910 MHz 1850 MHz 35
TDD 2025 MHz 2010 MHz 2025 MHz 2010 MHz 34
TDD 1920 MHz 1900 MHz 1920 MHz 1900 MHz 33
F
DL_low
F
DL_high
F
UL_low
F
UL_high
Duplex Mode
Downlink (DL) operating band
BS transmit UE receive
Uplink (UL) operating band
BS receive UE transmit
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 15
LTE channel and EUARFCN settings
Frequency
1 Ressource block
(here: centre RB)
= 180kHz
f
c
= EUARFCN
= subcarrier #0 or DC subcarrier
Shift of EUARFCN in
Stepsize of 100kHz
Bandwidth of
EUTRAN band
Channel bandwidth
(here: symbolic scale)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 16
LTE frequency allocation - FDD
= Uplink frequency = Downlink frequency
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 17
l OFDM is the modulation scheme for LTE in downlink and
uplink (as reference)
l Some technical explanation about our physical base: radio
link aspects
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 18
What does it mean to use the radio channel?
Using the radio channel means to deal with aspects like:
Doppler effect
Time variant channel
Frequency selectivity
C
A
D
B
Receiver Transmitter
MPP
attenuation
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 19
Types of degradation in cellular networks
l Multiple Access Interference (MAI)
l Inter cell interference
l Intra cell interference
l Adjacent channel interference
l Co channel interference
l Fading
l Large scale fading
Known as log-normal fading or shadowing
Depends on distance between transmitter and receiver
l Small scale fading due to Multipath propagation and Doppler shift
Depends on signal bandwidth, relative velocity, environment
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 20
Still the same mobile radio problem:
Time variant multipath propagation
C
A
D
B
Receiver
Transmitter
A: free space
B: reflection
C: diffraction
D: scattering
A: free space
B: reflection
C: diffraction
D: scattering
reflection: object is large
compared to wavelength
scattering: object is
small or its surface
irregular
Multipath Propagation
and Doppler shift
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 21
Multipath channel impulse response
t
path delay
path delay
path attenuation
path attenuation
path phase
path phase
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
0
,
i
L
j t
i i
i
h t a t e
|
t o t t

=
=

The CIR consists of L resolvable propagation paths


delay spread
|h|
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 22
Radio Channel different aspects to discuss
Bandwidth
Wideband
Narrowband
Symbol duration
Short symbol
duration
Long symbol
duration
t
t
Repetition rate of pilots?
Channel estimation:
Pilot mapping
or
or
Time?
Frequency?
frequency distance of pilots?
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 23
Frequency selectivity - Coherence Bandwidth
Frequency selectivity
f
power
Wideband = equalizer
Must be frequency selective
Narrowband = equalizer
Can be 1 - tap
Here: find
Math. Equation
for this curve
Here: substitute with single
Scalar factor = 1-tap
How to combat
channel influence?
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 24
Time-Invariant Channel: Scenario
Transmitter
Fixed Receiver
Fixed Scatterer
Delay Delay spread
Transmitter
Signal
t
Receiver
Signal
t
time dispersive
ISI: Inter Symbol
Interference:
Happens, when
Delay spread >
Symbol time
Successive
symbols
will interfere
Channel Impulse Response, CIR
collision
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 25
t
f
T
SC
|H(f)|
Motivation: Single Carrier versus Multi Carrier
|h(t)|
t
B
l Frequency Domain
l Coherence Bandwidth B
c
< Systembandwidth B
Frequency Selective Fading equalization effort
l Time Domain
l Delay spread > Symboltime T
SC
Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI) equalization effort
1
SC
B
T
=
Source: Kammeyer; Nachrichtenbertragung; 3. Auflage
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 26
|h(t)|
t
t
f
f
t
T
SC
|H(f)|
1
SC
B
T
=
1
MC
B
f
N T
A = =
MC SC
T N T =
Motivation: Single Carrier versus Multi Carrier
B
B
|H(f)|
Source: Kammeyer; Nachrichtenbertragung; 3. Auflage
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 27
What is OFDM?
Single carrier
transmission,
e.g. WCDMA
Broadband, e.g. 5MHz for WCDMA
Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiplex
Several 100 subcarriers, with x kHz spacing
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 28
Idea: Wide/Narrow band conversion
One high rate signal:
Frequency selective fading
N low rate signals:
Frequency flat fading
S/P
t / T
b
t / T
s

H()
h()

h()

Channel
Memory
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 29
OFDM signal generation
00 11 01 10 01 01 11 01 >.
e.g. QPSK
h*(sin
jwt
+ cos
jwt
) h*(sin
jwt
+ cos
jwt
)
OFDM
symbol
duration t
Frequency
time
=> h * (sin.. + cos>)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 30
COFDM
X
X
M
a
p
p
e
r
+
X
X
M
a
p
p
e
r
+
.
.
.
.
.
OFDM
symbol

Data
with
FEC
overhead
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 31
Fourier Transform, Discrete FT
; ) ( ) (
; ) ( ) (
2
2
df e f H t h
dt e t h f H
t f j
t f j
}
}
+

+

=
=
t
t
;
1
); 2 sin( ) 2 cos(
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
/ 2

=
=
+ = =
N
n
N
n
k j
n k
N
k
k
N
k
k
N
k
N n k j
k n
e H
N
h
N
n
k h j
N
n
k h e h H
t
t
t t
Fourier Transform
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 32
OFDM Implementation with FFT
(Fast Fourier Transformation)
Receiver
Transmitter Channel
n(n)
(k)
b
h(n)
r(n)
S
/
P
P
/
S
( )

b k
P
/
S
I
D
F
T
N
F
F
T
Map
Map
Map
S
/
P
D
F
T
N
F
F
T
d(0)
d(1)
Demap
Demap
Demap
s(n)
d(FFT-1)
d(FFT-1)
d(0)
d(1)
.
.
.
.
.
.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 33
OFDM Symbol
OFDM
symbol
duration t
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 34
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
O
S
x
x

f f
-1
f
-2
f
1
f
2
f
0
Problem of MC - FDM
Overlapp of neighbouring subcarriers
Inter Carrier Interference (ICI).
Solution
Special transmit g
s
(t) and receive filter g
r
(t) and frequencies f
k
allows orthogonal
subcarrier
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM)
Inter-Carrier-Interference (ICI)
ICI
( )
MC
S f
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 35
Rectangular Pulse
t
f
t
f
A(f)
sin(x)/x
Convolution
time
frequency
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 36
Orthogonality
f
Orthogonality condition: f = 1/t
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 37
ISI and ICI due to channel
l Symbol
l-1 l+1
L L
n
( ) h n
-
L L
L L
L L
Delay spread
Receiver DFT
Window
fade in (ISI)
fade out (ISI)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 38
ISI and ICI: Guard Intervall
l Symbol
l-1
L
l+1
L
n
( ) h n
-
L
L
L
L
L
L
Delay spread
Receiver DFT
Window
G
T Delay Spread >
Guard Intervall guarantees the supression of ISI!
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 39
Receiver DFT
Window
Guard Intervall as Cyclic Prefix
l Symbol
l-1
L
l+1
L
n
( ) h n
-
L
L
L
L
L
L
Delay spread
G
T Delay Spread >
Cyclic Prefix guarantees the supression of ISI and ICI!
Cyclic Prefix
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 40
Synchronisation
Cyclic Prefix
CP CP CP
CP
: Symbol OFDM
Metric
1 + l l 1 l
n
~
Search window
-
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 41
Frequency Domain Time Domain
DL CP-OFDM signal generation chain
l OFDM signal generation is based on Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
(IFFT) operation on transmitter side:
Data
source
QAM
Modulator
1:N
N
symbol
streams
IFFT
OFDM
symbols
N:1
Cyclic prefix
insertion
Useful
OFDM
symbols
l On receiver side, an FFT operation will be used.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 42
OFDM: Pros and Cons
Pros:
scalable data rate
efficient use of the available bandwidth
robust against fading
1-tap equalization in frequency domain
Cons:
high crest factor or PAPR. Peak to average power ratio
very sensitive to phase noise, frequency- and clock-offset
guard intervals necessary (ISI, ICI) reduced data rate
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 43
MIMO =
MIMO =
Multiple Input Multiple Output Antennas
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 44
MIMO is defined by the number of Rx / Tx Antennas
and not by the Mode which is supported
Mode
SISO
Single Input Single Output
1 1
Typical todays wireless Communication System
MISO
Multiple Input Single Output
1 1
M
Transmit Diversity
l Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
l Matrix A also known as STC
l Space Time / Frequency Coding (STC / SFC)
SIMO
Single Input Multiple Output
1 1
M
Receive Diversity
l Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output
1 1
M M
Definition is seen from Channel
Multiple In = Multiple Transmit Antennas
Receive / Transmit Diversity
Spatial Multiplexing (SM) also known as:
l Space Division Multiplex (SDM)
l True MIMO
l Single User MIMO (SU-MIMO)
l Matrix B
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) also known as:
l Multi User MIMO (MU MIMO)
l Virtual MIMO
l Collaborative MIMO
Beamforming
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 45
MIMO modes in LTE
-Tx diversity
-Beamforming
-Rx diversity
-Multi-User MIMO
-Spatial Multiplexing
Better S/N
Increased
Throughput at
Node B
Increased
Throughput per
UE
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 46
RX Diversity
Maximum Ratio Combining depends on different fading of the
two received signals. In other words decorrelated fading
channels
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 47
TX Diversity: Space Time Coding
The same signal is transmitted at differnet
antennas
Aim: increase of S/N ratio
increase of throughput
Alamouti Coding = diversity gain
approaches
RX diversity gain with MRRC!
-> benefit for mobile communications
data
Fading on the air interface
(


=
*
1 2
*
2 1
2
s s
s s
S
Alamouti Coding
t
i
m
e
space
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 48
MIMO Spatial Multiplexing
SISO:
Single Input
Single Output
MIMO:
Multiple Input
Multiple Output
Increasing
capacity per cell
C=B*T*ld(1+S/N)

=
+ =
) , min(
1
) 1 (
R T
N N
i
i
i
i
N
S
ld B T C
?
Higher capacity without additional spectrum!
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 49
The MIMO promise
l Channel capacity grows linearly with antennas
l Assumptions
l Perfect channel knowledge
l Spatially uncorrelated fading
l Reality
l Imperfect channel knowledge
l Correlation 0 and rather unknown
Max Capacity ~ min(N
TX
, N
RX
)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 50
Spatial Multiplexing
Throughput:
data
Coding Fading on the air interface
data
100% 200% <200%
Spatial Multiplexing: We increase the throughput
but we also increase the interference!
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 51
Correlation of
propagation
pathes
Transmitter Receiver
h
11
h
21
h
M
R
1
h
1M
T
h
12
h
22
h
M
R
2
h
2M
T
h
M
R
M
T
s
1
s
2
sN
Tx
r
1
r
2
r
NRx
H
s r
Introduction Channel Model II
N
Tx
antennas
N
Rx
antennas
Capacity ~ min(N
TX
, N
RX
) max. possible rank!
But effective rank depends on channel, i.e. the
correlation situation of H
Rank indicator
estimates
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 52
Spatial Multiplexing prerequisites
Decorrelation is achieved by:
l Decorrelated data content on each spatial stream
l Large antenna spacing
l Environment with a lot of scatters near the antenna
(e.g. MS or indoor operation, but not BS)
l Precoding
l Cyclic Delay Diversity
But, also possible
that decorrelation
is not given
difficult
Channel
condition
Technical
assist
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 53
MIMO: channel interference + precoding
MIMO channel models: different ways to combat against
channel impact:
I.: Receiver cancels impact of channel
II.: Precoding by using codebook. Transmitter assists receiver in
cancellation of channel impact
III.: Precoding at transmitter side to cancel channel impact
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 54
MIMO: Principle of linear equalizing
H
-1
LE
s
n
r
^
r
H
Tx
Rx
The receiver multiplies the signal r with the
Hermetian conjugate complex of the transmitting
function to eliminate the channel influence.
R = S*H + n
Transmitter will send reference signals or pilot sequence
to enable receiver to estimate H.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 55
SISO: Equalizer has to estimate 1 channel
Linear equalization compute power increase
H =
h
11
h
21
h
12
h
22
h
11 H = h
11
h
11
h
12
h
21
h
22
2x2 MIMO: Equalizer has to estimate 4 channels
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 56
receiver channel transmitter
transmission reception model
A H R
+
noise
s
r
Modulation,
Power
precoding,
etc.
detection,
estimation
Eliminating channel
impact
etc.
Linear equalization
at receiver is not
very efficient, i.e.
noise can not be cancelled
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 57
MIMO work shift to transmitter
Transmitter
Receiver
Channel
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 58
MIMO Precoding in LTE (DL)
Spatial multiplexing Code book for precoding
Codebook
index
Number of layers u
1 2
0
(

0
1
(

1 0
0 1
2
1
1
(

1
0
(

1 1
1 1
2
1
2
(

1
1
2
1
(

j j
1 1
2
1
3
(

1
1
2
1
-
4
(

j
1
2
1
-
5
(

j
1
2
1
-
Code book for 2 Tx:
Additional multiplication of the
layer symbols with codebook
entry
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 59
MIMO precoding
+
+
precoding
precoding
t
t
1
1
t
t
=0
1
-1
1
1
Ant1
Ant2
2

November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 60


receiver channel transmitter
MIMO codebook based precoding
A H R
+
noise
s
r
Precoding
codebook
Precoding Matrix Identifier, PMI
Codebook based precoding creates
some kind of beamforming lite
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 61
MIMO: avoid inter-channel interference future outlook
Idea: F adapts transmitted signal to current channel conditions
Link adaptation
Transmitter
F
H
+
+
Space time
receiver
x
k
y
k
V
1,k
V
M,k
Feedback about H
e.g. linear precoding:
Y=H*F*S+V
S
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 62
MAS: Dirty Paper Coding future outlook
l Multiple Antenna Signal Processing: Known Interference
l Is like NO interference
l Analogy to writing on dirty paper by changing ink color accordingly
Known
Interference
is No
Interference
Known
Interference
is No
Interference
Known
Interference
is No
Interference
Known
Interference
is No
Interference
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 63
Spatial Multiplexing
data
Codeword Fading on the air interface
data
Spatial Multiplexing: We like to distinguish the 2 useful
Propagation passes:
How to do that? => one idea is SVD
Codeword
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 64
Idea of Singular Value Decomposition
know
Singular Value
Decomposition
r = H s + n
s1
s2
r1
r2
channel H
MIMO
wanted
r = D s + n
~ ~ ~
s1
s2
r1
r2
channel D
~
~ ~
~
SISO
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 65
Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)
r = H s + n
H = U (V*)
T
(
(
(
(

= E
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
3
2
1
o
o
o
U = [u
1
,...,u
n
] eigenvectors of (H*)
T
H
V = [v
1
,...,v
m
] eigenvectors of H (H
*
)
T
i
o =
i
singular values

i
eigenvalues of (H*)
T
H
~
r = (U*)
T
r
s = (V*)
T
s
~
n = (U*)
T
n
~
r = s + n
~ ~ ~
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 66
MIMO: Signal processing considerations
MIMO transmission can be expressed as
r = Hs+n which is, using SVD = UV
H
s+n
Imagine we do the following:
1.) Precoding at the transmitter:
Instead of transmitting s, the transmitter sends s = V*s
2.) Signal processing at the receiver
Multiply the received signal with U
H
, r = r*U
H
So after signal processing the whole signal can be expressed as:
r =U
H
*(UV
H
Vs+n)=U
H
U V
H
Vs+U
H
n = s+U
H
n
=I
nTnT
=I
nTnT
s
1
s
2
n
2
r
1
r
2
U V
H

n
1
U
H
V
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 67
MIMO: limited channel feedback
s
1
s
2
n
2
r
1
r
2
U V
H

n
1
U
H
V
Transmitter Receiver
Idea 1: Rx sends feedback about full H to Tx.
-> but too complex,
-> big overhead
-> sensitive to noise and quantization effects
H
Idea 2: Tx does not need to know full H, only unitary matrix V
-> define a set of unitary matrices (codebook) and find one matrix in the codebook that
maximizes the capacity for the current channel H
-> these unitary matrices from the codebook approximate the singular vector structure
of the channel
=> Limited feedback is almost as good as ideal channel knowledge feedback
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 68
Transmitter
Time
Delay
A1
A2
D
B
Cyclic Delay Diversity, CDD
Amp
litud
e
Delay Spread
+
+
precoding
precoding
Multipath propagation
No multipath propagation
t A
Time
Delay
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 69
Open loop und closed loop MIMO
n HWs r
n Hs r
+ =
+ =
Open loop (No channel knowledge at transmitter)
Closed loop (With channel knowledge at transmitter
Adaptive Precoding matrix (Pre-equalisation)
Feedback from receiver needed (closed loop)
Channel
Status, CSI
Rank indicator
Channel
Status, CSI
Rank indicator
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 70
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode1
SISO
Transmission mode2
TX diversity
Transmission mode3
Open-loop spatial
multiplexing
Transmission mode4
Closed-loop spatial
multiplexing
Transmission mode5
Multi-User MIMO
Transmission mode6
Closed-loop
spatial multiplexing,
using 1 layer
Transmission mode7
SISO, port 5
= beamforming in TDD
7 transmission
modes are
defined
Transmission mode is given by higher layer IE: AntennaInfo
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 71
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode1
SISO
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1 or 1A
PDSCH transmission via
single antenna port 0
No feedback regarding
antenna selection or
precoding needed
the classic:
1Tx + 1RX
antenna
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 72
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode 2
Transmit
diversity
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1 or 1A
PDSCH transmission via
2 Or 4 antenna ports
No feedback regarding
antenna selection or
precoding needed
1 codeword
Codeword is sent
redundantly over several
streams
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1 or 1A
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 73
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode 3
Transmit diversity or Open loop
spatial multiplexing
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1A
PDSCH transmission
Via 2 or 4 antenna ports
No feedback regarding
antenna selection or
precoding needed
1 codeword
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 2A
1
codeword
PDSCH spatial multiplexing
with 1 layer
2
codewords
PDSCH spatial multiplexing, using CDD

PMI feedback
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 74
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode 4
Transmit diversity or Closed loop
spatial multiplexing
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1A
PDSCH transmission
Via 2 or 4 antenna ports
Closed loop MIMO =
UE feedback needed regarding
precoding and antenna
selection
1 codeword
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 2
1
codeword
PDSCH spatial multiplexing
with 1 layer
2
codewords
PDSCH spatial multiplexing
PMI feedback
PMI feedback
p
r
e
c
o
d
i
n
g
p
r
e
c
o
d
i
n
g
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 75
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode 5
Transmit diversity or
Multi User MIMO
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1A
PDSCH transmission
Via 2 or 4 antenna ports
1 codeword
PDCCH indication
via DCI format 1D
UE1
Codeword
PDSCH multiplexing to several UEs.
PUSCH multiplexing in Uplink
P
D
S
C
H
U
E
2
PUSCH
UE2
Codeword
P
U
S
C
H
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 76
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode 6
Transmit diversity or Closed loop
spatial multiplexing with 1 layer
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1A
PDSCH transmission
via 2 or 4 antenna ports
Closed loop MIMO =
UE feedback needed regarding
precoding and antenna
selection
1 codeword
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1B
1
codeword
PDSCH spatial multiplexing, only 1 codeword
feedback
Codeword is split into
streams, both streams have
to be combined
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 77
MIMO transmission modes
Transmission mode 7
Transmit diversity or beamforming
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1A
PDSCH transmission
via 1, 2 or 4 antenna ports
1 codeword
PDCCH indication via
DCI format 1
1
codeword
PDSCH sent over antenna port 5 = beamforming
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 78
Beamforming
Adaptive Beamforming
Closed loop precoded
beamforming
Classic way
Antenna weights to adjust beam
Directional characteristics
Specific antenna array geometrie
Dedicated pilots required
Kind of MISO with channel
knowledge at transmitter
Precoding based on feedback
No specific antenna
array geometrie
Common pilots are sufficient
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 79
Spatial multiplexing vs beamforming
Spatial multiplexing increases throughput, but looses coverage
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 80
Spatial multiplexing vs beamforming
Beamforming increases coverage
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 81
System
System
architecture
architecture
evolution
evolution
, SAE +
, SAE +
IP
IP
multimedia
multimedia
subsystem
subsystem
, IMS
, IMS
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 82
3 GPP System Architecture Evolution
S-GW
P-GW
Evolved nodeB
UE
external
Evolved Packet Core
RAN
IMS
PSTN
PDN
MME
Signaling interfaces
Data transport interfaces
All interfaces are packet switched
Access PDN
directly or via IMS
IMS to control
access + data
transfer
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 83
LTE: EPS Bearer
P-GW S-GW Peer
Entity
UE eNB
EPS Bearer
Radio Bearer S1 Bearer
End-to-end Service
External Bearer
Radio S5/S8
Internet
S1
E-UTRAN EPC
Gi
S5/S8 Bearer
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 84
What is IMS?
A high level summary
l The success of the internet, using the Internet Protocol (IP) for
providing voice, data and media has been the catalyst for the
convergence of industries, services, networks and business models,
l IP provides a platform for network convergence enabling a
service provider to offer seamless access to any services,
anytime, anywhere, and with any device,
l 3GPP has taken these developments into account
with specification of IMS,
l IMS stands for IP Multimedia Subsystem,
l IMS is a global access-independent and standard-based IP
connectivity and service control architecture that enables
various types of multimedia services to end-users using
common internet-based protocols,
l Defines an architecture for the convergence of audio,
video, data and fixed and mobile networks.
How to
merge IP
and cellular
world??
How to
merge IP
and cellular
world??
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 85
IMS: Reference Model (3GPP/3GPP2)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 86
IMS simplified structure
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 87
IMS protocol structure
Layer 1/2
Layer 1/2
(other IP CAN)
Layer 3 control
IP / IP sec
UDP / TCP / SCTP
SIP/SDP IKE RTP MSRP
Voice
video
messaging
Control plane
user plane
Mobile com specific protocols IMS specific protocols
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 88
LTE
LTE
physical
physical
layer
layer
aspects
aspects
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 89
Basic OFDM parameter
2048
84 . 3
256
1
15
=
=
A =
= = A
FFT
FFT
s
FFT s
N
Mcps
N
F
f N F
T
kHz f
LTE
Data symbols
f A
S/P
Sub-carrier
Mapping
CP
insertion
Size-N
FFT
Coded symbol rate= R
N
TX
IFFT
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 90
Cyclic prefix length
Normal CP
Extended CP
CP CP CP CP CP CP
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 different Cyclic prefix lengths are defined
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Normal cyclic prefix length: 1st CP is longer
1 slot = 0,5msec
Mismatch in time!
1st Cyclic prefix is longer
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 91
Resource block definition
1 slot = 0,5msec
1
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
DL
symb
N
UL
symb
N
or
Resource element
Resource block
=6 or 7 symbols
In 12 subcarriers
6 or 7,
Depending on
cyclic prefix
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 92
LTE: new physical channels for data and control
Physical Downlink Control Channel PDCCH:
Downlink and uplink scheduling decisions
Physical Downlink Shared Channel PDSCH: Downlink data
Physical Control Format Indicator Channel PCFICH:
Indicates Format of PDCCH
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel PHICH:
ACK/NACK for uplink packets
Physical Uplink Control Channel PUCCH:
ACK/NACK for downlink packets, scheduling requests, channel quality info
Physical Uplink Shared Channel PUSCH: Uplink data
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 93
time
frequency
1 resource block =
180 kHz = 12 subcarriers
1 slot = 0.5 ms =
7 OFDM symbols**
1 subframe =
1 ms= 1 TTI*=
1 resource block pair
LTE Downlink
OFDMA time-frequency multiplexing
*TTI = transmission time interval
** For normal cyclic prefix duration
Subcarrier spacing = 15 kHz
QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation
UE1 UE1
UE4 UE4
UE3 UE3
UE2 UE2
UE5 UE5
UE6 UE6
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 94
LTE Downlink:
Downlink slot and (sub)frame structure
Ts = 32.522 ns
#0 #0 #1 #1 #2 #2 #3 #3 #19 #19
One slot, T
slot
= 15360T
s
= 0.5 ms
One radio frame, T
f
= 307200T
s
=10 ms
#18 #18
One subframe
We talk about 1 slot, but the minimum resource is 1 subframe = 2 slots !!!!!
( ) 2048 15000 1
s
= T
Symbol time, or number of symbols per time slot is not fixed
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 95
LTE Downlink: FDD channel mapping example
PDSCH
PDCCH
PCFICH
PBCH
S-SCH
P-SCH
Frequency
T
i
m
e
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 96
LTE Downlink:
baseband signal generation
OFDM
Mapper
OFDM signal
generation
Layer
Mapper
Scrambling
Precoding
Modulation
Mapper
Modulation
Mapper
OFDM
Mapper
OFDM signal
generation
Scrambling
code words layers antenna ports
Avoid
constant
sequences
QPSK
16 QAM
64 QAM
For MIMO
Split into
Several
streams if
needed
Weighting
data
streams for
MIMO
1 OFDM
symbol per
stream
1 stream =
several
subcarriers,
based on
Physical
ressource
blocks
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 97
Transportation block size
FEC
User data
Flexible ratio between data and FEC = adaptive coding
Adaptive modulation and coding
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 98
Channel Coding Performance
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 99
Automatic repeat request, latency aspects
Network UE
Round
Trip
Time
Transport block
Transport block size = amount of
data bits (excluding redundancy!)
TTI, Transmit Time Interval = time
duration for transmitting 1 transport
block
ACK/NACK
Immediate acknowledged or non-acknowledged
feedback of data transmission
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 100
HARQ principle: Stop and Wait
Tx
Rx
process
Data
t = Round trip time
Demodulate, decode, descramble,
FFT operation, check CRC, etc.
ACK/NACK
Processing time for receiver
Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data
Described as 1 HARQ process
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 101
HARQ principle: Multitasking
t
Tx
Rx
process
Data
t = Round trip time
Demodulate, decode, descramble,
FFT operation, check CRC, etc.
ACK/NACK
Processing time for receiver
Rx
process
Demodulate, decode, descramble,
FFT operation, check CRC, etc.
ACK/NACK
Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data
Described as 1 HARQ process
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 102
LTE Round Trip Time RTT
t=0 t=1 t=2 t=3 t=4 t=5 t=6 t=7 t=8 t=9 t=0 t=1 t=2 t=3 t=4 t=5
P
D
C
C
H
U
L
D
a
t
a
P
H
I
C
H
A
C
K
/
N
A
C
K
H
A
R
Q
D
a
t
a
Downlink
Uplink
n+4 n+4 n+4
1 frame = 10 subframes
8 HARQ processes
RTT = 8 msec
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 103
HARQ principle: Soft combining
lT i is a e am l o h n e co i g
Reception of first transportation block.
Unfortunately containing transmission errors
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 104
l hi i n x m le f cha n l c ing
Reception of retransmitted
transportation block.
Still containing transmission errors
HARQ principle: Soft combining
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 105
HARQ principle: Soft combining
lThis is an example of channel coding
l T i is a e am l o h n e co i g
l hi i n x m le f cha n l c ing
l Thi is an exam le of channel co ing
1st transmission with puncturing scheme P1
2nd transmission with puncturing scheme P2
Soft Combining = of transmission 1 and 2
Final decoding
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 106
Hybrid ARQ
Chase Combining = identical retransmission
Turbo Encoder output (36 bits)
Rate Matching to 16 bits (Puncturing)
Chase Combining at receiver
Systematic Bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Systematic Bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Systematic Bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Original Transmission Retransmission
Transmitted Bit
Punctured Bit
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 107
Hybrid ARQ
Incremental Redundancy
Turbo Encoder output (36 bits)
Rate Matching to 16 bits (Puncturing)
Incremental Redundancy Combining at receiver
Systematic Bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Systematic Bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Systematic Bits
Parity 1
Parity 2
Original Transmission Retransmission
Punctured Bit
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 108
LTE Physical Layer:
SC-FDMA in uplink
Single Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 109
LTE Uplink:
How to generate an SC-FDMA signal in theory?
LTE provides QPSK,16QAM, and 64QAM as uplink modulation schemes
DFT is first applied to block of N
TX
modulated data symbols to transform them into
frequency domain
Sub-carrier mapping allows flexible allocation of signal to available sub-carriers
IFFT and cyclic prefix (CP) insertion as in OFDM
Each subcarrier carries a portion of superposed DFT spread data symbols
Can also be seen as pre-coded OFDM or DFT-spread OFDM
DFT
Sub-carrier
Mapping
CP
insertion
Size-N
TX
Size-N
FFT
Coded symbol rate= R
N
TX
symbols
IFFT
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 110
LTE Uplink:
How does the SC-FDMA signal look like?
In principle similar to OFDMA, BUT:
In OFDMA, each sub-carrier only carries information related to one specific symbol
In SC-FDMA, each sub-carrier contains information of ALL transmitted symbols
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 111
time
frequency
1 resource block =
180 kHz = 12 subcarriers
1 slot = 0.5 ms =
7 SC-FDMA symbols**
1 subframe =
1 ms= 1 TTI*
LTE uplink
SC-FDMA time-frequency multiplexing
*TTI = transmission time interval
** For normal cyclic prefix duration
Subcarrier spacing = 15 kHz
QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation
UE1 UE1
UE4 UE4
UE3 UE3 UE2 UE2
UE5 UE5 UE6 UE6
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 112
LTE Uplink:
baseband signal generation
Avoid
constant
sequences
QPSK
16 QAM
64 QAM
(optional)
Discrete
Fourier
Transform
Mapping on
physical
Ressource,
i.e.
subcarriers
not used for
reference
signals
1 stream =
several
subcarriers,
based on
Physical
ressource
blocks
Modulation
mapper
Transform
precoder
Scrambling
SC-FDMA
signal gen.
Resource
element mapper
UE specific
Scrambling code
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 113
LTE Physical Layer:
Reference signals general aspects
Reference signals in Downlink
Reference signals in Uplink
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 114
LTE Reference signals in UL and DL overview
D
o
w
n
li
n
k
U
p
l
i
n
k
Downlink reference signals:
Primary synchronisation signal
Secondary synchronisation signal
Cell specific reference signals
UE specific reference signals
MBMS specific reference signals
Uplink reference signals:
Random Access Preamble
Uplink demodulation reference signal
Sounding reference signal
= based on pseudo random bit sequences
= based on Zhadoff-Chu sequences
= only used for special applications
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 115
Downlink Reference Signals
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l
O
n
e

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
Cell-specific reference signal
Cell specific reference signals
Pseudo random bit sequence, based on physical cell ID
Staggered in frequency + time
Distributed over channel bandwidth, always sent
time
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 116
MIMO channel estimation due to reference signals
h
11
h
12
h
21
h
22
Antenna 1 Antenna 2
Estimate h
11
Estimate h
12
Estimate h
22
Estimate h
21
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 117
MIMO in LTE (DL)
Reference Symbols / Pilots
R1 R3 R0 R1 R2 R0
R0 R2 R1 R0 R3 R1
R1 R3 R0 R1 R2 R0
R0 R2 R1 R0 R3 R1
1 subframe
1
2

s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
R0
Antenna 0
R1
R2
R3
Antenna 1
Antenna 2
Antenna 3
Different Tx antennas
Can be recognized
separately
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 118
Cell recognition due to physical cell identity
eNodeB 1,
Physical
Cell
identity A
C
e
l
l
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
Neighbour cells should have different
physical layer cell identities to be distinguished
eNodeB 2
Physical Cell
identity B
C
e
ll
s
p
e
c
i
f
ic
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
Cell specific reference signals depend on N
cell ID
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 119
LTE Uplink:
Reference Signals
2 different purposes:
1. Uplink channel estimation for uplink coherent
demodulation/detection
(reference symbol on 4th SC-FDMA symbol)
2. Channel sounding: uplink channel-quality estimation for
better scheduling decisions
(position tbd)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 120
LTE Uplink: Reference Signals when PUSCH
Demodulation Reference Signal: Uplink channel estimation for uplink coherent
demodulation/detection
Sounding Reference Signal SRS: Channel sounding: uplink channel-quality estimation for
better scheduling decisions
Example
structure
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time
frequency
Allocated
bandwidth
SRS bandwidth configuration
Allocation for PUSCH
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 121
Sounding reference signal
Sounding reference signals in uplink may assist the eNodeB to investigate
frequency selectivity
allcoated bandwidth
Frequency selective channel
eNodeB configures the UE when and where to send
sounding reference signals
=> Maybe change frequency scheduling
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 122
Security
Security
aspects
aspects
power
power
control
control
random
random
access
access
Handover
Handover
aspects
aspects
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 123
LTE security aspects: USIM
Modell of UMTS Subscriber Identity Module, USIM
Statements from TS 33.401:
Access to E-UTRAN with a 2G SIM shall not be granted.
A Rel-99 or later USIM shall be sufficient for accessing E-UTRAN
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 124
LTE security aspects
MME
=NAS
eNB =
AS
S-GW
= User plane
Ciphering: against eavedropping
Applied for
User plane
NAS control
AS control
Integrity protection: against intruders
Applied for
NAS control
AS control
NAS control
U-Plane data
AS control
Authentication:verify entities
Applied for
UE
Access network
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 125
Downlink power on PDSCH
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S
y
m
b
o
l
n
u
m
b
e
r
Reference signal
power:
Cell specific
Signaled in SIB
PDSCH
power,
UE specific,
signaled by
higher layers
as
A
PDSCH power in same symbol as
reference,
UE specific,
Power is relative to P
A
, cell specific ratio
signaled by higher layers as
B
frequency
1 Resource Block
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 126
[Time]
LTE fundamentals
Downlink power allocation (1 RB)
[Power]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
OFDM symbols
-50.00 dBm
P
A
= -4.77 dB
-54.77 dBm
-58.75 dBm
P
B
= 3 (-3.98 dB)
[
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
]
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
PDSCH power to RS, where NO reference
signals are present, is UE specific and
signaled by higher layers as P
A
(
A
).
Cell-specific
reference signal
power (RS power),
signaled in SIB Type 2
For PDSCH power in same
symbol as reference signal an
additional cell specific offset
is applied, that is signaled by
higher layers as P
B
(
B
).
PDCCH power
depending
on
B
/
A
2
0
1
1

R
o
h
d
e
&
S
c
h
w
a
r
z
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 127
PRACH procedure
PRACH
Preamble(s)
PDCCH
confirmation
preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower {-120..-90dBm}
+Pathloss + DELTA_PREAMBLE {-3, 0, 8dB} from preamble_index.
P
o
w
e
r
Time
preambleTransMax in SIB2 indicates maximum
number of PRACH preambles -> then report PRACH problem
to RRC, but continue with PRACH
powerRampingStep: {0,2,4 or 6dB}
RA-RNTI = Random Acces Radio Network Transaction Identifier
Preamble
+ freq
resource
determines
RA-RNTI
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 128
PUSCH power control
l Power level [dBm] of PUSCH is calculated every subframe i based on the following
formula out of TS 36.213
Dynamic offset (closed loop) Basic open-loop starting point
Maximum allowed UE power
in this particular cell,
but at maximum +23 dBm
1)
Number of allocated
resource blocks (RB)
Combination of cell- and UE-specific
components configured by L3
Cell-specific
parameter
configured by L3
PUSCH transport
format
Transmit power for PUSCH
in subframe i in dBm
Power control
adjustment derived
from TPC command
received in subframe (i-4)
Downlink
path loss
estimate
Bandwidth factor
1)
+23 dBm is maximum allowed power in LTE according to TS 36.101, corresponding to power class 3bis in WCDMA
MPR
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 129
Power-up
LTE_ACTIVE
IP address assigned,
Connected to known cell.
OUT_OF_SYNCH
DL reception possible,
No UL transmission.
IN_SYNCH
DL reception possible,
UL transmission possible
LTE random access procedure
[Initial Access; allocate C-RNTI, TA-ID, IP address]
LTE random access procedure
[to restore uplink synchronization]
LTE random access procedure
[transition to LTE_ACTIVE state (IN_SYNCH)]
release C-RNTI,
allocate DRX for PCH
de-allocate Tracking Area ID (TA-ID) and IP address
LTE_DETACHED
No IP address,
Location not known.
LTE_IDLE
IP address assigned,
Position partially known.
LTE states
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 130
RACH Procedure: 2 scenarios
UE eNB
Random Access Preamble 1
Random Access Response 2
Scheduled Transmission 3
Contention Resolution 4
Contention based (C)
[36.300:10.1.5.1]
Non contention based (nC)
[36.300:10.1.5.2]
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 131
Random access procedure
Available
preambles
1. UE selects
randomly
preamble
2. UE selects
next PRACH
opportunity
3. UE sets
PRACH power
and transmits preamble
4. Network
Sends RAR
message
4. Apply
timing
advance
5. UE sends RRC
connection request
5. UE starts
Contention
Resolution timer
R
R
C
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
io
n
s
e
t
u
p
6. Contention
Resolution timer is
Stopped when RRC
Connection setup is received
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 132
RACH Preamble (RAP)
l RACH Preamble consists of
CAZAC (Zadoff / Chu Sequence) in TDD/FDD -> orthogonality
Cyclic Prefix Easy processing in frequency domain
Guard TimeAvoids Interference by no UL-Synchronization
l Different formats for different cell sizes: 0-3 (FDD: 1,2,3 Subframes), 4 (TDD: 1
Symbol)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 133
LTE Protocol Architecture
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 134
EUTRAN stack: protocol layers overview
PHYSICAL LAYER
Medium Access Control
MAC
Radio Resource Control
RRC
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
&

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
Radio Link Control
RLC
Packet Data Convergence
PDCP
MM
ESM
User plane
Transport channels
Logical channels
Radio Bearer
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 135
LTE channels
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 136
Control plane
EPS = Evolved packet system
RRC = Radio Resource Control
NAS = Non Access Stratum
ECM = EPS Connection Management
Broadcast
Paging
RRC connection setup
Radio Bearer Control
Mobility functions
UE measurement control>
EPS bearer management
Authentication
ECM_IDLE mobility handling
Paging origination in ECM_IDLE
Security control>
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 137
EPS Bearer Service Architecture
P-GW S-GW Peer
Entity
UE eNB
EPS Bearer
Radio Bearer S1 Bearer
End-to-end Service
External Bearer
Radio S5/S8
Internet
S1
E-UTRAN EPC
Gi
S5/S8 Bearer
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 138
LTE TDD and FDD mode of
operation
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 139
TDD versus FDD
Downlink
Uplink
Guard band needed
Down- and Uplink
No duplexer
needed
Timing and UL/DL
configuration
needed
Independent
resources in uplink +
downlink
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 140
Paired spectrum not always available -> use TDD mode
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 141
General comments
What is called Advantages of TDD vs. FDD mode
l Data traffic,
l Asymmetric setting between downlink and uplink possible,
depending on the situation,
l Channel estimation,
l Channel characteristic for downlink and uplink same,
l Design,
l No duplexer required, simplifies RF design and reduce costs.
See interference aspects:
UL DL and inter-cell
In principle yes:
But hardware influence!
And: Timing delay UL and DL
But most UEs will be dual-
mode: FDD and TDD!
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 142
Beamforming in LTE TDD
l Adaptive Beamforming
- Beamforming in TDD mode is used via Specific antenna port 5
- Channel estimation performed at eNodeB based on uplink
timeslots
D
S
U
U
D
D
S
U
U
D
UL can be used by eNodeB
for Channel Status information
inquiry
Transmission mode7
SISO, via antenna port 5
= beamforming in TDD
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 143
LTE TDD mode - overview
7 different UL/DL configurations are defined
Characteristics + differences of UL/DL configurations:
Number of subframes dedicated to Tx and Rx
Number of Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request, HARQ processes
HARQ process timing: time between first transmission and retransmission
Scheduling timing: What is the time between PDCCH and PUSCH?
9 different configurations for the special subframe are defined
Definition of how long are the DL and UL pilot signals and how much
control information can be sent on it. -> also has an impact on cell size
Differences between Uplink and Downlink in TD-LTE
Characteristic of HARQ: Synchronuous or asynchronuous
Number of Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request, HARQ processes
HARQ process timing: time between first transmission and
retransmission
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 144
LTE TDD: frame structure type 2
DwPTS = PDCCH, P-Sync, Reference symbol, User Data
GP = main Guard Period for TDD operation
UpPTS = PRACH, sounding reference signal
GP UpPTS DwPTS
One subframe ,
GP UpPTS DwPTS
Subframe# 2 Subframe #3 Subframe#4 Subframe# 0 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9
Always
DL
Always
DL
Always
UL
Used
for UL
or DL
Optionally
used as
special
subframe
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 145
TD-LTE uplink-downlink configurations
24.5
4.9
9.8
14.7
9.8
19.6
29.4
UL DL
66.3
131.6
116.1
101.0
111.6
81.4
51.5
Peak data rate
3:5
8:1
7:2
6:3
3:1
2:2
1:3
DL:UL
Ratio
5 ms 6
10ms 5
10 ms 4
10 ms 3
5 ms 2
5 ms 1
5 ms 0
DL-to-UL switch
point periodicity
UL-DL
configuration
D U U S D U U U S D
D D D D D D D U S D
D D D D D D U U S D
D D D D D U U U S D
D D U S D D D U S D
D U U S D D U U S D
U U U S D U U U S D
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Subframe number
D = the subframe is reserved for downlink transmissions
U = the subframe is reserved for uplink transmissions
S = a special subframe containing DwPTS, GP and UpPTS
29.4 51.5 1:3 5 ms 0
9.8
19.6
111.6
81.4
3:1
2:2
5 ms 2
5 ms 1
First requirements, that need to be supported.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 146
LTE TDD: special subframe configurations
GP
Subframe #0
Special subframe configuration = maximum cell size
UpPTS
DwPTS
Timing given by:
10 km 2 1 11 8
20 km 2 2 10 7*
30 km 2 3 9 6
90 km 2 9 3 5*
10 km 1 1 12 4
20 km 1 2 11 3
60 km 1 6 10 2
40 km 1 4 9 1
100 km 1 10 3 0
UpPTS Guard Period DwPTS
Max Cell size Normal Cyclic prefix in DL and UL Special subframe
configuration
Example for timing
Number basis = 2192*T
s
Subframe #2
*: first
requirements
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 147
LTE TDD: timing advance and guard period
In TDD there is a guard period needed between
Transition DL-> UL, because of timing advance
GP UpPTS
DwPTS
Subframe# 2 Subframe #3 Subframe#4 Subframe# 0 Subframe#5 Subframe #7 Subframe#8 Subframe #9
TTI=1ms
eNode B
Subframe# 2 Subframe #3 Subframe#4 Subframe# 0 Subframe#5 Subframe #7 Subframe#8 Subframe #9
Subframe# 2 Subframe #3 Subframe#4 Subframe# 0 Subframe#5 Subframe #7 Subframe#8
Subframe #9
UE, short distance to eNode B
T
propagation
T
propagation
UE, long distance to eNode B
T
propagation
T
propagation
Guard period combats
UL DL collision risk
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 148
Interference aspects
eNodeB
D S U U D D S U U D
Configuration 1 to UE1
D S U U U D D D D D
Configuration 3 to UE2
The UL/DL configuration can not vary dynamically
between the UEs within a node B
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 149
Interference aspects
eNodeB 1
D S U U D D S U U D
C
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
1
t
o
U
E
1
D S U U U D D D D D
Neighbour cells should have the same
UL/DL configurations
eNodeB 2
C
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
3
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 150
Interference aspects
eNodeB 1
D S U U D D S U U D
C
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
1
t
o
U
E
1
Neighbour cells should have the same
Frame timing. Synchronisation required
eNodeB 2
C
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
1
D S U U D D S U U D
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 151
PUSCH and PDCCH Timing Relation
TDD: PUSCH timing
relation depends on TDD
frame configuration
5 7 7 7 7 6
4 5
4 4 4
4 4 4 3
4 4 2
4 6 4 6 1
6
(*)
4
(*)
6
(*)
4
(*)
0
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Delay K for DL subframe number n TDD UL/DL
Configuration
D S U U D D S U U D D S U U D D S U U D
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Frame n-1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Frame n
Example:
Configuration 1
(*)= for UL/DL configuration 0 there is normal HARQ operation and bundling
HARQ operation. Latter is described in TS36.213
3
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 152
LTE HARQ protocol
l Downlink:
l Asynchronous adaptive protocol
l Retransmission of data blocks can occur at any time after the initial
transmission
l To identify, the eNode B assigns a HARQ process identifier
l Uplink:
l Synchronous non-adaptive protocol
l Retransmission occurs at a predefined time after the initial
transmission
l HARQ process number is not assigned. Process can be derived
from timing
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 153
LTE TDD: HARQ processes in UL and DL
6
15
12
9
10
7
4
Maximum number of HARQ
processes in
Downlink
6 6
1 5
2 4
3 3
2 2
4 1
7 0
Maximum number of HARQ
processes in
Uplink
TDD UL/DL
configuration
UL/DL configuration defines the number of HARQ processes,
in configuration 2,3,4 and 5 are more than FDD
FDD=8 HARQ
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 154
LTE TDD HARQ processes
5 - - 7 7 - - - 7 7 6
13 4 5 6 7 8 9 - 11 12 5
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Subframe n
UL/DL
configur
ation
Downlink LTE TDD mode HARQ processes are non-synchronuous
and therefore they are signaled to the UE
Example:
ACK/NACK
timing
D S U D D D D D D D D S U D D D D D D D D S U D D D D D D D
PDSCH in
Subframe n will
be acknowledged in
Subframe n+k
e.g. here NACK
->retransmission
in k+4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
HARQ process identifier.
Here 15 HARQ processes are needed
HARQ Info
= 4 bits
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 155
TDD HARQ operation
D S U U U D D D D D D S U U U D D D D D
DL data is
acknowledged in
UL subframe >
Uplink subframe may combine acknowledgement of several
Downlink data subframes.
-> different DL UL timing and roundtrip times
1
2,3,4 5,6 7,8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
HARQ process
number
UL/DL configuration 3
several
A/Ns
LTE Rel9 /
LTE-Rel 10 (= LTE-Advanced)
Technology Outlook
Reiner Stuhlfauth
Reiner.Stuhlfauth@rohde-schwarz.com
Training Centre
Rohde & Schwarz, Germany
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 157
2013/2014 2009/2010
Technology evolution path
GSM/
GPRS
EDGE, 200 kHz
DL: 473 kbps
UL: 473 kbps
EDGEevo
DL: 1.9 Mbps
UL: 947 kbps
HSDPA, 5 MHz
DL: 14.4 Mbps
UL: 2.0 Mbps
HSPA, 5 MHz
DL: 14.4 Mbps
UL: 5.76 Mbps
HSPA+, R7
DL: 28.0 Mbps
UL: 11.5 Mbps
2005/2006 2007/2008 2011/2012
HSPA+, R8
DL: 42.0 Mbps
UL: 11.5 Mbps
cdma
2000
1xEV-DO, Rev. 0
1.25 MHz
DL: 2.4 Mbps
UL: 153 kbps
1xEV-DO, Rev. A
1.25 MHz
DL: 3.1 Mbps
UL: 1.8 Mbps
1xEV-DO, Rev. B
5.0 MHz
DL: 14.7 Mbps
UL: 4.9 Mbps
HSPA+, R9
DL: 84 Mbps
UL: 23 Mbps
DO-Advanced
DL: 32 Mbps and beyond
UL: 12.4 Mbps and beyond
LTE-Advanced R10
DL: 1 Gbps (low mobility)
UL: 500 Mbps
Fixed WiMAX
scalable bandwidth
1.25 >28 MHz
typical up to 15 Mbps
Mobile WiMAX, 802.16e
Up to 20 MHz
DL: 75 Mbps (2x2)
UL: 28 Mbps (1x2)
Advanced Mobile
WiMAX, 802.16m
DL: up to 1 Gbps (low mobility)
UL: up to 100 Mbps
VAMOS
Double Speech
Capacity
HSPA+, R10
DL: 84 Mbps
UL: 23 Mbps
LTE (4x4), R8+R9, 20MHz
DL: 300 Mbps
UL: 75 Mbps
UMTS
DL: 2.0 Mbps
UL: 2.0 Mbps
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 158
Enh. DL
Control CH
Network
Energy Saving
Security enh.
(eea3 ZUC)
CoMP
UL / DL
In-device
co-existence
RAN enh. for
Diverse Data
Application
Relays
(part 2)
feICIC
(further eICIC)
Service Continuity
for eMBMS
CA
enhancements
NW-based
positioning
(UTDOA)
UL MIMO
4x4
LTE Release 8
FDD / TDD
The LTEvolution path
Rel-10
Rel-9
Rel-11
Relaying
SON
enhancements
Carrier
Aggregation
DL MIMO
8x8
UL MIMO
2x2
Enhanced
SC-FDMA
eICIC
eMBMS
Positioning
Dual Layer
Beamforming
Multi carrier /
Multi-RAT
Base Stations
Home
eNodeB
Self Organizing
Networks
Public Warning
System (PWS)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 159
CoMP
In-device
co-existence
Diverse Data
Application
Relaying
eICIC
enhancements
eMBMS
enhancements
LTE Release 8
FDD / TDD
DL UL
DL UL
The LTE evolution
Rel-10
Relaying
SON
enhancements
Carrier
Aggregation
MIMO 8x8
MIMO 4x4
Enhanced
SC-FDMA
eICIC
Rel-9
Rel-11
eMBMS
Positioning
Dual Layer
Beamforming
Multi carrier /
Multi-RAT
Base Stations
Home eNodeB
Self Organizing
Networks
Public Warning
System
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 160
MBSFN MBMS Single Frequency Network
Mobile communication network
each eNode B sends individual
signals
Single Frequency Network
each eNode B sends identical
signals
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 161
MBSFN
If network is synchronised,
Signals in downlink can be
combined
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 162
Resource block definition for MBMS
7 OFDM symbols
CP CP CP CP CP CP
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
f=1/T
SYMBOL
=15kHz
f
f
0
f
1
f
2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Resource
Block =
12 subcarriers
CP CP CP
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
OFDM
Symbol
f=
7.5kHz
f
1 Resource
Block =
24 subcarriers
For
MBMS
only!
6 OFDM symbols
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 163
eMBMS channel mapping
Subframes 0 and 5 are not MBMS, because
of PBCH and Sync Channels
Subframes 0,4,5 and 9 are not MBMS, because
Of paging occasion can occur here
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 164
eMBMS allocation based on SIB2 information
011010
Reminder:
Subframes
0,4,5, and 9
Are non-MBMS
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 165
eMBMS: MCCH position according to SIB13
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 166
evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services
Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) area
l Useful if a significant number of users want to consume the same data
content at the same time in the same area!
l Same content is transmitted in a specific area is known as MBSFN area.
l Each MBSFN area has an own identity (mbsfn-AreaId 0?255) and can consists of
multiple cells; a cell can belong to more than one MBSFN area.
l MBSFN areas do not change dynamically over time.
5
2
1
3
4
6
7
9
11
12
13
10
MBSFN area 0
14
A cell can belong to
more than one MBSFN
area; in total up to 8.
MBSFN area 1
13
8
MBSFN area 255
MBSFN reserved cell.
A cell within the MBSFN
area, that does not support
MBMS transmission.
15
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 167
Location based services
l Location Based Services
l Products and services which need location
information
l Future Trend:
Augmented Reality
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 168
Where is Waldo?
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 169
Location based services
The idea is not new, >so what to discuss?
Satellite based services
Network based services
Location
controller
Who will do the measurements? The UE or the network? = assisted
Who will do the calculation? The UE or the network? = based
So what is new?
Several ideas are defined and hybrid mode is possible as well,
Various methods can be combined.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 170
Measurements for positioning
l UE-assisted measurements.
l Reference Signal Received
Power
(RSRP) and Reference Signal
Received Quality (RSRQ).
l RSTD Reference Signal Time
Difference.
l UE RxTx time difference.
l eNB-assisted measurements.
l eNB Rx Tx time difference.
l TADV Timing Advance.
For positioning Type 1 is of
relevance.
l AoA Angle of Arrival.
l UTDOA Uplink Time Difference
of Arrival.
RSRP, RSRQ are
measured on reference
signals of serving cell i
Serving cell i
Neighbor cell j
RSTD Relative time difference
between a subframe received from
neighbor cell j and corresponding
subframe from serving cell i:
T
SubframeRxj
- T
SubframeRxi
Source: see TS 36.214 Physical Layer measurements for detailed definitions
UE Rx-Tx time difference is defined
as T
UE-RX
T
UE-TX
, where T
UE-RX
is the
received timing of downlink radio frame
#i from the serving cell i and T
UE-TX
the
transmit timing of uplink radio frame #i.
DL radio frame #i
UL radio frame #i
eNB Rx-Tx time difference is defined
as T
eNB-RX
T
eNB-TX
, where T
eNB-RX
is the
received timing of uplink radio frame #i
and T
eNB-TX
the transmit timing of
downlink radio frame #i.
UL radio frame #i DL radio frame #i
TADV (Timing Advance)
= eNB Rx-Tx time difference + UE Rx-Tx time difference
= (T
eNB-RX
T
eNB-TX
) + (T
UE-RX
T
UE-TX
)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 171
E-UTRAN UE Positioning Architecture
l In contrast to GERAN and UTRAN, the E-UTRAN positioning
capabilities are intended to be forward compatible to other access
types (e.g. WLAN) and other positioning methods (e.g. RAT uplink
measurements).
l Supports user plane solutions, e.g. OMA SUPL 2.0
Source: 3GPP TS 36.305
UE = User Equipment
SUPL* = Secure User Plane Location
OMA* = Open Mobile Alliance
SET = SUPL enabled terminal
SLP = SUPL locaiton platform
E-SMLC = Evolved Serving Mobile
Location Center
MME = Mobility Management Entity
RAT = Radio Access Technology
*www.openmobilealliance.org/technical/release_program/supl_v2_0.aspx
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 172
GNSS positioning methods supported
l Autonomeous GNSS
l Assisted GNSS (A-GNSS)
l The network assists the UE GNSS receiver to
improve the performance in several aspects:
Reduce UE GNSS start-up and acquisition times
Increase UE GNSS sensitivity
Allow UE to consume less handset power
l UE Assisted
UE transmits GNSS measurement results to E-SMLC where the position calculation
takes place
l UE Based
UE performs GNSS measurements and position calculation, suppported by data >
>assisting the measurements, e.g. with reference time, visible satellite list etc.
>providing means for position calculation, e.g. reference position, satellite ephemeris, etc.
Source: 3GPP TS 36.305
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 173
GPS and GLONASS satellite orbits
GPS:
26 Satellites
Orbital radius 26560 km
GLONASS:
26 Satellites
Orbital radius 25510 km
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 174
Why is GNSS not sufficent?
l Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) have restricted
performance in certain environments
l Often less than four satellites visible: critical situation for GNSS
positioning
support required (Assisted GNSS)
alternative required (Mobile radio positioning)
Critical scenario Very critical scenario GPS Satellites visibility (Urban)
Reference [DLR]
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 175
Cell ID
l Not new, other definition: Cell of Origin (COO).
l UE position is estimated with the knowledge of the geographical
coordinates of its serving eNB.
l Position accuracy = One whole cell .
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 176
Enhanced-Cell ID (E-CID)
l UE positioning compared to CID is specified more
accurately using additional UE and/or E UTRAN radio
measurements:
l E-CID with distance from serving eNB position accuracy: a circle.
Distance calculated by measuring RSRP / TOA / TADV (RTT).
l E-CID with distances from 3 eNB-s position accuracy: a point.
Distance calculated by measuring RSRP / TOA / TADV (RTT).
l E-CID with Angels of Arrival position accuracy: a point.
AOA are measured for at least 2, better 3 eNBs.
RSRP Reference Signal Received Power
TOA Time of Arrival
TADV Timing Advance
RTT Round Trip Time
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 177
Angle of Arrival (AOA)
l AoA = Estimated angle of a UE with respect to a reference
direction (= geographical North), positive in a counter-
clockwise direction, as seen from an eNB.
l Determined at eNB antenna based
on a received UL signal (SRS).
l Measurement at eNB:
l eNB uses antenna array to estimate
direction i.e. Angle of Arrival (AOA).
l The larger the array, the more
accurate is the estimated AOA.
l eNB reports AOA to LS.
l Advantage: No synchronization
between eNBs.
l Drawback: costly antenna arrays.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 178
OTDOA Observed Time Difference of
Arrival
l UE position is estimated based on measuring TDOA of
Positioning Reference Signals (PRS) embedded into overall
DL signal received from different eNBs.
l Each TDOA measurement describes a hyperbola (line of constant
difference 2a), the two focus points of which (F1, F2) are the two
measured eNB-s (PRS sources), and along which the UE may be
located.
l UEs position = intersection of hyperbolas for at least 3 pairs of
eNBs.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 179
Positioning Reference Signals (PRS) for OTDOA
Definition
l Cell-specific reference signals (CRS) are not sufficient for
positioning, introduction of positioning reference signals
(PRS) for antenna port 6.
l SINR for synchronization
and reference signals of
neighboring cells needs to
be at least -6 dB.
l PRS is a pseudo-random
QPSK sequence similar
to CRS; PRS pattern:
l Diagonal pattern with time
varying frequency shift.
l PRS mapped around CRS to avoid collisions;
never overlaps with PDCCH; example shows
CRS mapping for usage of 4 antenna ports.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 180
Observed Time difference
If network is synchronised,
UE can measure time difference
Observed Time
Difference of Arrival
OTDOA
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 181
Methods overview
CID E-CID (RSRP/TOA/TADV) E-CID (RSRP/TOA/TADV) [Trilateration]
E-CID (AOA) [Triangulation] Downlink / Uplink (O/U-TDOA) [Multilateration] RF Pattern matching
To be updated!!
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 182
Public Warning System (PWS)
l Extend the Warning System support of the E-UTRA/E-UTRAN
beyond that introduced in the Release 8 ETWS (Earthquake and
Tsunami Warning System) by providing
l E-UTRA/E-UTRAN support for multiple parallel Warning Notifications
l E-UTRAN support for replacing and canceling a Warning Notification
l E-UTRAN support for repeating the Warning Notification with a repetition
period as short as 2 seconds and as long as 24 hours
l E-UTRA support for more generic PWS indication in the Paging
Indication
l The requirement is to extend the UE RRC ETWS broadcast
reception mechanism and the associated paging mechanism to
accommodate reception of CMAS (Commercial Mobile Alert
System) alerts contained in a CBS message.
l New: TS 22.268 Public Warning System (PWS) Requirements
(Release 9)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 183
IMT International Mobile Communication
l IMT-2000
l Was the framework for the third Generation mobile communication
systems, i.e. 3GPP-UMTS and 3GPP2-C2K
l Focus was on high performance transmission schemes:
Link Level Efficiency
l Originally created to harmonize 3G mobile systems and to increase
opportunities for worldwide interoperability, the IMT-2000 family of
standards now supports four different access technologies, including
OFDMA (WiMAX), FDMA, TDMA and CDMA (WCDMA).
l IMT-Advanced
l Basis of (really) broadband mobile communication
l Focus on System Level Efficiency (e.g. cognitive network
systems)
l Vision 2010 2015
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 184
IMT Spectrum
Next possible spectrum
allocation at WRC 2015!
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 185
LTE-Advanced
Possible technology features
Cognitive radio
methods
Enhanced MIMO
schemes for DL and UL
Interference management
methods
Relaying
technology
Cooperative
base stations
Radio network evolution Further enhanced
MBMS
Wider bandwidth
support
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 186
Bandwidth extension with Carrier aggregation
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 187
LTE-Advanced
Carrier Aggregation
Contiguous carrier aggregation
Non-contiguous carrier aggregation
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 188
Aggregation
l Contiguous
l Intra-Band
l Non-Contiguous
l Intra (Single) -Band
l Inter (Multi) -Band
l Combination
l Up to 5 Rel-8 CC and 100 MHz
l Theoretically all CC-BW combinations possible (e.g. 5+10+20 etc)
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 189
Overview
l Carrier Aggregation (CA)
enables to aggregate up to 5 different
cells (component carriers CC), so that a
maximum system bandwidth of 100 MHz
can be supported (LTE-Advanced
requirement).
l Each CC = Rel-8 autonomous cell
Backwards compatibility
l CC-Set is UE specific
Registration Primary (P)CC
Additional BWSecondary (S)CC-s 1-4
l Network perspective
Same single RLC-connection for one UE
(independent on the CC-s)
Many CC (starting at MAC scheduler)
operating the UE
l For TDD
Same UL/DL configuration for all CC-s
UE1 U3
UE3
UE2
UE4
UE1
UE4 UE3 UE4 U2
CC1
CC2
CC1 CC2
Cell 1
Cell 2
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 190
Deployment scenarios
3) Improve coverage
l #1: Contiguous frequency aggregation
Co-located & Same coverage
Same f
l #2: Discontiguous frequency aggregation
Co-located & Similar coverage
Different f
l #3: Discontiguous frequency aggregation
Co-Located & Different coverage
Different f
Antenna direction for CC2 to cover blank spots
l #4: Remote radio heads
Not co-located
Intelligence in central eNB, radio heads = only transmission
antennas
Cover spots with more traffic
Is the transmission of each radio head within the cell the
same?
l #5:Frequency-selective repeaters
Combination #2 & #4
Different f
Extend the coverage of the 2nd CC with Relays
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 191
Physical channel arrangement in downlink
Each component
carrier transmits P-
SCH and S-SCH,
Like Rel.8
Each component
carrier transmits
PBCH,
Like Rel.8
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 192
Common or separate PDCCH per Component Carrier?
No cross-carrier
scheduling
Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
up to 3 (4) symbols
per subframe
P
D
C
C
H
Cross-carrier
scheduling
1 subframe = 1 ms
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
1 slot = 0.5 ms
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
l No cross-carrier scheduling.
l PDCCH on a component carrier
assigns PDSCH resources on the
same component carrier (and
PUSCH resources on a single
linked UL component carrier).
l Reuse of Rel-8 PDCCH structure
(same coding, same CCE-based
resource mapping) and DCI formats.
l Cross-carrier scheduling.
l PDCCH on a component carrier
can assign PDSCH or PUSCH
resources in one of multiple component
carriers using the carrier indicator field.
l Rel-8 DCI formats extended with
3 bit carrier indicator field.
l Reusing Rel-8 PDCCH structure (same
coding, same CCE-based resource
mapping).
P
C
C
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 193
Carrier aggregation: control signals + scheduling
Each CC has
its own control
channels,
like Rel.8
Femto cells:
Risk of interference!
-> main component
carrier will send
all control information.
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 194
Non-Contiguous spectrum allocation Contiguous spectrum allocation
LTE-Advanced
Carrier Aggregation Scheduling
l There is one transport block
(in absence of spatial
multiplexing) and one HARQ
entity per scheduled
component carrier (from the
UE perspective),
l A UE may receive multiple
component carriers
simultaneously,
l Two different approaches are
discussed how to inform the
UE about the scheduling for
each band,
l Separate PDCCH for each carrier,
l Common PDCCH for multiple carrier,
Data
mod.
Mapping
Channel
coding
HARQ
Data
mod.
Mapping
Channel
coding
HARQ
Data
mod.
Mapping
Channel
coding
HARQ
Data
mod.
Mapping
Channel
coding
HARQ
Dynamic
switching
RLC transmission buffer
[frequency in MHz]
e.g. 20 MHz
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 195
LTE-Advanced
Carrier Aggregation Common and Separate PDCCH?
Variant (I)
Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
Variant (II) Variant (III) Variant (IV)
1 subframe = 1 ms
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
P
D
C
C
H
1 slot = 0.5 ms
up to 3 (4) symbols
per subframe
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
PDSCH
l Based on RAN WG1#58 the following is
considered being supported for LTE-
Advanced,
l Variant I PDCCH on a component carrier
assigns PDSCH resources on the same
component carrier (and PUSCH resources on
a single linked UL component carrier)
No carrier indicator field, i.e. Rel-8 PDCCH
structure (same coding, same CCE-based
resource mapping) and DCI formats
l Variant II PDCCH on a component carrier
can assign PDSCH or PUSCH resources in
one of multiple component carriers using the
carrier indicator field
Rel-8 DCI formats extended with 1 to 3 bit carrier
indicator field
Reusing Rel-8 PDCCH structure (same coding, same
CCE-based resource mapping)
Solutions to PCFICH detection errors on the component
carrier carrying PDSCH to be studied
l In both cases, limiting the number of blind
decoding is desirable,
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 196
Carrier aggregation activation
1. Establish SRB
3. Network
Activates PCC
=UL + DL
4.Network
Add secondary CC
2. UE sends
Capability information
to the network
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 197
Carrier aggregation activation - mobility
1. UE has
EUTRAN connection
active
2. Secondary CC is
added
4. UE and network perform
Handover on primary CC
3. Secondary CC is
removed
3. Secondary CC is
Added in target cell
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 198
DL MIMO
Extension up to 8x8
l Max number of transport blocks: 2
l Number of MCS fields
l one for each transport block
l ACK/NACK feedback
l 1 bit per transport block for evaluation
as a baseline
l Closed-loop precoding supported
l Rely on precoded dedicated
demodulation RS (decision on DL RS)
l Conclusion on the codeword-to-
layer mapping:
l DL spatial multiplexing of up to eight
layers is considered for LTE-Advanced,
l Up to 4 layers, reuse LTE codeword-to-
layer mapping,
l Above 4 layers mapping see table
l Discussion on control signaling
details ongoing
2 8
2 7
2 6
2 5
Codeword-to-layer mapping
Number
of code
words
Number
of layers
Codeword to layer mapping for spatial multiplexing
1 1 0 =
layer
symb
M , , i K
) 3 4 ( ) (
) 2 4 ( ) (
) 1 4 ( ) (
) 4 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 7 (
) 1 ( ) 6 (
) 1 ( ) 5 (
) 1 ( ) 4 (
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 3 4 ( ) (
) 2 4 ( ) (
) 1 4 ( ) (
) 4 ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 3 (
) 0 ( ) 2 (
) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 0 ( ) 0 (
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 3 4 ( ) (
) 2 4 ( ) (
) 1 4 ( ) (
) 4 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 6 (
) 1 ( ) 5 (
) 1 ( ) 4 (
) 1 ( ) 3 (
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 2 3 ( ) (
) 1 3 ( ) (
) 3 ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 2 (
) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 0 ( ) 0 (
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 2 3 ( ) (
) 1 3 ( ) (
) 3 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 5 (
) 1 ( ) 4 (
) 1 ( ) 3 (
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 2 3 ( ) (
) 1 3 ( ) (
) 3 ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 2 (
) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 0 ( ) 0 (
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 2 3 ( ) (
) 1 3 ( ) (
) 3 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 4 (
) 1 ( ) 3 (
) 1 ( ) 2 (
+ =
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
i d i x
) 1 2 ( ) (
) 2 ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 0 ( ) 0 (
+ =
=
i d i x
i d i x
3 2
) 1 (
symb
) 0 (
symb
layer
symb
M M M = =
3 3
) 1 (
symb
) 0 (
symb
layer
symb
M M M = =
4 3
) 1 (
symb
) 0 (
symb
layer
symb
M M M = =
4 4
) 1 (
symb
) 0 (
symb
layer
symb
M M M = =
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 199
LTE-Advanced
Enhanced uplink SC-FDMA
l The uplink
transmission
scheme remains
SC-FDMA.
l The transmission of
the physical uplink
shared channel
(PUSCH) uses DFT
precoding.
l Two enhancements:
l Control-data
decoupling
l Non-contiguous
data transmission
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 200
Significant step towards 4G: Relaying ?
Source: TTAs workshop for the future of IMT-Advanced technologies, June 2008
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 201
Radio Relaying approach
Source: TTAs workshop for the future of IMT-Advanced technologies, June 2008
No Improvement of SNR resp. CINR
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 202
L1/L2 Relaying approach
Source: TTAs workshop for the future of IMT-Advanced technologies, June 2008
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 203
LTE-Advanced
Coordinated Multipoint Tx/Rx (CoMP)
CoMP
Coordination between cells
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 204
Present Thrust- Spectrum Efficiency
l FCC Measurements:- Temporal and geographical variations in the utilization of the assigned
spectrum range from 15% to 85%.
Momentary snapshot of frequency spectrum allocation
Why not use this
part of the spectrum?
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 205
ODMA some ideas
BTS
Mobile devices behave as
relay station
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 206
Cooperative communication some ideas
How to implement antenna arrays in mobile handsets?
Each mobile
is user and relay
3 principles of support:
Amplify and forward
Decode and forward
Coded cooperation
Multi-access
Independent
fading paths
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 207
Cooperative communication some ideas
Higher signaling
System complexity
Cell edge coverage
Group mobility
Multi-access
Independent
fading paths
Virtual
Antenna
Array
November 2012 | LTE Introduction | 208
There will be enough topics
for future trainings
Thank you for your attention!
Comments and questions
welcome!