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Chapter 27 Examples Gauss Law Example 1:

Calculate the electric eld due to an innite line of charge. Use Gauss Law. Solution: Draw a gure. ~ dA ~ electric ux through the caps = 0, since E electric ux through the side surface is E = E From Gauss Law: And since qenclosed = h then E = E 2 r h = Thus: E 2 r h = E= qenclosed h = 0 0 h 0
Z

ds = E S = E 2 r h E = qenclosed 0

2 0 r 2

Example 2:
Calculate the electric eld due to an innite nonconducting sheet of charge. Solution: Draw a gure. We will use Gauss Law. 0 so E=
Z

~ dA ~ = qenclosed E 20

0 (EA + EA) = A

Example 3:
Calculate the electric eld due to an innite conducting charged plate. Solution: Draw a gure. We will use Gauss Law. 0 so E=
Z

~ dA ~ = qenclosed E 0

0 (EA + 0) = A

Example 4:
Calculate the electric eld due to two innite nonconducting oppositely charged sheets brought together to a distance a. Q1 : if the magnitude of the positive surface charge density + is twice larger than the negative charge density (i.e., + = 2 ). Q2 : if the magnitudes of charge densities are the same (i.e., + = ). Solution: Draw a gure. We will use Gauss Law. Using the principle of superposition: Q1 : Elef t Eright
of + plane

= =

+ + + /2 + + = = 20 20 20 2 0 40 + + /2 + + + = + = 20 20 20 20 40 + + + /2 3+ + = + = 20 20 20 20 40

it is pointing it is pointing it is pointing 2

of plane

Ebetween Q2 :

planes

Ebetween

planes

+ + = =0 20 20 20 20 + Eright of plane = + = =0 20 20 20 20 + = + = + = it is pointing 20 20 20 20 0 Elef t


of + plane

Example 5:
Calculate the electric eld due to two innite conducting oppositely charged plates brought together to a distance a. Solution: Draw a gure. We will use Gauss Law. Using the principle of superposition: Eleft
of + plane

= 0 = Eright =

of plane

Ebetween

planes

+ = 2 0 2 0 0

it is pointing 2

Example 6
Two coaxial cylinders of innite length are charged with +2 C/m on the inner and 1 C/m on the outer. The inner cylinder has radius 1 m and the outer has radius 2 m. What is the electric eld everywhere? Solution: Draw a gure. We will use Gauss Law. We will form coaxial cylinders for our Gaussian surfaces. We will make them 1 m in length, but by the symmetry resulting from having innite cylinders, the ux through the ends is zero. First, form a Gaussian surface that is a cylinder coaxial with the other two, and inside the inner cylinder. It encloses no charge, so E = 0. I.e., E = 0 for r < 1 m. Next, form a Gaussian surface that is a cylinder coaxial between the others with radius r. It encloses charge of +2 C, since it is 1 m in length. By Gauss Law, (2 C) (2 C) 3.6 1010 N m q 1 = = = E= 0 A 0 (2 r)(1 m) (8.85 1012 C2 /N m2 )2(3.14)(1 m) r r C I.e., for 1 m < r < 2 m, E = (3.6 1010 N m/C)/r. Last, form a Gaussian surface that is a cylinder coaxial and outside the outer cylinder, and again 1 m in length. It encloses net charge of (2 C + (1 C) = 1 C), so: E= q 1 (1 C) (1 C) 1.8 1010 N m = = = 0 A 0 (2 r)(1 m) (8.85 1012 C2 /N m2 )2(3.14)(1 m) r r C 2

I.e., for r > 2 m, E = (1.8 1010 N m/C)/r.