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Evaluation of High Pressure Components


of Fuel Injection Systems
Using Speckle Interferometry






Der Technischen Fakultt der
Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg





zur Erlangung des Grades

DOKTOR-INGENIEUR





vorgelegt von

Adis Basara




Erlangen, 2007


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Als Dissertation genehmigt
von der Technischen Fakultt der
Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg





Tag der Einreichung: 19. Januar 2007
Tag der Promotion: 22. Mai 2007
Dekan: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alfred Leipertz
Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlcker
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Hal Mughrabi


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To my beloved parents

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i

Preface
Every accomplishment starts with a dream. My dream came to be true and possible
at the moment when I was awarded with a financial support by the Bavarian State
Ministry of Sciences, Research and the Arts for my research work. In this aspiration,
the Institute for Process Technology and Machinery at the Friedrich-Alexander
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany, who have hosted me during my four
years research stay, also played an important role. During this unforgettable time I
spent at the Institute, it became my second home and the staff of the Institute my
enlarged family. The present thesis arose from my occupational activities as a
research assistant at the Institute. In order to conduct this long-term effort
successfully, numerous individuals helped me in one way or another with their
support and encouragement. Before laying out the thesis I would like to acknowledge
my indebtedness to them.
First and foremost, I express my deepest thanks and appreciation to my supervisor,
Prof. Dr. Eberhard Schlcker, for offering me an interesting research topic and giving
me the opportunity to finish it under his guidance. His creative ideas, valuable
criticism, many helpful discussions, irreplaceable encouragement and friendly
approach contributed profoundly to the completion of the present work. I must
acknowledge also that through his collegial cooperation work he was mainly
responsible for the extremely friendly relationships and very warm working
atmosphere at the Institute.
Special gratitude is offered to Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Hal Mughrabi for preparing the
second review of this thesis. His engagement, interest, keen perception and useful
suggestions contributed to the improvement of various parts of the thesis.
Furthermore, I wish to express my sincere acknowledgements to the staff of
DANTEC Dynamics GmbH, Ulm, and of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuremberg, for
close cooperation in working together. Special thanks go to Dr. Thorsten Siebert and
Dr. Gerhard Mischorr for providing valuable comments, constructive ideas and many
helpful discussions during the different phases of my work.
Also, I am immensely grateful to the administration and technical staff of the Institute
and to research coworkers and students. All these made my time at the Institute
amazingly inspiring and enjoyable. Among them, I address particular thanks to
Dr. Lder Depmeier, Werner Polster and Renate Hirsekorn for their friendship that
was far beyond that of working colleagues.

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My residence in Erlangen would not have been so rewarding without my colleagues
and friends: Kenan Nalbanti, Dr. Fahrudin Avdi, Dr. Ibrahim Hadi, Dr. Muris
Torlak, Dr. Armin Teskeredi, Dr. Samir Muzaferija, Tajib Vereget, Dr. Naser Sahiti,
Hamid Pintol, Bari Atec, Concepcion Encinas Bermdez, Jose Joaqun Sainz
Fernndez, Abdellah Lemouedda, Firas Affes, Badam Vijay Kumar, Dr. Axel Fronek,
Dr. Urlich Klapp, Dr. David Bolz, Dr. Uwe Seiffert, Jan Leilich, Oliver Schade, Stefan
Blendinger, Nicolas Alt, Robert Schatz, Andrej Ruschel, Tim Predel and Hans Bhrer.
Thank you very much for good time we spent together and for always being there for
me.
Finally, special recognition and deep thanks go to my sister and my brother for their
commitment and encouragement. But most of all, I am greatly indebted to my
beloved parents, who are the most meritorious persons and to whom I owe so much
for their enormous sacrifices and consistent support in every part of my life.


Erlangen, January 2007 Adis Basara

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Abstract
The modern high pressure fuel injection systems installed in engines provide a highly
efficient combustion process accompanied by low emissions of exhaust gases and
an impressive level of dynamic response. The design and development of
mechanical components for such systems pose a great challenge, since they have to
operate under extremely high fluctuating pressures (e.g. up to 2000 bar) for a long
lifetime (more than 1000 injections per minute). The permanent change between a
higher and a lower pressure causes a cyclic stress in the material that leads to a
fatigue of material until a failure of the component occurs.
In cases where a good capability for high loading and an enhanced lifetime of
components are required, the components are usually autofrettaged in a production
process. An autofrettage process is a manufacturing procedure wherein beneficial
residual stresses are introduced into a component in order to improve the loading
capability as well as the lifetime of the component. Although the first deliberate
application of the autofrettage principle dates back to the beginning of the twentieth
century, the autofrettage process and its effects on high pressure components still
remain mostly unknown. The research work summarized in this thesis is a
contribution towards a better understanding of the autofrettage phenomenon.
Speckle interferometry, as a full-field laser optical measuring technique, was the tool
selected to be used for that research purpose.
Evaluation of the effects of an autofrettage process on components with complex
geometry is not possible using analytical solutions and is restricted when numerical
methods are used owing to their strong dependence on material data. Limitations of
conventional measuring methods are another reason why these effects are still
unknown. One of the intentions of the present work was the utilization of the potential
of speckle interferometry for the evaluation of autofrettage process effects in high
pressure components, especially those having complex geometries. Experimental
testing indicated that speckle interferometry, compared with conventional measuring
techniques, offers great potential for that purpose. Full-field measurements over the
outer surface of the component using speckle interferometry allowed the detection of
strain gradients. By analysis of the strain gradients measured on the outer surface,
the spreading of plastic deformation inside a component having a complex geometry
can be evaluated (e.g. autofrettage in a bend of a fuel line).
Another important part of this work was an investigation of the influence of the
pressure holding time on stress-strain generation during the autofrettage process.
This influence has not been considered until now. It is the state of the art that
components in an industrial series production are held at the autofrettage pressure

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for several seconds. In doing so, it is assumed that a required stress-strain pattern
was generated. However, the results of the experimental investigation outlined here
revealed that completion of the plastic deformation caused by the autofrettage
process requires a much longer period of time, owing to the time-dependent nature of
the plastic deformation in the inner layers of a fuel line.
Experimental investigation indicated that fuel lines should be autofrettaged at some
higher pressure for a short period of time instead of keeping them for a longer period
at the pressure determined by the analytical calculation. In this way, a desirable
stress-strain state can be generated during the time required to maintain a profitable
series production ( s t
holding
10 < ). The results of investigation showed also that
speckle interferometry offers great potential for localization of cracks in a fuel line wall
by analysis of the strain maps measured on the outer surface of the fuel line.
An additional objective of this work was the utilization of speckle interferometry as a
quality control tool in a series production of fuel lines. In the past, the quality of
components was not evaluated in an industrial series production due to the
limitations of conventional measuring techniques. This may explain the frequent
damage to and unexpected failures of the existing fuel injection components under
nominal loads in recent years. Speckle interferometry matches todays industrial
demands, providing fast and reliable measurements without operating costs and with
significantly less effort than conventional measuring techniques. In the present work,
the potential of the particular Q-100 speckle interferometry measuring system for
application in the reception control of semi-finished tubes and in the final control of
autofrettaged fuel lines was investigated. Furthermore, a concept for monitoring of
the autofrettage process in a series production of fuel lines was developed. In this
concept, quality inspection of fuel lines and control of the residual stress-strain
generation were based on the use of the Q-100 speckle interferometry measuring
system.
The research work outlined in this thesis revealed that speckle interferometry offers
great potential for the evaluation of autofrettage process effects in high pressure
components and it matches todays industrial demands for an employment as a
quality control tool in the series production of fuel lines.

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Contents

Preface ....................................................................................................................... i
Abstract.................................................................................................................... iii
Contents.................................................................................................................... v
Chapter 1
Introduction and Aim of the Work........................................................................... 1
Chapter 2
Evaluation of High Pressure Components:
Literature Survey and State of the Art .................................................................... 6
2.1 High Pressure Technology Today and Perspectives for the Future................................. 6
2.2 Application of High Pressure in the Fuel Injection System of a Diesel Engine................. 8
2.2.1 Role and Importance of High Pressure in a Combustion System............................... 8
2.2.2 Development of Diesel Fuel Injection Systems and Emission Control Legislation..10
2.2.3 Requirements on High Pressure Components......................................................... 14
2.3 Theory of Thick-Walled Tube........................................................................................ 17
2.3.1 Elastic Thick-Walled Tube....................................................................................... 17
2.3.1.1 Stress Distribution in an Elastic Thick-Walled Tube ........................................ 18
2.3.1.2 Strain Distribution in an Elastic Thick-Walled Tube......................................... 20
2.3.2 Criteria of Elastic Breakdown .................................................................................. 21
2.3.3 Elastic-Plastic Thick-Walled Tube ........................................................................... 23
2.3.3.1 Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube ...................................................... 25
2.3.3.1.1 Stress Distribution in a Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube ...... 27
2.3.3.1.2 Strain Distribution in a Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube ....... 30
2.3.3.2 Completely Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube ................................................. 31
2.3.3.2.1 Stress Distribution in a Completely Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube.. 32
2.3.3.2.2 Strain Distribution in a Completely Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube.. 34
2.4 Residual Stress Effects on the Operating Performance of Autofrettaged Components.. 35
2.5 Challenges and Problems in Autofrettage Process Evaluation...................................... 41
Chapter 3
Experimental Test Facility and Measuring Techniques...................................... 45
3.1 Experimental Test Facility............................................................................................. 45
3.2 Data Acquisition and Data Processing .......................................................................... 47
3.3 Strain Measurements Using Strain Gauges .................................................................. 50
3.4 Strain Evaluation Using Speckle Interferometry ............................................................ 52
3.4.1 Measurement of Surface Displacement................................................................... 54
3.4.1.1 Determination of Phase Change..................................................................... 56
3.4.1.2 Physical Relationship Between Phase Change and Surface Displacement .... 58
3.4.1.3 Principle of Phase Offset Evaluation............................................................... 61

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3.4.2 Measurement of Surface Shape.............................................................................. 63
3.4.3 Evaluation of Stresses and Strains.......................................................................... 66
3.4.4 Accuracy of the Q-100 Speckle Interferometry Measuring System.......................... 68
Chapter 4
Evaluation of Fuel Lines Using Speckle Interferometry......................................70
4.1 Application Potential of the Q-100 Measuring System for Evaluation of Fuel Lines ....... 70
4.1.1 Applied Approaches ................................................................................................ 72
4.1.1.1 Analytical Calculations .................................................................................... 73
4.1.1.2 Finite Element Computations .......................................................................... 73
4.1.1.3 Strain Gauge Measurements .......................................................................... 75
4.1.1.4 Speckle Interferometry Measurements............................................................ 76
4.1.2 Experimental Procedure.......................................................................................... 77
4.1.3 Results, Discussion and Conclusions...................................................................... 81
4.1.3.1 Results of Investigations on the 30 x 10 Tube................................................. 81
4.1.3.2 Results of Investigations on the 6 x 2 Tube..................................................... 84
4.1.3.3 Concluding Remarks....................................................................................... 89
4.2 Determination of the Yield Strength............................................................................... 91
4.2.1 Selected Fuel Line and Sealing Principle Employed................................................ 92
4.2.2 Experimental Procedure and Evaluation of Results................................................. 93
4.2.3 Results, Discussion and Conclusions...................................................................... 95
4.3 Effective Autofrettage Pressure Determination.............................................................. 99
4.3.1 Selected Fuel Lines, Experimental Procedure and Principle of Results
Evaluation ............................................................................................................. 101
4.3.2 Sealing Principle Employed................................................................................... 102
4.3.3 Results of Investigation and Concluding Remarks................................................. 103
4.4 Evaluation of the Autofrettage Process Effects in Components with Complex
Geometries ................................................................................................................. 108
Chapter 5
Influence of the Pressure Holding Time on Strain Generation.........................114
5.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 114
5.2 Selected Fuel Lines and Sealing Principle Employed.................................................. 116
5.3 Experimental Procedure and Principle of Results Evaluation ...................................... 117
5.4 Results and Discussion............................................................................................... 118
5.4.1 Results of Investigations........................................................................................ 118
5.4.2 General Discussion of the Results......................................................................... 125
5.4.3 Interdependence Between Autofrettage Pressure, Holding Time and Generated
Strain State ........................................................................................................... 129
5.4.4 Determination of Optimal Autofrettage Process Parameters for Series
Production............................................................................................................. 133
5.4.5 Detection of Internal Cracks by Speckle Interferometry Strain Measurements on
the Outer Surface.................................................................................................. 136
5.5 Concluding Remarks................................................................................................... 149

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Chapter 6
Concept for Production Quality Control of Fuel Lines ..................................... 151
6.1 Review of Measuring Methods for Stress-Strain Evaluation........................................ 152
6.2 Testing of Non-Contact Applicability of the Q-100 SI Measuring System .................... 157
6.2.1 Easily Removable Holder for the Purpose of Non-Contact Application of the
Optical Sensor on the 30 x 10 Tube ...................................................................... 157
6.2.2 Light-Contact Application of the Optical Sensor on the 8 x 2.2 Fuel Line............... 161
6.3 Concept for Quality Inspection of Fuel Lines in Series Production .............................. 165
6.3.1 Concept Description.............................................................................................. 165
6.3.1.1 RMC Module................................................................................................. 166
6.3.1.2 PSA Module.................................................................................................. 166
6.3.1.3 NAVC Module............................................................................................... 166
6.3.1.3.1 FILE CONVERTER Submodule ........................................................ 167
6.3.1.3.2 MEAN VALUE Submodule ................................................................ 167
6.3.1.3.3 DATABASE Submodule.................................................................... 169
6.3.1.3.4 ANALYTICAL CALCULATIONS Submodule ..................................... 170
6.3.1.3.5 COMPARISON CONDITIONS Submodule........................................ 171
6.3.2 System for Industrial Application ........................................................................... 171
6.4 Concept for Control of Strain Generation in Series Production of Fuel Lines............... 171
6.4.1 Concept Description.............................................................................................. 171
6.4.2 Barriers to Implemenation of the Concept ............................................................. 175
Chapter 7
Summary, Conclusions and Outlook.................................................................. 177
7.1 Potential of Speckle Interferometry for Evaluation of High Pressure Components....... 177
7.2 Evaluation of the Autofrettage Process Effects in Components with Complex
Geometries ................................................................................................................. 178
7.3 Influence of the Pressure Holding Time on Strain Generation During the Autofrettage
Process....................................................................................................................... 179
7.4 Speckle Interferometry as a Quality Control Tool in the Series Production of
Fuel Lines ................................................................................................................... 181
Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 182
References............................................................................................................ 187
Inhalt...................................................................................................................... 199
Einleitung und Zielsetzung.................................................................................. 202
Zusammenfassung, Schlussfolgerung und Ausblick....................................... 207
Lebenslauf ............................................................................................................ 213

1

Chapter 1
Introduction and Aim of the Work
High pressure is a proven tool for the realization of a number of industrial processes,
for the production and development of new products and for the implementation of
specific production procedures. The motivation for the use of high pressure
technology is based on the great potential and benefit in improving the quality of
existing processes and products from both economic and environmental viewpoints.
The development of novel and more sustainable processes and products for future
generations is another interesting aspect. Thus, the application of elevated pressures
is permanently extending and gaining in popularity.
An example of the beneficial application of high pressure is the fuel injection system
of internal combustion engines. Here, the physico-hydrodynamic effect of the high
pressure is utilized whereby its energy is converted into the kinetic energy of the
fluid. This is the so-called atomization process, in which bulk liquid fuel is injected
under high pressure and converted into small droplets. The higher the injection
pressure, the finer is the spray created. The creation of a fine spray with small
droplets is very important for the proper and effective realization of the combustion
process. The modern high pressure fuel injection systems installed in engines
provide a highly efficient combustion process accompanied by low emissions of
exhaust gases and an impressive level of dynamic response.
The fuel injection systems of diesel engines require significantly higher operating
pressures when compared to the systems of gasoline engines. This is due to the
higher air compression ratio of a diesel engine, to the higher viscosity of a diesel fuel,
and to the difference in thermodynamic behaviour and the difference in the working
principle of a diesel engine. The design and development of mechanical components
for such systems are therefore more complex.
A characteristic feature of any high pressure process is exhibiting absolutely artificial
environments far beyond those existing in nature. The operating pressures in such
processes are in the range from 100 to 10000 bar and can be of a static or fluctuating
nature. High pressure components are required to maintain these conditions for a
long lifetime. Owing to the extremely high pressures, the material of components is
usually stressed even statically up to its strength limit. However, it is common for the

2
components to be stressed by a fluctuating internal pressure under the operating
conditions, what affects the material even more.
For example, mechanical components of the fuel injection system (Fig. 1.1) are
stressed with extremely high fluctuating pressure amplitudes for a long time (more
than 1000 injections per minute). This permanent change between a higher and a
lower pressure causes a cyclic stress in the material, which leads to a fatigue of the
material until mechanical failure of the component occurs. The fatigue strength of the
component exposed to the fluctuating load is generally lower than the yield strength
and it decreases as the number of loading cycles increases. Mechanical components
of the fuel injection system (e.g. fuel lines, fuel rail, high pressure pump and injectors)
have to withstand a nearly infinite number of loading cycles in their lifetime without
failure. In order to achieve this, the loading of the components is limited by a certain
maximal allowed fluctuating internal pressure. Therefore, it presents a major
challenge to design and to develop the components that have to be suitable for safe
operation under such extremely fluctuating pressure amplitudes for a long lifetime.

Figure 1.1. Mechanical components of a common rail fuel injection system of a diesel
engine (adapted from [115]).
In cases where a good capability for high loading and an enhanced lifetime of
components are required, the components are usually autofrettaged in series
production. An autofrettage process is a manufacturing procedure wherein the
component is subjected to a static internal pressure far beyond the intended
operating pressure in order to induce a partially yield of the component. After a short
period of time, the component is unloaded and the required permanent plastic

3
deformation is reached. The plastic deformation is accompanied by the generation of
residual stresses in the component. The objective of the autofrettage process is to
obtain a favourable residual stress pattern in a manufacturing process which brings
beneficial effects under the operating conditions. By application of the autofrettage
process, the static loading capability of components can be increased due to the
strain hardening effect which takes place during the process. Furthermore, the
residual stress pattern generated reduces crack initiation, retards the fatigue crack
growth rate and consequently increases the fatigue limit of the component [31, 77,
87].
In order to achieve a favourable residual stress pattern which gives the beneficial
effects under the operating conditions, it is important to conduct the autofrettage
process appropriately. The generation of unfavourable residual stresses through the
process could have detrimental consequences for the performance of the
component. For the purpose of the safe and reliable application of the autofrettage
process, thereby decreasing the risk of damage and unexpected failures of
components under nominal loads, there is a requirement for a measuring method
that permits an evaluation of the stress-strain state within components.
The research work summarized in this thesis is a contribution towards a better
understanding of the effects of the autofrettage process on high pressure
components of fuel injection systems. Speckle interferometry, as a full-field laser
optical measuring technique, was the tool selected for this research purpose. The
first objective of the work was to test the application potential of the particular Q-100
speckle interferometry measuring system for evaluation of high pressure
components.
Until now, the effects of the autofrettage process on high pressure components are
mostly unknown. An analytical solution exists in the literature [43, 46, 55, 56, 60, 79,
88] for very simple geometries such as a smooth tube and was derived under certain
assumptions (elastic-perfectly plastic, homogeneous isotropic and incompressible
material behaviour). Only a limited prediction of the residual stress generation
through the process could be obtained by the use of such solution, since real
materials are mostly not isotropic, not incompressible and in most cases do not
behave as expected from idealized models of material response. The present work
involves investigations performed on fuel lines which, due to the cold-working
manufacturing procedure, indicate orthotropic material behaviour.
Analytical solutions for components with complex geometries have been proposed
only for the simple case of cross-bored tube [21, 39, 40, 63, 78]. Numerical methods,
which overcome disadvantages and deficiencies of the analytical solutions, are these
days used more intensively for the evaluation of the autofrettage process in
components with complex geometries. Some results of such numerical investigations

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performed in recent decades can be found in the literature [18, 31, 87, 95, 96].
However, the main problem with numerical methods is the strong dependency on the
material data, which are not always available in an industrial series production.
Therefore, the use of the advantages of speckle interferometry as a full-field
measuring technique for stress-strain evaluation in components having complex
geometries was a further goal of this work. The results obtained indicated that using
speckle interferometry it is possible to develop 3D stress-strain maps along the
complete component surface. This is very important in order to have a better
understanding of the autofrettage process effects on stress-strain generation within,
e.g., the complete fuel line.
Another important part of this work was an investigation of the influence of the
pressure holding time on stress-strain generation during the autofrettage process.
The influence of the pressure holding time on the final effects of the autofrettage
process has not been considered until now; this influence was studied experimentally
for the first time in this work. The industrial production of components relies either on
a limited analytical steady solution or on simple numerical computations using steady
models which do not consider the influence of the holding time on the plastic
deformation process. It is the state of the art that the components are held at the
pressure for only a few seconds (approximately 3 to 10 s) during the autofrettage
process. In doing so, it is assumed that a required stress-strain pattern was
generated. However, the results of the experimental investigations outlined in this
work revealed that completion of the plastic deformation caused by the autofrettage
process requires a much longer period.
An additional objective of this thesis was the utilization of speckle interferometry as a
quality control tool in a series production of fuel lines. Mechanical components of fuel
injection systems nowadays are autofrettaged in series production. Since there was
no proper measuring method which could be used as a quality control tool in such
series production, the generation of the stress-strain pattern during the autofrettage
process and the quality of components have not been evaluated until now. The whole
procedure of the design, development, process planning and manufacture of
components relies on analytical calculations and numerical computations. These
methods cannot give information about the component quality and therefore the
knowledge about the effective residual stresses generated during the autofrettage
process was mostly poor. In addition, the methods cannot consider the influence of
other parameters such as geometric and metallurgical imperfections, the influence of
previous manufacturing processes or even disturbances through the process itself.
These can also affect the final quality of the autofrettaged components. All this can
explain the frequent damage to and unexpected failures of the existing fuel injection
system components under nominal loads in recent years.

5
In order to avoid this and to provide safe and reliable application of the autofrettage
process, the applicability of the Q-100 speckle interferometry measuring system in
the reception control of semi-finished tubes and in the final control of autofrettaged
fuel lines was investigated and is outlined here. Furthermore, a concept for the
quality inspection of fuel lines in series production and a concept for the control of the
residual stress generation during the autofrettage process were developed and
addressed in the present work.

6

Chapter 2
Evaluation of High Pressure Components:
Literature Survey and State of the Art
2.1 High Pressure Technology Today and Perspectives
for the Future
Although the roots of high pressure science can be traced back over many centuries,
the practical application of high pressure in industry dates back to the beginning of
the twentieth century. Basic research and scientific studies carried out by pioneers of
high pressure science have been the key for the implementation of the technology on
a commercial scale. A great advance was also made through the continuing
development of other fundamental sciences (materials science, chemistry,
thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid dynamics, etc.) over the course of
time.
High pressure nowadays is a proven tool for the realization of a number of industrial
processes, for the production and development of new products and for the
implementation of specific production procedures. The motivation for the use of high
pressure technology is based on the great potential and benefit in improving the
quality of the existing processes and products from both economic and
environmental viewpoints. The development of novel and more sustainable
processes and products for future generations is another interesting aspect.
The application of elevated pressures is continuously extending and gaining
popularity. Hence it is evident that high pressure as a tool in industry will play an
even more important role in the future. Possible areas of immediate interest lie in
energy storage and conversion devices (e.g. use of hydrogen as a fuel, new coal to
oil or gas conversion systems, search for new oil and mineral deposits at greater
depths or in off-shore locations [99]), the food industry (e.g. pasteurization and
sterilization of various foodstuffs, crystallization of fats), the polymer industry,
pharmacy [109], medicine [109], microbiology [109], biotechnology (e.g. bio diesel
production technology, proteins) and so on.
Table 2.1 provides a survey of the application of high pressure technology today
regarding the methods used and pressure levels applied [10, 100].

7
Table 2.1. Applications of the high pressure in industry (adapted from [10,100]).
METHOD PRESSURE [bar] PRODUCT OR APPLICATION
Solid-state reaction > 125000 Synthetic diamonds
Production of synthetic polymers up to 5500 Low-density polyethylene
up to 3450 Ethylene vinyl chloride
up to 965 Tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)
up to 260 High-density polyethylene and polypropylene
Catalytic chemical synthesis 20 - 700 Ammonia, propionic acid, acetic acid,
butanediol, fats, oils, margarine, fatty acids,
urea (fertilizers), methanol and hydrocarbons
Hydrogeneration 100 - 300 Edible oils, hydrogasification, hydrocracking,
desulfurization, catalytic cracking,
naphtha hydroforming, coal liquefaction,
fatty alcohols, 1-6 hexanediol, 1-4 butanediol,
hexamethylenediamine and C4 to C15 products
Wet (air) oxidation 100 - 400 Organic waste elimination (water treatment sludge,
herbicides, pesticides, used oils, paper industry, pulp
industry, olive oil industry and petrochemical industry)
Extraction of products with supercritical 80 - 300 Decaffeinated coffee and tea, spices, hops, herbs,
fluids (e.g. water, CO
2
) vegetable oils, aromas, essences, colours, drugs,
tobacco, perfumes and plant-protective agents
Micronization with supercritical fluids 80 - 300 Fine particles and powders from various products
(e.g. CO
2
) (cosmetic, perfume and pharmaceutical industries)
Dyeing with supercritical fluids and 80 - 300 Dyeing of fabrics, wood
cell structure treatment with impregnation and tobacco impregnation
supercritical fluids (e.g. CO
2
)
Leaching of ores 100 - 300 Aluminium (from bauxite), technical gases
(N
2
, O
2
, H
2
, He) and gas liquefaction
Oil and gas production 100 - 400 Drying, inhibition, desulfurization and odorization
Separation of isotopes up to 300 Heavy water
Fluid conveying (transport) 100 - 200 Pipeline transport of ores and coal
Polymer processing 100 -400 Polymer spinning, polymer filtration and polymer extrusion
High-performance liquid chromatography 100 - 700 Analytical chemistry and chemical production
Kinetic fluid (jet) energy with water up to 4000 Jet cutting
up to 2000 Jet cleaning
up to 600 Jet treatment of fabrics
Kinetic fluid energy (homogenization, up to 1500 Foodstuffs (milk, baby food, yogurts, ice-cream),
emulsification, dispersion, cell-cracking) pharmaceutical products, cosmetics (tooth paste,
lotions, creams), chemical products and bio-products
Potential (pressure) fluid energy up to 10000 Autofrettage
up to 5000 Hydroforming
up to 4000 Isostatic pressing (sintered parts)
Spray drying up to 1000 Fine powders of various products
Fuel injection up to 2000 Diesel engine
Thermal power generation 100 - 250 Steam power plants
Potential (pressure) energy effects up to 10000
Pasteurization, sterilization, pascalization,
on organic products coagulation, gelatation of
various foodstuffs and other bio-products


8
As shown in the table, the operating pressures in the processes are up to 10000 bar
and can be of either static or fluctuating nature. High pressure components are
required to maintain these conditions for a long lifetime. Owing to the extremely high
pressures, the material of components is usually stressed even statically up to its
strength limit. However, it is common that the components are stressed by a
fluctuating internal pressure under the operating conditions, which affects the
material even more. The constant change between a higher and a lower pressure
causes cyclic stress in the material that leads to a reduction of the material strength
since fatigue of the material occurs. Therefore, it is a major challenge to design and
to develop components that have to be suitable for safe operation under such
extremely fluctuating pressure amplitudes for a long lifetime.
The attention of this thesis is focused on the problems in the design and
development of high pressure components for the fuel injection systems of a diesel
engine.
2.2 Application of High Pressure in the Fuel Injection
System of a Diesel Engine
2.2.1 Role and Importance of High Pressure in a Combustion
System
The combustion process that takes place inside an engine is essentially dependent
on the way in which the combustion components (air and fuel) are supplied into a
chamber, on the quality of the prepared mixture charge and on the ignition
conditions. The proper realization of these individual steps affects the combustion
process and determines the quality of the combustion system itself (i.e. combustion
efficiency, fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions, combustion noise).
In the course of time, different types of systems for the supply of components and the
preparation of mixture in internal combustion engines [92, 93] have been developed.
Almost all modern engine concepts use the principle of injection of a liquid fuel under
pressure into air. This is the so-called atomization process, in which bulk liquid is
converted into small droplets (Fig. 2.1). The liquid fuel is forced under high pressure
through the orifice of a nozzle, what causes a creation of a liquid sheet outside the
nozzle in the first instance. This sheet becomes unstable at a certain distance from
the nozzle and breaks up into ligaments due to the interaction between the external
aerodynamic forces of the surrounding air and the internal surface forces of the liquid
fuel. Further interaction between these forces causes instability of the ligaments and
the creation of droplets.

9
Creation of a sheet by
forcing a liquid through
a nozzle orifice
Waves appearing due to
the instability of the sheet
Sheet breaks up
into ligaments
Instability of ligaments
causes the creation of droplets

Figure 2.1. Principle of droplet formation as a result of the interaction between the
external aerodynamic forces of the surrounding air and the internal forces of a liquid
due to the surface tension (adapted from [82]).
The fuel injection systems of diesel engines addressed in this thesis require
significantly higher operating pressures (up to 2200 bar) than the systems of gasoline
engines (up to 200 bar). This is due to the higher air compression ratio of a diesel
engine, to the higher viscosity of a diesel fuel, and to the difference in thermodynamic
behaviour and the working principle of a diesel engine.
The relative difference between the velocities of the liquid fuel jet and the air in a
chamber influences the atomization process. The higher the relative difference
between the velocities, the better is the atomization effect. Owing to the high air
compression ratio of a diesel engine, the density and temperature of air (i.e. the
relative motion of air) in the chamber are relatively high and therefore a higher
velocity (i.e. pressure energy) of the injected fuel is required.
Another important reason for the high injection pressure in diesel engines is the high
resistance of a diesel fuel (i.e. high viscosity) to deform under action of shear
stresses caused by the fuel flowing through the nozzle orifice.
Finally, the time required to produce a combustible mixture of air and fuel vapour (i.e.
the time required for the generation of droplets by atomization, the vaporization of
droplets and mixing with the surrounding air) in diesel engines represents a
significant fraction of the total time (i.e. time period during power and exhaust
strokes) available for the completion of the combustion process. For this reason, the
generation of a finer spray with smaller droplets, which evaporate faster, is very
important for the proper realization of the combustion process. The residence time
that droplets spend in the chamber is limited. If droplets do not evaporate fully and do
not create a combustible mixture with the air within that period of time, burning of
them will not occur and a large amount of unburned hydrocarbons may be produced.
Consequently, the efficiency of the engine decreases while the fuel consumption and
exhaust gas emissions increase.

10
All the aforementioned reasons indicate the importance of high pressure in the
combustion system of internal combustion engines. The design and development of
the mechanical components for diesel fuel injection systems is more complex than
those for gasoline engines due to the significantly higher injection pressures in the
case of the diesel fuel injection systems.
2.2.2 Development of Diesel Fuel Injection Systems and Emission
Control Legislation
The development of diesel engines until today is the result, on the one hand, of
continuous inventions, the engagement of automotive manufacturer suppliers, the
readiness of investment and the strength of automotive manufacturers. On the other
hand, it is the result of the continuous introduction of emission control legalisation
which has the purpose of reducing the corresponding negative consequences of a
significant increase in traffic density in recent years on the environment.
Emission control legislation, which imposes mandatory limits on exhaust gas
emissions and defines the corresponding test procedures, has been adopted in all
industrialized countries. The CARB (California Air Resources Board) legislation is
valid in California, Maine, Massachusetts and New York, while the EPA
(Environmental Protection Agency) legislation applies to the remaining 49 states of
the USA, Canada, South America and Australia. In Europe, Asia, North and South
Africa, the EU (European Union) legislation is valid. Finally, the Japanese legislation
imposes limits on exhaust gas emissions in Japan.
Like other legislation in the world, the EU legislation defines the limits of pollutants
(carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulates) and specifies the
corresponding test procedures for verifying compliance with the legislation depending
on the engine concept (gasoline or diesel) and according to the vehicle class (e.g.
passenger cars, light commercial vehicles, medium commercial vehicles, heavy
commercial vehicles and off-road vehicles). Figure 2.2 shows the development of the
EU legislation on exhaust gas emissions for light commercial vehicles over the
course of time.
As shown in the figure, each newly introduced legislation is progressively more
stringent, which continually places greater demands on the fuel injection systems in
the engine. Hence the limits of the conventional diesel fuel injection concepts (in-line
fuel injection pump system and distributor injection pump system) and the
requirements of the newly introduced emission control legislation, with which each
new vehicle model had to comply, have led to many inventions in the design of diesel
fuel injection systems during the last two decades. A great advance in the
improvement of diesel engine performances was made since 1994 with the

11
development of new high pressure injection systems (unit injector system, unit pump
system and common rail system) which operate at pressures higher than 1300 bar.

Figure 2.2. Development of EU legislation for light commercial vehicles over the course
of time [90].
As mentioned before, one of the major challenges in the development of fuel injection
systems is the development of all mechanical components that have to be suitable
for operation under extremely high fluctuating pressures for a long lifetime. In
particular, the development of the fuel lines, the purpose of which is to deliver the fuel
between the components of the system, suffers considerable difficulties. The
geometry of the fuel line (inner diameter, wall thickness and bend radius), the
properties of available materials that can be cold drawn in manufacturing the semi-
finished tubes for such fuel lines, and the manufacturing treatment (e.g. autofrettage)
applied to the fuel lines define a maximum allowed pressure in the fuel injection
system. Other mechanical components of the system (e.g. injector, pump and fuel
rail) can withstand higher system pressures owing to the possibility of choosing from
diverse designs and manufacturing concepts (e.g. shrunk assembly, multiwall
assembly, autofrettage) and using different higher strength materials. Indeed, the
most frequent damage to and unexpected failures of fuel injection systems under
nominal loads over the past years have occurred on the fuel lines.
In a unit injector system, a high pressure pump and an injector form a single unit
which is fitted in one cylinder, Fig. 2.3a. Since there is no high pressure fuel line
between the pump and injector, a significantly higher fuel injection pressure could be
ensured (up to 2200 bar). In contrast, an injector-and-holder assembly with a high
pressure pump of a unit pump system (Fig. 2.3b) and a fuel rail with a high pressure

12
pump and injectors of the common rail system (Fig. 2.3c) are connected by high
pressure fuel lines. According to the state of the art, the maximum injection pressure
in such concepts is therefore lower (up to 1800 bar today).


(a) (b)

(c)
Figure 2.3. Principle of operation of modern fuel injection systems of a diesel engine
(adapted from [93]): a) unit injector system, b) unit pump system, c) common rail system.
The unit injector system achieves the highest injection pressures of all diesel fuel
injection systems currently available. However, the maximum pressure in the
operation of the unit injector system and also in the operation of the unit pump
system is available only at higher engine speeds since the function of pressure
generation and the function of fuel injection are inseparable. A good torque curve
combined with low pollutant emission demands a high injection pressure when the

13
engine operates under maximum load at lower speeds. A fuel injection system which
overcomes this problem is a common rail system. This fuel injection concept is more
intensively used today because it offers several advantages compared with the other
injection concepts.
The main advantage of the common rail fuel injection system in comparison with
other injection systems is its ability to separate the functions of pressure generation
and fuel injection. In this way, it is possible to vary the injection pressure and the
injection timing over a broad scale. Separation of the pressure generation and fuel
injection functions is achieved by first storing the fuel under high pressure in a fuel
rail and then delivering the fuel to the injectors only on demand. Thus, the injection
pressure is largely independent of engine speed or injected-fuel quantity, and is
generated and controlled by a high pressure pump. This ensures a more favourable
torque curve of the engine. Therefore, the system offers the greatest degree of
flexibility in the choice of fuel injection parameters. In addition, due to a significantly
higher level of adaptability in engine design, the common rail system can be applied
to a wide range of vehicle applications (10 to 1000 kW/cylinder).
Three generations of common rail systems have been developed since 1997. In the
first generation, the maximum injection pressure was 1350 bar for passenger cars
(1997) and 1400 bar for commercial vehicles (1999). The maximum injection
pressure in the second generation (2001 for passenger cars and 2002 for
commercial vehicles) was increased to 1600 bar. In the first and second generations,
the injection process was controlled by a magnetic solenoid on the injectors.
The injection pressure of 1600 bar remained the same in the third generation for
passenger cars (2003) wherein piezo inline injectors were employed to improve the
combustion process. Such an injection control method provides a more precise
metering of the amount of fuel injected, reduces the intervals between injections and
has the possibility to deliver a required fuel quantity into a large number of separate
injections for each combustion stroke. Since the magnetic injectors were still used in
the third generation of the common rail systems for commercial vehicles (2004), the
injection pressure was increased to 1800 bar in order to fulfil the EURO 3 legislation.
Sustained efforts for the optimization and improvement of the combustion process, in
order to comply with EURO 4 legislation, led to a requirement for a further increase in
injection pressure up to 2000 bar. Since the directives will become progressively
more stringent in the years ahead (e.g. EURO 5 legislation takes effect from 2008),
higher injection pressures of more than 2000 bar are expected.


14
2.2.3 Requirements on High Pressure Components
All mechanical components employed in the aforementioned high pressure injection
concepts (pump, injector, fuel rail and fuel line) are exposed to extremely high
fluctuating pressures under the operating conditions. As an example, a typical
pressure-time pattern of the internal pressure fluctuation in a fuel line during engine
operation is presented in Fig. 2.4. The fluctuation between a higher
MAX
p and a lower
pressure level
MIN
p results in cyclic stress in the fuel line material (fluctuating
changes between a higher
MAX
and a lower stress
MIN
) with the same time-
dependent course. As shown, these changes have very high frequency (up to 10
cycles per 100 ms) under the operating conditions.
1750
1800
1850
1650
1700
1600
1550
0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
Time, t [s]
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
i
n

[
b
a
r
]


p
p
M
E
A
N
p
MAX
p
MIN
Fuel line: 6 x 1.75
Material: St 30

Figure 2.4. Typical pressure-time pattern (fluctuation of the internal pressure in a fuel
line during engine operation).
Such cyclic stress leads to a reduction in material strength since fatigue of the
material occurs. The failure of a component due to the fatigue of the material starts
without warning, as is the case with static material failure (i.e. no obvious elongation
or necking). The fatigue failure starts with some discontinuities in the material of the
component, such as a sharp reentrant angle, notches and grooves of different
shapes, a tool or punch mark, or flaws and defects in the material itself. The stress in
these regions is larger than in the surrounding material and local yielding may occur,
even though the bulk of the material is stressed well below the yield strength. During
the first few cycles of a plastic flow in these regions, the atoms on each side of the
slip plane form new bonds without losing strength. Under continued cycling,
microscopic cracks are generated along the slip planes. Once such a crack has been
initiated, the stress concentration at the end of the crack promotes further growth,

15
and the crack develops as the cycling continues. Finally, when the crack length
reaches a critical dimension, one additional cycle causes complete failure.
It is well known that the fatigue strength of a component subjected to a cyclic load is
generally lower than the yield strength of the component material and decreases as
the number of cycles increases (Fig. 2.5). The fatigue limit is the stress level below
which the component can withstand an infinite number of cycles without failure.

N
FS
N
FS
Number of cycles to failure, N [-]
S
t
r
e
s
s
,


[
N
/
m
m
2
]

N
FL
N
FL
R
e
yield strength of material
fatigue strength at specified
number of cycles N
FS
fatigue limit

Figure 2.5. Plot of stress-cycle ( - N) fatigue data.
Since the mechanical components of the fuel injection system are stressed with
extremely high fluctuating pressure amplitudes for a long time (more than 1000
injections per minute), the material of the components is usually stressed up to its
strength limit (i.e. fatigue limit). The requirements for a further increase in injection
pressure in order to improve the combustion process and to comply with always more
stringent emission control legislation therefore involve considerable difficulties in the
design of the mechanical components of the fuel injection systems.
In cases where a good capability for high loading and enhanced lifetime of
components at the desired fatigue limit are required, the components are usually
autofrettaged in a manufacturing process. It is the state of the art that the mechanical
components of the fuel injection systems nowadays are autofrettaged in series
production. The objective of the autofrettage process is to obtain a favourable
residual stress pattern in a manufacturing process which brings beneficial effects
under the operating conditions. By application of the autofrettage process, the static
loading capability of components could be increased. Furthermore, the residual
stress pattern generated reduces crack initiation, retards the fatigue crack growth
rate and consequently increases the fatigue limit of the component.

16
This work addresses investigations of high pressure fuel lines which fail more
frequently than other components of fuel injection systems under nominal operating
conditions and whose development is more complex. As an example, a set of such
fuel lines for a common rail system of a six-cylinder engine is shown in Fig. 2.6.

Figure 2.6. Set of high pressure fuel lines for a common rail system of a six-cylinder engine.
The priority in the development of fuel lines is to minimize their length and to increase
their inner diameter. Shorter lines having a larger inner diameter provide better
injection performance. The inner diameter is related to throttling loss and
compression effects, which are reflected in the injected fuel quantity. Furthermore,
the fuel line length influences speed-sensitivity the rate of discharge.
Another important point in the development of fuel lines is, as already mentioned, the
interdependencies and trade-offs between the geometry of the fuel line (inner
diameter, wall thickness and bend radius), the material properties, the autofrettage
treatment employed and the maximum system pressure. A thick fuel line cannot be
sharp bent. However, the fuel lines have to be routed in the predefined grooves of an
engine with a defined bend radius. In this way, a given bend radius determines the
maximum inner diameter and maximum wall thickness of the fuel line. A limited fuel
line wall thickness for certain material properties and the corresponding autofrettage
treatment further define the maximum allowable stress in a material and, thus, the
maximum system pressure.
A very narrow range of available materials that can be cold drawn in a manufacturing
of semi-finished tubes for such fuel lines additionally complicates the development of
fuel lines. This is because the available materials are already utilized up to their
strength limits and cannot follow the requirements of always more stringent emission
control legislation. Therefore, an autofrettage treatment nowadays plays an important
role in increasing of a capability for high loading of fuel lines.

17
The influences of the fuel line geometry, the properties of the fuel line material, the
autofrettage treatment used and the operating pressure on the stress-strain state
within the fuel line wall can be calculated by using the proposed analytical solution
which is briefly outlined in the following section.
2.3 Theory of Thick-Walled Tube
High pressure components have been made with many different shapes, but a
cylindrical shape is used more than any other. Virtually every pressure apparatus has
at least some parts which are cylindrical in cross-section, and almost all pipes are of
that shape. The standard theoretical analysis of high pressure cylindrical components
divides them into two groups, the theory of a thin-walled and the theory of a thick-
walled tube. The theory of a thin-walled tube, i.e. a tube with a very small wall
thickness in comparison with the other dimensions, makes the assumptions that the
tangential stress distribution is constant across the wall and that the stresses in the
radial direction are negligible. In contrast, the theory of a thick-walled tube, i.e. a tube
with a wall ratio 16 . 1 =
in out
r r k [59], considers the non-uniform tangential stress
distribution across the tube wall and takes the radial stresses into account. This
thesis addresses the theory of a thick-walled tube whereas the wall ratio in the case
of the mechanical components of the fuel injection systems (e.g. cylindrical parts of
the pump and injector, fuel rail and fuel lines) is higher than 2.
An analytical solution of a thick-walled tube in the literature is classified in two
specific cases: an elastic thick-walled tube (the material of the tube exposed to
pressure behaves elastically) and an elastic-plastic thick-walled tube (the tube is
partially or completely overstrained, i.e. autofrettaged).
2.3.1 Elastic Thick-Walled Tube
The problem of determining the stresses and strains in an elastic thick-walled tube
was first solved by the French scientists Lam and Clapeyron [60] in 1833 (Eq. 2.1).
In order to formulate the relations for an elastic thick-walled tube, the following
assumptions are made:
the material is homogeneous and linearly elastic isotropic,
displacements and strains are small (infinitesimal),
the tube is free from internal stress before the pressure is applied,
the tube is geometrically perfect and
the applied internal pressure (
in
p ) is uniformly distributed over the inner surface.
In the analysis, an elastic thick-walled tube, having an inner radius
in
r and an outer
radius
out
r (Fig. 2.7), subjected to an internal pressure
in
p is considered. Summing

18
forces acting at the control element in the tangential, radial and axial directions,
assuming that axial symmetry exists (stresses are independent of ; it follows that
0 = =
z r
), and by simplifying that plane stress conditions prevail ( 0 = =
z r z
)
give the equation of equilibrium for the control element exposed to the two-
dimensional state of stresses:
( ) ( ) 0
2
sin 2 = |

\
|
+ + +



d
dr d dr r d d r
r r r

(2.1)
If small quantities of high order are neglected, the above equation can be reduced to
0 =
dr
d
r
r
r

(2.2)

r
in
r
out
p
in

r
+d
r
d

dr
r

Figure 2.7. Static equilibrium of a control element located at a radial distance r from
the axis of an elastic thick-walled tube.
2.3.1.1 Stress Distribution in an Elastic Thick-Walled Tube
Differential equation (2.2) can be solved by adopting the strain-displacement
relations for elastic deformation of a thick-walled tube and by applying the boundary
conditions at the inner (
in
rin
r
p = ) and outer ( 0 =
rout
r
) surfaces of the tube. The
solution gives the expressions for the tangential and radial stress components within
an elastic thick-walled tube subjected to an internal pressure (Fig. 2.8):

19
1
1
2
2

\
|
(

\
|
+
=
in
out
out
in
r
r
r
r
p


(2.3)
1
1
2
2

\
|
(

\
|

=
in
out
out
in
r
r
r
r
r
p

(2.4)
In order to evaluate an axial stress component
z
(i.e. to extend this two-dimensional
into a three-dimensional analysis), it is necessary to know whether or not the whole
of the end forces are balanced by the axial stresses. If the pressure load in an axial
direction is taken wholly externally, i.e. a tube with open ends, then overall
equilibrium of an axial portion of the tube requires that
0 =
ends open
z


(2.5)

0
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
-1.00
-0.75
-0.50
-0.25
-1.25

/
p
i
n

z
p
in
0 1 2 3

Figure 2.8. Stress distribution across the wall of an elastic thick-walled tube ( 3 = k )
subjected to an internal pressure.
If, however, the wall takes the whole of the end loads due to the internal pressure,
i.e. a tube with closed ends, then the axial stress can be expressed by

20
1
2

\
|
=
in
out
in
ends closed
z
r
r
p


(2.6)
These equations indicate that the radial stress component (
r
) is always
compressive, whereas the tangential stress (

) and axial stress (
z
) components
are always tensile. In addition, the tangential stress component is always larger than
other components and has a maximum at the inner surface of the tube. Furthermore,
the axial stress component is constant across the wall thickness.
It is important to emphasize here that by increasing the wall ratio (
in out
r r k / = ) from
1.16 to about 3 results in a reduction in the tangential stress and axial stress
components at the inner surface of the tube while the radial stress component
remains constant, Fig. 2.9. A further increase in the ratio (from 3 to infinite) does not
significantly reduce the stresses at the inner surface of the tube and it is, therefore,
not economical.

Figure 2.9. Decrease in stresses at the inner surface of an elastic thick-walled tube as
a result of increasing the wall ratio
in out
r r k / = .
2.3.1.2 Strain Distribution in an Elastic Thick-Walled Tube
Since deformations and strains in an elastic thick-walled tube are relatively small
(straight-line portion of a stress-strain diagram), the theory of infinitesimal strains is

21
applied here. To express the relationship between the applied principal stresses and
the resulting principal strains, the influence of each stress on strain components
needs to be considered separately. Final stress-strain relations for the case of
homogeneous linearly elastic isotropic material stressed multiaxially can be
formulated by the generalized Hookes law:
( ) | |
z r
E


+ =
1
(2.7)
( ) | |
z r r
E


+ =
1
(2.8)
( ) | |
r z z
E


+ =
1
(2.9)
2.3.2 Criteria of Elastic Breakdown
As mentioned above, the maximum stress in a tube subjected to an internal pressure
is on the inner surface. If an internal pressure is high enough to stress the material
beyond its elastic limit (
e
R ), yielding of the material (i.e. overstrain) will evidently first
appear at this location. The determination of a lowest value of an internal pressure
in
r in
p
,
, which causes yielding of the material at the inner surface of a tube with closed
ends, is the subject of this section. In the case of a tube with open ends, the axial
stress component should be zero ( 0 =
z
).
In order to define the conditions (i.e. critical stress situation) under which yielding of
the material at the inner surface starts, the behaviour of the material under these
conditions has to be known. However, the material properties (yield strength, tensile
strength, breaking strength, breaking elongation, etc.) available in the literature were
obtained by a uniaxial tensile test on a specimen of the material with defined
geometry and under defined test conditions [28, 29]. A comparison of the effect of a
multiaxial stress state in a thick-walled tube with the effect of a uniaxial stress state
found in a specimen (made of the same material as the tube) during a tensile test in
the laboratory is not directly possible. For this purpose, it is necessary to define the
equivalent stress which represents the complete three-dimensional stress situation in
the tube and which can be compared with the standard material data available in the
literature. In this way, the results of the standard uniaxial tensile test can be used to
predict yielding of the material when a tube is exposed to the three-dimensional

22
stress state. This is known in the literature [19, 57, 74] as the criteria of elastic
breakdown and there are six most often used criteria.
Comparison and validation of different criteria with results obtained by experiments
on thick-walled tubes have been the topic of many studies [12, 14, 24, 37-39 72-75,
81]. The results obtained are presented in Fig. 2.10 and can be summarized as
follows. On the one hand, the maximum principal stress criterion, the maximum
principal strain criterion and the total strain energy criterion have significant
deviations in comparison with the results obtained by experiments. On the other
hand, the maximum shear stress criterion shows negligible deviations, whereas the
maximum distortion strain energy criterion best fits the results of experiments.

Figure 2.10. Comparison of different criteria with the experimental results
(adapted from [15]).
Therefore, the maximum shear stress criterion and the maximum distortion strain
energy criterion are the only applicable criteria in high pressure technology where
ductile materials are commonly employed. From the expression for equivalent stress
(
e
) one can obtain the lowest value of the internal pressure (
in
r in
p
,
) which causes
yielding of the material at the inner surface of a thick-walled tube with closed ends.
An expression for equivalent stress according to the maximum shear stress criterion
is given by Eq. (2.10):

23
e
r r
in
out
out
r in r r z r e
R
r
r
r
r
p
in
in

\
|
|

\
|
= = = = > > =
=
1
2 2
2
2
, max


(2.10)
Equation (2.11) expresses the equivalent stress according to the maximum distortion
strain energy criterion:
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
e
r r
in
out
out
r in r r z z e
R
r
r
r
r
p
in
in

\
|
|

\
|
= + + =
=
1
3 5 , 0
2
2
,
2 2 2

(2.11)
2.3.3 Elastic-Plastic Thick-Walled Tube
In order to obtain a favourable residual stress pattern that brings beneficial effects
under the operating conditions, many engineering components are loaded
significantly beyond their elastic limit in a manufacturing process. In this process, the
component is subjected to static internal pressure far beyond the intended operating
pressure in order to induce partial yielding of the component. After a short period of
time the pressure is released and the required permanent plastic deformation is
reached within the inner yielded region. The outer elastic region of the component
attempts to return to its original state but is prevented from the inner region which
has been expanded due to the plastic deformation. As a result, a beneficial state of
residual stresses is introduced in the wall of the component: the outer elastic region
is maintained in a residual tension, while the inner deformed region is in a residual
compression, Fig. 2.11.
This procedure is known as an overstrain or autofrettage. The term autofrettage
comes from the French meaning self-hooping. The procedure can either be realized
by a hydraulic pressurization or can be caused mechanically by forcing an oversized
mandrel or swage through the bore. The objective of the autofrettage process is to
obtain a favourable residual stress pattern in a manufacturing process which
thereafter brings beneficial effects under the operating conditions. By application of
the autofrettage process, the static loading capability of components can be
increased due to the strain hardening effect which takes place during the process.
Furthermore, the residual stress pattern generated reduces crack initiation, retards
the fatigue crack growth rate, and consequently increases the fatigue limit of the
component [31, 77, 87].

24
The permanent deformation of a thick-walled tube through this internal cold working
process has been known since the time when the Austrian general Uchatius
discovered the principle of strengthening the bronze barrels for artillery guns. The
earliest deliberate application of the autofrettage principle was at the beginning of the
twentieth century (suggested by French artillery designer Malaval - according to
Jacob [52], 1906) in the French gun-barrel industry. The procedure was then
gradually developed in the period between the two World Wars and is widely used
today, not only in the armament industry, but also in other industries such as the
chemical, the nuclear, the automotive, the artificial diamond industry, and most
recently even in the food industry.
Plastic deformed region
Linear elastic region
p
in
=0

in
,
in

out
,
out

in
<0

in
>0
R
e

out
>0

out
>0
R
e

Figure 2.11. Effect of an autofrettage principle.
For the purpose of stress-strain analysis, an elastic-plastic thick-walled tube
(Fig. 2.12) subjected to an internal pressure (
in
p ) is considered. Also in this case a
two-dimensional stress state acting at the control element can be described by a
differential equation (2.2). Solutions of the equation for two different cases of an
elastic-plastic thick-walled tube (partially and completely autofrettaged) are
separately outlined here. To formulate those relations for an elastic-plastic thick-
walled tube, besides the assumptions made in the analysis of an elastic thick-walled
tube (Section 2.3.1), the following additional assumptions have to be made:
the material is incompressible (Poissons ratio in both the elastic and plastic
regions is assumed to be 5 . 0 = ; this is not the case at least in an elastic region
where 3 . 0 = , but under this assumption it is only possible to solve differential
equation (2.2) in the case of an elastic-plastic thick-walled tube),

25
no longitudinal elongation of the tube, 0 =
z
(this was verified in a precise test by
Davis [26] on the flow of the thick-walled tubes made of steel and copper),
elastic-perfectly plastic behaviour of material in the case of a partially
autofrettaged thick-walled tube,
rigid-perfect plastic behaviour of material in the case of a completely autofrettaged
thick-walled tube.
Plastic deformed region
Linear elastic region
r
in
p
in

r
+d
r
d

dr
r
r
out
r
j

Figure 2.12. Cross-section of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube with static
equilibrium of the control element.
2.3.3.1 Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube
The problem of determining the stresses and strains in a partially autofrettaged thick-
walled tube was solved analytically at the beginning of the twentieth century. Two
analytical methods for a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube are available in the
literature [15, 57, 59]:
method based on the maximum distortion strain energy criterion proposed by
Prager & Hodge in 1951 [88] and Jrgensonn in 1953 [56],
method based on the maximum shear stress criterion (Jung in 1958 [55]).
In the work published by Prager & Hodge, as a strength parameter the yield strength
in shear was used,
F
, whereas in the work of Jrgensonn the yield strength in
tension was used,
e
R . Both approaches give an identical solution since the

26
maximum distortion strain energy criterion relates the yield strength in shear
F
and
the yield strength in tension
e
R by the relation 3
e F
R = . In fact, the applied
stress-strain calculations in the plastic and elastic regions of a pressurized tube date
from the work of Ndai in 1927 [79], while the residual stress-strain calculations date
from the work of Hencky in 1924 [46]. The aforementioned methods (Prager &
Hodge, Jrgensonn and Jung) are simplified forms of calculations purposely
developed for the practice.
An analytical method, mostly used in practice, based on the maximum distortion
strain energy criterion will be presented in this thesis. The equations for the method
based on the maximum shear stress criterion (proposed by Jung) can be similarly
derived. The only difference between the methods is in the conversion factor 2 3
whereby equations derived on the basis of the maximum distortion strain energy
criterion should be multiplied by this factor in order to obtain equations based on the
maximum shear stress criterion.
In the case of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube, it is assumed that the tube
yields up to a certain point defined by the radius
j
r and beyond that point it remains
linearly elastic. The distance
j
r is the distance from the tube axis to the boundary of
the plastic-elastic junction. The ratio of the covered plastic deformed wall thickness
portion to the total wall thickness gives the autofrettage degree:
| | % 100

=
in out
in j
d
r r
r r
a
(2.12)
Initial yielding of the material at the inner surface of an elastic thick-walled tube will
start when the internal pressure achieves
(
(


2
2
,
1
3
out
in e
ends closed
r in
r
r R
p
in

(2.13)
for closed end conditions, i.e. 0
z
in Eq. (2.11), and
2
1
4
4
2
2
,
3
1 1
3

(
(

+
(
(


out
in
out
in e
ends open
r in
r
r
r
r R
p
in
(2.14)
for open end conditions, i.e. 0 =
z
in Eq. (2.11).
The magnitude of the internal pressure which causes yielding of a tube with closed
ends up to a radius
j
r can be determined from a boundary condition whereby the

27
magnitude of the radial stress component at the inner surface is equal to the negative
magnitude of the internal pressure (
j
in
r in
r r
pr pa r
p
, , ,
=
=
):
(
(

+
in
j
out
j
e
r in
r
r
r
r
R
p
j
ln 2 1
3
2
2
,

(2.15)
The magnitude of the internal pressure which causes yielding of a tube with open
ends up to a radius
j
r is always smaller than in the case of a tube with closed ends.
For simplicity, Eq. (2.15) can also be used for a tube with open ends.
Equations for the stress distribution in the elastic and plastic regions, derived in the
following section, correspond to the closed end condition, which is a common case in
engineering practice. In the case of a tube with the open end condition, the axial
stress component should be zero ( 0 =
z
).
2.3.3.1.1 Stress Distribution in a Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube
By applying the boundary conditions that the radial stress component at the outer
surface of a tube is zero ( 0 =
=
out
r r
r
) and that a tube yields up to the radius of the
plastic-elastic junction where the distortional energy density (Eq. 2.11) reaches a
value equal to the distortional energy density at yield in a uniaxial case,
( )
3
2
e
r
R

can be solved the differential equation (2.2) in the case of the


elastic region of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube. The solution gives
expressions for the tangential and radial stress components within the elastic region
of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube. According to the assumptions ( 0 =
z

and 5 . 0 = ) that have been made in this analysis and by employing the Hookes law
equation, the axial stress component in the case of a tube with closed ends can be
obtained from the expression ( )
r z


+ = 5 . 0 .
Therefore, general expressions for the distribution of stresses across the elastic
region ( er ) of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube ( pa ) are given by
(
(
(
(

\
|
+
|

\
|

(
(

+ =
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
, ,
in
out
out
j
out
j
e
er pa
r
r
r
r
p
r
r
r
r
R


(2.16)

28
(
(
(
(

\
|

\
|
+
(
(

=
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
, ,
in
out
out
j
out
j
e
er pa r
r
r
r
r
p
r
r
r
r
R

(2.17)
(
(
(
(

\
|
=
1
1
3
2 2
2
, ,
in
out
out
j
e
er pa z
r
r
p
r
r
R

(2.18)
where
in r in
p p p
j
=
,
is the pressure difference between the autofrettage pressure
(
j
r in
p
,
) which causes yielding of a tube up to the radius
j
r and an actual applied
internal pressure (
in
p ).

p
in,rj
0 1 2 3
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
-1.00
-0.75
-0.50
-0.25
-1.25
0
1.50
1.75
-1.50
-1.75

/
R
e

r


p
in
=0
0
1
2 3
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
-1.00
-0.75
-0.50
-0.25
-1.25
0
1.50
1.75
-1.50
-1.75

/
R
e

r

(a) (b)
Figure 2.13. a) Distribution of applied principal stresses across the wall of a partially
autofrettaged thick-walled tube ( 3 = k , % 30 =
d
a ) subjected to the internal pressure
j
r in
p
,
.
b) Distribution of residual principal stresses across the wall of a partially autofrettaged
thick-walled tube ( 3 = k , % 30 =
d
a ) unloaded to a zero pressure.

29
Applied principal stresses in the elastic region of a tube subjected to the autofrettage
pressure (Fig. 2.13a) could be described by only the first terms in Eqs. (2.16) to
(2.18) [56, 80] because in that case
in r in
p p
j
=
,
and 0 = p . If a tube is unloaded after
an autofrettage process from the plastic-elastic state, it will be left with residual
stresses. The unloading process is purely elastic (an elastic-perfectly plastic
behaviour of material) and, therefore, the residual principal stresses [46] in the elastic
region (Fig. 2.13b) could be described by Eqs. (2.16) to (2.18) wherein 0 =
in
p and
j
r in
p p
,
= . If a tube is unloaded and afterwards repressurized with internal pressure
j
r in in
p p
,
0 , a state of the total principal stresses in the elastic region could be
expressed by Eqs. (2.16) to (2.18) wherein
in r in
p p p
j
=
,
.
Differential equation (2.2) in the case of the plastic region of a partially autofrettaged
thick-walled tube can be solved by adopting the maximum distortion strain energy
criterion (Eq. 2.11) and by applying a boundary condition whereby the magnitudes of
the radial stress component at the boundary of a plastic-elastic junction are the same
(
j j
r r
pr pa r
r r
er pa r
= =
=
, , , ,
). The solution gives expressions for a tangential and a radial
stress component within the plastic region of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled
tube. The axial stress component in the case of a tube with closed ends, according to
the assumptions made ( 0 =
z
and 5 . 0 = ), presents the mean value of these two
stress components.
Therefore, general expressions for the distribution of stresses across the plastic
region ( pr ) of a partially autofrettaged thick-walled tube ( pa ) are given by
(
(
(
(

\
|
+
|

\
|

(
(

+ =
1
1
ln 2 1
3
2
2
2
2
, ,
in
out
out
j
out
j
e
pr pa
r
r
r
r
p
r
r
r
r
R


(2.19)
(
(
(
(

\
|

\
|
+
(
(

+ =
1
1
ln 2 1
3
2
2
2
2
, ,
in
out
out
j
out
j
e
pr pa r
r
r
r
r
p
r
r
r
r
R

(2.20)
(
(
(
(

\
|

(
(

=
1
1
ln 2
3
2 2
2
, ,
in
out
j
out
j
e
pr pa z
r
r
p
r
r
r
r
R

(2.21)

30
where
in r in
p p p
j
=
,
is the pressure difference between the autofrettage pressure
(
j
r in
p
,
) which causes yielding of the tube up to the radius
j
r and the actual applied
internal pressure (
in
p ).
The applied principal stresses in the plastic region of a tube subjected to the
autofrettage pressure (Fig. 2.13a) could be described by only the first terms in
Eqs. (2.19) to (2.21) [56, 80] because in that case
in r in
p p
j
=
,
and 0 = p . If the tube
is unloaded after an autofrettage process from the plastic-elastic state, it will be left
with residual stresses. The unloading process is purely elastic (an elastic-perfectly
plastic behaviour of material) and, therefore, residual principal stresses [46] in a
plastic region (Fig. 2.13b) could be described by Eqs. (2.19) to (2.21) wherein 0 =
in
p
and
j
r in
p p
,
= . If the tube is unloaded and afterwards repressurized with internal
pressure
j
r in in
p p
,
0 , the state of the total principal stresses in the plastic region
could be expressed by Eqs. (2.19) to (2.21) wherein
in r in
p p p
j
=
,
.
2.3.3.1.2 Strain Distribution in a Partially Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube
In general, stressing of the material in an inner region of a loaded tube up to any
point beyond the yield strength
e
R results in plastic deformation of the material. The
corresponding strain in the material of the inner plastic deformed region ( pr ) is the
total strain
t
pr
, which is the sum of an elastic
e
pr
and a plastic
p
pr
component.
According to Ludwik [65], it is necessary here to introduce the true stress and true
strain terms in order to develop a representation for the entire stress-strain curve
in the analysis of plasticity. The rate-of-true-strains (
t
pr ,

&
,
t
pr r ,

&
,
t
pr z,

&
) instead of
principal true strains (
t
pr ,
,
t
pr r ,
,
t
pr z,
) [65] in the plastic region is considered in the
method developed by Hill et al. [47]. Those rate-of-true-strains are valid for the
determination of both the finite and infinitesimal strain magnitudes. The method
proposed by Hill et al. introduces considerable difficulties and lies outside the scope
of this work. However, the analysis of the process of partial yielding may be simplified
(as proposed by Ndai [80]) by the use of the plastic stress-engineering-strain
equations instead of stress-rate-of-true-strains equations in the plastic region (i.e.
strains remain infinitesimal) and letting Poissons ratio be 5 . 0 = everywhere in the
tube:
( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
z r z r z r
t
pr
T P E


+ = + + + = 5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
,
(2.22)

31
( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
z r z r z r
t
pr r
T P E


+ = + + + = 5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
,
(2.23)
( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | |
r z r z r z
t
pr z
T P E


+ = + + + = 5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
5 . 0
1
,
(2.24)
where P is the slope of the true stress-plastic strain curve (plastic modulus), E is the
slope of the true stress-elastic strain curve (modulus of elasticity), T is the slope of
the true stress-strain curve including the elastic strain (tangent modulus), the
relationship between them being ( ) ( ) ( ) P E T 1 1 1 + = and

,
r
,
z
are principal
stresses.
When the wall ratio k is less than 5 (a common case in engineering practice), strains
in the plastic region are infinitesimal, so long as the tube remains partially
autofrettaged, and the plastic strains may therefore be disregarded [19]. This
statement coincides with an assumption of the infinitesimal strains made in the work
proposed by Ndai [80] ( 0 P , ( ) ( ) E T 1 1 = ) and therefore Eqs. (2.22) to (2.24)
become Eqs. (2.7) to (2.9) for 5 . 0 = . Stress components

,
r
,
z
in these
equations should be substituted from Eqs. (2.19) to (2.21).
However, if the wall ratio is sufficiently large ( 5 > k ), it is necessary to consider
geometry changes to calculate strains in the plastic region, i.e. to employ the solution
for finite strains [19].
Since the material in the outer elastic region ( er ) is stressed below the yield strength
e
R , the total strain
t
er
includes only the elastic strain component
e
er
. Consequently,
the principal strain components in the elastic region of a partially autofrettaged thick-
walled tube can be expressed by Eqs. (2.7) to (2.9) for 5 . 0 = . Stress components

,
r
,
z
in these equations should be substituted from Eqs. (2.16) to (2.18).
2.3.3.2 Completely Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube
A completely autofrettaged thick-walled tube is a special case of an elastic-plastic
tube wherein a plastic deformed portion covers the total wall thickness ( % 100 =
d
a ).
An analytical solution for a complete autofrettaged thick-walled tube was also
proposed in the first half of the twentieth century. According to the criteria of an
elastic breakdown, two analytical methods are available in the literature [15, 57, 59]:
method based on the maximum distortion strain energy criterion and proposed
partially by Hencky in 1924 [46] and partially by Ndai in 1927 [79],
method based on the maximum shear stress criterion (Jung in 1958 [55]).

32
The only difference between the methods is again the conversion factor 2 3 .
Generally, as the internal pressure increases, the plastic deformation spreads further
across a tube wall until it reaches the outer surface. The magnitude of the internal
pressure that is required to bring the complete wall of a tube with closed ends into a
state of plastic deformation can be found from Eq. (2.15) by putting
out j
r r = :
( ) ( )
in out e r in
r r R p
out
ln 3 2
,
. Moreover, for the analysis of a partially autofretteged
tube, i.e. contained or restricted plastic flow, the change in dimensions remains
infinitesimal and the initial radii (
out
r and
in
r ) could be used without introducing much
error. In the case of a completely autofrettaged thick-walled tube, larger deformations
are encountered [80, 89] and the initial inner and outer radii become larger.
Therefore, the current radii (
out
r and
in
r ) must strictly be used in this analysis
instead of the initial radii: ( ) ( ) ln 3 2
, in out e r in
r r R p
out
. By neglecting elastic
deformation (rigid-perfect plastic behaviour of the material) and by applying the
constant volume condition
2 2 2 2

in out in out
r r r r = in the last equation, one can express
the magnitude of internal pressure that is required to bring the complete wall of a
tube with closed ends into a state of plastic deformation:
|
|

\
|
+
2
2 2
,

1 ln
3
in
in out e
r in
r
r r R
p
out

(2.25)
The internal pressure obtained by Eq. (2.25) considers large strains and it is always
smaller than that given for infinitesimal strains because the faster expansion of the
inner surface compared with the expansion of the outer surface results in a smaller
current ratio ( /
in out
r r ). The magnitude of an internal pressure which causes complete
yielding of a tube with open ends is always smaller than that for a tube with closed
ends. For simplified analysis, Eq. (2.25) can also be used in the case of a tube with
open ends.
Equations for the stress distribution in a completely autofrettaged thick-walled tube,
derived in the following section, correspond to closed end condition, which is a
common case in engineering practice. In the case of a tube with open ends, the axial
stress component should be zero ( 0 =
z
).
2.3.3.2.1 Stress Distribution in a Completely Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube
By adopting the maximum distortion strain energy criterion (Eq. 2.11) and by applying
a boundary condition whereby a plastic deformation reaches the outer surface
(

, ,

, ,
out out
r r
pr pa r
r r
er pa r
= =
= ), differential equation (2.2) can be solved in the case of a

33
completely autofrettaged thick-walled tube. The solution gives expressions for the
tangential and radial stress components within a completely autofrettaged thick-
walled tube. The axial stress component in the case of a tube with closed ends,
according to the assumptions made ( 0 =
z
and 5 . 0 = ), presents the mean value
of these two stress components.
Expressions for the distribution of stresses across the wall of a completely
autofrettaged thick-walled tube ( ca) are given by Eqs. (2.26) to (2.28):
|
|
|
|

\
|

\
|
+
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+ =
1

ln 1
3
2
2
2
,
in
out
out
out
e ca
r
r
r
r
p
r
r
R


(2.26)
|
|
|
|

\
|

\
|

\
|
+ =
1

ln
3
2
2
2
,
in
out
out
out
e ca r
r
r
r
r
p
r
r
R
(2.27)
|
|
|
|

\
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+ =
1

ln 5 . 0
3
2
2 ,
in
out
out
e ca z
r
r
p
r
r
R
(2.28)
where r is the current radius in a plastically expanded tube, which can be simply
obtained by applying the constant volume condition:
( )
2 2 2

in in
r r r r + = (2.29)
The term
in r in
p p p
out
=
,
in Eqs. (2.26) to (2.28) is the pressure difference between
the pressure that is required for complete yielding of a tube wall (
out
r in
p
,
) and the
actual applied internal pressure (
in
p ).
The applied principal stresses (Fig. 2.14a) in a completely autofrettaged thick-walled
tube subjected to the internal pressure
out
r in
p
,
could be calculated by only the first
terms in Eqs. (2.26) to (2.28) because in that case
in r in
p p
out
=
,
and 0 = p . If a tube is
unloaded after a completely autofrettage state, it will be left with residual stresses.
Residual principal stresses within a wall of a completely autofrettaged thick-walled
tube unloaded to zero pressure (Fig. 2.14b) can be obtained on the basis of Hanckys
work [46] by Eqs. (2.26) to (2.28) wherein 0 =
in
p and
out
r in
p p
,
= . If a tube is

34
unloaded and afterwards repressurized with the internal pressure
out
r in in
p p
,
0 , the
state of the total principal stresses within the wall of a completely autofrettaged thick-
walled tube could be expressed by Eqs. (2.26) to (2.28) wherein
in r in
p p p
out
=
,
.

/
R
e

r
p
in,rout
0 1 2
3
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
-1.00
-0.75
-0.50
-0.25
-1.25
0
1.50
1.75
-1,50
-1.75

r
p
in
=0
0
1
2
3
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
-1.00
-0.75
-0.50
-0.25
-1.25
0
1.50
1.75
-1.50
-1.75

/
R
e

(a) (b)
Figure 2.14. a) Distribution of applied principal stresses across the wall of a completely
autofrettaged thick-walled tube ( 3 = k , % 100 =
d
a ) subjected to the internal pressure
out
r in
p
,
. b) Distribution of residual principal stresses across the wall of a completely
autofrettaged thick-walled tube ( 3 = k , % 100 =
d
a ) unloaded to zero pressure.
2.3.3.2.2 Strain Distribution in a Completely Autofrettaged Thick-Walled Tube
In the case of a completely autofrettaged thick-walled tube, finite deformations have
to be taken into account [80, 89]. The corresponding strain in the material is the total
strain which includes only the plastic component. The elastic strain component is
disregarded. Since the increments of the strain in a material are produced under
successively changing values of the three principal stresses satisfying the condition
of an ideally plastic material, the stress-rate-of-true-strain relations should be
considered for the analysis of the process of a finite radial symmetric distortion of a
tube [65, 80]. Therefore, the principal strain components in the case of a loaded and

35
an unloaded completely autofrettaged thick-walled tube in all three directions can be
expressed by
( ) | |
z r
p e p e t


+ = = = = + = 5 . 0 0
& & & & &

(2.30)
( ) | |
z r
p
r
e
r
p
r
e
r
t
r


+ = = = = + = 5 . 0 0
& & & & &

(2.31)
( ) | |
r z
p
z
e
z
p
z
e
z
t
z


+ = = = = + = 5 . 0 0
& & & & &

(2.32)
Stress components

,
r
,
z
should be substituted from Eqs. (2.26) to (2.28). The
flow function for an ideally plastic material is pure function of the rates of strain
t

&
,
t
r

&
and
t
z

&
[47, 80].
2.4 Residual Stress Effects on the Operating
Performance of Autofrettaged Components
The principle of the autofrettage process and an analytical model for the calculation
of the residual stresses generated in the autofrettaged components were outlined in
the previous sections. This section gives a brief overview of the effects of such
stresses on the operating performance of the components.
Residual stress can be defined as that stress which remains in a material,
component or structure which is stationary and at equilibrium with its surroundings.
Since residual stresses are self-equilibrating stresses, the average of the residual
stresses taken over the cross-section of the component has to be zero.
Residual stresses may be categorized according to their origin (e.g. mechanical,
thermal or chemical), by the scale over which they self-equilibrate or according to the
method by which they are measured. Masings classification of the residual stresses
[76], in terms of their characteristic length over which they self-equilibrate is adopted
in this thesis. According to Masings categorization, the residual stresses can be
classified as:
type I - refers to residual stresses that develop in the body of a component over a
range much larger than the grain size of the material (i.e. the scale of the
structure); such stresses arise from non-uniform plastic deformation or from sharp
thermal gradients;
type II - involves residual stresses that are generated at the grain-size level and
equilibrate over a number of grain dimensions (from 3 to 10 grain sizes); these

36
originate from misfits between different regions which span microscopic
dimensions (in polycrystalline materials due to the difference in the elastic and
thermal properties of differently oriented neighbouring grains, in the microstructure
which contains several phases because of the different properties of the different
phases and in single-phase materials due to anisotropy in the behaviour of each
grain);
type III - refers to residual stresses that are generated at the atomic level and that
balance within a grain (the misfitting regions span dimensions of several
interatomic distances); such stresses are a result of the coherence at interfaces,
the presence of dislocations and other crystalline defects.
Attention in this thesis is focused on macro residual stresses (type I), which are
generated in the high pressure components through the plastic deformation during
the autofrettage process and which have, thereafter, beneficial effects on component
performance.
The importance of residual stresses depends on the particular material, on the
component or on the application. They can be on both a microscopic and
macroscopic level, beneficial or detrimental to component performance and critical or
insignificant. Therefore, each special case of residual stress effects on component
performance must be examined on its own merits.
Essentially, a components performance can be markedly improved by the intelligent
utilization of residual stresses. In the design process of components and structures,
the relation between applied stresses and strength response of materials is almost
entirely considered without regard to residual stresses. This oversight leads to
unexpected failures of components. Indeed, if components bearing residual stresses
are externally loaded (Fig. 2.15), the total stress state is composed of the applied
(loading) stresses and residual stresses [70]:

residual

applied

applied

applied

applied

applied

applied

applied

applied

residual

Figure 2.15. Superposition of the residual and applied stresses.



37
residual applied total
+ =
(2.33)
Therefore, residual stresses are beneficial and intelligently introduced into
components through the manufacturing process if they are distributed over the
component in such a way that the applied stresses caused by external load are
counterbalanced as far as possible. This means that the magnitude, sign and
distributions of the residual stresses generated in the components should be
designed according to the given loading conditions. However, the intelligent
generation of such stresses through an appropriate manufacturing process creates a
number of problems. In addition, any manufacturing process produces individual
residual stress patterns on either a microscopic or macroscopic level that sometimes
can be undesirable and detrimental. Hence the correct assessment and optimized
utilization of residual stresses present a challenge to modern materials engineering.

p
in
0 1 2 3
500
400
300
200
100
-400
-300
-200
-100
-500
0
600
-600


[
N
/
m
m
2
]

r

p
in
0 1 2 3
500
400
300
200
100
-400
-300
-200
-100
-500
0
600
-600


[
N
/
m
m
2
]

r

(a) (b)
Figure 2.16. a) Stress distribution across the wall of a residual stress-free (i.e. non-
autofrettaged) tube exposed to an internal pressure of 2750 bar. b) Stress distribution
across the wall of a tube autofrettaged by pressure of 4800 bar in a manufacturing
process (autofrettage degree % 38 . 25 =
d
a ) and then exposed to an internal pressure of
2750 bar. Both tubes are made from the same material, St 30 Al BK (
2
/ 530 mm N R
e
= ,
2
/ 000 185 mm N E = , 3 . 0 = ) and have the same geometry ( mm r
in
1 = , mm r
out
3 = ).
Autofrettaging of the thick-walled components is an example of the proper generation
of macro residual stresses by plastic deformation of material through a manufacturing
process (see Section 2.3.3) and the entire utilization of the beneficial residual stress

38
effects under the operating conditions. The compressive residual stresses, generated
through the autofrettage process in the inner region, where the failure-critical point is,
increase the static loading capability of the component [71]. This is a consequence of
the strain-hardening of material in the inner region. At this point a much smaller
equivalent stress under the operating conditions (e.g. an internal pressure of
2750 bar in the example presented in Fig. 2.16) is effective in the autofrettaged
component with respect to the residual stress-free component. In this manner, the
critical stress concentration at the inner surface is relocated deep in the wall of the
autofrettaged component at the boundary of the plastic-elastic junction.
Moreover, if the onset of plastic deformation is taken as a failure criterion, an excess
internal pressure ( bar p 2070 for the example presented in Fig. 2.17) in the case
of the autofrettaged component is allowable [45]. Consequently, the autofrettaged
component exhibits an increased factor of safety against static failure. This is
particularly important in the case of notched or cracked components.

S
t
r
e
s
s
e
s

a
t

t
h
e

i
n
s
i
d
e

s
u
r
f
a
c
e
,


[
N
/
m
m
2
]
Internal pressure, p
in
[bar]
Material: St 30 Al BK
Geometry: r
in
=1mm, r
out
=3mm
Equivalent applied stress
of non-autofrettaged tube
Equivalent total stress
of autofrettaged tube
Equivalent residual stress
during autofrettage process
p 2070 bar
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600

Figure 2.17. Effect of the residual stresses on an equivalent total stress at the inner
surface of a tube autofrettaged by a pressure of 4800 bar. An excess internal pressure
of bar p 2070 is allowable for the autofrettaged tube bearing residual stresses.
Tubes are made of steel St 30 Al BK (
2
/ 530 mm N R
e
= ,
2
/ 000 185 mm N E = , 3 . 0 = )
and have geometry mm r
in
1 = and mm r
out
3 = .
One of the most important effects of the generated residual stresses in autofrettaged
components relates to the fatigue life of the components. The presence of
compressive residual stresses in the inner region improves the fatigue life of
cyclically loaded components. The influence of those macro residual stresses on the

39
fatigue performance of highly stressed components has been investigated over the
last 50 years and historical reviews can be found in the literature [18, 23, 87].
The results of the investigations confirmed that the fatigue strength of components
can be increased by applying an autofrettage treatment to components. This effect is
of particular interest for notched components [106], since changes in the internal
diameter or cross-bores increase the local stress concentration and thus decrease
the fatigue limit of components. As an example, the results of investigations
performed by Plappert [87] on cross-bored tubes, with geometry mm r
in
10 = and
mm r
out
30 = , made of steel 1.4462, are presented in Fig 2.18.
Number of cycles, N [-]
P
u
l
s
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
,

p

[
b
a
r
]
cross-bored, autofrettaged (6300 bar)
Material: 1.4462
Geometry: r
in
=10mm, r
out
=30 mm
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
10
6
10
5
10
7
10
8
cross-bored

Figure 2.18. Effect of autofrettage treatment on the fatigue life of the cross-bored tubes [87].
In that work, a fatigue life test on the non-autofrettaged cross-bored tubes was first
carried out (closed circles in the figure). Subsequently, some tubes were
autofrettaged by a pressure of 6800 bar and the fatigue life of those tubes was also
tested (closed squares in the figure). The investigations showed that a
non-autofrettaged cross-bored tube can withstand pulsating pressure amplitudes of a
maximum of 1300 bar for nearly an infinite number of cycles without further distortion,
whereas for an autofrettaged tube it can be twice as great (2600 bar). This indicates
an increase in the fatigue limit of 100% after applying autofrettage treatment to the
tubes.
In general, failure of a material due to fatigue is more common than static failure and
may be viewed on a microscopic level in three stages: crack initiation, crack
propagation and unstable failure. In a fine grain material, fatigue cracks are initiated
only from slip-bands, whereas in a coarse grain material they can be initiated either

40
from the slip-bands or from the numerous microscopic discontinuities such as grain
boundaries, microscopic pores, carbides and other hard particles generally called
defects. For components without significant internal defects, the free surface is
usually the point for fatigue crack initiation. Every surface, no matter how smooth it
seems, is microscopically rough and this roughness plays an important role in the
process of crack initiation. In addition, the smallest micro cracks, extrusions,
intrusions and other distortions of shape generated through manufacturing processes
(machining) arise particularly at the inner surface of the components where it is the
most difficult to control and avoid their generation through these processes.
The probability of crack initiation can be reduced through autofrettage treatment [77,
106] since the introduced compressive residual tangential stresses in the inner
surface layers suppress and close those cracks, Fig. 2.19a.


(a) (b)
Figure 2.19. Compressive residual tangential stresses at the inner surface layers of an
autofrettaged tube lead to crack closure (a) and delay crack propagation (b).
In the second stage of fatigue failure (i.e. crack propagation), the crack grows as a
result of the continuously fluctuating stress due to the cyclic load. It is well
established that crack growth dominates the total fatigue life of structural
components. The crack propagation through existing residual stress fields is strongly
influenced by the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses. The
compressive residual tangential stresses retard the fatigue crack growth rate and
therefore delay crack propagation [47, 84, 85], Fig. 2.19b. This statement is clearly
demonstrated in Fig. 2.20, where crack propagation rates of autofrettaged and
non-autofrettaged tubes are compared [45, 101]. In agreement with the Paris
equation, loading with a constant stress intensity range (
2
3
/ 632 mm N K = ) results
in a constant crack propagation rate of a non-autofrettaged tube (dashed line in the

41
figure). However, if the crack propagates through the triaxial residual stress field
resulting from the autofrettaged treatment, a considerably smaller crack propagation
rate is observed (solid line in the figure).
10
-3
10
-4
10
-5
10
-6
0 0.2 0.4 0.8 1 0.6
a / W
Material: 34 NiCrMo 7 3
d
a

/

d
N

[
m
m
/
c
y
c
l
e
]

Figure 2.20. Crack propagation rates in an autofrettaged (solid line) and a non-autofrettaged
tube (dashed line) made of steel 34 NiCrMo 7 3, loaded with constant stress intensity range
= K constant
2
3
/ 632 mm N = [45, 101].
2.5 Challenges and Problems in Autofrettage Process
Evaluation
In order to achieve a favourable residual stress pattern, which gives beneficial effects
under the operating conditions, it is important to conduct the autofrettage process
appropriately. The generation of unfavourable residual stresses throughout the
process could have detrimental consequences on the component performance. The
evaluation of the autofrettage process up to now has rarely been done using
measuring methods in industrial series production. Therefore, the knowledge of the
generated residual stresses within the component and the knowledge of the
component quality itself were mostly poor. The whole procedure of the development,
design, process planning and manufacture of components relies on analytical
calculations and numerical computations. However, only limited prediction of the
generation of residual stresses through the process could be obtained by the use of
these methods due to their deficiencies. This can explain the frequent damage to and

42
unexpected failures of the existing fuel injection system components under nominal
loads in recent years.
Generally, analytical solutions only exist in the literature for very simple geometries
such as a smooth tube and were derived under certain assumptions (see
Section 2.3). Material is considered as elastic perfectly plastic, homogeneous
isotropic and incompressible.
An analytical solution which involves the strain hardening effect is also available in
the literature [43, 80] but involves considerable difficulties. In addition, an elastic-
perfectly plastic response curve and an elastic-strain-hardening response curve do
not provide in all cases a reasonable approximation to the shape of a real stress-
strain curve of a material.
The manufacture of fuel lines by the cold-working process causes elongation of
grains in a direction parallel to the axis of the fuel line, whereby the material becomes
orthotropic. The generation of the residual stress pattern in the orthotropic fuel line
cannot be exactly calculated using such simple analytical solutions. A knowledge of
the material orthotropy is necessary in order to have a better understanding of its
influence on the generation of residual stresses within the component.
In order to solve differential equation (2.2) in the case of an elastic-plastic
thick-walled tube, the analysis is simplified, i.e. a material is considered as
incompressible (see Section 2.3.3). That is not the case at least in the elastic region.
Introducing another value for the Poissons ratio (e.g. 3 . 0 = in the elastic region)
complicates the analytical model, which then cannot be solved.
The analytical determination of the stress-strain state in components having complex
geometries (e.g. cross-bored holes, variations of the inner diameter, notches and
grooves of different shapes, curved parts, etc.) is mostly not possible. Very simple
analytical models in the case of a cross-bored autofrettaged tube were proposed by
Cole [21], Faupel & Harris [39], Fessler & Lewin [40], Little [63] and Morrison et al.
[78].
Since the middle of the 1960s, when computers became widely available, modern
numerical tools were used more and more in solving residual stress problems. In
recent decades, several specialized programs have been developed to analyse the
stress-strain state in structural components. In general, numerical methods overcome
some disadvantages and deficiencies of the analytical solution. A numerical residual
stress analysis in autofrettaged components having complex geometries (Fig. 2.21)
is generally possible. Some numerical investigations on autofrettaged components
having complex geometries have been carried out in recent decades and can be
found in the literature [18, 31, 87, 95, 96]. The real stress-strain curve obtained by a
uniaxial tensile test performed on a specimen in the laboratory can be inserted into

43
software in order to perform an analysis, which also includes the work hardening data
for the plastic region. However, material data obtained by a uniaxial tensile test do
not provide a reasonable approximation for the effect of a multiaxial stress state in a
material. The numerical analysis can also be performed by taking the influence of the
material orthotropy into consideration, if orthotropic data are known. Hence it can be
deduced that the main problem with numerical methods is a strong dependence on
material data, which are not always available in an industrial series production.
Consequently, the autofrettage process effects on components with complex
geometries are mostly unknown.

Figure 2.21. Typical shapes of thick-walled high pressure components [77].
Additionally, the aforementioned analytical and numerical methods cannot consider
the influence of other parameters such as geometrical imperfections, metallurgical
imperfections (cracks, voids, defects, distortions, dislocations, etc.), the influence of
previous manufacturing processes (heat treatment, cold-working process, bending
process) or even disturbances through the process itself (problems in the operation
of the autofrettage machine), which also affect the quality of autofrettaged
components.
For the purpose of the safe and reliable application of the autofrettage process,
thereby decreasing the risk of damage and unexpected failures of components under
nominal loads, there is a requirement for a measuring method which permits an
evaluation of the stress-strain state within components. A large number of measuring
methods for residual stress evaluation in structural components have been

44
developed in recent years. A rough survey of the methods for residual stress
evaluation in autofrettaged components has been reviewed by Donth [31]. However,
the methods are not suitable for employment in industrial series production owing to
their limitations and restrictions. For the purpose of inexpensive industrial application,
the measuring method to be selected should offer an effective, non-contact,
non-destructive, fast and flexible means for the evaluation of the autofrettage
process. Such a selected method can be employed in production for the reception
control of semi-finished components, for monitoring of the autofrettage process and
for the final control of finished autofrettaged components. In this way a component
quality can be provided.
The particular Q-100 speckle interferometry (SI) measuring system, manufactured by
DANTEC Dynamics GmbH, Ulm, Germany, was selected in this work. This is a
unique SI measuring system special designed for practical industrial applications.
The Q-100 measuring system overcomes the disadvantages and restrictions of
previous SI measuring systems by the use of a special miniaturized optical sensor.
The ability of the Q-100 measuring system for employment in the reception control of
semi-finished tubes and in the final control of autofrettaged fuel lines was
investigated and is presented in Chapter 4. Additional advantages of the Q-100
measuring system in the R&D of autofrettaged fuel lines are addressed in the rest of
Chapter 4 and in Chapter 5. Finally, a concept for the quality inspection of fuel lines
in series production and a concept for the control of the generation of residual
stresses during the autofrettage process, based on the use of the Q-100
SI measuring system, were developed and are outlined in Chapter 6.

45


Chapter 3
Experimental Test Facility and Measuring
Techniques
3.1 Experimental Test Facility
The high pressure test facility for the investigation of components loaded under static
pressure was set up in the Laboratory of the Institute for Process Technology and
Machinery at Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1. Schematic diagram of the high pressure test facility.
The test facility is constantly supplied with pressurized air in the range 1 to 10 bar.
The pressure intensifier consists of a stepped piston-cylinder arrangement with a
fixed intensifier ratio of 1:370. Air as a low pressure fluid is supplied into the large
cylinder, expelling the oil from the small cylinder at a higher pressure. In this way, it is
possible to load the examined component (i.e. tube sample) with oil up to a pressure
of 3700 bar. During this initial loading, the draining valve and micro metering valve
should be closed, while all other valves in the test facility remain open.

46
Table 3.1. Technical data for the test facility components.

MAXIMUM
WORKING
PRESSURE
Pressure intensifier MAXIMATOR GmbH GSF 400 1600 bar Intensifier ratio: 1:370
D-37449 Zorge
Capacity: 2.1 cm
3
Germany Discharge flow: 0.75 l/min
Connecting inlet thread: R1/2"
Connecting outlet thread: 9/16"-18 UNF
High pressure SITEC AG 750.1700 7000 bar Capacity: 4 ml
hand pump CH-8124 Zrich Capacity per revolution: 0.08 ml
Switzerland Stroke: 100 mm
Connecting inlet port: 1/4" HP
Connecting outlet port: 1/4" HP
Pressure sensor EBM BROSA EBM 6054-7000 7000 bar Accuracy class: 0.5
GmbH & Co. KG Linearity: < 0.25%
D-88069 Tettnang Drift: < 0.005%
Germany Hysteresis: < 0.25%
Temperature range: -40C to +85C
Zero point: < 0.005% / C
End value: < 0.005% / C
Hand valve SITEC AG 710.6310 7000 bar Tube connection: 1/4" HP ( 6.35 mm)
(also draining valve) CH-8124 Zrich
Orifice: 1.6 mm
Switzerland Maximum working temperature: 200C
Micro metering valve SITEC AG 710.6312 7000 bar Tube connection: 1/4" HP ( 6.35 mm)
CH-8124 Zrich
Orifice: 1.6 mm
Switzerland Flow coefficients: Kv = 0.042 m
3
/h and
Cv = 0.050 g/mn
Maximum working temperature: 200C
Non-return valve NOVA WERKE AG 520.3433-1 7000 bar Connecting inlet port: 1/4" HP
CH-8307 Effretikon Connecting outlet port: 1/4" HP
Switzerland
Pneumatic WILKERSON CB6-04-000 10 bar Flow capacity: 33.0 dm
3
/s
control valve Richland, MI 49083
Operating temperature range: 0C to 52C
USA Connecting ports: 1/2"
Ball valve YACHT STEEL GmbH A4-AISI 316 10.5 bar Connecting inlet port: 1/2"
D-22081 Hamburg Connecting outlet port: 1/2"
Germany
High pressure filter SITEC AG 720.6633-50-5 7000 bar Tube connection: 1/4" HP ( 6.35 mm)
CH-8124 Zrich
Orifice: 1.6 mm
Switzerland Micron sizes: coarse 50m, fine 5m.
Tee standard fitting SITEC AG 720.1633 10000 bar Tube connection: 1/4" HP ( 6.35 mm)
CH-8124 Zrich
Orifice: 1.6 mm
Switzerland
Working fluid BAYER AG Baysilone oil - Boiling point: >300C at 1013 mbar
D-51368 Leverkusen M 10 Flashpoint: 120C to 240C
Germany Density: 0.92 g/cm
3
to 0.96 g/cm
3
at 25C
Viscosity: 4 mm
3
/s to 39 mm
3
/s at 25C
Oil supply tank BEHEALTERBAU- HB Atmospheric Capacity: 12 l
MULTEC GmbH pressure
D-99510 Apolda
Germany
NAME COMPANY TYPE TECHNICAL DATA


47
After the initial loading, the hand valve on the entrance between two tee fittings
should also be closed and the oil can be further compressed by means of a high
pressure hand pump. Rotating the pump screw handle causes a linear piston motion
whereby pressure is generated in the test facility. In this way, the examined
component can be statically loaded up to a pressure of 7000 bar. This is the
maximum pressure available in the test facility. Unloading of the examined
component can be realized using the special micro metering valve. The valve can
provide a fine adjustment unloading with a pressure difference of 1 bar. Technical
data for the test facility components are outlined in Table 3.1.
3.2 Data Acquisition and Data Processing
The data acquisition (DAQ) system presented in Fig. 3.2 involves gathering signals
from measurement devices (i.e. sensors), signal conditioning (amplifying and
filtering), digitization of the signals (analog to digital conversion), storage and
processing of the signals.

Figure 3.2. High pressure test facility with a data acquisition system.
The pressure sensor and strain gauges are measuring devices which convert the
physical phenomena of pressure and mechanical strain into a measurable electrical
signal (voltage).
The measuring of the pressure, using an EBM 6054-7000 pressure sensor
(Fig. 3.3a), manufactured by EBM BROSA GmbH & Co. KG, Tettnang, Germany, is

48
based on the strain gauge principle. Due to the action of the fluid pressure, the strain
gauge elongates, which causes a deformation of the wire and a change in its
electrical resistance.
The measuring of the mechanical strains in orientation of principal directions (axial
and tangential) on the outer surface of the tube sample was performed by a XY 91
stacked strain gauge rosette (Fig. 3.3b), manufactured by Hottinger Baldwin
Messtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany. In this case, a mechanical strain alters the
resistance of the wire attached to the outer surface of a tube sample under the load.
31.7
60
1
2
SW 32
1
1
1
1.6
32
5
M16x1.5

1
.
6


(a) (b)
Figure 3.3. a) Cross-section of the EBM 6045-7000 pressure sensor. b) Position of the
XY 91 strain gauge rosette on the outer surface of a tube sample.
In general, the measurement devices produce small electrical changes, which are
sensitive to interference effects, both mechanical and electromagnetic. Therefore, it
is necessary to amplify them and perform some filtering to remove this interference.
This step, the so-called signal conditioning, is performed in the pressure sensor
amplifier and strain gauge amplifier.
Output signals from the amplifiers (Fig. 3.4) are analog signals in the range 0 to 10 V.
In the case of a pressure measurement, an output analog signal of 0 V corresponds
to a pressure of 0 bar, and an output analog signal of 10 V corresponds to a pressure
of 7000 bar. Output analog signals in the range 0 to 10 V in the case of strain
measurement represent the corresponding magnitude of the mechanical strain acting
at the outer surface of the tube sample (see Section 3.3).

49
DAQ-Board (NI USB-6008) Amplifiers Measurement devices Storage/Processing of Data
I
n
p
u
t

/

O
u
t
p
u
t

c
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
a
l
o
g

/

D
i
g
i
t
a
l

c
o
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
A
m
p
l
i
f
i
e
r
Strain gauge
amplifier
F
i
l
t
e
r
A
m
p
l
i
f
i
e
r
Pressure sensor
amplifier
F
i
l
t
e
r
Pressure sensor
EBM 6054-7000

z
Axial gauge

Tangential gauge

Figure 3.4. Principle of data acquisition.
Amplifiers are directly connected to the input/output connector of the DAQ-Board.
The DAQ-Board acts as the interface between the computer and measurement
devices. A small, portable and multifunctional data acquisition device, NI USB-6008,
manufactured by National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA, was used here
as a DAQ-Board. Technical data of the device are outlined in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2. Technical data of the NI USB-6008 multifunction data acquisition device.
Analog inputs 8 SE/4 DI Analog outputs 2 Digital I/O lines 12
Input resolution 12-bit Output resolution 12-bit 32-bit counter 1
Max. sampling rate 10 kS/s Output rate 150 Hz Trigger Digital
Input range 1 V to 20 V Output range 0 V to 5 V Bus USB
Digital I/O Analog inputs Analog outputs

A change in a physical phenomenon with respect to time can be described by an
analog signal defined by three primary characteristics: level, shape and frequency.
Since the computer can only interpret a digital code (numbers), it is necessary that
an analog signal is digitized (i.e. converted into a digital code). A digital signal cannot
take on any value with respect to time and is defined by the state, i.e. level of the
signal (on or off), and the rate of the signal (how often the digital signal changes state
with respect to time). An analog to digital converter in the DAQ-Board performs the
conversion of the analog into digital and the digital into analog signal.
Finally, the digitized signal can be stored or further processed by the computer. For
this purpose, special application software, LabVIEW, developed by National
Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA, was used. However, the application
software cannot directly communicate with hardware components and cannot control
(drive) their proper operation. Driver software, as the middle layer between the

50
application software and the hardware components within the DAQ system,
accomplishes this task. The driver software, NI-DAQmx Base, developed by National
Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA, was used here for that purpose.
Apart from the strain gauge measurements, speckle interferometry (SI) was also
used for measurements of strains on the outer surface of tube samples. For that
purpose, a Q-100 SI measuring system (Fig. 3.5), manufactured by DANTEC
Dynamics GmbH, Ulm, Germany, was employed.
Optical sensor
Control unit
Optical cable
Laser box
Sensor and
video cable
Computer

Figure 3.5. Q-100 portable SI measuring system.
Laser light is generated in a laser box, which is connected to the optical sensor by an
optical cable. The optical sensor of the Q-100 measuring system was directly
attached to the tube surface to be measured. All four out-of-plane setups (illumination
directions) and CCD camera are integrated into the sensor. During measurement, the
tube surface was illuminated by laser light from four different illumination directions
and the speckle images were recorded by a CCD camera. Special IstraMS 2.7
software was used for the evaluation of the recorded speckle images (see
Section 3.4). The control unit acts here as the interface between the IstraMS
software and other hardware components of the Q-100 measuring system (laser box,
optical sensor).
3.3 Strain Measurement Using Strain Gauges
The gauges of the XY91 stacked rosette oriented in the axial and tangential
directions were separately connected by two half Wheatstone bridge circuits on two
channels of a KWS 506 C strain gauge amplifier (manufactured by Hottinger Baldwin
Messtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany). As a second arm, i.e. second resistive
element, in the half Wheatstone bridge circuit, a reference gauge was attached to an

51
unloaded tube sample, made from the same material as a tested tube sample, in
order to provide temperature compensation for the active gauge. Second resistive
elements
1 ref
and
2 ref
in both half Wheatstone bridge circuits were gauges of an
additional stacked rosette, which was attached to the reference unloaded tube
sample. Each of the half Wheatstone bridge circuits was separately completed by
associated resistive elements in the full bridge circuit within the amplifier, Fig. 3.6.

Figure 3.6. Wheatstone bridge arrangement employed for strain measurements.
In order to measure small changes in the gauge resistance, the strain gauges and
associated resistive elements in the Wheatstone bridge arrangement are usually
excited by a voltage that is applied across the bridge (Fig. 3.7). In this way, the
applied excitation voltage,
B
U , causes an output voltage of the bridge,
A
U , which can
be measured. Since the unloaded tube sample causes no change in resistance of the
active gauge, applying an excitation voltage, in a balanced state, results in a zero
output voltage. Therefore, any change in resistance of the active strain gauge will
unbalance the bridge and produce a non-zero output voltage. This output voltage
encodes the information about mechanical strain acting at the outer surface of the
tube sample. The measured output voltage is directly proportional to the quantity of
mechanical strain:
1000
4



=
B
A
U B k
U

(3.1)
where
| | V U
A
output voltage,
| | V U
B
excitation voltage (5 V in this case),

52
| | k factor of strain gauge,
| | B factor of Wheatstone bridge circuit (2 for a half Wheatstone bridge circuit),
| | m m/ mechanical strain.

Strain gauge amplifier

ref2
Strain gauges Storage/Processing of Data
Amplifying
F
i
l
t
e
r
i
n
g
Supplementary
circuit
Excitation
voltage

ref1
DAQ-Board (NI USB-6008)
I
n
p
u
t

/

O
u
t
p
u
t

c
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
a
l
o
g

/

D
i
g
i
t
a
l

c
o
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
Excitation
voltage
Amplifying
Supplementary
circuit
F
i
l
t
e
r
i
n
g

Figure 3.7. Principle of strain gauge measurements.
A strain measurement using the strain gauges always involves a deviation of the
measured value from the true value. Many factors (surface preparation of the
measuring object, misalignment of attached rosette, glue employed, stiffening effect,
k-factor, calibration error, length of measurement cable, thermal effects, bridge
non-linearity, etc.) influence the accuracy of strain gauge measurements. Detailed
information on the influence of the different factors on the accuracy of strain gauge
measurements can be found in the literature [44, 48]. According to the
manufacturers information (technical support centre of Hottinger Baldwin
Messtechnik GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) and according to the data found in the
aforementioned literature, a deviation of the measured value from the true value in
the range 5 to 15% must be expected.
3.4 Strain Evaluation Using Speckle Interferometry
Speckles, i.e. a granular pattern, appear whenever an optically rough surface is
illuminated with coherent light, Fig. 3.8a. The surface is optically rough when its
height variation ( h) is of the order of or greater than the wavelength ( ) of the
illuminating light used, Fig. 3.8b. The speckle phenomenon has been well known for
over 100 years. The first recorded laboratory observation of the speckle phenomenon
was made by Exner [35, 36], who studied Fraunhofer's diffraction ring formation
when coherent light is diffracted by randomly distributed particles of equal size. Not

53
surprisingly, some great names, such as Newton, Quetlet and Lord Rayleigh, have
been associated with the phenomenon of speckle [25] through history. However, only
the introduction of lasers, in the early 1960s, brought a deeper understanding and
many new applications of the phenomenon [91]. The wavelength of light of common
lasers is in a range from approximately 100 to 1500 nm. Therefore, speckle has its
origin in the fact that most surfaces are extremely optically rough on the scale of light
wavelengths.

h

Detector
Imaging
lens
Aperture
h
<

(a) (b)
Figure 3.8. An example of the granular speckle pattern recorded by a standard CCD camera
(a) and a schematic description of a speckle generation in a detector (b) [104].
The phenomenon was initially regarded as a nuisance. However, it was soon realized
that speckles could be regarded as a random spatial carrier on which information on
the shape and position of the diffusing surface was encoded. As a result, speckles
have found a number of applications, of which the best known are in studies of
surface displacements [1, 2, 62] and vibration [3, 49, 66-69, 105] and also studies of
surface contouring [53] and roughness [16, 32, 113]. In addition, the speckle
phenomenon is also applicable to non-destructive structural inspection in industrial
environments [51], such as the detection of flows, cracks, inclusions and other
imperfections in structures. Another attractive application of the speckle phenomenon
is the determination of the spatial structure of astronomical objects [41, 61].
Speckle meteorology is an important part of optical experimental mechanics and
involves all measurement techniques which utilize the speckle phenomenon. Speckle
meteorology envelopes a wide variety of techniques [25, 32]. These have been
developed over a number of years, and all generally fall into one of two categories:
speckle photography (i.e. speckle correlation) and speckle interferometry (SI). Both
of them can be used for all of the aforementioned studies. The distinction between
the two is somewhat subtle, since both involve photography (or some alternative

54
appropriate means of visualization), and both involve interference. In practice, there
are differences, and these were nicely categorized by Stetson [102]. If there are
regions in the two images where the speckle patterns of each are well correlated, the
process can be referred to as speckle photography. If, instead, the fringes form as a
result of fluctuations in the correlation of the speckle patterns between two images,
whether or not there is translation between the correlated portions of the patterns, the
process can be called speckle interferometry.
Speckle interferometry is usually called [104] electronic speckle pattern
interferometry (ESPI), because in the 1970s electronic recording media started to
replace photographic plates (utilization of an analog technology). However, today the
detector of a CCD camera is in common use as a recording medium but the
reconstruction of the images is made numerically by computer. In this way, both the
recording and processing of the measured data could be done digitally (utilization of
digital technology) and the technique is also named digital speckle pattern
interferometry (DSPI). Consequently, speckle photography (SP) or speckle
correlation (SC) is sometimes called electronic speckle photography (ESP), digital
speckle photography (DSP) or digital image correlation (DIC) according to
improvements in the development of technique over the years [104].
As mentioned above, SI has found a wide range of applications, such as in the
measurement of surface displacement, surface vibration, surface contouring, surface
roughness, structural imperfections (speckle shearing intererometry) and even the
determination of the spatial structure of astronomical objects (stellar SI). The
application of SI for the measurement of surface displacements and for surface
shape measurements, which are necessary for stress-strain surface analysis, will be
the focus of this thesis. For that purpose, the Q-100 measuring system, based on the
SI principle, was used in this work.
3.4.1 Measurement of Surface Displacement
SI can be considered as an electronic version of holographic interferometry, which
uses the detector of a CCD camera instead of a photographic film to acquire and
store the fringe images and a computer is used to process the images.
Figure 3.9 shows a schematic of a single out-of-plane setup which has its
measurement sensitivity nearly perpendicular to the object surface. Laser light is
used to illuminate the object surface (object beam) in a full-field manner using
diverging optics. The back-scattered light from the object surface recombines with a
divergent reference beam, originating from the same laser light source, as they pass
through the beam combiner. The two wave fronts interfere and form an
interferogram, the so-called speckle pattern, which is detected using a CCD camera,

55
and is then stored in the computer. Before the object is deformed, the phase
difference between the object and reference beams is . After the object is
deformed, the phase difference becomes + . The phase change is related to
the deformation of the object in the direction of the sensitivity vector s , and can be
determined by subtracting the phase distributions and + .
Reference beam
Object beam


Object beam
Laser
CCD camera
Observation direction
Illumination direction
Direction of sensitvity
Measuring object
Reference
beam
PZT
s
i
O OO O
Beam spliter
Beam combiner

Reference beam
Object beam
+

Laser
CCD camera
Reference
beam
PZT
i
s
O
u
Object beam
Observation direction
Illumination direction
Direction of sensitvity
Measuring object
Beam spliter
Beam combiner

(a) (b)
Figure 3.9. Out-of-plane setup: (a) reference (non-deformed) state, (b) deformed state [107].
Therefore, using one object and one reference beam, as presented in Fig. 3.9, it is
possible to measure only, for example, the displacement component u
r
in one
direction (one-dimensional measurement). The three-dimensional (3D) displacement
of the object surface (u
r
, v
r
, w
r
) can be measured with a combination of a minimum of
three setups for out-of-plane measurements comprising one optical sensor device
(e.g. optical sensor of the Q-100 SI measuring system). Essentially, a single direction
of observation (one CCD camera) and a minimum of three different directions of
object illumination are required to measure the 3D displacement of the object surface.
However, three-dimensional displacement measurement is also possible with a
combination of the setups for out-of-plane and in-plane [107] measurements. In that
case, dual-beam illumination (in-plane setup) is used to measure the in-plane
components v
r
and w
r
, whereas the out-of-plane component u
r
can be measured by
the out-of-plane setup.

56
3.4.1.1 Determination of Phase Change
The SI technique involves the observation of the light that is scattered from a rough
surface illuminated with a coherent light source through a lens on to a plane which
may be, but is not necessarily, the plane in which the object is in focus. Therefore, it
is necessary to be able to calculate the phase and the amplitude of the light in the
observation plane. Since the intensity of the wave is proportional to the square of its
amplitude, the analysis of a speckle pattern is restricted to the analysis of the
intensity and the phase of the light. The intensity at any point of the speckle pattern
after interference of the reference beam (RB) and object beam (OB), after they have
passed through the beam combiner (Fig. 3.9), can be described by means of a
complex representation of a light wave:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | | { } y x y x y x I
y x y x y x
y x I y x I y x I y x
y x I y x I y x I
y x y x y x I y x I y x I y x I y x I
B
RB OB
RB OB B
RB OB B
RB OB RB OB RB OB
, cos , 1 ,
, , ,
, , 2 , ,
, , ,
, , cos , , 2 , , ,


+ =
=
=
=
+ =
=
= + + =

(3.2)
where y x, are the coordinates of points on the image, ( ) y x I
B
, is the background
intensity, ( ) y x, is the visibility (or modulation, or contrast) of the interference pattern
and ( ) y x, represents the difference in phase between the object and reference
beams associated with the optical paths, along which the two beams travelled
between the point where they are separated by a beam splitter to the point at which
they are recombined at the image plane.
The principle of displacement measurement by SI is based on recording the phase
change of each speckle before and after deformation. This change in phase depends
on the change in optical path length between the exposures and contains information
on the sought surface deformation field. Before the object surface is deformed, the
phase difference between the object and reference beams is ( ) y x, :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | { } y x y x y x I y x I
B
, cos , 1 , , + = (3.3)
After the deformation of the object surface, the wave front emanating from the
surface is slightly deformed, whereas the wave front of the reference beam remains
constant. The new resulting speckle pattern on the detector of a CCD camera is then
also digitized and stored in the computer. Thus, after the object is deformed, the
phase difference becomes ( ) ( ) y x y x , , + . Assuming that the deformation of the

57
object changes the phase but not the amplitude, the intensity of each speckle grain is
given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | { } y x y x y x y x I y x I
B
, , cos , 1 , ,
/ / /
+ + =
(3.4)
The phase change ( ) y x, results from the surface displacement and can be easily
determined through subtraction of the two images. The result of the subtraction of
these two images is a fringe pattern wherein the phase change information, ( ) y x, ,
is encoded.
However, the quantitative analysis of a fringe pattern, i.e. automatic identification of
fringes, creates some problems. Generally, the phase term ( ) ( ) y x y x
OB RB
, , in
Eq. (3.2) varies across the field of view. In addition, the individual intensities ( ) y x I
RB
,
and ( ) y x I
OB
, also vary across the field of view due to the Gaussian profile of the laser
beam, to the variation in the orientation and texture of the surface being viewed, to
the presence of dust or other imperfections and to the change of surface shapes (e.g.
holes, gaps, notches) [54].
Many different techniques have been developed over the course of time in order to
solve the problem of automatic fringe identification [54]. However, they had a lot of
limitations (e.g. especially for a particular type of fringe pattern). A technique which
overcomes the problem of automatic fringe identification and extracts phase
information is the so-called phase-shifting technique. In this case, the optical setup is
altered with a phase shifter in one of the two beams. This phase shifter (piezo
translator PZT in Fig. 3.9) allows the addition of a known phase shift to the random
phase ( ) y x, . A typical measurement setup uses at least three phase-shifted images
since there are three unknown terms (phase difference, background intensity and
visibility) in Eq. (3.2), in order to evaluate the phase distribution. However, the most
common algorithm for phase calculations [22] uses four frames with phase shifts of
o o o
180 , 90 , 0 and
o
270 . It is assumed here that the measuring situation does not
change during the time that it takes to capture the four images.
Hence four speckle patterns ( 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = n ), which create a fringe pattern, are
recorded with shifted phases (
2
3
, ,
2
, 0


= m ) before the surface deformed. The
intensities at any point in the four speckle patterns before deformation are then given
by a set of four equations which have the general form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | { } m y x y x y x I y x I
B n
+ + = , cos , 1 , , (3.5)

58
Since there are now more than three equations and three unknowns, it is possible to
evaluate the sought phase difference, ( ) y x, , before the surface deformation:
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(

=
y x I y x I
y x I y x I
y x
, ,
, ,
arctan ,
3 1
2 4

(3.6)
An equivalent number of speckle patterns ( 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = n ) with shifted phases
(
2
3
, ,
2
, 0


= m ) is also recorded after the surface deformation. The intensities at
any point in the four speckle patterns after deformation are then also given by a set
of four equations which have the general form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | { } m y x y x y x y x I y x I
I I
B
I
n
+ + + = , , cos , 1 , , (3.7)
Again, it is possible to evaluate the sought phase difference ( ) ( ) y x y x , , + from
the set of equations (Eq. 3.7):
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(

= +
y x I y x I
y x I y x I
y x y x
I I
I I
, ,
, ,
arctan , ,
3 1
2 4

(3.8)
In this way, the value of the phase change ( ) y x, can be determined for the whole
of the image by insertion of Eq. (3.6) into Eq. (3.8):
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(

+

=
2 4 2 4 3 1 3 1
3 1 2 4 3 1 2 4
arctan ,
I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I
y x
I I I I
I I I I

(3.9)
3.4.1.2 Physical Relationship Between Phase Change and Surface
Displacement
The phase change expressed by Eq. (3.9) encodes the information about a surface
displacement. In order to find the relationship between the phase change and the
component of displacement vector, the optical path of a ray is considered, Fig. 3.10.
In this section, the physical relationship between the phase change and one
component of displacement vector (e.g. u
r
) is considered.
The optical path from the source of ray S via point P on the surface to the observing
image plane centred on point O , before deformation of the object, is considered to
be made up of three components:
PO l SP SO
P
+ + = (3.10)

59
where SP represents the optical path from S to P , PO is the optical path from P to
O and
P
l is the optical path associated with the random variation of the surface
height.
P
O
S
i
o

Figure 3.10. The optical path of a ray [54].
When the object is deformed, so that the point P is displaced by u
r
to
/
P , the optical
path from the source S to a point in the observing plane O via a given point in the
object P is altered (Fig. 3.11). The change in phase associated with this change in
the optical path is the basis of the use of SI for measurement of the surface
displacements.
The change in the optical path from the source to a point in the surface (Fig. 3.11a) is
given by
i u u SP
r
r
= =
1
cos (3.11)
where i
r
is the unit vector in the illumination direction and u is the scalar magnitude
of the displacement vector component u
r
. The change in the optical path from a point
in the surface to a point in the observing plane (Fig. 3.11b) is given by
( ) o u u PO = =
r
2
cos (3.12)
where o is the unit vector in the observation direction. Hence the component of the
displacement vector u
r
of point P on the object surface produces an optical path
difference:
( ) o i u SO =
r
r
(3.13)
Here is assumed that the unit vectors are approximately parallel before and after
deformation:
/
o o and
/
i i
r r
.

60
The total optical path from the source of ray S to the observing plane O for a
deformed state can be then expressed as
SO PO l SP SO
P
+ + + =
/
(3.14)

P
P
/
u

1 11 1
SP
i
i
/
Non-deformed
surface Deformed
surface
P
P
/
u

2 22 2
PO
o
o
/
Non-deformed
surface Deformed
surface

(a) (b)
Figure 3.11. a) The ray geometry for the calculation of the phase difference between the
illuminating wave fronts introduced by a surface displacement [54]. b) The ray geometry for
the calculation of the phase difference between the scattered wave fronts introduced by a
surface displacement [54].
The interference phase is related to the path difference (change in optical path) by
SO

2
(3.15)
where represents the wavelength of the applied laser light. In this way, the general
equation [54] for any point on the image can be now expressed by
( ) ( ) ( ) y x s y x u y x , , , =
r
(3.16)
where ( ) y x s , is the so-called sensitivity vector, expressed by
( ) ( ) ( ) | | y x o y x i y x s , ,
2
,

=
r

(3.17)
The complete 3D displacement of the object surface (u
r
, v
r
, w
r
) can be obtained by
using a minimum of three different illumination directions and by capturing the
displacement data with three linear independent sensitivity vectors. Thus, a typical
measurement setup uses a minimum of three independent illumination directions.

61
3.4.1.3 Principle of Phase Offset Evaluation
SI is a relative measuring technique and a major problem in a 3D analysis is the
determination of the absolute phase. Due to the process of evaluation and the
commonly used phase-shift algorithm, the first result of an interferometric
measurement is the phase information modulo 2 . With a special phase unwrapping
algorithm, the phase steps can be removed, but the bias of the phase information is
lost during the evaluation because of the ambiguity of the tan function. Therefore,
Eq. (3.16) can be written as
( ) ( ) | | ( ) | | n y x y x s y x u =

, , ,
1

r

(3.18)
where n is the unknown phase bias [54].
The sensitivity vector ( ) y x s , is always recognized due to known positions of the
illumination source and the detector of a CCD camera. The component of the
displacement vector ( ) y x u ,
r
is unknown and is the point of interest. The phase
change ( ) y x, is a measured value and can be considered as known (Eq. 3.9) but
it is always given, however, with an uncertainty of unknown phase offset n .
In general, the determination of the component of the displacement vector is not
possible with Eq. (3.18), since the equation consists of two unknowns. If a
measurement is performed with three independent directions of illumination (three
out-of-plane setups), it results in a system of three linear equations [97, 103], which
can be written in a matrix form as
( ) N S L =
1
(3.19)
where is a matrix consisting of the measured phase changes ( ) y x,
1
, ( ) y x,
2

and ( ) y x,
3
, the matrix S consists of the sensitivity vectors ( ) y x s ,
1
, ( ) y x s ,
2
and
( ) y x s ,
3
, the matrix L consists of three components of the displacement vector
( ) y x u ,
r
, ( ) y x v ,
r
and ( ) y x w ,
r
and N is a matrix of the three unknown phase offsets for
each measurement direction
1
n ,
2
n and
3
n .
As these three equations still consist of six unknowns (three displacement vectors
and three phase offsets), they cannot be solved without additional information. One
common way to overcome this problem is to obtain additional information about the
displacement vector at one point in the field of measurement. Practically, this can be
accomplished by two different methods.
One way is to generate a fixed connection between the optical sensor and the object
in the field of view. For example, an optical sensor can be connected by glued legs to

62
the object surface. At the point where the leg is connected to the object surface, the
relative displacement of the surface is considered to be zero. Since the system of
three linear equations (Eq. 3.19) for that point now consists of three unknown phase
offsets, it is possible to solve the system and to extract the sought phase offsets for
that point. The determined phase offsets for that point are the same and constant
over the whole measurement area. Therefore, with the known values of the phase
offsets it is possible to solve the system of three linear equations (Eq. 3.19) for all
measurement points in the whole measurement area using a phase unwrapping
algorithm. The explained method is the so-called relative phase calculation (RPC)
method.

Figure 3.12. Four out-of-plane setups integrated in an optical sensor of the Q-100 measuring
system manufactured by DANTEC Dynamics GmbH (adapted from [17]).
Another way is to use an additional measurement system which is capable of
measuring the absolute displacement of one single object point. This is the so-called
absolute phase calculation (APC) method. The method is based on the use of an
additional, fourth direction of sensitivity (the fourth out-of-plane setup, Fig. 3.12)
which then gives the fourth linear equation in the system (Eq. 3.19). Now, the system
contains four linear equations with eight unknowns (four unknown phase offsets and
four unknown displacement vectors). With knowledge of the absolute displacement
for a single point on the object surface and by looking at more than four points, it will
deliver enough equations to determine the unknown variables.
For example, for four points there are 16 unknowns (four unknown displacement
vectors with three entries and four unknown phase offsets) but also 16 known values
(four phase values at each point). Therefore, the problem can be solved without

63
additional information. Displacement vectors for those four points and four unknown
phase offsets can be determined by those 16 equations. Phase offsets determined in
this way are constant over the whole measurement area. Thus, using a phase
unwrapping algorithm, the displacement vectors for all measurement points in the
whole measurement area can be evaluated.
In contrast to the RPC method, the APC method allows a non-contact measurement
using the Q-100 SI measuring system at least under stationary environmental
conditions as shown in the work of Siebert et al. [97]. This feature of the system is
very important from the aspect of application of the system as a quality control tool in
industrial series production. The potential of the Q-100 SI measuring system for such
application in a series production of fuel lines is considered in Chapter 6.
3.4.2 Measurement of Surface Shape
The measurement of the surface shape (i.e. surface contour measurement) is an
essential prerequisite for the strain-stress evaluation of a deformed component with a
complex shape using the 3D SI measurement technique. An overview of different
optical techniques for shape measurement is outlined in the literature [20]. The SI
measurement technique for shape measurement is considered in this work. The
experimental setup for a 3D shape measurement by SI is a dual-beam interferometer
that is very similar to the SI setup for in-plane displacement measurement. The only
difference is in additional possible shifting of the illumination beams, Fig. 3.13.
Beam guiding
using optical fibres
CCD
PZT
N
d
-
Y
A
G

L
a
s
e
r
Measuring object
surface
P
1
Transiation stage
with moveable
light sources
P
0

Figure 3.13. Principal realization of the setup for surface shape measurement in the optical
sensor of the Q-100 measuring system [86].
In the case of the Q-100 measuring system, a dual-beam interferometer (in-plane
setup) is constructed by combining two opposite out-of-plane setups, see Fig. 3.12.
These opposite illuminating beams are shifted several times during a shape

64
measurement with a total shifting distance of approximately m 50 . 0 . Additionally, a
piezo translator (PZT) is installed in one of the two beams (Fig. 3.13.). In this way,
known phases (
o o o
180 , 90 , 0 and
o
270 ) are added to random phase ( ) after each
shift of the illumination beams (see Section 3.4.1.1). This allows an evaluation of the
random phase difference between the illuminating beams ( ) at each shifting step.
Since there is no surface displacement, a phase change ( ) associated with the
change in optical paths due to the shift of the illuminating beams encodes the
information of a surface shape.
Let us now define the physical relationship between the phase change ( ) due to
the shift of the illuminating beams and the depth of the object along the view
direction z , Fig. 3.14. The object is illuminated by two plane waves from both sides
of the view direction z with angles
1
and
2
. Unit direction vectors of these two
waves are
1
i and
2
i whereas r is the position vector from the observing point O to
the arbitrary point P on the test surface. In addition, is the angle between the
position vector r and the view directionz . Furthermore,
1
i and
2
i are the direction
changes of
1
i and
2
i , respectively. Both illumination beams are shifted by the same
scanning angle and therefore it can be considered that
= = = =
2 1 2 1
i i i i , where 1
2 1
= = i i .
A phase change (i.e. contour phase) associated with the change in optical paths due
to the shift of the illuminating beams is related to the depth of the object along the
view direction as follows [114]:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
h
r h r
i i
i i r i i r
|

\
| +

=
= = = |

\
| +

=
= |

\
| +
= =
=

2
sin
4
cos cos
2
sin
4
2
sin 2
cos
2 2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
r

(3.20)

65
where represents the wavelength of the applied laser light,
2
1 2


= is the angle
between the vector ( )
2 1
i i and the z axis (Fig. 3.14b), r and ( )
2 1
i i are scalar
magnitudes of vectors r and ( )
2 1
i i , respectively.
Since the directions of the two illuminations are symmetrical to the view direction in
the case of an in-plane setup = =
2 1
(Fig. 3.13), it follows that the angle between
the vector ( )
2 1
i i and the view direction z is zero ( 0 = ).
Thus, the depth of the object along the view direction z becomes
cos = r h
(3.21)
Finally, the physical relationship between the phase change ( ) and depth of the
object ( h) for the case of the in-plane setup can be expressed by

cos sin
4

= r (3.22)
Consequently, the difference in depth along the view direction can be mapped out by
the obtained correlation fringes.

2
i
1
O
P
Z
r
Measuring
object surface
i
2
i
1
i
2

i
1
-i
2
Z

r

i
1
i
2
i
1
-i
2

90-
2
90-
1
Z

(a) (b)
Figure 3.14. Optical path geometry for SI shape measurement (a), and vector geometry of
the shifting illumination beams (b) [114].
As presented, by combination of four out-of-plane setups in one miniaturized optical
sensor of the Q-100 SI measuring system, it is possible to measure surface
displacement components and also a surface shape. These are an essential
prerequisite for the strain-stress analysis of complex shape components.

66
3.4.3 Evaluation of Stresses and Strains
A result of surface displacement measurement is three components of displacement
which are measured in a camera coordinate system (CCS). In the case of flat
surfaces, displacement components u , v and w along the coordinates in the
Cartesian frame of reference Oxyz on the object surface coincide with the
displacement components measured in the camera coordinate system. However,
when the object in the test has a curved surface, displacement components in the
Cartesian frame of reference
/ / /
z y Ox , which is tangential to the surface, are different
from those in the Oxyz frame of reference measured in the camera coordinate
system (Fig. 3.15). Indeed, in the case of curved surfaces, displacement components
(
/
u ,
/
v and
/
w ) in the tangential normal coordinate system (TNCS) represent the
displacement of the surface.
Curved object
surface
Plane of
CCD detector
y
z
x
0
y
y
/
-x
z
/
z
x
/
0

Figure 3.15. Camera and tangential normal coordinate systems in the case of an object with
a curved surface.
Since the
/ / /
z y Ox axes are related to the Oxyz axes by the direction cosines
(
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1
, , , , , , , , n n n m m m l l l ), displacement components can be expressed as
follows [107]:
|
|
|

\
|

|
|
|

\
|
=
|
|
|

\
|
w
v
u
n m l
n m l
n m l
w
v
u
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
/
/
/

(3.23)

67
To determine these angles, a shape measurement of the object surface is required
(see Section 3.4.2). With the known shape of the object surface, three in-plane
components of strains can be calculated according to a Taylor series expansion
where second and higher order terms are neglected (infinitesimal strain-displacement
theory):
1
/
/
/
/
/
/
l
x
u
x
x
x
u
x
u
x

= (3.24)
2
/
/
/
/
/
/
m
y
v
y
y
y
v
y
v
y

= (3.25)
1
/
2
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/ /
l
x
v
m
y
u
x
x
x
v
y
y
y
u
x
v
y
u
y x

= (3.26)
Like other surface measuring techniques, SI also measures in-plane displacement
gradients. Under a two-dimensional state of stress, which is the common case of a
surface stress state, an out-of-plane displacement gradient (i.e. out-of-plane
component of a normal strain) can be indirectly calculated from the measured
in-plane normal strain components:
( )
/ / /
1
y x z

= (3.27)
where is Poissons ratio.
Since the stress-strain analysis on the surface is expressed by the plane stress
model 0
/
=
z
, the two normal stress components and a shear stress component can
be expressed by Eqs. (3.28), (3.29) and Eq. (3.30), respectively:
( )
/ / /
2
1
y x x
E

= (3.28)
( )
/ / /
2
1
y x y
E

= (3.29)
( )
/ / / /
1 2
y x y x
E



=
(3.30)
where E is the modulus of elasticity.

68
It is very useful in design and failure analysis problems to define planes on which
only normal stresses and strains act and shear stresses and strains vanish ( 0
/ /
=
y x

and 0
/ /
=
y x
). Thereby, normal stress-strain components on those planes achieve
maximum and minimum values. The corresponding coordinate system is known as
the principal coordinate system (PCS) with defined directions I , II and III , and the
corresponding normal stress and strain components as the principal ones. The
principal stress and strain components can be obtained using the following
equations:
( )
2
2
,
/ /
/ / / /
2 2
y x
y x y x
II I


+
|
|

\
| +

+
= (3.31)
2 2
,
2 2 2
/ / / / / /
|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
| +

+
=
y x y x y x
II I

(3.32)
where the third stress component is still zero, 0
/
= =
z
III
, but the third strain
component
III
can again be expressed by adapting Eq. (3.27).
Furthermore, an equivalent stress depending on the failure criterion selected can be
expressed by the following equations (see Section 2.3.2):
maximum shear stress criterion (Tresca):
( ) ( )
2
/ / / /
4
y x y x
eT
+ = (3.33)
or maximum distortion strain energy criterion (von Mises):
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
/ / / / / /
3
y x y x y x
eM
+ + = (3.34)
3.4.4 Accuracy of the Q-100 Speckle Interferometry Measuring
System
Generally, each result of measurement includes an error. A deviation of the
measured from the true value is due to either systematic or random errors, Fig. 3.16.
A systematic error is a reproducible inaccuracy of measurement introduced by faulty
design, failing equipment, any biasing effect in methods of observation or instruments
used, inadequate calibration, inferior procedure, a change in the measurement
environment, etc. A random error is a statistical fluctuation in the measured value
due to the precision limitations of the measurement device.

69

Deviation of measured value x e
X
= e
S
+ e
R
Systematic deviation e
S
= e
SK
+ e
SUK
Random
deviation
e
R
Known systematic deviation e
SK
Unknown systematic deviation e
SUK
e
R
Correction -e
SK
True value Expected value Measured value x
Measured value
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

o
f

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

v
a
l
u
e

Figure 3.16. Relationship between the measured and true value according to DIN 1319 [27].
The Q-100 SI measuring system also includes the contributions from both the
systematic and random errors. The deviation of the measured from the true value in
the case of the system increases with increase in the true value [98], Fig. 3.17.
True value
D
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

s
t
r
a
i
n
Measured value
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

d
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n



(
5

t
o

2
0

m
/
m
)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n





(
5

t
o

1
0

%
)

Figure 3.17. Deviation of the measured from the true value of strain in the case
of the Q-100 SI measuring system.
According to the manufacturers information [17], a minimal absolute deviation of the
measured value from the true value of strain must be expected in the range 510
-6
to
2010
-6
. As the true value of strain increases, the error of measurement becomes
higher. Hence the maximal relative deviation of the measured from the true value in
the range 5 to 10% must be expected.

70

Chapter 4
Evaluation of Fuel Lines Using Speckle
Interferometry
4.1 Application Potential of the Q-100 Measuring System
for Evaluation of Fuel Lines
Compared with previous SI measuring systems, the optical sensor of the measuring
system Q-100 is a unique device. The main problems, restrictions and limitations of
the previous SI systems were: component vibration amplitudes were higher than the
measuring resolution, a complex geometry of components produced shadows in the
image and an additional shape measurement system was required. These were
overcome by rapid miniaturization of the optical sensor of the Q-100 SI measuring
system in the last decade [33]. The miniaturized optical sensor can be directly
attached to the surface of component to be investigated. This excludes errors due to
the rigid body movement and therefore the measurement results contain only
information about the sought local deformation. Furthermore, the optical sensor is
capable of measuring both a surface displacement and a surface shape by
combination of four out-of-plane setups miniaturized and integrated in one device.
Finally, the optical sensor can be applied to a component having a complex geometry
as long as the notches or edges are not too narrow and allow enough clearance and
space for the optical sensor. Consequently, the Q-100 SI measuring system has
found many applications in both science and industry in the last decade.
Up to now, the Q-100 SI measuring system has mainly been employed for stress-
strain measurements on components having a surface area (engine wall, engine
holder, airplane wing, helicopter rotary blade, etc.) larger than the measuring area of
the optical sensor, which is approximately 25 mm x 35 mm. The application potential
of the system for stress-strain measurements on components employed in high
pressure technology has been studied for the first time in this work. A characteristic
feature of such components is their physically small and curved surface (e.g. surface
of fuel lines). Indeed, the applicability of a particular measuring system for stress-
strain measurements depends on, among other parameters, the geometry of
component and the zone analyzed (depth, dimensions and shape of the surface).

71
The study of the parameters which influence the applicability of a particular
measuring system for stress-strain measurements is outlined in the literature [64].
An objective of this investigation was to determine the potential of the Q-100 SI
measuring system for the measurement of residual and applied strains on the outer
surface of high pressure components. In order to test the systems potential in that
case, two tubes with different geometry, material characteristics and autofrettage
treatment were selected:
non-autofrettaged tube, 30 x 10 (outer diameter in millimetres and wall thickness in
millimetres), made of steel 1.4548 (Fig. 4.1) and
tube, 6 x 2, made of steel St 30 Al BK and autofrettaged by a pressure of 4800 bar
in a manufacturing process (Fig. 4.2).
M

4
0

x

2

-

4
h
3
135
30
R 10
3
0
2
0
1
0

Figure 4.1. Geometry of the 30 x 10 tube sample.



Figure 4.2. Sample No. 1 of the 6 x 2 tube.
The 30 x 10 tube sample was extracted from the longitudinal direction of a forged
block of material 1.4548. The engineering stress-strain diagram in Fig. 4.3a shows
the average-value curve obtained by uniaxial tensile tests performed on 10 tensile

72
specimens extracted also from the longitudinal direction of the forged block. A single
value of Poissons ratio (0.291) given by the manufacturer was used here for all
directions in the analytical calculations and the finite element computations.
Three straight samples of the 6 x 2 tube used in this investigation were cut out from
the set of fuel lines shown in Fig. 2.6. The engineering stress-strain diagram in
Fig. 4.3b presents the average-value curve obtained by uniaxial micro-tensile tests
performed on five microtensile specimens. These specimens were extracted from the
fuel lines of the set in the longitudinal fuel line direction. The Poissons ratio was not
determined experimentally; it was assumed to be 0.3 in all directions (i.e. isotropic
behaviour).
0
750
1250


[
N
/
m
m
2
]
[%]
0 4 8 12 16
500
250
R
e
= 1065 [N/mm
2
]
R
m
= 1100 [N/mm
2
]
E = 200000 [N/mm
2
]
1000

0
100
200
300
400
600
0 4 8 12 16 20
500
R
e

= 530 [N/mm
2
]
R
m
= 573 [N/mm
2
]
E = 175000 [N/mm
2
]


[
N
/
m
m
2
]
[%]

(a) (b)
Figure 4.3. a) Engineering stress-strain diagram of the steel 1.4548 obtained in the common
tensile tests (average-value curve for 10 samples). b) Engineering stress-strain diagram of the
steel St 30 Al BK obtained in the micro-tensile tests (average-value curve for five samples).
4.1.1 Applied Approaches
Analytical calculations, finite element computations and strain gauge measurements
are the techniques that were used to verify the applicability of the Q-100 SI
measuring system for the evaluation of high pressure components.
In the case of the Q-100 SI measuring system, strain components are directly
evaluated by the first derivation of displacement components over the measuring
area (see Eqs. 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27 and 3.32). Evaluation of stress components
(see Eqs. 3.28, 3.29, 3.30 and 3.31) requires the material data information (modulus
of elasticity and Poissons ratio), which are not always available. The same situation

73
applies in the case of the strain gauge measurements. Measured output voltages on
both channels of the strain gauge amplifier are directly proportional to the quantity of
mechanical strains. The stress components have to be calculated by Eqs. (3.28) and
(3.29), which involve the material data information. Hence the evaluation of stress
components by both measuring techniques can involve an error owing to the
influence of inaccurate available material data. Therefore, in order to verify the
applicability of the Q-100 SI measuring system, strain components were considered
here as quantities to be compared.
4.1.1.1 Analytical Calculations
Applied and residual strain components in both the tangential and axial directions
were calculated employing the analytical model presented in Section 2.3.
Loading of tubes in the scope of this investigation results mainly in elastic
deformation of the outer tube surface (partially autofrettaged tubes). Therefore, strain
components were calculated here taking the Poissons ratio to be 0.291 (1.4548) and
0.3 (St 30 Al BK). It includes an error in calculations if the 30 x 10 tube is exposed to
pressures above 5465 bar and if the 6 x 2 tube is exposed to pressures higher than
an autofrettage pressure (4800 bar). This error was, however, smaller than the error
of calculations where Poissons ratio is considered to be 0.5 and where,
consequently, the axial strain component on the outer surface becomes zero.
4.1.1.2 Finite Element Computations
A finite element strain analysis was carried out using the MSC. MARC Mentat 2001
software.
In the analysis accomplished in 50 increments, the 30 x 10 tube was subjected to an
internal pressure in the range 0 to 6750 bar with pressure steps of 250 bar. Between
each two load steps, the tube was unloaded to zero pressure.
In a finite element strain analysis accomplished in 130 increments, the 6 x 2 tube was
initially autofrettaged with an internal pressure of 4800 bar and then unloaded to zero
pressure. Subsequently, the tube was loaded in the range 4900 to 6000 bar with
pressure steps of 100 bar. After each load step, the tube was unloaded to zero
pressure.
Model In both cases, a tube wall defined with an inner radius (5 or 1 mm) and an
outer radius (15 or 3 mm) was first created (Fig. 4.4). In order to take the influence of
the internal pressure in the axial direction into account, the tube had to be closed.
Hence the right side of the tube wall was extended in a quarter circle surface
(a spherical tube cap).

74
y
x z

Figure 4.4. Finite element model of the tubes.
Elements The axisymmetric quadrilateral elements (a type 10 library element) and
the axisymmetric triangular elements (a type 2 library element) were used to model
the tube wall. A 30 x 10 tube was modelled using 4056 elements of type 10 in the
whole model and 46 elements of type 2 in the tube cap. There were 1956 elements
of type 10 in the whole model of the 6 x 2 tube and 46 elements of type 2 in the tube
cap. The mesh element density was increased in both cases near to the left side of
the model, where the influence of an applied fixed displacement was emphasized.
Thus, a bending of the right side (tub cap) had less influence on these elements. The
strain components were evaluated from the edge nodes at the outer radius in this
region.
Boundary Conditions For each model, two types of boundary conditions were
applied. A fixed displacement was imposed in the axial direction on all nodes of the
left side of the model. In this way, axial motion of this side was not allowed. An
internal pressure was applied as an edge load type of boundary condition on the
inner side of the tube wall in the radial direction and on the inner side of the tube cap.
The internal pressure was defined by a table wherein the variation of the pressure
was represented versus the number of increments.
Material Properties The material for all elements was treated as an isotropic type
with the data obtained by uniaxial tension tests. An isotropic plasticity model defined
with von Misses yield criteria, with an isotropic hardening rule and with variation of
the yield surface given by the work hardening data (Fig. 4.5), was used in both
analyses.
Geometric Properties The geometric properties were not used here. They were not
required for these element types.
Load Analysis A mechanical class and a static type of both loads (an internal
pressure and a fixed displacement in the axial direction) were applied at the same

75
time in a load-cases analysis of the 30 x 10 tube. A Newton-Raphson iterative
procedure, a relative-residuals convergence test and an automatic time step cut back
were additionally selected parameter options in the case of the 6 x 2 tube.
Job Analysis In both cases of the job analyses, a mechanical analysis class with
the following properties was selected:
a fixed displacement in the axial direction as an initial load,
an internal pressure and a fixed displacement in the axial direction as the
load-cases,
a small strain-displacement analysis option and
an axisymmetric analysis dimension.
0.5915
0.6798
0.7681
0.8563
0.9446
1.0329
0.000 0.030 0.059 0.089 0.118 0.148

y
= R
e
= 1065 [N/mm
2
]

0.6019
0.6981
0.7943
0.8906
0.9868
1.0830
0.000 0.036 0.073 0.109 0.146 0.182

y
= R
e
= 530 [N/mm
2
]

(a) (b)
Figure 4.5. Work hardening data derived from the engineering stress-strain
diagrams and used for plasticity models in the finite element strain analysis of the
30 x 10 (a) and 6 x 2 (b) tubes.
4.1.1.3 Strain Gauge Measurements
A 3/120 XY91 stacked strain gauge rosette with a k-factor of 2.02 was used for strain
measurements on the outer surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample. In the case of the
6 x 2 tube sample, a 1.5/120 XY91 stacked strain gauge rosette with a k-factor of
1.94 was employed. The explained principle of measurement, the Wheatstone bridge
arrangement employed and the method of strain evaluation presented in Section 3.3
were applied here.

76
4.1.1.4 Speckle Interferometry Measurements
The tube surface to be measured was illuminated with laser light from four different
directions and the speckle images were recorded with a CCD camera. Since the
speckles change when the surface is deformed, a simple image comparison allows
the registration of a three-dimensional displacement of any point in the measuring
area. A complete strain field can be evaluated by combining the information on the
three-dimensional displacement field and the measured surface shape (Eqs. 3.24,
3.25, 3.26, 3.27 and 3.32).
The illuminated measuring areas of the 30 x 10 tube sample and of sample No. 1 of
the 6 x 2 tube, i.e. images recorded with a CCD camera, are illustrated in Fig. 4.6.
The surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample covers approximately 70% and that of the 6 x
2 tube sample approximately 20% of the total measuring area of the optical sensor.

(a) (b)
Figure 4.6. Illuminated measuring areas of the 30 x 10 tube sample (a) and of sample No. 1
of the 6 x 2 tube (b) with defined directions of evaluation.
In order to reveal the homogeneity of the measuring results over the measuring area,
the strain components in the axial and the tangential tube directions were evaluated
along three directions:
direction A (direction of the strain gauge rosette),
direction B (a few millimetres above the rosette direction) and
direction C (a few millimetres below the rosette direction).
The results obtained represent the average values of results evaluated along the
directions.

77
4.1.2 Experimental Procedure
The strain gauge measurements and the SI measurements were performed
simultaneously. The strain gauge rosette was attached to one side of the tube
surface and the other side was permanently illuminated with laser light (Fig. 4.7).

Figure 4.7. Position of strain gauge rosette and illuminated measuring area.
The 30 x 10 tube sample was loaded in the range 0 to 6750 bar with pressure steps
of 250 bar (Fig. 4.8a). At each load step the sample was held under pressure for 10 s
and the measurement data were recorded at the end of this period. The holding
period of 10 s can affect the results obtained by measurements at pressures higher
than 5465 bar in the case of the 30 x 10 tube made of steel 1.4548. As will be shown
in Chapter 5, due to the time-dependent nature of the plastic deformation process,
the measuring value recorded at the beginning of the holding period is lower than
that taken after 10 s. A detailed discussion of this effect is given in Chapter 5.
Between each two load steps the 30 x 10 tube sample was unloaded to zero
pressure and held for 10 s before the measurement data were recorded.
Three straight samples of the 6 x 2 tube were cut out from the set of fuel lines
presented in Fig. 2.6 and used for this investigation. Measurements were initially
carried out on sample No. 1, which was subjected to pressures in the range 0 to
5300 bar (Fig. 4.8b). As mentioned before, the tube was partially autofrettaged in a
manufacturing process with a pressure of 4800 bar. Loading of the tube at pressures
below the autofrettage pressure does not cause further plastic deformation of the
tube wall. As the internal pressure increases beyond the autofrettage pressure, the
plastic deformation spreads further into the tube wall until it reaches the outer
surface. The spreading of the plastic deformation across the tube wall results in the
generation of a new residual strain pattern after each new load step
(re-autofrettaging of the tube). Therefore, the pressure step up to 4500 bar was 250
bar. In order to detect the generation of the first residual strains appearing after the
first re-autofrettaging, the pressure step between 4500 and 5300 bar was 100 bar.

78
Furthermore, sample No. 2 was taken, loaded to a pressure of 5500 bar and then
unloaded to zero pressure. Finally, sample No. 3 was taken, loaded to a pressure of
6000 bar and then unloaded to zero pressure.
The measurement data for each load step were recorded after a holding period of
10 s also in the experiment performed on all three samples of the 6 x 2 tube. The
holding period of 10 s can affect the results obtained by measurements at pressures
higher than the autofrettage pressure (4800 bar) in the case of the 6 x 2 tube made
of steel St 30 Al BK. As already mentioned, the influence of the pressure holding time
on strain generation will be discussed in Chapter 5. Between each two load steps the
samples were unloaded to zero pressure and held for 10 s before the measurement
data were recorded.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
0 10 20 30 40 50
Measuring points
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 13 26 39 52
Measuring points
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]
Sample No.1 (0-5300 bar)
Sample No.2 (5500 bar)
Sample No.3 (6000 bar)

(a) (b)
Figure 4.8. Selected measuring points for the load and unload cases.
In general, a number of fringes generated in the pattern by SI measurements
influences the accurate evaluation of strains. If the number of fringes is higher than
the allowable value, the fringes are then very narrow (see fringes at the tube edges in
Fig. 4.9a) and turn into noise in the pattern. The presence of the noise complicates
and disables effective phase unwrapping and therefore influences the accurate
evaluation of strains.
If the deformations to be measured are extremely high (the case of the
measurements on the considered tubes), it is preferable to perform a measurement
in steps with several recorded speckle images. This is the so-called series
measurement by the Q-100 SI measuring system. In this way, total deformation
between the reference (zero) and the desired pressure level is fragmented into
several fringe patterns, where each one includes an allowable number of fringes.

79
The investigations performed here showed that the accurate evaluation of strains in
the case of the 30 x 10 tube sample requires less than 10 fringes per measurement
step (Fig. 4.9a). Owing to the very small surface area of the 6 x 2 tube sample, it
requires a maximum of three fringes in the pattern (Fig. 4.9b). The investigations
performed on the 8 x 2.2 tube and outlined in Chapter 5 indicated that a maximum of
four fringes are allowed per measurement step. Hence according to the experience
gained in this work, an equation can be derived which gives the relationship between
the outer diameter of tube (
out
D in millimetres) and the allowable number of fringes
(
allowable
N ) for the accurate evaluation of strains:
4 . 1 3 . 0 +
out allowable
D N
(4.1)



(a) (b)
Figure 4.9. a) Fringe pattern in an x-negative sensitivity direction of one step in a series
measurement for the measuring point of 6500 bar performed on the 30 x 10 tube sample.
b) Fringe pattern in a y-negative sensitivity direction of one step in a series measurement
for the measuring point of 5300 bar performed on sample No. 1 of the 6 x 2 tube.
The magnitudes of the applied and residual strains measured by the Q-100 SI
measuring system in the case of both tubes were obtained in one series
measurement (Fig. 4.10). Tube samples were first loaded to a certain pressure
1
p
and several speckle images from
0
S to
n
S (i.e. between the reference zero pressure
and the pressure
1
p ) were recorded with a CCD camera. The speckle image
0
S
corresponds to the reference state (zero pressure). Within the same series
measurement, the tube samples were subsequently unloaded to zero pressure,
where several speckle images from
n
S to
m
S (between pressure
1
p and zero
pressure) were recorded. Applied strain components were obtained by evaluation of
the speckle images between
0
S and
n
S :

80
( )
n APPLIED
S S S S f ,.... , ,
2 1 0
=
(4.2)
Residual strain components were obtained by evaluation of all speckle images:
( )
m n n n RESIDUAL
S S S S S S S f ,.... , , ,.... , ,
2 1 2 1 0 + +
=
(4.3)
The magnitudes of the applied and residual strains measured by the Q-100 SI
measuring system could also be obtained by two series measurements, one in the
load case and the other in the unload case. In a series measurement performed
during the loading of the tube samples, several speckle images might be recorded
and then a new series measurement during the unloading of the tube samples could
be carried out. In this way, evaluation of all speckle images recorded in a loading
series measurement gives the applied strain components. Subtraction of the strain
magnitudes evaluated in an unloading series measurement from the magnitudes
evaluated in a loading series measurement gives the residual strain components.
t
0
S
2
S
n
p
1

p
i
[bar]
S
m
S
n+1
S
n+2
S
1
S
0

RESIDUAL
= f (S
0
,S
1
,S
2
,.....S
n
,S
n+1
,S
n+2
,.....S
m
)
APPLIED
= f (S
0
,S
1
,S
2
,.....S
n
)

Figure 4.10. Procedure for an applied and a residual strain evaluation.
Preliminary investigations performed on the 6 x 2 fuel line indicated higher deviations
of the residual strains (up to 40 m/m) evaluated using two series measurements.
Lower deviations of the residual strains (up to 25 m/m) arose when using only one
series measurement in the case of the same fuel line (see results in Section 4.1.3.2).
Therefore, the procedure of applied and residual strain evaluation using only one
series measurement (Fig. 4.10) was adopted in this work.
The magnitudes of the applied and residual strains measured by the strain gauges
were acquired, evaluated and stored in a computer using a DAQ system.

81
4.1.3 Results, Discussion and Conclusions
4.1.3.1 Results of Investigations on the 30 x 10 Tube
Applied and residual strain components were measured in the tangential and axial
directions and evaluated using the procedure described in the previous section. For
that purpose, 25 measurements were carried out. Since the tube sample had not
been autofrettaged, the measurement results obtained by the Q-100 SI measuring
system and the strain gauge were directly compared with results of the analytical
calculations and the finite element computations.
Results of the SI measurements performed on the 30 x 10 tube sample and
presented in this section were evaluated using the absolute phase calculation (APC)
method. Owing to the relatively large illuminated surface area of the tube sample
(approximately 70% of the total measuring area of the optical sensor), it was possible
to apply this method for a phase offset calculation. Generally, the accuracy of a strain
evaluation using the APC method is higher than in the case of the RPC (relative
phase calculation) method. This is due to the possible error in the assumption made
in the RPC method, wherein the relative displacement of the surface at a point
(selected reference point in the pattern) close to the connected leg is considered to
be zero. This statement was also confirmed by the investigation outlined here.
Figure 4.11 shows the applied tangential strain measured by the Q-100 SI measuring
system over a measuring area of the 30 x 10 tube sample and evaluated using the
APC method.
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
605
560
515
290
200
335
380
425
470
245
[m/m]
y [mm]
x [mm]
Regions
of noise

Figure 4.11. Homogeneity of SI measuring results over the outer surface of the 30 x 10 tube
(applied tangential strain evaluated over the measuring area under a pressure of 5500 bar).

82
Generally, the results were relatively homogeneous. However, at the tube edges
noise appeared, which was a consequence of an increased number of very narrow
fringes (Fig. 4.9a). The results in the regions of noise were not considered in the
analysis, since the noise disabled effective phase unwrapping of fringe patterns and
influenced the accuracy of the evaluated strains. Avoiding these regions, the average
magnitudes of strain along the defined directions were evaluated and then compared
with the results obtained by other three techniques.
Figure 4.12 plots the applied tangential and applied axial strains on the outer surface
of a 30 x 10 non-autofrettaged tube sample [4, 5].
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
SI measurements (Direction A)
SI measurements (Direction B)
SI measurements (Direction C)
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
Tangential
direction
Axial
direction
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]


Figure 4.12. Applied strain components in the tangential and axial directions on the outer
surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample.
The results obtained with the Q-100 SI measuring system (evaluated using the APC
method) showed good agreement with the results of the strain gauge measurements.
The results of the SI and strain gauge measurements in the axial direction deviated
slightly from the results of the analytical calculations and the finite element
computations. Deviations of the measured results from the corresponding values
obtained by the analytical calculations and the finite element computations were
significantly higher in the tangential direction.
Material properties used in both analytical calculations and finite element
computations were obtained on tensile specimens extracted from the same
longitudinal direction of the forged block from which the considered tube sample was

83
also extracted. Thus, better agreement of the experimental results (SI and strain
gauge measurements) with the results of the analytical calculations and the finite
element computations was achieved in the axial direction. The orthotropic behaviour
of material can explain the higher deviations in the tangential direction, since it is
more realistic than the assumed perfectly isotropic behaviour in the analytical
calculations and the finite element computations.
Residual strain components in the tangential and axial directions on the outer tube
surface are illustrated in Figs. 4.13 and 4.14, respectively [4, 5].
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
SI measurements (Direction A)
SI measurements (Direction B)
SI measurements (Direction C)
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations

Figure 4.13. Residual tangential strain on the outer surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample.
According to the analytical calculations and the finite element computations,
unloading of the tube sample after exposing it to an internal pressures below
5465 bar should result in a non-residual strain state in the tube wall since the
material behaves elastically. Exposing the tube to higher pressures causes yielding
of the inner wall layers and the generation of residual strains across the tube wall.
This was confirmed by the results of the strain gauge measurements and by the
results of the SI measurements, with negligible deviations.
Absolute deviations of the measured value from the true value were maximum up to
5 m/m in the tangential direction (Fig. 4.13) and up to 10 m/m in the axial direction
(Fig. 4.14) using the APC method. However, the same recorded images evaluated
using the RPC method indicated larger deviations (up to 7 m/m in the tangential
direction and up to 13 m/m in the axial direction).

84
Experimental testing revealed that the absolute deviations obtained in the case of the
30 x 10 tube applying both the APC and RPC methods are within the range of the
accuracy of the Q-100 SI measuring system given by the manufacturer (see
Section 3.4.4).
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

a
x
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A)
SI measurements (Direction B)
SI measurements (Direction C)
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
Strain gauge measurements

Figure 4.14. Residual axial strain on the outer surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample.
The absolute deviations of the results obtained by strain gauges were up to 4 m/m
in both directions. However, as will be presented in this thesis, speckle
interferometry, when compared with the strain gauges, has numerous advantages for
employment as a quality control tool in the reception control of semi-finished tubes, in
monitoring of the autofrettage process and in final control of autofrettaged fuel lines
as well as in the R&D of the autofrettage process itself.
4.1.3.2 Results of Investigations on the 6 x 2 Tube
This section summarizes the results of investigations performed on three samples of
the 6 x 2 tube.
Since the SI and the strain gauge are relative measuring techniques, they cannot
measure residual strains generated after the autofrettage treatment took place.
Therefore, the magnitudes of residual strains obtained by the analytical calculations
and the finite element computations after autofrettage at 4800 bar were adjusted to
zero. In this way, it was possible to compare the measurement results with the results
of the analytical calculations and the finite element computations.

85
Owing to the very small illuminated surface area of the 6 x 2 tube (approximately
20% of the total measuring area of the optical sensor) and large curvature of the tube
contour, the APC method could not be applied here. This is due to the relatively high
phase offset values in the out-of-plane component of deformation which arose by
application of the APC method. It caused a significant error in the evaluation of strain
components. Therefore, the RPC method, inducing a smaller error in the phase offset
calculation, was employed in the case of the 6 x 2 tube.
Figure 4.15 shows the applied tangential strain measured by the Q-100 SI measuring
system over the measuring area of the 6 x 2 tube and evaluated using the RPC
method. Due to the very small illuminated surface area and large curvature of the
6 x 2 tube, the inhomogeneity of SI results at the tube edges was greater than in the
case of the 30 x 10 tube. The inhomogeneity was a consequence of the noise, i.e.
increased number of very narrow fringes, in these regions (Fig. 4.9b). The results of
measurements in the regions of noise were not considered in the analysis, since the
noise disabled effective phase unwrapping of fringe patterns and influenced the
accuracy of the evaluated strains. Neglecting these results, the average magnitude of
strains along the defined directions were evaluated and then compared with results
obtained with other three techniques.
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
1480
1295
1110
185
-185
370
555
740
925
0
[m/m]
Regions
of noise
y [mm]
x [mm]

Figure 4.15. Homogeneity of SI measuring results over the outer surface of the 6 x 2 tube
(applied tangential strain evaluated over the measuring area under a pressure of 5500 bar).
Figure 4.16 depicts the applied strain components on the outer surface of the 6 x 2
tube [5]. The results obtained by the Q-100 SI measuring system (evaluated using

86
the RPC method) showed good agreement with results of the strain gauge
measurements in both directions. The maximal relative deviations of the results
obtained by both measuring techniques from results of the analytical calculations and
the finite element computations in measurements below 4800 bar were up to 4% in
the tangential direction. These deviations fall within the range of accuracy of both
measuring systems.
However, an applied strain component measured in the axial direction using the
strain gauges and the Q-100 SI measuring system showed significantly higher
deviations from the results of the analytical calculations and the finite element
computations. The deviations were a consequence of an orthotropic material
behaviour.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
SI measurements (Direction A)
SI measurements (Direction B)
SI measurements (Direction C)
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
Tangential
direction
Axial
direction
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]


Figure 4.16. Applied strain components in the tangential and axial directions on the
outer surface of the 6 x 2 tube.
Namely, the analytical calculations and the finite element computations were
performed under the assumption that the material is perfectly isotropic. Fuel lines are
manufactured using a cold-working process (tube drawing) and deformations during
this process cause elongation of grains in the direction parallel to the axis of the fuel
line. In this way, the material becomes orthotropic, whereby its properties vary with
direction. Each direction (tangential, axial and radial) is defined by a different value of
the modulus of elasticity and a different value of the Poissons ratio. However, the
analytical calculations and the finite element computations were performed here
using only a single value of the modulus of elasticity (
2
/ 175000 mm N E = ) measured

87
in the longitudinal tube direction and an assumed single value of the Poissons ratio
( 3 . 0 = ) adopted for all directions. The results obtained indicated that at least the
value of the Poissons ratio is different, i.e. higher than the assumed value of 0.3, due
to the cold-working manufacturing procedure and the autofrettage treatment
employed. The above statement is confirmed by the photomicrographs of the grain
structure taken in the lateral and longitudinal tube directions with a light-optical
microscope (Fig. 4.17). As can be seen, grains in the longitudinal (axial) direction
showed an elongated form.

Figure 4.17. Photomicrographs of the grain structure in the lateral and longitudinal
directions of the 6 x 2 tube [5].
Figures 4.18 and 4.19 plot the residual tangential and the residual axial strain
component on the outer surface of the 6 x 2 tube, respectively [5].
Loading of the 6 x 2 tube at pressures below 4800 bar should not cause further
plastic deformation of the tube wall. Therefore, residual strains measured in both
directions on the outer tube surface after unloading from pressures below 4800 bar
should be zero. The absolute deviations of the SI measured values from the true
value were maximum up to 10 m/m in the tangential direction and up to 25 m/m in
the axial direction using the RPC method. The results of strain gauge measurements
also showed lower absolute deviations (up to 4 m/m in both directions).
Loading of the tube beyond the autofrettage pressure should cause further plastic
deformation of the wall layers. It should induce enhanced elastic deformation of the
outer surface, i.e. a sharp increase in strains on the outer surface, beyond the

88
autofrettage pressure. As shown in Figs. 4.16 and 4.18, this effect was more
emphasized in the tangential direction since the strain component in this direction is
the major one. Hence the autofrettage process can mainly be described by the
tangential strain component. According to the experience gained in this work, the
tangential strain component is usually 3 to 7 times higher than other strain
components in the case of an internal pressurized tube. Therefore, absolute
deviations of the residual axial strains up to 25 m/m are not so significant with
respect to the autofrettage process evaluation.
-50
50
150
250
350
450
550
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A)
SI measurements (Direction B)
SI measurements (Direction C)
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations

Figure 4.18. Residual tangential strain on the outer surface of the 6 x 2 tube.
The measurements above the autofrettage pressure (4800 bar) again indicated good
agreement of the experimental results (SI and strain gauge measurements) with the
results of the analytical calculations and the finite element computations in the
tangential direction (Fig. 4.18). However, results of the analytical calculations and the
finite element computations showed greater deviations to the experimental results in
the axial direction (Fig. 4.19). Due to the cold-working manufacturing procedure and
the autofrettage treatment employed, the material behaved in a not perfectly isotropic
manner and the Poissons ratio was definitely higher than the assumed value of 0.3.
It can be summarized that the Q-100 SI measuring system has potential for the
detection of the applied and residual strains in fuel lines during the autofrettage
process. The absolute deviations obtained in the case of the 6 x 2 tube applying the
RPC method were not far outside the accuracy range of the Q-100 SI measuring
system given by manufacturer (see Section 3.4.4).

89
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

a
x
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A)
SI measurements (Direction B)
SI measurements (Direction C)
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
Strain gauge measurements

Figure 4.19. Residual axial strain on the outer surface of the 6 x 2 tube.
4.1.3.3 Concluding Remarks
An objective of the present investigations was to demonstrate the potential of the
Q-100 SI measuring system for measurements of the residual and applied strains at
the outer surface of high pressure components. In order to test the applicability of the
system for such measurements, two tubes with different geometries, material
characteristics and autofrettage treatments were investigated. Analytical calculations,
finite element computations and strain gauge measurements were the techniques
used to verify the applicability of the system.
Preliminary investigations indicated that the applied experimental procedure
influences the accuracy of the results obtained by SI measurements. Namely, the
residual strains evaluated by an experimental procedure using two series
measurements showed deviations of up to 40 m/m in the case of the smallest
considered 6 x 2 fuel line. Residual strains obtained by only one series measurement
on the same fuel line indicated maximal deviations of up to 25 m/m. Hence the
procedure whereby the applied and the residual strains are evaluated using only one
series measurement, was applied in this work.
Due to the very small illuminated surface area and large curvature of the 6 x 2 tube,
the inhomogeneity of SI results at the tube edges was greater than in the case of the
30 x 10 tube. The inhomogeneity was a consequence of the noise, i.e. increased
number of very narrow fringes, in these regions. This noise disables effective phase
unwrapping of fringe patterns and influences the accuracy of the evaluated strains.

90
Therefore, results of measurements in the regions of noise were not considered in
the analysis.
Owing to the relatively large illuminated surface area of the 30 x 10 tube, it was
possible to apply the APC method for a phase offset calculation involving negligible
deviations (up to 5 m/m in the tangential direction and up to 10 m/m in the axial
direction). Evaluation of strains applying the RPC method in the case of the same
images recorded on the same 30 x 10 tube indicated larger deviations of strains (up
to 7 m/m in the tangential direction and up to 13 m/m in the axial direction). The
assumption that the relative displacement of the surface in the region of a connected
leg is zero may be responsible for the larger deviations by application of the RPC
method.
Due to the very small illuminated surface area of the 6 x 2 tube and large curvature of
the tube contour, the APC method could not be applied here. The relatively high
phase offset values in the out-of-plane component of deformation arose by
application of the method, and caused a significant error in the evaluation of strain
components. Hence the RPC method, inducing a smaller error in the phase offset
calculation, was employed in the case of the 6 x 2 tube. In this way, evaluated strains
in the tangential and axial directions implied deviations of 10 and 25 m/m,
respectively.
As can be deduced from the results obtained, the accuracy of the Q-100 measuring
system varies with the size of the measured surface area. The larger the surface
area of the measured object, the smaller are the absolute deviations of the measured
results (i.e. better accuracy). It was also confirmed in Section 6.2.2 by results of
measurements on the 8 x 2.2 fuel line (absolute deviations up to 8 m/m in the
tangential direction and up to 15 m/m in the axial direction).
The results obtained in this investigation revealed that measurements of the applied
and residual strains in the high pressure components using the Q-100 SI measuring
system are generally possible. Since the autofrettage process can mainly be
described by the tangential strain component, absolute deviations of the residual
strain in the axial direction of up to 25 m/m are not significant with respect to the
autofrettage process evaluation. According to the experience gained in this work, the
tangential strain component is usually 3 to 7 times higher than other strain
components in the case of an internal pressurized tube. Therefore, fatigue failure of
fuel lines occurs mainly in the direction of the fuel line axis owing to the tensile nature
of the tangential stresses under operating conditions.
It is also important to emphasize that the absolute deviations obtained are not far
outside the range of the measuring accuracy of the system (from 5 to 20 m/m) given
by the manufacturer [17, 34]. Contributions to the measuring accuracy of the Q-100
system were discussed by Yang & Ettemeyer [107] and by Siebert et al. [97].

91
4.2 Determination of the Yield Strength
When compared to the specifications given by the supplier, variations could occur in
the material properties (yield strength, modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio, breaking
elongation, etc.) within one batch of semi-finished tubes. Such variations could cause
differences in the autofrettage quality of fuel lines within the same batch when these
are autofrettaged at a particular pressure. Therefore, an exact, cheap, fast and
reliable determination of material properties in the reception control is very important
with regard to the successful autofrettaging of fuel lines in series production.
The yield strength of the material of non-autofrettaged fuel lines can be determined
by observing the behaviour of the strain on the outer surface of a fuel line exposed to
internal pressure. A strain gradient, measured on the outer surface of the fuel line
and plotted as a function of the internal pressure, allows the determination of the
yield strength of the material (Fig. 4.20).
Yielding of the material
at the inner surface of the
non-autofretted fuel line starts
p
1 p
in
[bar]

m
/
m


b
a
r

tg
0
0

m
/
m

Figure 4.20. Principle of a yield strength determination in the case of a non-autofrettaged fuel
line: strain on the outer surface vs. internal pressure (upper curve) and strain gradient on the
outer surface vs. internal pressure (lower curve).
An increase in the internal pressure inside the non-autofrettaged fuel line up to the
yielding pressure results in a linear increase in the strain on the outer surface of the
fuel line. Therefore, a strain gradient up to this point is constant ( tg in Fig. 4.20). A
further increase in the internal pressure beyond the yielding pressure causes plastic
deformation of the inner wall layers. This plastic deformation causes an additional
expansion of the inner wall layers, which induces enhanced elastic deformation of the

92
outer surface. Hence a linear increase changes into a sharp increase in strain in the
p diagram.
With the experimental determination of the yielding pressure (
1
p in Fig. 4.20), the
point at which the linear increase suddenly changes into a sharp increase, it is
possible subsequently to calculate the yield strength of the material using Eq. (2.13).
This point can be more precisely determined by observation of the strain gradient
behaviour at the outer surface of the fuel line exposed to internal pressure ( p
diagram).
The Q-100 SI measuring system together with strain gauges can be used in the
reception control as redundant systems for the determination of the material yield
strength of fuel lines.
4.2.1 Selected Fuel Line and Sealing Principle Employed
A non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of steel St 52 DI (Fig. 4.21) was taken
from a series production and used in the scope of this investigation. The goal of the
investigation was to determine the actual value of the yield strength of the selected
fuel line. The nominal value of the yield strength for the batch of semi-finished tubes,
of which the considered fuel line was made, was 740 N/mm
2
. By performing the
same investigation on several fuel lines made from the same batch of semi-finished
tubes, the range of variation of the yield strength for the considered batch could be
determined.

Figure 4.21. Non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line.
In order to ensure effective sealing against the leakage of oil under pressure during
the experiment, one side of the fuel line was connected to the test facility by the
adapter shown in Fig. 4.22a. The other side was closed by the closure plug shown in
Fig. 4.22b.

93
Both the adapter and the closure plug were made of heat-treatable steel 1.6580
(30 CrNiMo 8). Sealing between the cone-shaped fuel line ends and the opening
cones of the closure plug, i.e. of the adapter, was realized using the standard cone-
type seal principle (Fig. 4.22c). Here, the parts with different angles (opening cone
60 and cone-shaped fuel line end 58) were tightened together to form a small line
or a ring contact.
2
6.5
M14x1.5
1
.
5
x
4
5

1
3
4
0
SW 27
0
.
9
+
0
.
1
60
60
5
M16x1.5
1
1
R
1
R
2
1
.
5
x
4
5

2
6.5
M14x1.5
R
1
R
2
1
3
2
9
8
SW 27
0
.
9
+
0
.
1
60
1
.
5
x
4
5

1
.
5
x
4
5


Outer cone 58
Inner cone 60

(a) (b) (c)
Figure 4.22. Design of the adapter (a) and the closure plug (b), and the standard
cone-type seal principle (c).
4.2.2 Experimental Procedure and Evaluation of Results
The strain behaviour on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line was measured using
the strain gauges and the Q-100 SI measuring system. Both measurements were
performed simultaneously.
According to the analytical calculations, yielding of the material at the inner surface of
the non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of steel St 52 DI (
2
/ 740 mm N R
e
= )
should start when the fuel line is exposed to a pressure of 3407 bar. Hence the strain
behaviour between pressures of 2500 and 4000 bar was measured with pressure
steps of 100 bar. Up to a pressure of 2500 bar three measurements at 1000, 2000
and 2500 bar were performed.

94
In order to determine the point at which yielding of material at the inner surface
starts, the measurement results are presented in strain gradient diagrams (Fig. 4.23).
The strain gradient is considered here as the rate at which a strain increases or
decreases relative to a constant change in pressure.
p
n+1
p
n-1
p
n p [bar]
p
n+2
tg
m/m
bar

tg

p
n+1
p
n-1
p
n p [bar]
p
n+2

n+2
[m/m]

n+1

n-1

Figure 4.23. Generation of the strain gradient diagram.
The applied strain gradient was derived as the difference between the actual applied
strain value in a certain pressure step and the applied strain value in the previous
step, divided by the pressure difference between these steps:
Load n Load n
Load n Load n
Load
Load
Load n
p p p
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
,


(4.4)
The residual strain gradient was derived as the difference between the actual
residual strain value after unloading of the fuel line and the residual strain value after
the previous unloading, divided by the pressure difference between these steps:
unload After n unload After n
unload After n unload After n
unload After
unload After
unload After n
p p p
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
,

=


(4.5)

95
According to the definition, the strain gradient represents the slope of a tangent line
to the p curve in the middle of the considered range (upper diagram in Fig. 4.23).
For this reason, the quantity of a strain gradient in the p diagram was applied in
the middle of the considered pressure range (lower diagram in Fig. 4.23). The
yielding pressure is defined by the pressure range in the p diagram wherein the
first significant increase in a strain gradient occurs, e.g. between
1 + n
p and
2 + n
p in
Fig. 4.23.
A narrow pressure range of 100 bar was chosen in order to determine exactly the
yielding pressure. Since an increase in the internal pressure of 100 bar results in a
very small change in the axial strain but in a significant increase in the tangential
strain, and since the larger deviations of the SI results arise in the axial direction, the
magnitude of yielding pressure was obtained here from strain gradient diagrams
observed only in the tangential direction.
4.2.3 Results, Discussion and Conclusions
Application of the optical sensor on the 8 x 2.2 fuel line and a live image of the
illuminated fuel line surface during experiments are shown in Fig. 4.24. The optical
sensor was attached directly to the straight part of the fuel line. The results of SI
measurements presented here are the average values of results evaluated along the
direction of the fuel line axis. These were compared with the results of strain gauge
measurements obtained from the rosette attached underneath this straight part.


(a) (b)
Figure 4.24. a) Application of the optical sensor on the 8 x 2.2 fuel line during the
experiment. b) Live image of the illuminated fuel line surface.
The plot of applied strains, measured on the outer surface of the fuel line, is shown in
Fig. 4.25.

96
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
SI measurements (Tangential strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Tangential strain)
SI measurements (Axial strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Axial strain)
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]


Figure 4.25. Applied strains measured on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.
The applied tangential strain gradient was derived from the results of measurements
(Fig. 4.25) using Eq. (4.4) and is depicted in Fig. 4.26. Since the p curve
increased linearly up to a pressure of 3500 bar, the gradient was constant
(approximately 0.210
bar
m m/
).
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

g
r
a
d
i
e
n
t

m
/
m


b
a
r

0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700
SI measurements
Strain gauge measurements

Figure 4.26. Applied tangential strain gradient on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.

97
The gradient showed the first increase between pressure steps at 3500 and 3600 bar
(+0.068
bar
m m/
obtained by SI measurements and +0.041
bar
m m/
obtained by
strain gauge measurements).
Furthermore, residual strains measured on the outer surface of the fuel line are
plotted in Fig. 4.27. As can be seen, the absolute deviations of the SI results were
also here significant larger in the axial direction (see Section 4.1.3). Therefore, these
results were not relevant for the accurate determination of the yielding pressure.
-25
0
25
50
75
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]
SI measurements (Tangential strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Tangential strain)
SI measurements (Axial strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Axial strain)

Figure 4.27. Residual strains measured on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.
The residual tangential strain gradient was derived from the results of measurements
(Fig. 4.27) using Eq. (4.5) and is illustrated in Fig. 4.28. Precision limitations of the
Q-100 SI measuring system, i.e. random error in measurements (see Section 3.4.4),
are the reason for the irregular shape of the tangential strain gradient curve in
Fig. 4.28. As can be seen, the gradient showed the first increase after unloading from
a pressure of 3600 bar (+0.083
bar
m m/
obtained by SI measurements and
+0.037
bar
m m/
obtained by strain gauge measurements).
Considering the results of the applied and the residual strain measurements, one can
conclude that an actual value of the yield strength differs from the nominal value
given by the supplier. Namely, the first increase in the applied strain gradient
concerning the nominal conditions (740 N/mm
2
) should occur between 3400 and

98
3500 bar. In addition, the first increase in the residual strain gradient should occur
after unloading from a pressure of 3500 bar. The aforementioned results indicated
the higher actual value of the yield strength, between 760 and 782 N/mm
2
(Fig. 4.29).
-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

g
r
a
d
i
e
n
t

m
/
m


b
a
r

-0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700
SI measurements
Strain gauge measurements

Figure 4.28. Residual tangential strain gradient on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.

Yield strength [N/mm
2
]
Y
i
e
l
d
i
n
g

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]

2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800
8 x 2.2 Fuel line (St 52 DI)
760 782
3407

Figure 4.29. Determination of the actual yield strength.

99
On the basis of the result obtained, the sought autofrettage pressure for a desired
autofrettage degree can be calculated using Eq. (2.15). The quantity of autofrettage
pressures required for achieving of the particular autofrettage degrees for both the
actual and the nominal conditions are plotted in Fig. 4.30.
1.8 2.02 2.24 2.46 2.68 2.9 3.12 3.34 3.56 3.78 4
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
A
u
t
o
f
r
e
t
t
a
g
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]
Autofrettage degree [%]
Radius of a plastic-elastic junction [mm]
Nominal value (740 N/mm
2
)
Upper actual value (782 N/mm
2
)
Lower actual value (760 N/mm
2
)

Figure 4.30. Relationship between the autofrettage pressure, the autofrettage degree and the
yield strength for an actual and nominal condition (8 x 2.2 fuel line made of St 52 DI).
Hence experimental testing indicated that the Q-100 SI measuring system is a
suitable tool for the cheap, fast and reliable determination of the material yield
strength in the reception control of fuel lines.
4.3 Effective Autofrettage Pressure Determination
In the final control phase, before the fuel lines are delivered to the customer (in this
case the automotive manufacturer), the effects of the autofrettage process should be
tested. These effects can be proved by observing the behaviour of strains on the
outer surface of the autofrettaged fuel line exposed to internal pressure. Indeed,
strain analysis on the outer surface of the autofrettaged fuel line in the final control
phase allows the inspection of the autofrettage process effects in the fuel line.
The same principle can be used in order to expertise damaged fuel lines which were
employed in an engine and fail due to the fatigue under nominal operating conditions.

100
In recent years it has been a very frequent occurrence that large number of fuel lines
of one delivered series fail after short-term operation in engines. In that case it is
important to expertise whether the autofrettage process employed was correct. Strain
analysis on the outer surface of a damaged fuel line can give information on whether
the quality of the autofrettage process employed in production influenced the
subsequent failure of the fuel line in operation.
In general, the effective strain state generated in the fuel line by the autofrettage
process could differ from the nominal state assumed to be generated under the
desired (ideal) process conditions. The difference between these strain states could
occur due to the disturbances during the process (irregular pump operation, irregular
pressure sensor operation, leakage of working fluid within the system, residual air in
the fuel line, etc.) or due to an improperly conducted process (e.g. insufficient
duration of the treatment). Therefore, the author uses the term nominal autofrettage
pressure to denote the autofrettage process effects in the fuel line under the desired
(ideal) process conditions. The term effective autofrettage pressure corresponds to
the effects under real process conditions. Real effects of the autofrettage process
can be proved by determination of this effective pressure (
1
p in Fig. 4.31).
Plastic deformation spreads
further across the wall
of the autofrettaged fuel line
p
1 p
in
[bar]

m
/
m


b
a
r

tg
0
0

m
/
m

Figure 4.31. Principle of effective pressure determination.
The effective pressure at which the fuel line was actually autofrettaged in the
manufacturing process can be determined from the plots of strain gradients. Namely,
an increase in the internal pressure inside the autofrettaged fuel line up to the
autofrettage pressure results in a linear increase in the strain on the outer surface of
the fuel line. Therefore, the strain gradient up to this point is constant ( tg in
Fig. 4.31). As the internal pressure increases beyond the autofrettage pressure, the

101
plastic deformation spreads further across the wall. This causes an additional
expansion of the wall layers, which induces enhanced elastic deformation of the
outer surface. Consequently, the strain in the p diagram starts to increase
sharply, which results in the first increase in the strain gradient ( ) on the outer
surface of the fuel line. The effective pressure at which the fuel line was
autofrettaged in the manufacturing process is defined by the point at which the first
significant increase in strain gradient occurs.
Speckle interferometry provides inexpensive, fast and reliable measurements and
thus can match todays industrial demands for the determination of the effective
autofrettage pressure in the final control phase and also for the expertise of damaged
fuel lines. Strain gauges can additionally be used as a redundant system for that
purpose.
4.3.1 Selected Fuel Lines, Experimental Procedure and Principle
of Results Evaluation
Five 6 x 1.75 fuel lines of a four-cylinder engine were taken from series production
and used in the scope of this investigation:
fuel line No. 1 - from fuel rail to nozzle No. 1 (Fig. 4.32a),
fuel line No. 2 - from fuel rail to nozzle No. 2 (Fig. 4.32b),
fuel line No. 3 - from fuel rail to nozzle No. 3 (Fig. 4.32c),
fuel line No. 4 - from fuel rail to nozzle No. 4 (Fig. 4.32d), and
fuel line No. 5 - from high pressure pump to fuel rail (Fig. 4.32e).
The fuel lines are made of steel St 30 but the exact material properties were
unknown. According to the manufacturers specifications, the fuel lines were
autofrettaged at a pressure of 6400 bar in the manufacturing process. The goal of
this investigation was to determine the effects of this pressure in the selected fuel
lines after the manufacturing process. This means to determine the difference
between the given nominal autofrettage pressure and the pressure which actually
was applied in the manufacturing process.
The effective autofrettage pressure was determined in the experiment by observing
the behaviour of strains on the outer surface of the fuel lines subjected to internal
pressure in the range 0 to 7000 bar. The behaviour of strains was simultaneously
measured using the strain gauges and the Q-100 SI measuring system.
Measurements in the range 0 to 3000 bar were performed with pressure steps of
1000 bar. Above the pressure of 3000 bar, 16 measurements with pressure steps of
250 bar were carried out.

102
The results obtained are presented in strain gradient diagrams. Applied and residual
strain gradient values were analytically derived using Eqs. (4.4) and (4.5),
respectively. The effective autofrettage pressure was determined by the pressure
range in the p diagram wherein the first significant increase in the strain
gradient occurred.

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)
Figure 4.32. Common rail 6 x 1.75 fuel line set of a four-cylinder engine used in the
experiments.
Since an increase in the internal pressure of 250 bar results in a very small change in
the axial strain but in a significant increase in the tangential strain, and since larger
deviations of the SI results arise in the axial direction, the effective autofrettage
pressure was determined here using only plots of the tangential strain gradient.
4.3.2 Sealing Principle Employed
The standard cone-type seal principle presented in Fig. 4.22 could not ensure
effective sealing against the leakage of oil under higher pressures. In order to provide
sealing under pressures up to 7000 bar, a ball-type seal principle was employed in
the case of the 6 x 1.75 fuel line.
A small hollow ball was mounted between a cone-shaped fuel line end and an
opening cone of the adapter (Fig. 4.33a). Further, a solid ball was mounted between

103
a cone-shaped fuel line end on the other side of the tube and the opening cone of the
closure plug (Fig. 4.33b). The material of both balls was ball-bearing steel 1.3501
(100 Cr 2).


(a) (b)
Figure 4.33. Ball-type seal principle.
4.3.3 Results of Investigation and Concluding Remarks
The results of the investigations performed on fuel line No. 2 are outlined in detail in
this section; the results obtained on the other fuel lines of the set are summarized at
the end of this section.
Application of the optical sensor on fuel line No. 2 during experiments is shown in
Fig. 4.34. The optical sensor was directly attached to the straight part of the fuel line.

(Side view) (Top view)
Figure 4.34. Application of the optical sensor on fuel line No. 2.

104
The results of SI measurements were almost homogeneous over the whole
measuring area (Fig. 4.35b). The results presented here are the average values of
results evaluated along the direction of the fuel line axis. These were compared with
the results of the strain gauge measurements obtained from a rosette attached
underneath of the straight part and located in the middle of the considered region
(Fig. 4.35a).

(a) (b)
Figure 4.35. Live image of fuel line No. 2 during measurement (a) and a phase map of fuel
line No. 2 in the y-positive direction under a pressure of 6500 bar (b).
Plots of applied strain components measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 2
are shown in Fig. 4.36 [7].
The applied tangential strain gradient was derived from the results of measurements
(Fig. 4.36) using Eq. (4.4) and is depicted in Fig. 4.37.
Since the p curve increased linearly up to a pressure of 5750 bar, the gradient
was constant (approximately 0.200
bar
m m/
). The gradient showed the first increase
between pressure steps at 5750 and 6000 bar (+0.056
bar
m m/
obtained by SI
measurements and +0.032
bar
m m/
obtained by strain gauge measurements).

105
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]
SI measurements (Tangential strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Tangential strain)
SI measurements (Axial strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Axial strain)

Figure 4.36. Applied strains measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 2.

0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

g
r
a
d
i
e
n
t

m
/
m


b
a
r

0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
5000 5250 5500 5750 6000 6250 6500
SI measurements
Strain gauge measurements

Figure 4.37. Applied tangential strain gradient on the outer surface of fuel line No. 2.
Residual strains measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 2 are presented in
Fig. 4.38 [7].

106
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Tangential strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Tangential strain)
SI measurements (Axial strain)
Strain gauge measurements (Axial strain)

Figure 4.38. Residual strains measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 2.
The plot of the residual tangential strain gradient which was analytically derived using
Eq. (4.5) from the results of measurements (Fig. 4.38) is depicted in Fig. 4.39. The
gradient showed the first increase after unloading from a pressure of 6000 bar
(+0.036
bar
m m/
obtained by SI measurements and +0.024
bar
m m/
obtained by
strain gauge measurements).
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

g
r
a
d
i
e
n
t

m
/
m


b
a
r

-0.20
-0.10
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
5000 5250 5500 5750 6000 6250 6500
SI measurements
Strain gauge measurements

Figure 4.39. Residual tangential strain gradient on the outer surface of fuel line No. 2.

107
From the results of both applied and residual strain measurements, it can be
concluded that fuel line No. 2 was autofrettaged in the manufcturing process by an
effective pressure in the range between 5750 and 6000 bar.
As already mentioned, the same investigations were performed on the other four fuel
lines of the set and results can be summarized as follows.
Experimental investigations indicated that the effective autofrettage pressure in the
case of four fuel lines (Nos. 1, 2, 4 and 5) was measured in the range between 5750
and 6000 bar, which was approximately 500 bar lower than the nominal value.
Duration of the autofrettage treatment (i.e. the pressure holding time) in the
manufacturing process can be the reason for such a difference between the effective
and nominal autofettage pressures. It is the state of the art that fuel lines are
exposed to the autofrettage pressure for only a few seconds (approximately up to
10 s) in a manufacturing process. However, completion of the plastic deformation
caused during the autofrettage process could require a longer period. The influence
of the pressure holding time on the plastic deformation process and thus on the
residual strains generated was investigated in the scope of this thesis and the results
are outlined in Chapter 5.
The results obtained in measurements on fuel line No. 3 showed a significant lower
value of the effective autofrettage pressure (between 4750 to 5000 bar).
Disturbances during the autofrettage process (leakage of working fluid, residual air in
the fuel line or irregular pressure sensor operation) could be the reason for such a
relatively lower effective pressure. Since all lines of the common rail set were
autofrettaged simultaneously on the autofrettage machine, these disturbances could
appear only then on the third module (i.e. connection supply) of the machine, to
which fuel line No. 3 was connected during the process.
At this point, it is important to emphasize one more effect. The optical sensor of the
Q-100 SI measuring system was attached to the straight part of fuel lines Nos. 2, 4
and 5 during the investigations. The results obtained by SI measurements were
almost homogeneous over the whole illuminated measuring area. On the other hand,
in the case of fuel lines Nos. 1 and 3, the optical sensor was attached in such a way
that the illuminated measuring area covered one straight part and one bent part of
the lines. SI measurements showed that deformations of those parts under same
load during the autofrettage process were significantly different. Speckle
interferometry, as a full-field measuring technique, offered the possibility of the
detection of the difference in deformations of those parts. This ability of the Q-100 SI
measuring system for evaluation of the autofrettage process effects in components
with complex geometries is discussed in the following section.

108
4.4 Evaluation of the Autofrettage Process Effects in
Components with Complex Geometries
As mentioned in Section 2.5, evaluation of the autofrettage process in a component
with complex geometry is mostly impossible using the analytical solution. A strong
dependence on material data, which are usually not available, is the main problem in
numerical methods by such an evaluation. The limitations of conventional measuring
methods also contributed to the fact that the autofrettage process effects in
components with complex geometries are still mostly unknown.
By investigations performed on fuel lines Nos. 1 and 3 of the 6 x 1.75 common rail
set presented in Section 4.3, the Q-100 SI measuring system showed an advantage
by evaluation of the autofrettage process effects in the bent part of the fuel line in
comparison with conventional strain gauges. Strain gauges as point-measuring
sensors provided only localized information over the small area over which the gauge
is glued and could not capture true information over the whole measuring area
considered.
In this section, the results of investigations performed on fuel line No. 3 will be
outlined in detail.
In the experiment, an optical sensor was directly attached to the fuel line surface
(Fig. 4.40) whereby the measuring area covered one straight part (Region 1) and one
part close to the bend in the fuel line (Region 2), Fig. 4.41.


(Side view) (Top view)
Figure 4.40. Application of the optical sensor on fuel line No. 3 during experiment.
The deformation of those parts under the same load showed significant differences
during the autofrettage process (see phase map under a pressure of 6500 bar,

109
Fig. 4.42b). As long as the fuel line was loaded at the pressures which caused elastic
deformation of the fuel line material, the deformation of the outer surface was
homogeneous (Fig. 4.42a). After applying pressures that caused further plastic
deformation of inner layers, a significant difference in the deformation of the outer
surface in the straight part and in the part close to the bend in the fuel line was
measured.
Strain gauge rosette

Region 1
Region 2
Strain
gauge
rosette

(a) (b)
Figure 4.41. a) Position of the strain gauge rosette during experiment. b) Live image of the
fuel line surface with the orientation axes of the strain gauge rosette attached underneath of
the illuminated measuring area.
In order to bring out the difference, the results of SI measurements were separately
evaluated in both regions along the direction of the fuel line axis. These were then
compared with corresponding values obtained from the strain gauge rosette attached
underneath Region 2.

(a) (b)
Figure 4.42. Phase maps of the fuel line surface in the y-positive direction under
pressures of 4500 (a) and 6500 bar (b).

110
Figure 4.43 plots applied strains measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 3.
0
400
800
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
SI measurements (Tangential strain - Region 1)
Strain gauge measurements (Tangential strain)
SI measurements (Tangential strain - Region 2)
SI measurements (Axial strain - Region 1)
Strain gauge measurements (Axial strain)
SI measurements (Axial strain - Region 2)
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]

Figure 4.43. Applied strains measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 3.
As can be seen, the axial strain gradient in Region 2 was constant up to a pressure
of 5250 bar. At this pressure level the axial strain achieved the maximum value and
then started to decrease with increase in pressure. The results which were obtained
by evaluation of the SI measurements in Region 2 (closed circles) were confirmed by
the strain gauge measurements (open triangles). However, results of the SI
measurements evaluated in Region 1 (open circles) indicated normal behaviour of
the axial strain gradient, i.e. an increase in the gradient with increase in pressure.
It is important to emphasize that with an increase in the autofrettage degree, the
deformation in Region 1 (open squares and circles) was significantly higher than that
in Region 2 (closed squares and circles). This is obvious also from the phase map
showed in Fig. 4.42b. In order to see the differences in deformations over the whole
measuring area, e.g. for that pressure level (6500 bar), the applied tangential strain
was evaluated and is presented in Fig. 4.44 [6]. It can be seen that the applied
tangential strain in Region 1 is much higher (approximately 2460 m/m) than that in
Region 2 (approximately 2080 m/m).
Hence compared with conventional measuring techniques, speckle interferometry, as
a full-field measuring technique, has great potential for the evaluation of autofrettage
process effects in components with complex geometries.

111
In the scope of this investigation, an experiment was performed twice on two
samples of fuel line No. 3. The results evaluated were very similar in both
experiments.
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
2700
2500
2300
2100
1900
1700
1500
1300
900
1100
[m/m]
Cutting line
y [mm]
x [mm]


-10.98 -7.12 -3.26 4.46 8.32 12.18 -0.60
-10.98 -5.87 -3.00 2.74 5.61 8.48 -0.13
2620
2500
2260
2020
1900
x - Direction
y - Direction
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

a
l
o
n
g

c
u
t
t
i
n
g

l
i
n
e

[

m
/
m
]

2380
2140

Figure 4.44. Strain distribution in the tangential direction evaluated over the measuring area
along the cutting line (under a pressure of 6500 bar).
Plots of residual strain components measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 3
are presented in Fig. 4.45 [6]. The same effect as in the case of the applied axial
strain component occurred here. The results of the residual strain measurements
were very similar in both experiments performed on two samples of fuel line No. 3.
The axial residual strain obtained by evaluation of the SI measurements in Region 2

112
(closed circles) and that obtained by strain gauge measurements (open triangles)
decreased with increase in the pressure above 5250 bar. However, in the case of
both samples, results of the SI measurements evaluated in Region 1 increased with
increase in pressure (open circles). In addition, the residual tangential strains
evaluated in Region 1 (open squares) were much higher than those in Region 2
(closed squares) after applying the autofrettage pressures.
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]
SI measurements (Tangential strain - Region 1)
Strain gauge measurements (Tangential strain)
SI measurements (Tangential strain - Region 2)
SI measurements (Axial strain - Region 1)
Strain gauge measurements (Axial strain)
SI measurements (Axial strain - Region 2)

Figure 4.45. Residual strains measured on the outer surface of fuel line No. 3.
It can be assumed that the additional residual stresses had existed in Region 2.
These could have been generated in the bending process which took place before
the autofrettage process. Consequently, these residual stresses were then
superposed with the stresses generated during the autofrettage process.
The experimental results clearly demonstrate that speckle interferoetry, as a full-field
measuring technique, offers the possibility of detection of the autofrettage process
effects in components with complex geometries.
The strain gauge sensor solely measures the deformation at the location where the
gauge is attached. Critical areas, which exhibit high strain gradient fields, cannot be
captured by such point-measuring sensors. To capture changes in the strain gradient
over a complete measuring area of a fuel line, a large number of very small strain
gauges are required. However, it is almost impossible to attach a large number of
gauges on such small surfaces as, e.g., the surface of a fuel line. Further inherent

113
complexity in doing so is that the user must be able to predict the location of high
strain gradient fields before attaching the gauge, but this is very difficult.
Hence using the SI measuring technique one can develop 3D stress-strain maps of a
complex curved fuel line surface. In this way, the autofrettage process effects within
the particular fuel line geometry could be deduced.

114

Chapter 5
Influence of the Pressure Holding Time on
Strain Generation
5.1 Introduction
The complete time of the autofrettage process can be divided into loading time,
pressure holding time, unloading time and relaxation time. Typical patterns of the
autofrettage pressure acting inside the fuel line and the behaviour of strains on the
outer surface of the fuel line during the process are illustrated in Fig. 5.1.
I II III IV
Pressure
Applied tangential strain
Applied axial strain
Time [s]
Residual axial strain
Residual tangential strain
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]

S
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

6000
3000
0
2000
1000
5000
4000
3000
1500
0
1000
500
2500
2000
I - Loading time
II - Pressure holding time
III - Unloading time
IV - Relaxation time

Figure 5.1. Course of an autofrettage process.
In order to achieve a profitable series production, the complete time of the
autofrettage process should not be longer than 20 s, according to the manufacturers
information. From an economic point of view, this time should be as short as
possible. In series production, loading of the fuel line is accomplished in a few
seconds. After the autofrettage pressure has been achieved, the fuel line is held at
that pressure for several seconds (up to 10 s) and then unloaded.

115
As suggested in this thesis, completion of the plastic deformation caused by the
autofrettage process requires a longer period. However, the influence of the pressure
holding time on the final quality of the autofrettage process has not been considered
until now. Exposing fuel lines to pressure for such a short period (up to 10 s) could
result in large variations between the desirable and generated stress-strain patterns.
The proposed analytical model (see Section 2.3), available in the literature, does not
consider the influence of time on the stress-strain generation in a thick-walled tube
during the autofrettage process. Stress-strain equations in the model are derived
from the differential equation (2.2) wherein stresses and strains are only a function of
the tube geometry, material properties and internal pressure. The production of
autofrettaged components in industry relies either on such limited analytical solutions
or on simply numerical computations using steady models which do not consider the
influence of time on the plastic deformation process.
As suggested in this thesis, the autofrettage pressure, material and geometry of the
component and also the pressure holding time influence the final quality of
autofrettaged components, i.e. generation of the desirable strain pattern :
( ) time holding pressure pressure ge autofretta geometry material f , , , = (5.1)
In this work, for the first time, the influence of the pressure holding time on the
generation of strains was studied. In the scope of the work, several random samples
of a fuel line made from the same material and having the same geometry were
taken from a series production and investigated. Each sample was autofrettaged at a
different pressure and the time behaviour of strains on the outer surface was
measured using speckle interferometry and strain gauges. Hence the geometry and
material of the fuel line were kept approximately constant in this investigation and
influences of the autofrettage pressure and the pressure holding time on the
generation of strains were studied:
( ) time holding pressure pressure ge autofretta f , = (5.2)
The aim of the investigation was to determine the interdependence between these
three parameters (autofrettage pressure, pressure holding time and generated
strains) for a certain fuel line.



116
5.2 Selected Fuel Lines and Sealing Principle Employed
Six random samples of a non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line made from the same
batch of steel St 52 DI (Fig. 5.2) were taken from a series production and used for
the purpose of this investigation. Material data for the fuel lines given by the
manufacturer were
2
/ 740 mm N R
e
= ,
2
/ 000 210 mm N E = and 3 . 0 = .

Figure 5.2. Non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line samples used in the investigation.

3.35+0.025 -
3.67+0.02 -
Cone 7
R0.2
R0.5
-0.1
M14x1.5
3
5
1
3
2
2
1
1
5
60
M16x1.5
32/SW27
1
.
5
x
4
5

1
.
5
x
4
5

R2

3.35+0.025 -
3.67+0.02 -
Cone 7
R0.2
R0.5
-0.1 1
.
3
1
3
1
.
5
x
4
5

1
.
5
x
4
5

2
8
SW 27
M14x1.5
R2


(a) (b) (c)
Figure 5.3. Design of the adapter (a) and the closure plug (b), and the cone nipple seal
principle (c).

117
Neither the seal principle used in the case of 6 x 2 tube samples in Section 4.1, the
standard cone-type seal principle presented in Section 4.2.1 nor a ball-type seal
principle presented in Section 4.3.2 could ensure effective sealing against the
leakage of oil under pressures higher than 5000 bar in the case of this fuel line. In
order to provide sealing under pressures of up to 7000 bar, a new seal principle was
employed here.
One side of the fuel line was connected to the test facility by the adapter (Fig. 5.3a),
while the other one was closed by the closure plug (Fig. 5.3b). Both the adapter and
the closure plug were made of hot work tool steel 1.2709 (X 3 NiCoMoTi 18 9 5).
Sealing between the fuel line end and the cone nipple was realized on the inner
surface of the fuel line end (Fig. 5.3c). Under pressure, the outer cone surface of the
nipple and the inner surface of the fuel line end were tightened together to form a
small line or ring contact.
5.3 Experimental Procedure and Principle of Results
Evaluation
In the experiments, the strain behaviour on the outer surface in the middle of the
longest straight part of the fuel line was measured using the strain gauges and the
Q-100 SI measuring system. Both measurements were performed simultaneously.
The tangential and axial strain components measured by the strain gauges and the
autofrettage pressure measured by an EBM 6045-7000 sensor were acquired during
the experiments using the DAQ system shown in Fig. 3.4.
As mentioned in Section 4.1.2, the number of fringes in the pattern is limited
concerning the accurate evaluation of strains by SI measurements. In this
investigation, the total deformation between zero and the desired pressure was very
high and had to be fragmented using series measurements with the Q-100 SI
measuring system. Therefore, it was possible only to perform experiments in which
the loading of the fuel lines was stepwise. The desired pressure was achieved in
several steps with pressure steps of approximately 1000 bar. In each step the fuel
line was held under pressure for 4 s in order to record the image by the Q-100 SI
measuring system. The same was done for the unloading phase.
This stepwise loading procedure could affect the generation of strains during the
pressure holding time since the plastic deformation had time to take place during the
loading period. The spreading of the plastic deformation across a fuel line wall is
different, however, for the case of the rapid loading procedure. The rapid loading
procedure is usually employed in series production. Hence the influence of the
loading procedure has to be taken into account by interpretation of the results
obtained in this investigation.

118
The behaviour of strains on the outer surface of the fuel line was observed during the
pressure holding time and during the relaxation period. When the autofrettage
pressure had been achieved, the fuel line was held under pressure for 600 s and
measurement data were recorded during this period. The same was done for the
relaxation time period. When the fuel line was unloaded to zero pressure, the
behaviour of strains on the outer surface was observed during the relaxation period
of 600 s.
In the experiments, 40 images during the pressure holding time and 40 images
during the relaxation period were recorded using the Q-100 SI measuring system.
The recorded images were thereafter evaluated using the special main menu
GAUGE in the IstraMS software.
5.4 Results and Discussion
5.4.1 Results of Investigations
As mentioned above, six random samples of a non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line
made from the same batch of steel St 52 DI were taken from a series production and
used for the purpose of this investigation.
Measurements were carried out on samples Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, which were
autofrettaged at pressures of 5800, 6000, 6200, 6400, 6600 and 6800 bar,
respectively. In the experiments, the samples were exposed to the internal pressure
for 600 s and the behaviour of strains on the outer surface was measured.
Thereafter, the samples were unloaded to zero pressure and the behaviour of strains
was observed for the relaxation period of 600 s.
Figures 5.4 to 5.9 show the behaviour of the tangential and axial strains measured on
the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line during the holding and relaxation periods.
Hence each figure includes four diagrams: a diagram of the applied tangential strain
(middle left), a diagram of the applied axial strain (middle right), a diagram of the
residual tangential strain (bottom left) and a diagram of the residual axial strain
(bottom right).
The results of the SI measurements showed the inhomogeneity of strains over the
outer surface. As will be presented, the potential for measuring the strain
inhomogeneity is a major advantage of speckle interferometry compared with
conventional measuring techniques. The inhomogeneity is presented here with
different colours in strain maps. In order to see the distribution of the strain
inhomogeneity over the surface, the map of applied tangential strain evaluated after
600 s is also included in each figure. The magnitudes of characteristic strain
gradients, specified in the map, are plotted on each of the four diagrams.

119

16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
2080
2000
1920
1530
1600
1680
1760
1840
1450
1370
[m/m]
3
5
5
5
3
1
1
1
2
2
4
4
4
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
y [mm]
x [mm]



Figure 5.4. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 1 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 5800 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.


120
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
2330
2220
2100
1520
1290
1630
1750
1870
1980
1400
[m/m]
1
1
5
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
1
1
1
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
y [mm]
x [mm]




Figure 5.5. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 2 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 6000 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.


121
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
2670
2430
2200
1010
540
1250
1480
1720
1960
770
[m/m]
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements
3
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
1
2
2
1
1
3
4
3
5
4
2
2
5
y [mm]
x [mm]





Figure 5.6. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 3 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 6200 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.


122
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
4090
3610
3120
710
-250
1190
1680
2160
2640
230
[m/m]
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
1
2
2
2
4
4
5
3
3
3
y [mm]
x [mm]



Figure 5.7. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 4 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 6400 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.


123
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
4130
3680
3230
980
80
1430
1880
2330
2780
530
[m/m]
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
1
4
4
5
3
y [mm]
x [mm]




Figure 5.8. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 5 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 6600 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.


124
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
4180
3800
3420
1500
740
1890
2270
2650
3040
1120
[m/m]
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
2
4
4
2
2
5
5
y [mm]
x [mm]




Figure 5.9. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 6 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 6800 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.

125
The following can be summarized from the results presented in Figs. 5.4 to 5.9:
the applied tangential strain showed asymptotic behaviour during the holding
period wherein a fuel line was held at a constant autofrettage pressure,
the asymptotic behaviour of the axial strain was not so emphasized as in the case
of an applied tangential strain; the difference between the deformation in the axial
direction measured by strain gauges at the beginning and end of the holding
period was very small (up to a few microns per metre); this small difference could
not be detected by the Q-100 SI measuring system because of the precision
limitations of the system,
there is only a negligible influence of the relaxation time on the generation of the
residual strains; residual strains in both the tangential and axial directions
remained almost steady over the whole relaxation period,
the results of the SI measurements indicated an increase in the inhomogeneity of
the applied tangential strain results over the fuel line surface.
In the following section will first be discussed the reason for the asymptotic behaviour
of applied strains. Subsequently, the interdependence between the autofrettage
pressure, the holding time and the generated strain state will be analysed.
Discussions of the inhomogeneity of the SI results and the increase in inhomogeneity
of the applied tangential strain during the holding time are addressed in the
remainder of this chapter.
5.4.2 General Discussion of the Results
An explanation of the asymptotic behaviour of the applied tangential strains
measured on the outer surface during the holding time can be derived from the
fundamental relationship between the macroscopic properties (stresses and strains)
acting on a fuel line during the autofrettage treatment and the microscopic
phenomenon of plastic deformation.
In the case of an elastic deformation, which is a reversible and time-independent
process, the macroscopic properties dominate and do not depend on the deviations
from the ideal microscopic structure of the crystal. In contrast, a plastic deformation
process, which is irreversible and time-dependent, is defined by the crystallographic
defects on a microscopic level.
On plastic deformation of a crystalline material, the crystal structure of atoms does
not deform but the atoms change their positions in such a way that one plane of
atoms moves or slides over another on so-called slip planes. The slip planes are
usually the planes with the highest density of atoms because in order to cause slip
the interatomic bonds must be broken and reformed. The more bonds perpendicular
to the slip plane that have to be broken, the greater is the energy required to cause

126
the slip. A slip plane and a slip direction in the plane constitute a slip system.
Movement of atoms occurs more easily at low-friction slip systems which are defined
by a greater distance between atoms, with a shorter Burgers vector b (since the
energy of movement increases with the square of the Burgers vector) and which are
electrically neutral (ionic crystal).
The critical shear stress required for slipping of the neighbouring atomic planes over
each other is lower than the theoretical value while a movement of atoms in the slip
direction do not occur simultaneously; they move consecutively, one after another,
and this is a time-dependent process. This phenomenon, the so-called movement of
dislocations within a crystal, can often be found in nature, e.g. the movement of a
caterpillar (Fig. 5.10a).


(a) (b)
Figure 5.10. a) The caterpillar analogy for a dislocation movement [108]. b) Dislocation
sources in the new grain are activated at the grain boundary by the high stress
concentration caused due to the increased density of dislocations at the boundary of the
neighbouring grain [50]
Furthermore, grains in material have different orientations and plastic deformation of
these does not occur simultaneously. Under action of the external stress some grains
which have favourably oriented slip systems (i.e. high Schmid factor) will deform
earlier whereas in other grains having less favourably oriented slip systems (i.e.
lower Schmid factor) the critical shear stress is not achieved and they behave
elastically. In the grains with favourably oriented slip systems, the stress will cause a
movement of dislocations until they meet the grain boundaries. With time, the density
of dislocations close to the grain boundaries will increase (i.e. pile-up effect) which
will result in a high stress concentration. This stress concentration at the grain
boundaries will consecutively produce a movement of dislocations in the
neighbouring grain (Fig. 5.10b) either by the initiation of new dislocations or by
unlocking of the existing ones. This time-dependent process continues further across

127
the whole plastic region. Hence the plastic deformation of neighbouring grains having
differently oriented slip systems does not occur independently of each other because
this would lead to the separation of the grains, which cannot be confirmed by
microscopic observations.
Since plastic deformation is the result of the movement of dislocations, the
explanation of plasticity in microscopic terms is related to the understanding of this
phenomenon. The analysis of a movement of dislocations in this thesis is restricted
only to consideration of the action of mechanical stresses, omitting the thermal stress
effects. This is why the investigations outlined here were carried out at a constant
ambient temperature.
The magnitude of stress produced by immobilization of dislocations in the crystal [42]
presents a resistance against the movement of dislocations and can be expressed as
a a i
b G M b G M = = = 3 ; 3 . 0 (5.3)
where is factor of the interaction type, M is Schmid factor, G is shear modulus of
the material, b is Burgers vector and
a
is density of the activated dislocations.
If the stress acting on the material is higher than the magnitude of the resistance
against the movement of dislocations
i
, the dislocations will start to move with a
velocity given by
( )
m
i
f v = (5.4)
The factor f depends on the absolute temperature T and on the activation energy
Q according to the Arrhenius equation, ( ) RT Q f f = exp
/
, where
/
f indicates the
strength of the material at a particular plastic deformation rate, R is the universal gas
constant and the exponent m is a material parameter that should be determined
experimentally.
According to Eq. (5.4), in order to cause flow (i.e. movement of dislocations), the
magnitude of the stress acting on the component should be at least equal to or
slightly higher than the stress that represents a resistance against the movement of
dislocations (
i
). Under this consideration, the magnitude of the stress acting on
the component can be expressed in the form of microscopic terms:
a
b G (5.5)
The magnitude of the macroscopic strain generated by the plastic deformation due to
the movement of dislocations on the average glide length L in the crystal can be
expressed by the Orowan equation [83]:

128
L
M
b
M
a
= =

(5.6)
Equations (5.5) and (5.6) give the fundamental relationship between macroscopic
properties ( and ) acting on the component being plastic deformed and the
microscopic phenomenon of a plastic deformation ( and L).
The applied tangential strain measured on the outer surface of the fuel line,

, out
,
includes the strain component,

, el
, which is caused by the elastic deformation of
the outer surface, and the strain component,

, add
, which is a consequence of the
additional deformation of the outer surface due to the plastic deformation of the inner
layers of a fuel line (Fig. 5.11):


, , , add el out
+ =
(5.7)
Since this additional strain component is induced by the movement of dislocations
during the plastic deformation of the inner layers, its nature can be described by
Eq. (5.6). With this can be explained the time-dependent asymptotic behaviour of the
applied tangential strain obtained in the experiments performed on samples No. 1 to
No. 6.
p
in

i
v=0

a
t1

a
t2

a
tn

out,
=
el,
+
add,
t1 t1 t1

out,
=
el,
+
add,
t2 t2 t2

out,
=
el,
+
add,
tn tn tn
t
1
t
2
t
n
t
m

el,

out,

add,
T
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]
Holding time [s]

Figure 5.11. Increasing the density of the activated dislocations in the inner layers of a fuel
line during the autofrettage treatment results in an increase in the additional strain
component

, add
measured on the outer surface of the fuel line.
At the beginning of the holding period
1
t , a certain number of dislocations
1 t
a
in the
inner layers of a fuel line were activated due to the sufficiently high magnitude of the

129
stress (see Eq. 5.5). The movement of these dislocations produced an additional
deformation of the outer surface,
1
,
t
add
.
With time (
2
t ), the density of the activated dislocation
2 t
a
increased due to the
spreading of the plastic deformation. The movement of these newly activated
dislocations caused a further increase in the strain,
2
,
t
add
(see Eq. 5.6). After a
certain time (
n
t ), the energy ( ) at a particular radius from the fuel line axis, required
for the movement of the activated dislocations and for activation of the new
dislocations, was not sufficient to overcome the barriers (
i
), which builds up the
resistance against this movement, and the plastic deformation process finished.
From this time point forward, the density of the activated dislocation in inner layers
was zero ( 0 =
a
) and the plastic deformation rate of the inner layers became zero:
0
0
= =
=
a layers inner
v
M
b
a


& . At this moment, the additional strain component induced
by the plastic deformation of the inner layers achieved its limiting value
tn
add

,
.
Therefore, according to Eq. (5.7), the applied tangential strain rate measured on the
outer surface of the fuel lines became zero: 0
,
=

out
& .
As can be seen from Figs. 5.4 to 5.9, autofrettaging of a fuel line at higher pressures
(i.e. bringing more energy to the system) causes activation of more dislocations in
the material during the treatment. This results in a larger difference between the
tangential strain values measured at the beginning and end of the holding period. In
addition, a movement of the large number of dislocations (i.e. a larger wall portion
that has to be plastically deformed) requires a longer period for the completion of the
plastic deformation process.
The interdependence between the autofrettage pressure (i.e. the level of energy
applied to the system), the time required for the movement of all activated
dislocations in the inner fuel line layers (i.e. for the completion of the plastic
deformation process) and the generated strain state is the subject of the following
section.
5.4.3 Interdependence Between Autofrettage Pressure, Holding
Time and Generated Strain State
In order to elucidate the relationship between the autofrettage pressure, the holding
time and the generated strain state, the results of the strain gauge measurements
that have already been presented in Figs. 5.4 to 5.9 are summarized in Fig. 5.12.
As can be seen on the plots of the applied strains, completion of the plastic
deformation caused by the autofrettage process required a certain period and it was

130
more emphasized in the tangential than in the axial direction. It can be concluded
that the plastic deformation process was completed when the applied strain reached
its limiting asymptotic value.


Strain gauge measurements - Sample No.1 (5800 bar)
Strain gauge measurements - Sample No.2 (6000 bar)
Strain gauge measurements - Sample No.3 (6200 bar)
Strain gauge measurements - Sample No.4 (6400 bar)
Strain gauge measurements - Sample No.5 (6600 bar)
Strain gauge measurements - Sample No.6 (6800 bar)



Figure 5.12. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line
(St 52 DI) during the holding period of 600 s and during the relaxation period of 600 s [9].
The experimental results presented here indicate that the plastic deformation process
was completed after 138, 246, 348, 422 and 534 s in the case of samples
autofrettaged at pressures of 5800, 6000, 6200, 6400 and 6600 bar, respectively.

131
In the case of sample No. 6, autofrettaged at a pressure of 6800 bar, the slope of the
tangent line to the asymptote of an applied tangential strain curve was too steep
even at the end of the holding period. This indicated that owing to the extremely high
pressure, the plastic deformation reached the outer surface. The measured
tangential strain on the outer surface during autofrettage at a pressure of 6800 bar
was 4307 m/m after 600 s (i.e. more than 0.43% plastic strain offset). After the
treatment, the measured tangential strain was 2740 m/m (i.e. more than 0.27%
plastic strain offset). In addition, according to the analytical calculations, the plastic
deformation should reach the outer surface by exposing the 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of
steel St 52 DI to a pressure of 6823 bar. All this suggests that the fuel line was
completely autofrettaged during the experiment at a pressure of 6800 bar.
The results of the investigation obtained on sample No. 6 confirm that the creep
deformation in fuel lines takes place during the autofrettage process. On the plot of
the applied tangential strain measured on the outer surface of sample No. 6 both the
primary and the secondary creep stages can be recognized. The primary creep stage
is characterized by a decrease of the applied tangential strain rate

, out
& (i.e. a rapid
increase in the applied tangential strain

, out
with time). This reflects the material
hardening due to dislocation pile-up (see the previous section). In the second stage,
a constant creep strain rate is observed ( 0
,
>

out
& ).
In the case of the other five samples which were autofrettaged at pressures of 5800,
6000, 6200, 6400 and 6600 bar, the applied tangential strain curve measured on the
outer surface achieved its limiting asymptotic value after a certain period ( 0
,
=

out
& ).
This is because the fuel lines were partially autofrettaged and further creep of the
inner fuel line layers was retarded by the outer elastic region; the inner layers were
suppressed by the outer elastic region.
To illustrate the interdependence between the period required for the completion of
the plastic deformation, the corresponding autofrettage pressure and the generated
strain, diagrams of ( ) t f = and ( ) p f = were plotted.
Figure 5.13a depicts the applied tangential strain versus the time required for
completion of the treatment at different autofrettage pressures. Using polynomial
regression analysis, it was shown that a third-order polynomial curve best fits the
results obtained by the experiments. Corresponding coefficients of the polynomial
equation obtained ( 0000131 . 0
3
= a , 0029 . 0
2
= a , 0833 . 0
1
= a and 1899
0
= a ),
which describe the behaviour of this cubic curve, are presented in the figure.
Figure 5.13b illustrates the difference in the applied tangential strain measured on
the outer surface of the considered fuel line at the beginning of the holding period
and after 600 s for different pressure levels. The polynomial regression analysis is

132
also applied here and the strain magnitudes measured at the beginning of the
holding period and those measured after 600 s were interpolated with the third-order
polynomial curves.

= 0.0000131 t
3
- 0.0029 t
2
- 0.0833 t + 1899


= 2.95023E-6 p
3
- 0.05238 p
2
+ 310.42021 p - 611996
600 s

= 8.24074E-7 p
3
- 0.01304 p
2
+ 67.83972 p - 113759
0s

(a) (b)
Figure 5.13. a) Time required for completion of the plastic deformation during autofrettaging of
the 8 x 2.2 fuel line (St 52 DI) at different pressure levels. b) Difference in applied tangential
strain measured on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line (St 52 DI) at the beginning of the
holding period and after 600 s for different pressure levels.
Corresponding coefficients of the polynomial equation for the strain magnitudes
measured at the beginning of the holding period were
7 0
3
10 24074 . 8

=
s
a ,
01304 . 0
0
2
=
s
a , 83972 . 67
0
1
=
s
a and 113759
0
0
=
s
a and corresponding coefficients
of the polynomial equation for the strain magnitudes measured after 600 s were
6 600
3
10 95023 . 2

=
s
a , 05238 . 0
600
2
=
s
a , 42021 . 310
600
1
=
s
a and 611996
600
0
=
s
a .
The coefficients obtained in the above equations are individual for this particular fuel
line (8 x 2.2 made of steel St 52 DI). If another fuel line made of another material and
having different geometric properties is considered, the same cubic behaviour
defined with other coefficients can be expected. Therefore, for any new fuel line
made of another material and having different geometric properties, these
coefficients has to be determined experimentally in the same way as shown in the
present section.
Finally, the results presented in both plots in Fig 5.13 can be summarized and
graphed in one 3D plot (Fig. 5.14). A family of the strain-time curves obtained in the

133
experiments defines a 3D surface that describes the interdependence between the
period required for the completion of the plastic deformation, the corresponding
autofrettage pressure and the generated strain state.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
P
re
s
s
u
r
e
[b
a
r]
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

[
s
]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]
5800
6000
6200
6400
6600
6800
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500

Figure 5.14. 3D strain-pressure-time plot for the 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of steel St 52 DI [9]
(the dashed line connects the points at which the limiting asymptotic values of applied
tangential strains are achieved for different pressure levels).
By using this 3D plot, it is possible to determine the time required for completion of
the process and the level of strains generated by autofrettaging of the considered
fuel line at any pressure.
However, the holding time is an important parameter with respect to profitable series
production and should not be longer than 10 s. Some suggestions on how to
generate a desirable stress-strain state in fuel lines during an autofrettage process
and still maintain profitable series production are drawn from the results obtained and
are outlined in the following section.
5.4.4 Determination of Optimal Autofrettage Process Parameters
for Series Production
As mentioned above, with respect to profitable series production, it is not
recommended to expose fuel lines to pressure for longer than 10 s. However, the

134
results of the experimental investigation outlined in this thesis revealed that
completion of the plastic deformation caused by the autofrettage process requires a
much longer period. This problem could be overcome in series production by
autofrettaging of fuel lines at some higher pressure for a short period instead of
keeping them for a longer period at the pressure determined by the analytical
calculation. The results presented in this thesis indicate that a very similar stress-
strain state should be generated in both cases.
As an example, Fig. 5.15 shows that autofrettaging of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of
steel St 52 DI at a pressure of 6200 bar for 10 s results in a very similar strain state to
that obtained by keeping it at a pressure of 6000 bar for 600 s. The figure consists of
the results of the applied tangential strain obtained in the experiment performed on
sample No. 2 (right) taken from Fig. 5.5 and the results obtained in the experiment
performed on sample No. 3 (left) taken from Fig. 5.6.
Autofrettage at a
pressure of 6200 bar
Autofrettage at a
pressure of 6000 bar

Figure 5.15. Autofrettage of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line (St 52 DI) at a higher pressure for a short
period (e.g. at a pressure of 6200 bar for 10 s) results in a very similar strain state to
autofrettage at the lower pressure for a long period (e.g. at a pressure of 6000 bar for 600 s).
Therefore, with respect to profitable series production, it is preferable to perform
autofrettaging of fuel lines at some higher pressure for a short period. As will be
presented in the following section, keeping a fuel line for a longer period during an
autofrettage process could probably lead to the growth of internal cracks across a
fuel line wall.

135
An interesting point that remains is the question of how much the pressure
determined by the analytical calculation has to be enhanced in series production in
order to obtain a desirable stress-strain state within the required 10 s.
The required enhancement of the pressure can be determined using the
experimentally obtained polynomial equations (see Fig. 5.13). Substitution of the
strain magnitudes measured at the moment when the autofrettage process was
completed into the polynomial equation obtained from the results measured at the
beginning of the holding period gives the magnitude of the pressure at which the
corresponding fuel line has to be kept for not longer than 10 s during the autofrettage
process.
Differences between that enhanced pressure and the pressure determined by the
analytical calculation for all five autofrettage degrees considered were calculated by
applying the above principle (Fig. 5.16).

Figure 5.16. Required enhancement of the pressure determined by the analytical
calculation for the 8 x 2.2 fuel line (St 52 DI) .
As can be seen from Fig. 5.16, in the region of lower autofrettage degrees the
difference between the pressure determined by the analytical calculation and the
required pressure is significant and it decreases with increase in the autofrettage
degree. This effect can be also observed in a 3D plot (Fig. 5.14). In the region of
lower autofrettage degrees, the strain-time curves are close to each other and the
distance between them increases with increase in the autofrettage degree.

136
Using the results presented in Fig. 5.16, it is possible now to find for any autofrettage
degree how much the pressure determined by the analytical calculation has to be
enhanced in order to generate a desirable stress-strain state and to maintain
profitable series production ( s t
holding
10 < ).
As an example, autofrettaging of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of steel St 52 DI at a
pressure of approximately 6380 bar for not longer than 10 s should result in a very
similar stress-strain state to that obtained by keeping it at a pressure of 6300 bar for
600 s.
By applying the presented method, it is possible for any particular fuel line (with
defined geometric and material properties) to determine the autofrettage pressure
which will provide the generation of a desirable stress-strain state within the time
required to maintain profitable production.
The method outlined in Sections 5.4.3 and 5.4.4 can be used as a tool for the
determination of the optimal autofrettage parameters in industrial series production.
This empirical method overcomes the limitation of an analytical model wherein the
influence of the pressure holding time on the stress-strain generation during an
autofrettage process is not considered.
5.4.5 Detection of Internal Cracks by Speckle Interferometry Strain
Measurements on the Outer Surface
The inhomogeneity of the SI results evaluated on sample No. 1 (Fig. 5.4) was not
high compared with that for the other samples. The axial strain showed
approximately constant inhomogeneity up to 48 m/m during the holding period and
up to 83 m/m during the relaxation period. The inhomogeneity of the tangential
strain was constant (up to 99 m/m) during the relaxation period.
The applied tangential strain over almost the complete outer surface of sample No. 1
indicated asymptotic behaviour with time. This behaviour was disturbed in the
regions marked by Squares 2 and 4 after 285 s where the applied tangential strain
started to expand rapidly. The reason for this could be either an influence of
metallurgical imperfections existing in the material or an influence of potential cracks
that propagated across the wall during the holding period. The inhomogeneity of the
tangential strain at the beginning of the holding period was 100 m/m and increased
to 179 m/m at the end of the holding period.
The inhomogeneity of the SI results evaluated on sample No. 2 (Fig. 5.5) was higher
than that for sample No. 1. The axial strain showed approximately constant
inhomogeneity up to 87 m/m during the holding period and up to 93 m/m during
the relaxation period. The inhomogeneity of the tangential strain was almost constant
(up to 355 m/m) during the relaxation period.

137
The inhomogeneity in the tangential direction was emphasized due to the relatively
small strains measured along the narrow region (Squares 4) located in the middle of
sample No. 2 during the holding and relaxation periods. In contrast to an asymptotic
increase in the applied tangential strain over almost the complete outer surface, the
applied tangential strain measured in this region decreased during the holding period.
Hence the inhomogeneity of the tangential strain increased from 220 m/m at the
beginning to 360 m/m at the end of the holding period.
Very similar behaviour of the applied tangential strain was observed in the regions
marked by Squares 3 and 5 on the outer surface of sample No. 3 (Fig. 5.6). The rest
of the outer surface indicated an asymptotic increase in the applied tangential strain
during the holding time. The regions marked by Squares 3 and 5 were responsible
for an increase in the inhomogeneity of the tangential strain from 225 to 330 m/m
during the holding period. Nevertheless, the inhomogeneity of the tangential strain
during the relaxation period was almost constant (276 m/m). The difference
between the maximum and minimum of the axial strain measured on the outer
surface of sample No. 3 was approximately constant up to 119 m/m during the
holding period and up to 100 m/m during the relaxation period.
A very slight decrease in the applied tangential strain with time was observed on
most of the outer surface (Squares 3) of sample No. 4 (Fig. 5.7). In the rest of the
outer surface the characteristic asymptotic behaviour or an increase in the applied
tangential strain was measured. Owing to the very high tangential strain measured in
the region marked by Square 5, which covered less than 4% of the considered outer
surface, the inhomogeneity during the holding period was relatively high (from 870
m/m at the beginning up to 1040 m/m at the end of the period). Neglecting the
results in this region, which could be due to the propagation of a potential crack
across the wall during the holding period, the inhomogeneity was significantly lower
(560 m/m at the beginning and 667 m/m at the end of the holding period). During
the relaxation period, the inhomogeneity of the tangential strain was almost constant
but relatively high (up to 755 m/m).
The difference between the maximum and minimum of the axial strain measured on
the outer surface of sample No. 4 was approximately constant during the holding (up
to 52 m/m) and also during the relaxation period (up to 76 m/m).
As can be seen in Figs. 5.8 and 5.9, a further increase in the autofrettage pressure
led to an increase in the inhomogeneity of the measured strains. In both experiments
the applied tangential strain showed asymptotic character over the complete outer
surface accompanied with an increase in the inhomogeneity with time. The difference
between the maximum and minimum of the applied tangential strain increased from
530 to 619 m/m in the case of the sample No. 5 and from 638 to 755 m/m in the
case of the sample No. 6. The inhomogeneity of the tangential strain during the

138
relaxation period was almost constant in both cases (up to 634 m/m measured on
sample No. 5 and up to 526 m/m measured on sample No. 6).
The axial strain showed approximately constant inhomogeneity up to 147 m/m
during the holding period and up to 90 m/m during the relaxation period in the case
of the sample autofrettaged at 6600 bar. The experiment performed on the sample
autofrettaged at 6800 bar also indicated approximately constant inhomogeneity of the
axial strain up to 165 m/m and up to 64 m/m during the holding and relaxation
periods, respectively.
It can be concluded from the results of the SI measurements that the inhomogeneity
of the applied tangential strain measured on the outer surface increased with time
(Table 5.1). This inhomogeneity after a duration of the autofrettage treatment of a few
seconds was significantly lower than that after 600 s. In addition, the inhomogeneity
increased with increase in the autofrettage pressure (i.e. autofrettage degree).
Table 5.1. Time dependence of the inhomogeneity of the applied tangential strains measured
on the outer surface of the fuel line
5800 bar 6000 bar 6200 bar 6400 bar 6600 bar 6800 bar
Inhomogeneity of the applied
tangential strain measured by the
Q-100 SI measuring system after 0 s
Inhomogeneity of the applied
tangential strain measured by the
Q-100 SI measuring system after 600 s
619 755 179 360 330 1040
Autofrettage of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line at a pressure of
100 220 225 870 530 638

Since further creep of the inner fuel line layers was retarded by the outer elastic
region (see Section 5.4.3), the applied tangential strain curve should achieve its
limiting asymptotic value after a certain period in experiments performed on samples
Nos. 1 to 5. However, the SI results indicated in some regions an increase and in
others a decrease in the applied tangential strain over the holding period.
For example, an increase in the applied tangential strain was observed in regions
marked by Squares 2 and 4 in the case of sample No. 1 and in the region marked by
Squares 2 and 5 in the case of sample No. 4 (see Fig. 5.17). At the same time, a
decrease in the applied tangential strain was measured in the regions marked by
Squares 5 on sample No. 1 and in the regions marked by Squares 3 on sample
No. 4.

139
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
Strain gauge measurements

Sample No. 1
> 0
> 0
< 0

Sample No. 4 > 0
> 0
< 0

Figure 5.17. Inhomogeneity of the applied tangential strain results measured by
the Q-100 SI measuring system.
The decrease in applied tangential strain ( 0 < & ) with time could be due to the
possible interaction between different regions in order to balance the strain increase
in the neighbouring regions. However, this statement could not be confirmed by the
methodology used in this work.
The reason for the increase in applied tangential strain ( 0 > & ) with time could be the
potential longitudinal cracks generated by the manufacturing procedure (cold-
working) on the inner surface, which started to grow and to propagate across the fuel
line wall during the autofrettage treatment. As can be seen from the SEM image of
the inner surface (Fig. 5.18), a large number of cracks in the direction parallel to the
fuel line axis existed before the fuel line had been exposed to the treatment. The
length of the cracks was up to 200 m and they extended up to 30 m deep from the
inner surface.
In order to confirm the statement that the existence of cracks on the inner surface of
the fuel line and their propagation across the fuel line wall during the autofrettage
treatment were responsible for the increase in the applied tangential strain, SEM
analysis of the inner surface of the parts of samples Nos. 5 and 6 considered in the
measurements was performed.

140

Figure 5.18. SEM image of the inner surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line (St 52 DI) before the
autofrettage treatment.
SEM Analysis of the Inner Surface of Sample No. 6
Since the highest inhomogeneity of the SI results was observed on sample No. 6,
which was autofrettaged at the highest pressure (6800 bar), the SEM analysis of the
inner surface of the fuel line part considered in the measurements was carried out
first (Fig. 5.19). The length of the analysed part was 30 mm. Along this length, 10
relatively long cracks were found whose locations are shown in the map of the cracks
in Fig. 5.19a. Cracks A, B, C and E were up to 1 mm long, cracks F, H and I were
between 1.5 and 2.5 mm long, and cracks D, G and J were between 3 and 4 mm
long.
In order to compare the positions of areas of the high strain gradient with the location
of the cracks, the strain map was stuck on the map of the cracks obtained by SEM
analysis. As can be seen, the locations of the cracks on the inner surface mostly
match areas of high strain gradient detected on the outer surface by the Q-100 SI
measuring system. The areas of highest strain gradient (Squares 5 in Fig. 5.9) were
at the location of crack J and close to cracks G and H. Additionally, the locations of
cracks A, B, C and D fit the areas of relatively high strain gradient marked by
Squares 2 and 4.


141

(a)

(b) (c)

(d) (e)


(f) (g)
Figure 5.19. Distribution of cracks on the inner surface of the part of sample No. 6 considered
in the measurement (compare with Fig. 5.9).

142
SEM Analysis of the Inner Surface of Sample No. 5
In the next step, SEM analysis of the layer positioned 50 m under the inner surface
of sample No. 5 was performed (Fig. 5.20). In order to see how deep the cracks
spread into the wall during the treatment and to remove the small cracks existing on
the inner surface (see Fig. 5.18), a thin layer of the inner surface of approximately
50 m was removed using an electropolishing procedure.
The length of the analysed part was also 30 mm here. Along this length, 13 cracks
were found whose locations are shown in the map of cracks in Fig. 5.20a. This map
actually represents the locations of the roots of the cracks initiated from the inner
surface. Since the sample had been autofrettaged at a lower pressure and here are
considered the roots of cracks found 50 m under the inner surface, they were
smaller than the cracks found on the inner surface of sample No. 6. The roots of
cracks B, F, I, J and K were up to 200 m long, those of cracks D, E, G, H, L and M
were between 200 and 300 m long, and those of cracks A and C were the longest,
up to 1.2 mm.
In order to compare the positions of areas of the strain gradient with the location of
the cracks, the strain map was stuck on the map of cracks obtained by SEM analysis.
Also in this case, the locations of the cracks on the inner surface layers match the
areas of high strain gradient measured on the outer surface. The area of the highest
strain gradient (Squares 5 in Fig. 5.8) was close to the location of cracks G, H and I.
Additionally, the locations of other cracks fit the areas of relatively high strain gradient
marked by Squares 4 and 3 in Fig. 5.8.
Hence it can be concluded that the increase in the applied tangential strain measured
by the Q-100 SI measuring system during an autofrettage treatment results from the
propagation of internal cracks across the fuel line wall. The potential for the
evaluation of strain gradients represents a great advantage of speckle interferometry,
as a full-field measuring technique, in comparison with other conventional
techniqaues (e.g. strain gauges).
On the basis of the SI measurements, the positions of potential cracks and the
effects of crack growth on strain generation can be evaluated. The results of the
investigations presented here (see Table 5.1) indicated that the maximum strain was
increased from approximately 17% in the case of sample No. 5 up to approximately
79% in the case of sample No. 1 due to the growth of cracks in the samples. Hence it
can be expected that the maximum strain (i.e. maximum stress) will be increased by
this percentage also under operating conditions.

143


(a)


(b) (c) (d)



(e) (f) (g)

(h) (i) (j)
Figure 5.20. Distribution of cracks on the layer positioned 50 m under the inner surface of the
part of sample No. 5 considered in the measurement (compare with Fig. 5.8).

144
Investigation of a Crack-Free Fuel Line
Finally, the inhomogeneity of the SI results during autofrettage of a fuel line having a
higher quality of the inner surface was investigated. For that purpose, a non-
autofrettaged straight 8 x 2.05 fuel line (sample No. 7), made from the same batch of
steel St 52 DI as the previous six samples, was used (Fig. 5.21).

Figure 5.21. Non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.05 fuel line sample used in the investigation.
The inner surface of the sample was honed so that a layer of approximately 150 m
was removed. Hence the inner diameter of the fuel line increased from 3.6 to
3.9 mm. The thickness of this removed layer was defined by the minimum available
size of the honing tool. By this procedure, whereby the longitudinal cracks were
removed, a higher quality of the inner surface was obtained. The SEM image of the
honed inner surface (Fig. 5.22) showed a typical pattern with sloped x-stripes created
by the honing tool.

Figure 5.22. SEM image of the honed inner surface of the 8 x 2.05 fuel line (St 52 DI) before
the autofrettage treatment.
In order to see the effects of the quality of the inner surface on the inhomogeneity of
the SI results measured on the outer surface, the results for the fuel line with

145
improved quality of the inner surface were compared with the results obtained by
measurements on a standard fuel line having a large number of the longitudinal
cracks on the inner surface. The comparison of the SI results on two fuel lines with
identical material properties and with different wall thicknesses is generally possible if
the fuel lines indicate the same autofrettage degree.
As a reference, the SI results obtained by an autofrettaging of sample No. 5 at a
pressure of 6600 bar were chosen. According to the analytical calculation, 71.4% of
the fuel line wall is plastic deformed by autofrettaging of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line at a
pressure of 6600 bar. Approximately the same autofrettage degree (71.7%) is given
by autofrettaging of the 8 x 2.05 fuel line at a pressure of 5950 bar (Fig. 5.23).
6139 6116
6046
5925
5751
5519
5223
4858
4416
3257
3886
6576
6716
6797 6823
6373
6102
5756
5326
4801
4168
3407
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
A
u
t
o
f
r
e
t
t
a
g
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]
Autofrettage degree [%]
8 x 2.2 fuel line (St 52 DI)
8 x 2.05 fuel line (St 52 DI)
6600 bar 71.4 %
5950 bar 71.7 %

Figure 5.23. Calculation of an equivalent autofrettage pressure according to the given
autofrettage degree.
In the experiment, sample No. 7 was autofrettaged at a pressure of 5950 bar and the
strain behaviour on the outer surface of the sample was measured using the Q-100
SI measuring system. Strain gauge measurements were not performed.
The homogeneity of the SI results evaluated on sample No. 7 (Fig. 5.24) was for the
most part (approximately 75% of the outer surface) better than in the case of the SI
results evaluated on sample No. 5 (Fig. 5.8). Including results evaluated in the
regions marked by Squares 1 and 2 (approximately 25% of the outer surface), the
inhomogeneity was significantly higher compared with the results obtained on sample
No. 5.


146
16.14
8.77
1.84
-5.05
-12.31
-20.56
-17.26 -9.75 -2.97 4.04 11.14 19.03
3800
3650
3510
2770
2480
2920
3060
3210
3360
2620
[m/m]
SI measurements (Squares 4)
SI measurements (Squares 5)
SI measurements (Squares 3)
SI measurements (Squares 1)
SI measurements (Squares 2)
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
4
4
y [mm]
x [mm]




Figure 5.24. Time behaviour of the strains on the outer surface of sample No. 7 during the
holding time of 600 s at a pressure of 5950 bar and during the relaxation time of 600 s after
autofrettage at the pressure.

147
The inhomogeneity of the tangential strain during the relaxation period was much
lower neglecting the regions marked by Squares 1 and 2 (up to 352 instead of
942 m/m). Furthermore, the axial strain showed approximately constant
inhomogeneity up to 99 instead of 141 m/m during the holding period and up to 67
instead of 117 m/m during the relaxation period if the results in the aforementioned
regions are not considered.
The inhomogeneity of the tangential strain neglecting results obtained in the regions
marked by Squares 1 and 2 was 390 m/m at the beginning of the holding period and
remained almost steady (404 m/m) until the end of the holding period (i.e.
0
,

out
& ). However, the inhomogeneity increased from 860 to 1030 m/m if the
results over the complete surface are considered. The reason for this constant
behaviour of the inhomogeneity of the tangential strain during the complete holding
period could be the high quality of the inner surface. As was shown in Table 6.1 and
confirmed by the SEM analyses of the inner surface of samples Nos. 5 and 6, the
growth of the longitudinal cracks during the autofrettage treatment resulted in an
increase in the applied tangential strain with time ( 0
,
>

out
& ). In order to confirm the
above statement, SEM analysis of the inner surface of the part of sample No. 7
considered in the experiment was also performed.
The length of the analysed part was 25 mm (Fig. 5.25a). No longitudinal cracks were
found on the complete inner surface of sample No. 7. This explains the constant
behaviour of the inhomogeneity of the tangential strain during the holding period over
most of the outer surface (approximately 75%). However, no longitudinal cracks were
found even in the region of the highest strain gradient, which covers approximately
25% of the outer surface. Hence it can be deduced that the cracks on the inner
surface were not responsible for a such a high strain gradient in this region. Some
other effects in the material that could not be detected by this analysis could be the
reason for this.
On the complete inner surface of sample No. 7 were found only some deep stripes,
probably created by the honing tool (Fig. 5.25).
The experimental investigations outlined in this chapter indicate that by analysing the
SI results measured on the outer surface of the fuel line (i.e. analysing the behaviour
of the applied tangential strain rate

, out
& ) it is possible to localize internal cracks in a
fuel line wall and also to determine qualitatively the time propagation of those cracks
across the fuel line wall.
An interesting question that remains is whether the autofrettage treatment for a short
period ( s t
holding
10 < ) is less harmful than long-term treatment with respect to the
initiation of internal cracks and theirs propagation during the treatment. In order to
answer this question, crack growth investigations should be performed. However,

148
these investigations were not scheduled in the original scope of this thesis and can
be a topic of further works. Anyhow, the procedure in which a fuel line is
autofrettaged at some higher pressure for a short period is to be preferred from the
viewpoint of profitable series production.


(a) Analysed part of sample No. 7


(b) Region A (c) Region B


(d) Region C (e) Region D
Figure 5.25. SEM analysis of the inner surface of the part of sample No. 7 considered in the
measurement (compare with Fig. 5.24).

149
5.5 Concluding Remarks
The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of investigations discussed
in this chapter:
1. Due to the time-dependent nature of the movement of dislocations in the inner
layers of a fuel line during autofrettage treatment, the applied tangential strain
measured on the outer surface shows asymptotic time behaviour. As the plastic
deformation of inner layers finishes, the tangential strain on the outer surface
approaches its limiting asymptotic value.
2. Autofrettaging of a fuel line at higher pressures causes the activation of a large
number of dislocations in the material during the treatment, which results in a
larger difference between the tangential strain values measured at the
beginning and at the end of the holding period. The time required for completion
of the plastic deformation process is therefore longer and increases with
increasing of the autofrettage degree.
3. Since the axial deformation of the outer surface is very small in the case of
internal pressurized tubes, the asymptotic time behaviour of the applied axial
strain measured on the outer surface of a fuel line is not so emphasized as in
the case of an applied tangential strain.
4. There is only a negligible influence of relaxation time on the generation of
residual strains.
5. The magnitude of the generated tangential strain measured on the outer
surface at the moment when the plastic deformation process in inner fuel line
layers is finished for different autofrettage degrees can be expressed by a third-
order polynomial equation.
6. In order to have profitable series production ( s t
holding
10 < ) and to ensure the
completion of the plastic deformation process (i.e. generation of the required
stress-strain state), fuel lines should be autofrettaged at some higher pressure
for a short period instead of keeping them for a longer period at the pressure
determined by the analytical calculations. As presented in this work, in the
region of lower autofrettage degrees the difference between the pressure
determined by the analytical calculation and the required pressure is significant
and it decreases with increase in the autofrettage degree.
7. Analysis of the SI measurements on the outer surface of a fuel line allows the
localization of the cracks in the wall of the fuel line and also gives information on
how large the influence of the crack growth on the generation of maximum
strain is. In contrast to the conventional measuring techniques, the potential of
speckle interferometry for the evaluation of the strain gradient over the surface

150
of a component makes possible a better understanding of the autofrettage
phenomenon.
8. The time propagation of cracks across a fuel line wall can be qualitatively
analysed from the SI results measured on the outer surface.

151

Chapter 6
Concept for Production Quality Control of Fuel
Lines
As already mentioned in Section 2.5, the generation of unfavourable residual stress-
strain patterns through the autofrettage process could have detrimental
consequences for the performance of a fuel line under operating conditions. The
influence of parameters such as geometric imperfections, metallurgical imperfections
(cracks, voids, defects, distortions, dislocations, etc.), influence of previous
manufacturing processes (heat treatment, cold-working process, bending process) or
even disturbances due to the process itself (problems with the operation of the
autofrettage machine) can affect the quality of autofrettaged fuel lines. In order to
achieve a favourable residual stress-strain pattern, which gives beneficial effects
under operating conditions, it is important to conduct the autofrettage process
appropriately. Therefore, monitoring of the autofrettage process in the series
production of fuel lines is required. This actually means quality inspection of fuel lines
on the one hand, and control of a strain generation during the autofrettage process
itself on the other.
A quality inspection of fuel lines could be performed using a nominal-actual
comparison principle. In this case, a strain state generated during the autofrettage
process can be measured and then compared with the reference (desired) state
taken from a quality database.
Additionally, if some parameters in the autofrettage process deviate from the
reference values, the process should be controlled. A measuring system that forms
with the pump a feedback control loop could control (regulate) the pump operation so
long as the desired strain state in the fuel line is not achieved. For example, using
this principle, the influence of variations in material properties within one batch on the
quality of the autofrettaged fuel lines can be avoided.
For the purpose of inexpensive industrial application, the selected measuring system
should provide an effective, non-contact, non-destructive, fast and flexible means for
stress-strain evaluation. A rough survey and the present state of the art of the most
important measuring methods for stress-strain evaluation, including a comparative
description concerning the quality control of fuel lines in series production, is
reviewed in the following section.

152
6.1 Review of Measuring Methods for Stress-Strain
Evaluation
A large number of measuring methods for stress-strain evaluation have been
developed in recent years. Some of them are destructive whereas others can be
used without significantly altering the component. Some have excellent spatial
resolution, whereas others are restricted to near-surface stresses or to specific
classes of material. Other limitations and restrictions (e.g. suitable only for a specific
type of stress analysis, specific data required for evaluation, specific surface and
environmental conditions required, desired accuracy of measurement, laboratory-
based or portable use, costs, etc.) complicate the optimal selection of a suitable
method for a particular application. Essentially, there is no universal method which
can solve every problem. Hence in the process of method selection for a particular
application, the following parameters according to Lu [64] must be taken into
account:
nature of the material (crystallographic structure, texture, chemical composition,
phase),
the type of residual stresses (macro or micro),
the gradient of the stresses in the part (gradient through the thickness of the part
or on the surface of the part),
the geometry of the part and the zone analysed using the technique chosen
(depth, dimensions and shape of the surface to be analysed),
where the measurements are taken (on-site or in the laboratory),
the type of intervention (destructive or non-destructive, contact or non-contact),
the length of the intervention (measuring rate),
the accuracy and repetitiveness of the method,
the cost of the measurement and the price of the equipment required.
A number of comprehensive reviews of measuring methods for stress-strain
evaluation have already been published. Detailed information on the specific
attributes of the various techniques for different applications can be found in the
literature [58, 64, 110]. A comparative survey of the 10 most common measuring
methods concerning the main features from the aspect of the quality control in a
series production of fuel lines is reviewed in this thesis (Table 6.1).
The strain gauge is one of the most widely used techniques for stress-strain
measurement and offers many advantages. The technique is relatively simple,
cheap, quick, portable and versatile and can be applied to a wide range of materials
and components. However, strain gauges are not suitable for stress analysis in
particular cases. Despite the many different shapes of gauges for different industrial
applications that have been developed in recent years, measurements on certain

153
places of components using strain gauges are not always feasible. Another inherent
complexity is the required surface preparation of the test object. To ensure accurate
results, very careful sensor application is important. This is a particularly time-
consuming process. Thus, strain gauges cannot be used as a quality control
instrument in series production. In addition, the costs of measurements are relatively
high for such application of the method (see Table 6.1).
The X-ray diffraction method is the most popular non-destructive technique for the
measurement of surface stresses. Since X-ray wavelengths have only very small
penetration depths in most inorganic materials, stress analysis is basically restricted
to surface stress evaluation. The variation of stresses with depth in components can
be evaluated by the X-ray diffraction method with a combination of incremental
material removal, but then the method becomes destructive. One of the major
disadvantages of this technique is the limitations imposed on the tested components
size and geometry [58]. The size can be a problem, since the entire component must
fit into the diffractometer. On the other hand, the geometry has to be such that an
X-ray can both hit the measuring area and still be diffracted to the detector without
hitting any obstructions. Furthermore, special preparation of the surface for the
measurement is required. This is a particularly time-consuming process. The
aforementioned limitations accompanied with the high costs of measurement and the
need for radiation protection make the application of this technique as a quality
control instrument in series production impossible.
Synchrotrons, or hard X-rays, provide very intense beams of high-energy X-rays.
These X-rays have a much higher depth penetration than conventional ones. In
addition, the measurement is also very much quicker than with conventional X-ray
diffraction. Like the conventional X-ray diffraction method, the synchrotron diffraction
method is also suitable for the measurement of both micro and macro residual
stresses. From the aspect of the application of the method in series production,
synchrotron diffraction is inappropriate since it is available at only a few facilities in
the world and only specialists are able to operate it. Moreover, the cost of the
equipment and the cost of the measurement itself are extremely high.
Stress analysis by neutron diffraction also relies on elastic deformations within a
polycrystalline material that cause changes in the spacing of the lattice planes from
their stress-free value. Using this methodology, it is possible to obtain information on
stresses not only from near-surface regions, but also from the bulk of the material, as
neutrons can penetrate deeply (several centimetres) into most materials. Like other
diffraction techniques, neutron diffraction can be applied to polycrystalline solids only.
In addition, the technique provides the possibility for the evaluation of both macro
and micro residual stresses. Since neutron stress analysis does not require a
calibration, it may be used to calibrate other measuring methods [45].


1
5
4


Table 6.1. Review of measuring methods for stress-strain evaluation.



Measuring method

C
o
n
t
a
c
t

o
r

n
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c
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g
Surface
measurements
< 50 m
(2)
< 10 mm
(3)
Surface
measurements
Surface
measurements
Surface
measurements
(1) Component is not destroyed but further use is normally not possible
(2) For non-destructive measurements
(3) With layer removal (destructive measurements)
(4) Dependent on tested material
10 to 100
2 hours
< 10 minutes
< 10 minutes
Several
hours
< 10
2 hours
Several tens
of thousands
Several tens
of thousands
No Non-sensitive
20000 to 50000
Without costs
Without costs < 10 minutes No Non-sensitive
No
No
Macro 50000 to 100000 Without costs < 10 minutes Speckle Interferometry Contact Non-destructive Portable
Image Correlation Non-contact Non-destructive Portable Macro
Non-sensitive
Photoelasticity Non-contact Non-destructive
(1)
Portable Macro Non-sensitive
Macro < 1 m
Ultrasonic Contact Non-destructive Both
Raman Spectroscopy Non-contact Non-destructive Both
High
150 m to 50 mm
(4)
Yes
High
2 mm to 200 mm
(4)
No Medium
Macro 30000 to 150000
< 10 mm Yes Without costs 7000 to 45000 Instantaneous Macro
> 100 mm Yes
Magnetic Non-contact Non-destructive Both
million
Macro and micro
A few hundred
< 2000 Neutron Diffraction Non-contact Non-destructive Laboratory based
A few hundred
Medium
million
Macro and micro
Exact range is
not available
Synchrotron Non-contact Non-destructive Laboratory based
A few hours Yes High Macro and micro
No Non-sensitive
X-ray Diffraction Non-contact Non-destructive Both 70000 to 150000 70 to 300
Macro 10 to 50 2 hours Strain Gauge Contact Non-destructive
(1)
Portable 1000 to 8000

155
However, similarly to the synchrotron diffraction method, the neutron diffraction
method is very expensive (both the equipment and cost of measurement) and
available at only a few facilities in the world. Consequently, both methods are not
suitable for quality inspection purposes in industrial series production.
The magnetic stress testing method relies on the interaction between strain and
magnetization in a ferromagnetic material. The ferromagnetic properties of materials
are sensitive to the internal stress state due to magnetostriction and the consequent
magnetoelastic effect [58]. The magnetic method offers a truly non-destructive, non-
contact, portable, cheap, simple and very rapid alternative for the testing of residual
stresses. However, there are some basic limitations of the magnetic method which
restrict its use in particular cases. Namely, the method is suitable for measurements
on ferromagnetic materials only. Furthermore, the measurement depth is limited to
surface layers of the material. It is important to emphasize the sensitivity of the
method to microstructural variations. Although the stress dependence of the
magnetic parameters is fairly strong, there are many other variables, such as
hardness, texture, grain size, plastic deformation, etc., which also affect the
measurement. Separation of the signals, which are caused by microstructural
variations and by stress changes, may be difficult [64]. Fuel lines exhibit such
microstructural variations due to their specific production procedures and, therefore,
the magnetic method may not be suitable for the evaluation of residual stress in fuel
lines.
The ultrasonic method utilizes the sensitivity of the velocity of ultrasound waves
travelling through a material to the stress levels within it. Changes in the speed of
waves in a material are affected by the magnitude and direction of the stress present.
There are three general difficulties in the application of the ultrasonic technique. The
velocity changes are very small and, therefore, the technique has limited resolution.
Resolving small stress changes is very difficult. Hence it is often more practical to
measure transit times than the ultrasonic path length, which is usually not known with
sufficiently high precision [64]. Furthermore, microstructure variations from the pure
isotropic material (the presence of second phase, dislocations, pores, changes due
to plastic deformations, etc.) cause ambiguities associated with uncertainties in
determination of the stress-free velocity and of the acoustoelastic constant. The
consequence would be an ambiguity in the stress evaluation [64]. A third difficulty is
associated with the spatial resolution. The technique provides bulk measurement
over the entire volume considered, i.e. it is possible to evaluate only the average
stress in the region through which the ultrasound wave propagates [64]. Therefore,
the technique is well suited to routine inspection operations but not for the accurate
evaluation of residual stress in the production quality control of fuel lines.

156
The Raman effect involves the interaction of light with matter. A photon is scattered
by the Raman effect whereby during the scattering process, its energy is changed as
a consequence of its interaction with the vibrational quanta (phonons) in the matter.
Characteristic Raman or fluorescence lines shift linearly with variations in stress.
Thus, in order to determine the stress state it is necessary to compare the shift of
Raman lines between the loaded and stress-free components. The method is
essentially a surface strain measurement technique, but with optically transparent
materials such as sapphire, silicon, diamond or epoxy it is possible to obtain sub-
surface information. The method is well established for the study of fibre composites,
providing basic information about the build-up of stresses from fibre edges to centres.
Materials which give Raman spectra include silicon carbide and alumina-zirconia
ceramics. Thus, the application of the method to pure metals is not suitable.
Due to several drawbacks, the application of the photoelasticity method for
inspection of the autofrettaged components is generally not suitable. First, the
preparation for the measurement is a time consuming. Another inherent complexity to
employing the method is the very difficult application of photoelastic slices to such
small curved surfaces (e.g. 6 x 2 fuel line). The usual application of the
photoelasticity method for the case of a two-dimensional stress-strain analysis is to
flat surfaces. In addition, the costs of materials for the photoelastic slices per
measurement are relatively high.
The image correlation method is based on the principle of photogrammetry and the
use ordinary light for illumination of the measured object. The technique utilizes two
high-resolution cameras to observe the surface of the measured object. In this way,
each point of the object surface considered is imaged on a certain pixel in the image
of each camera and identified in the coordinate system by knowing the exact
positions of the cameras. During measurement, the system tracks a stochastic
pattern applied to the measurement surface with sub-pixel accuracy (0.01 pixel). The
technique offers significant advantages over other optical techniques, e.g. it is not
susceptible to ambient vibrations, thermal gradients or rigid body motion. In addition,
the technique can be applied to measurements of components with very small
surfaces (microelectronic or biomedical materials) up to large-scale measurements of
aerospace, automotive, marine and railway components. However, the measuring
resolution of the technique is very poor (e.g. a factor 10 to 50 times less than with
speckle interferometry). Therefore, the correlation technique is preferred for
measurements of large deformations (e.g. fatigue analysis, crack growth
propagation, determination of fracture mechanics parameters, deformations in
forming processes, high-speed deformations, inspections of polymers, etc.) or for
high measuring speeds. In the case of large deformations, other optical techniques
(e.g. speckle interferometry) have a problem with handling the huge amounts of data.

157
The features of speckle interferometry outlined in the Table 6.1 are related to the
Q-100 SI measuring system. Previous SI measuring systems were very massive and
suffered from many restrictions, which prevented their wide industrial application. The
miniaturized optical sensor of the Q-100 SI measuring system is a unique device
specially designed for practical industrial applications. As shown in Chapter 4, the
system offers good potential for stress-strain evaluation in fuel lines. In addition, the
features outlined in Table 6.1 (non-destructive application, portable use, inexpensive,
fast and reliable measurements with significantly less effort than in the case of the
conventional techniques, etc.) indicate that speckle interferometry matches todays
industrial demands and is the most suitable technique for use as a quality control
instrument in the series production of fuel lines.
However, until now it was impossible to perform pure non-contact measurements
with the Q-100 SI measuring system. For the purpose of an accurate evaluation of
measurement results, the optical sensor of the system has to be glued by means of
the metal legs (supports) on the surface of the test object. Such a means of
connection is unsuitable for application of the system in series production since
gluing of the optical sensor to the surface of the test object is a time-consuming
process. Siebert et al. [97] showed that non-contact measurement, at least under
stationary environmental conditions, is generally possible by applying of the APC
method. However, as has been emphasized, non-contact application under harsh
industrial environmental conditions is still limited owing to the sensitivity of the system
to rigid-body movement.
In the present work, the non-contact applicability of the Q-100 SI measuring system
for measurements on high pressure components under harsh industrial
environmental conditions was investigated. In order to apply the Q-100 SI measuring
system in series production under such conditions, easily removable holders which
should improve the stability during measurement have been developed for two
different tube geometries (30 x 10 tube and 8 x 2.2 fuel line) and their applicability
has been tested.
6.2 Testing of Non-Contact Applicability of the Q-100 SI
Measuring System
6.2.1 Easily Removable Holder for the Purpose of Non-Contact
Application of the Optical Sensor on the 30 x 10 Tube
The result presented in Section 4.1 showed that the APC method can be applied for
a phase offset calculation in the case of tubes having a relatively large illuminated
surface (e.g. 30 x 10 tube). Thus, according to Siebert et al. [97], non-contact

158
measurements under stationary environmental conditions should be possible in the
case of such tubes. For the first time in the present work, the non-contact applicability
of the Q-100 SI measuring system using an easily removable holder designed for the
purpose of industrial application was tested.
A non-autofrettaged 30 x 10 tube sample made of steel 1.4541 (
2
/ 275 mm N R
e
= ,
2
/ 000 200 mm N E = and 3 . 0 = ) was used for the purpose of this investigation. The
analytical calculations and finite element computations indicate that the selected tube
behaves fully elastically if an internal pressure is less than 1410 bar. In order to verify
the non-contact applicability of the optical sensor, the tube was stressed only
elastically by pressures in the range 0 to 1000 bar with steps of 200 bar.
The results of SI measurements were evaluated along three directions, as explained
in Section 4.1.1.4.
First, the optical sensor was connected to the tube by glued metal legs (Fig. 6.1a)
and measurements were carried out. Subsequently, using a simple assembly,
non-contact measurements were performed and the results obtained were compared
with the results of contact measurements.


(a) (b)
Figure 6.1. a) Contact measurements (optical sensor connected by glued legs to the tube
surface). b) Non-contact measurements (optical sensor attached by means of the easily
removable holder to the tube).
In the first step, the optical sensor was set up on the holder which was fixed on the
bench close to the tube and non-contact measurements were carried out. However,
the results obtained showed significant deviations which were probably a

159
consequence of relative movement between the optical sensor and the tested tube
during the measurements.
In order to eliminate the relative movement and to improve the stability during
measurement, in the next step, a particular kind of an easily removable holder for
application under harsh industrial environmental conditions was designed and tested
(Fig. 6.2). During measurements, the optical sensor was attached to the tube by
means of the easily removable holder (Fig. 6.1b). Relatively small movements of the
tube caused by harsh environmental conditions could be greatly suppressed by this
approach. With any movement of the tube, the optical sensor would also be moved.
In this way, direct connection by glued metal legs was avoided and the time required
for preparation of measurement was minimized.
8
4
3
0
4
2
6
,
5
60
114
33
21
53
M5


15
5
Tube

Figure 6.2. Design of the easily removable holder.
The results obtained using the easily removable holder were satisfactory and were
similar to those obtained by contact measurements (see Figs. 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5).
The absolute deviations of the applied strain values obtained with the Q-100 SI
measuring system from the results obtained using other three techniques were less
than 10 m/m in both contact and non-contact measurements.
The absolute deviations of the residual strain values obtained with the Q-100 SI
measuring system, either using the easily removable holder or by pure contact
measurements, from the expected value (0 m/m after unloading of the elastically
stressed tube) were also within this range (less than 10 m/m).

160
0
25
50
75
100
125
0 200 400 600 800 1000
SI measurements (Direction A): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Fixed contact
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
SI measurements (Direction A): Non-contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Non-contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Non-contact
Tangential
direction
Axial
direction
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]


Figure 6.3. Applied strain components in tangential and axial directions on the outer surface
of the 30 x 10 tube sample.

-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Fixed contact
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
SI measurements (Direction A): Non-contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Non-contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Non-contact

Figure 6.4. Residual tangential strain on the outer surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample.
The possibility of non-contact application of the Q-100 SI measuring system in the
case of the 30 x 10 tube sample was therefore confirmed. Hence the Q-100 SI
measuring system equipped with a specially designed removable holder can be used

161
as a quality control instrument in the series production of tubes larger than 30 mm in
diameter. Testing of the systems potential for application in the series production of
fuel lines, which are usually smaller in diameter, is addressed in the next section.
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

a
x
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Fixed contact
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
Finite element computations
SI measurements (Direction A): Non-contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Non-contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Non-contact

Figure 6.5. Residual axial strain on the outer surface of the 30 x 10 tube sample.
6.2.2 Light-Contact Application of the Optical Sensor on the
8 x 2.2 Fuel Line
Due to the very small illuminated tube surface and the large curvature of the tube
contour, it was not possible to apply the APC method for phase offset calculation in
the case of fuel lines (see Section 4.1). This means that some kind of connection
between the optical sensor and the fuel line surface was necessary, e.g. glued legs.
However, as mentioned before, connecting the optical sensor to the fuel line surface
by glued legs is a time-consuming process and it is inappropriate for application in
series production.
In order to apply the Q-100 SI measuring system in series production on such small
surfaces, the light-contact applicability of the system was tested in this work. Light
contact is considered here to mean a connection in which the optical sensor simply
touches the fuel line surface by means of metal legs that are not glued (Fig. 6.6b).
Thereby a necessary connection required by the RPC method was ensured. In order
to provide stability during measurements, the optical sensor was indirectly attached
by an additional easily removable holder to the fuel line being tested.

162
For the purpose of the investigation, a non-autofrettaged 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of
steel St 52 DI (
2
/ 740 mm N R
e
= ,
2
/ 000 210 mm N E = and 3 . 0 = ) was tested. The
analytical calculations indicate that the selected fuel line behaves in a fully elastic
manner if an internal pressure is less than 3407 bar. In order to verify the light-
contact applicability of the optical sensor, the fuel line was stressed only elastically by
pressures in the range 0 to 1000 bar with steps of 200 bar.
The results of SI measurements were evaluated along three directions, as explained
in Section 4.1.1.4.
First, the optical sensor was connected to the fuel line surface by glued metal legs
(Fig. 6.6a) and measurements were carried out. Subsequently, using a simple
assembly (Fig. 6.6b), light-contact measurements were performed and the results
obtained were compared with the results of contact measurements.

(a) (b)
Figure 6.6. Contact (a) and light-contact measurements (b).
The results obtained by the light-contact measurements using the easily removable
holder were satisfactory and were similar to those obtained by the contact
measurements.
Figure 6.7 plots the applied strains in the tangential and axial directions on the outer
surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line. The absolute deviations of the applied strain values
obtained by the Q-100 SI measuring system from the results obtained using the other
two techniques in both contact and light-contact measurements were less than
10 m/m.

163
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 200 400 600 800 1000
SI measurements (Direction A): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Fixed contact
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
SI measurements (Direction A): Light-contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Light-contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Light-contact
Tangential
direction
Axial
direction
Pressure [bar]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[

m
/
m
]


Figure 6.7. Applied strain components in tangential and axial directions on the outer surface
of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.
Figures 6.8 and 6.9 plot the residual tangential and residual axial strains on the outer
surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line, respectively. The absolute deviations of the residual
tangential strain values obtained by the Q-100 SI measuring system from the
expected value (0 m/m after unloading of the elastically stressed fuel line) were less
than 8 m/m for both the contact and light-contact measurements.
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Fixed contact
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
SI measurements (Direction A): Light-contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Light-contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Light-contact

Figure 6.8. Residual tangential strain on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.

164
The residual axial strain values deviated by up to 15 m/m from the expected value
(0 m/m after unloading of the elastically stressed fuel line) in the case of the contact
and light-contact SI measurements.
Pressure [bar]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

a
x
i
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n

[

m
/
m
]

SI measurements (Direction A): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Fixed contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Fixed contact
Strain gauge measurements
Analytical calculations
SI measurements (Direction A): Light-contact
SI measurements (Direction B): Light-contact
SI measurements (Direction C): Light-contact
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 200 400 600 800 1000

Figure 6.9. Residual axial strain on the outer surface of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line.
The possibility of light-contact application of the Q-100 SI measuring system in the
case of the 8 x 2.2 fuel line is therefore confirmed.
The common dimension of the outer diameter of fuel lines is in the range 6 to 17 mm
[30]. As shown in Section 4.1, the stress-strain evaluation on fuel lines having even
smaller surface area (e.g. 6 x 2 fuel line) is possible by the Q-100 SI measuring
system using the RPC method for a phase offset calculation. In that case the
absolute deviations of the SI results were up to 10 m/m in the tangential direction
and up to 25 m/m in the axial direction. Therefore, it can be deduced that the same
principle of light-contact application of the Q-100 SI measuring system using the RPC
method can provide acceptable accuracy also in the case of smaller fuel lines
(e.g. 6 x 2).
On the basis of the outlined investigation, a special assembly which will provide the
connection required by the RCP method and also stability during measurements
could be designed for the application of the system in industrial series production.
Hence the Q-100 SI measuring system equipped with such an assembly can be used
as a quality control instrument in the series production of fuel lines.

165
6.3 Concept for Quality Inspection of Fuel Lines in
Series Production
6.3.1 Concept Description
The possibility of light-contact measurements shown in the previous section
represents an important basis for the employment of the Q-100 SI measuring system
as an inspection instrument in the series production of fuel lines. A concept for quality
inspection of fuel lines was therefore developed (Fig. 6.10). The concept is based on
the principle of a comparison of nominal and actual values. The actual strain state on
the outer surface of the fuel line during the autofrettage process is measured by the
Q-100 SI measuring system. Subsequently, the actual strain state is compared with
the corresponding nominal state taken from a quality database or calculated with the
analytical equations.
NAVC module
RMC module
PSA module
Hardware components: pressure
sensor, amplifier, DAQ-Board.
Driver software
Industrial robot
Q-100 SI measuring system
Hardware components: optical
sensor, laser box, control unit.
IstraMS software

Figure 6.10. Structure of the concept for inspection of fuel lines in series production.
For the purpose of application of the concept in series production, corresponding
hardware components, i.e. an industrial robot, has to be developed. Such a
developed robot equipped with the Q-100 SI measuring system can be attached on
an autofrettage machine. The interaction between the Q-100 SI measuring system
and the industrial robot during the inspection process can be realized using for this
purpose developed software-hardware modules: RMC module (Robot Motion
Control), PSA module (Pressure Signal Acquisition) and NAVC module (Nominal-
Actual Value Comparison).

166
6.3.1.1 RMC Module
The motion of the robot during the autofrettage process, i.e. transfer of the optical
sensor to and from the fuel line, elimination of defective fuel lines from the production
line after an alarm indication by the NAVC module and control of the other robot
functions are controlling tasks of the RMC module.
6.3.1.2 PSA Module
In order to inspect the quality of fuel lines, it is necessary to acquire a pressure signal
online during the autofrettage process. For that purpose the PSA module was
developed. The module consists of both hardware and software parts. Using this
module, an analog signal from a pressure sensor can be acquired, thereafter
digitized, and in this way prepared for further processing in the NAVC module. The
principle and the hardware configuration used in the PSA module can be the same
as shown in Fig. 3.4, without strain gauges and a corresponding amplifier.
6.3.1.3 NAVC Module
The central module of the concept for quality inspection of fuel lines is the NAVC
module. This module controls the acquisition of the pressure signal by the PSA
module, has direct interaction with the RMC module, processes the results of
measurements taken from the IstraMS software (Q-100 SI measuring system) and
finally evaluates the quality of inspected fuel lines.
Autofrettage
pressure
SI measurement
.tfd files
.txt files
A
C
T
U
A
L

V
A
L
U
E
S
N
O
M
I
N
A
L

V
A
L
U
E
S
File converter
Mean value
Yes
No

a
Yes
No
Pass Fail

n

n
Material and
geometric
properties
SI measurements
Comparison
conditions
Analytical calculation
Database

Figure 6.11. Data flow diagram of the NAVC module.

167
The main objective of this module is to compare the actual strain state measured
during the autofrettage process with a corresponding nominal state taken from the
quality database or calculated with the analytical equations (Fig. 6.11). The NAVC
module [94] is subdivided into five submodules which are described in detail below.
6.3.1.3.1 FILE CONVERTER Submodule
The Q-100 SI measuring system measures strain components (applied tangential,
applied axial, residual tangential and residual axial) on the outer surface of the fuel
line during the autofrettage process. Results of the measurement are four .tfd files,
which represent four images (i.e. visualized data) of strain components on the outer
surface of the fuel line. For the purpose of further processing of the data in the
present concept, these .tfd files have to be converted into simple .txt files.
The conversion of a .tfd into a .txt file is possible only manually in version 2.7 of the
IstraMS software. Therefore, an application of the Q-100 SI measuring system in this
concept required the development of an additional file converter tool. The FILE
CONVERTER submodule performs this conversion task.
6.3.1.3.2 MEAN VALUE Submodule
According to the dimensions of the image (resolution of the CCD camera of the
optical sensor), 256 x 256 pixels, the converted .txt file consists of 65536 values,
which represent the full-field deformation of the fuel line surface expressed in
m/mm. Some part of the measured surface can be compressively stressed whereas
other parts of the same surface can simultaneously indicate a tensile stress state.
Therefore, the .txt file can consist of both positive and negative values. In addition,
the measured surface of a fuel line does not cover the whole measuring area, and
here the IstraMS software attributes zero values for all pixels in the image which are
outside the measured surface.
In order to calculate the mean value of four strain components, each .txt file has to be
separately processed using the same procedure as presented in the data flow
diagram of the MEAN VALUE submodule in Fig. 6.12. In the submodule, negative
values have first to be separated from positive and zero values. Thereafter, the sum
(

=
m
j
negative
1
) and number ( m) of negative values have to be determined. Further, zero
values have to be eliminated using a filter and then the sum (

=
n
i
positive
1
) and number
( n ) of positive values have to be determined. The elimination of zero values is
required here as a number of them can affect the accurate calculation of the mean
value.

168
SI measurements
.tfd files
.txt files
Yes
Quality
database
No
Value 0
Filter
(elimination of zeros)
Sum and number
of positive values
Yes
Sum and number
of negative values
No
M
E
A
N

V
A
L
U
E
D
A
T
A
B
A
S
E

tanmin
<
taa
<
tanmax

trnmin
<
tra
<
trnmax

zrnmin
<
zra
<
zrnmax
Yes
Yes
No
Pass Fail
No

zanmin
<
zaa
<
zanmax
Yes
Yes
No
No
C
O
M
P
A
R
I
S
O
N

C
O
N
D
I
T
I
O
N
S
Material properties: name,
Re, E, , pretreatment.
Geometric properties: r
in
, r
out
.
Nominal values:

tan

zan

trn

zrn
Autofrettage
pressure
File converter
Calculation
of mean value
Analytical calculation
Nominal values:

tan

zan

trn

zrn
Actual values:

taa

zaa

tra

zra
Searching in the
database according to
the input attributes

Figure 6.12. Data flow diagram of corresponding submodules of the NAVC module
(subscripts: ta-applied tangential, za-applied axial, tr-residual tangential, zr-residual axial,
a-actual, n-nominal, min-minimum and max-maximum).
When the sum and number of both positive and negative values are known, the
mean value of the deformation within the considered area of interest (measured
surface area of the fuel line) can be determined using a simple mathematical mean
value theorem:
m n
n
i
m
j
negative positive
+
+
=

= = 1 1


(6.1)

169
6.3.1.3.3 DATABASE Submodule
A database is a collection of records (rows) stored in a systematic way according to
the predefined attributes (columns). Each record in a database represents a set of
related data elements (attribute values).
One record in the quality database designed for this purpose is described with 12
attribute values: eight input and four output attribute values. Input attribute values are
material (material name, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio and
pretreatment) and geometric properties (inner and outer radius) of the fuel line and
the autofrettage pressure applied during the process. Output attribute values are
strain components (applied tangential, applied axial, residual tangential and residual
axial) which describe the desired strain state on the outer surface of the fuel line
during and after the autofrettage process.
A quality database designed for this purpose includes results of numerous
fundamental investigations obtained in this work. Part of this database, i.e. the first
20 records, is presented in Table 6.2.
Table 6.2. First 20 records of the quality database.
1 1.4548 1065 200000 0.291 batch 1 5 15 6000 635 185 12 5
2 1.4548 1065 200000 0.291 batch 1 5 15 6250 670 195 16 7
3 1.4548 1065 200000 0.291 batch 1 5 15 6500 710 209 20 9
4 1.4548 1065 200000 0.291 batch 1 5 15 6750 737 218 25 11
5 1.4541 275 200000 0.3 batch 1 5 15 2330 355 65 74 1
6 1.4541 275 200000 0.3 batch 1 5 15 2900 585 85 196 5
7 1.4541 275 200000 0.3 batch 1 5 15 3250 808 114 345 23
8 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 4800 610 72 150 11
9 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 4900 625 73 174 14
10 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 5000 648 74 201 21
11 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 5100 665 78 250 29
12 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 5200 690 80 325 35
13 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 5300 740 82 396 42
14 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 5500 905 84 462 53
15 St30 Al BK 530 175000 0.3 batch 1 1 3 6000 1275 105 577 61
16 DSG 1800 690 210000 0.3 batch 1 1.25 3 6000 1088 210 3 0
17 DSG 1800 690 210000 0.3 batch 1 1.25 3 6250 1180 220 20 5
18 DSG 1800 690 210000 0.3 batch 1 1.25 3 6500 1282 246 57 10
19 DSG 1800 690 210000 0.3 batch 1 1.25 3 6750 1800 295 512 36
20 DSG 1800 690 210000 0.3 batch 1 1.25 3 7000 2736 382 1073 64
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

a
x
i
a
l

[

m
/
m
]
A
u
t
o
f
r
e
t
t
a
g
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
b
a
r
]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

[

m
/
m
]
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

a
x
i
a
l

[

m
/
m
]
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

t
a
n
g
e
n
t
i
a
l

[

m
/
m
]
P
o
i
s
s
o
n

s

r
a
t
i
o

[
-
]
P
r
e
t
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t
I
n
n
e
r

r
a
d
i
u
s

[
m
m
]
O
u
t
e
r

r
a
d
i
u
s

[
m
m
]
P
r
i
m
a
r
y

k
e
y
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

n
a
m
e
Y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
M
o
d
u
l
u
s

o
f

e
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
t
y

[
N
/
m
m
2
]


170
According to given input attributes, the quality database will be searched by the
DATABASE submodule and the four sought output attributes will be extracted from
the database if a particular record has been found. If, however, the particular record
is not present in the database, then a calculation of four strain components using the
analytical equations will begin. In this way a nominal strain state (nominal values) will
be obtained by the analytical solution which, as mentioned in Section 2.5, has
drawbacks. Therefore, it is preferable to update the quality database in order always
to have an available record (nominal values) for comparison with actual measured
strains. In this manner, the quality of the autofrettage fuel lines in series production
can be unfailingly assured.
Any new applied autofrettage pressure, any new fuel line (new material or new
geometric properties) or even a difference in a batch results in a particular new strain
state in the fuel line during and after the autofrettage process. Hence any change in
the input attributes results in a change in the output attributes, which requires the
insertion of a new record.
For example, in series production, several kilometres of semi-finished tubes of the
same batch, i.e. having the same material properties, are delivered, e.g. once per
month, by the supplier. Each fuel line manufactured from the newly delivered semi-
finished tubes and autofrettaged at the corresponding pressure should show the
same strain state during the process. Therefore, using this developed concept it is
necessary to perform only one measurement on the first fuel line at the beginning of
a new series production. The results obtained by this measurement (four sought
output attributes) and corresponding input attributes then have to be inserted into the
existing quality database as a new record. In this way, updating of the database is
accomplished. Thereafter, series production of the fuel lines can start and quality
inspection of all fuel lines made from these newly delivered semi-finished tubes can
be performed using only this latest inserted record.
6.3.1.3.4 ANALYTICAL CALCULATIONS Submodule
As already mentioned, if a particular record is not present in the quality database,
then a calculation of four strain components using the analytical equations will begin.
Equations for the calculation of strain components in an elastic-plastic thick-walled
tube outlined in Section 2.3 have been programmed in this submodule. Input
parameters in this submodule are also material (yield strength, modulus of elasticity
and Poissons ratio) and geometric properties (inner and outer radius) of the fuel line
and the acquired value of the autofrettage pressure applied during the process. The
output results of the calculations are four strain components (applied tangential,
applied axial, residual tangential and residual axial).

171
6.3.1.3.5 COMPARISON CONDITIONS Submodule
Input values in this submodule are four nominal and four actual values. As shown in
Fig. 6.12, four limit value criteria have been defined. In each criterion the actual value
has to be within the nominal limits defined with minimum and maximum nominal
values. The minimum and maximum nominal values are calculated as the nominal
value reduced or increased by 5%, respectively:
05 . 0
min max,
=
n n n n

(6.2)
If all four conditions are satisfied, i.e. the actual values are within the desired nominal
limits, then the quality of the considered fuel line is assured. If, however, any of the
four conditions is not satisfied, then the considered fuel line quality is not assured.
This produces an immediate alarm reaction that mobilizes the robot hand to remove
the defective fuel line from the production line.
6.3.2 System for Industrial Application
The presented concept for the quality inspection of fuel lines was partially developed
(PSA module, NAVC module and their interaction with the Q-100 SI measuring
system) and its functionality was tested in this work. For the purpose of application of
the concept in industrial series production, additional software-hardware modules
(industrial robot and RMC module) have to be developed. Such a system designed
for industrial application can provide fully automatic inspection of the quality of the
autofrettaged fuel lines in series production.
In the past, only the magnitude of the autofretttage pressure on the pressure gauge
installed in the supply pipeline, just before fuel lines, was controlled during the
process. The main advantage of the outlined concept is the possibility of inspecting
the effect (generated stress-strain state) but not the cause of the autofretttage
process (internal pressure). In this way, the influence of different parameters and
disturbances through the process on the quality of fuel lines can be avoided.
6.4 Concept for Control of Strain Generation in Series
Production of Fuel Lines
6.4.1 Concept Description
The generation of strains during the autofrettage process in the series production of
fuel lines can be controlled by the concept presented in Fig. 6.13. The main goal of
the concept is to eliminate the influence of variations in material properties within the
same batch.

172
As mentioned above, in series production several kilometres of semi-finished tubes
of the same batch are delivered, e.g. once per month, by the supplier. Semi-finished
tubes can show variations in material properties, i.e. variations in yield strength,
within the same batch. The autofrettaging of fuel lines made of such tubes at one
predetermined pressure will result in different strain states within the fuel lines. The
individual determination of yield strength for each fuel line in serial production is a
time-consuming process and is not practicable. Therefore, in order to achieve one
desired strain state in all fuel lines made from that batch, each line has to be
autofrettaged at an adequate pressure. The aim of this concept is the online
regulation of the autofrettage pressure in order to achieve the desired strain state in
each particular fuel line in series production.
Autofrettage machine
Fuel line
CRSG module
Industrial robot
Q-100 SI measuring system
Hardware components: optical
sensor, laser box, control unit.
IstraMS software
PC module
Hardware components: pressure
intensifier, control valve, actuator,
amplifier, DAQ-Board.
Driver software

Figure 6.13. Structure of the concept for control of strain generation.
The Q-100 SI measuring system can control the generation of strains by means of
two software-hardware modules: CRGS module (Control of Residual Strain
Generation) and PC module (Pressure Control). The concept for the quality
inspection of fuel lines presented in Section 6.3 can be upgraded with the additional
possibility of control of the generation of strains using these two new modules. In the
same way, the industrial robot mentioned in Section 6.3 can be equipped with the
Q-100 SI measuring system, which performs strain measurements on the outer
surface of the fuel line during the autofrettage process.
The strain state to be controlled (controlled variable y ) is continuously measured by
the Q-100 SI measuring system and then compared with a predetermined strain state
(reference variable w ). If there is a difference between these two variables (error e),

173
adjustments are made until the measured difference is eliminated and the controlled
variable equals the reference variable (Fig. 6.14). The feedback (acquisition) of the
controlled variable, their comparison with the reference variable, control and
adjustment of the error according to the setting of the control parameters and
determination of the manipulated variable ( m) are tasks of the CRSG module.
PC module CRSG module
+ w
y
e
Q-100 SI
measuring
system
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
Control
valve with
actuator
Pressure
intensifier
Autofrettage
process
Fuel line
I
n
d
i
c
a
t
o
r
m y
z z

Figure 6.14. Action diagram of the feedback control loop.
The manipulated variable is the output variable (digital signal) of the controlling
element and the input variable of the PC module. Communication of the application
software (CRSG module) and hardware component (DAQ-Borad) in the PC module
can be accomplished by the driver software. The digital signal, as the output of the
controlling element, is converted into analog signal in the DAQ-Board. The analog
signal is further amplified by the amplifier and transformed into motion by an actuator
which controls opening of the control valve. In this way, the mass flow of the
operating fluid (e.g. air) can be controlled by opening of the valve. Consequently, the
pressure in the intensifier on the side of the operating fluid increases, which moves
the double piston and causes an increase in pressure on the side of the working fluid
(e.g. oil). This results in an increase in the working fluid pressure in the fuel line. As
this pressure increase, the plastic deformation inside the wall of the fuel line spreads
further and the autofrettage process continues. Hence according to the information
about the actual strain state, measured by the Q-100 SI measuring system during the
autofrettage process, and the desired strain state defined in an indicator (i.e. quality
database), it is possible to control the generation of strains during the process
(Fig. 6.15).
As can be seen from the action diagram of the feedback control loop, some
disturbance ( z ) can act on the loop, having undesirable effects on the proper
realization of the autofrettage process. Common disturbances which can appear in
the series production of fuel lines and can act on the autofrettage process are

174
irregular pump operation, irregular pressure sensor operation, leakage of working
fluid within the system and residual air in the fuel line. The feedback control loop has
the task of eliminating these disturbances.
e = w - y
Difference between reference
and controlled strain state
Analog signal in voltage
U [V]
Increase of the mass flow
of the operating fluid through
the control valve
m
OF
[kg/s]
Increase of the pressure
in the intensifier on the side
of the operating fluid
p
OF
[bar]
Increase of the pressure
in the intensifier on the
side of the working
fluid (i.e. in the fuel line)
p
WF
[bar]
Change in strain state
y [m/m]

Figure 6.15. Interaction between variables in the feedback control loop.
Using above concept, the Q-100 SI measuring system can control the pump (i.e.
pressure intensifier) operation by closed action. For example, if the desired strain
state in the fuel line is achieved, the Q-100 SI measuring system should stop an
increase in the working fluid pressure by means of the CRSG and PC modules (i.e.
the actuator will close the control valve). If, however, the desired strain state is not
achieved, the Q-100 SI measuring system, by means of the CRSG and PC modules,
will request a further increase in the working fluid pressure so long as the desired
strain state in the fuel line is not accomplished. In this way, the final effect of the
autofretttage process (generation of the stress-strain state) can be controlled in the
series production of fuel lines.

175
6.4.2 Barriers to Implementation of the Concept
According to the state of the art of the Q-100 SI measuring system, there are two
main barriers in the implementation of the aforementioned concept:
the impossibility of the evaluation of strains at intermediate steps within one series
measurement and
the relatively long time required for a measurement and for evaluation of the
results obtained within one iteration step.
Control of the pump operation by the Q-100 SI measuring system using the feedback
control loop can be accomplished by a few iteration steps. A series measurement
including intermediate steps is generally possible by the system. However, it is the
state of the art that an evaluation of measurement results at each individual
intermediate step using the main menu GAUGE (implemented in version 2.7 of the
IstraMS software) is only possible after finishing the complete measurement. In order
to apply the Q-100 system in the concept, an evaluation of the measurement results
at each individual intermediate step should be possible without interruption of the
measurement. For that purpose, two independent modules have to be developed in
the IstraMS software. One module should be responsible for the recording,
processing and storage of the speckle images. The task of the second module
should be the evaluation of those images and storage of the evaluated results in a
corresponding file folder wherein they are available for further processing by the
above-described CRSG module.
In addition, the time required for one iteration step (i.e. the time required for one
measurement and for evaluation of results) is relatively long: it is approximately 7 s
using the actual computer configuration (3.2 GHz CPU, 1024 MB RAM and 80 GB
hard disk space). This time involves the time for taking four speckle images and for
evaluation of phase maps in all four directions (approximately 3 s), the time for
connecting the form and deformation data, including their filtering (approximately
2 s), the time for evaluation of the stress-strain data, including their filtering
(approximately 1 s), and the time for data processing by the CRSG module
(approximately 1 s).
In order to achieve profitable series production, the maximum allowed time of the
autofrettage process is approximately 20 s, according to the manufacturers
information. Since the control of strain generation can be accomplished by a few
iteration steps, the time required for one complete iteration step (approximately 7 s)
has to be reduced. In addition, from an economic point of view, the time of the
autofrettage process should be as short as possible.
This can be done using the following simplifications. Since the axial strain component
is not relevant for autofrettage process evaluation (see Chapter 4), only an evaluation
of the tangential strain component can be performed. Furthermore, the evaluation of

176
both stress components can also be omitted. Finally, the time for evaluation of the
image could be reduced in such a way that every sixteenth pixel on the image would
be evaluated; then the number of evaluated data can be reduced from 65536 to 256.
In this way, the time required for one complete iteration step can be reduced by
approximately 25% (from 7 to 5.25 s). This is because the time for taking four speckle
images and for evaluation of four phase maps represents the largest fraction of the
time required for one complete iteration step. Anyhow with the aforementioned
simplifications, it is possible to perform at least three iteration steps within the allowed
20 s.

177

Chapter 7
Summary, Conclusions and Outlook
Although the first deliberate application of the autofrettage principle dates back to the
beginning of the twentieth century, the autofrettage process and its effects on high
pressure components are still mostly unknown. The research work summarized in
this thesis is a contribution towards a better understanding of the autofrettage
phenomenon. Speckle interferometry (SI), as a full-field laser optical measuring
technique, was the tool selected to be used for this research purpose.
7.1 Potential of Speckle Interferometry for Evaluation of
High Pressure Components
The application potential of the particular Q-100 SI measuring system for the
evaluation of high pressure components was the first objective of this work.
According to Lu [64], the applicability of a measuring system for stress-strain
evaluation in components depends on, among other parameters, the geometry of the
component and the zone analysed (depth, dimensions and shape of the surface).
During the last decade, the Q-100 SI measuring system was mainly employed for
stress-strain measurements on components having a surface area larger than the
measuring area of the optical sensor [33, 34, 86, 107]. Until now the system had not
been used for stress-strain evaluation in components with physically very small and
curved surfaces, as is usually the case with high pressure components (e.g. the
surface of fuel lines). In this work, the potential of the Q-100 SI measuring system for
the evaluation of high pressure components was tested on tubes with different
geometries and the following conclusions were drawn from the results:
1. The geometry of the tested component affected the applicability and the
accuracy of the measuring system. It was possible to apply both the absolute
phase calculation (APC) and relative phase calculation (RPC) methods if the
component surface area occupies most of the total measuring area of the
optical sensor (e.g. the 30 x 10 tube occupied approximately 70% of the total
measuring area). On the other hand, application of the APC method to
components with very small and curved surfaces was not possible due to the
relatively high phase offset values that arose in that case in the out-of-plane

178
deformation component. This caused a significant error in the evaluated strain
results. Since the 6 x 2 tube occupied approximately 20% of the total measuring
area of the optical sensor, the RPC method that induced a smaller error in the
phase offset calculation was employed.
2. The accuracy of a strain evaluation using the APC method was generally higher
than that using the RPC method. This is due to the possible error in the
assumption made in the RPC method. Namely, the relative displacement
between the optical sensor and the tested surface at the point (reference point
in the pattern determined by the user) close to the connected leg is considered
to be zero.
3. The accuracy of the Q-100 measuring system varied with the size of the surface
area of the measured object. The larger the surface area of the measured
object, the smaller were the absolute deviations of the measured results (i.e.
better accuracy).
4. The number of generated fringes in the pattern influenced the accurate
evaluation of strains. If the number was higher than an allowable value, the
fringes were very narrow and turn into noise in the pattern. The noise
complicated and disabled effective phase unwrapping. The allowable number of
fringes for components with a cylindrical shape can be determined by a
relationship obtained from experience gained in this work.
The changes in the design and development of SI measuring systems in recent years
were essential for success on the way from the optical laboratory to the test
systems as used today [33, 107]. However, additional upgrading of the phase
calculation methods and further miniaturization of the optical sensor, which includes
further improvements of the optical equipment, could provide more accurate
application of the technique to small curved surfaces of high pressure components.
7.2 Evaluation of the Autofrettage Process Effects in
Components with Complex Geometries
The results of preliminary investigations were an important basis for the employment
of the Q-100 SI measuring system for autofrettage process evaluation. This work
involved investigations performed on fuel lines of diesel injection systems. Speckle
interferometry showed major advantages in comparison with conventional strain
gauges for the evaluation of the effects of an autofrettage process in components
having complex geometries.
The behaviour of strains on the outer surface of one straight part and one part close
to the bend in the fuel line was observed in the investigation. As long as the fuel line

179
was loaded with pressures which caused elastic deformation of the material, a
deformation of the outer surface was homogeneous in both parts. After applying the
autofrettage pressure, a significant difference in deformation of the outer surface of
the parts was observed. Speckle interferometry, as a full-filed measuring technique,
was able to detect the distribution of the strain gradient over the outer surface of both
parts. Measuring of the strain gradient by speckle interferometry allows the
determination of the influence of previous manufacturing processes (e.g. cold-
working process, bending process) on the generation of residual stresses during the
autofrettage process. As shown in the analysis, areas of the strain gradient could not
be captured by the strain gauges since the gauge sensor, as a point measuring
device, measured a deformation only at the point where it was attached. Anyway, it is
almost impractical to attach a large number of strain gauges on such a small surface
in order to resolve the strain gradient over the surface.
Hence using the SI measuring technique one can develop 3D stress-strain maps of a
complex curved fuel line surface. In this way, effects of the autofrettage process
within the particular fuel line geometry could be deduced already in the development
phase before series production takes place.
Based on the results obtained in this work, one can use speckle interferometry also
for the rapid evaluation in the development of other high pressure components such
as injectors, rails and pumps.
7.3 Influence of the Pressure Holding Time on Strain
Generation During the Autofrettage Process
It is the state of the art that the industrial production of fuel lines relies either on the
limited analytical steady solution or on simple numerical computations using steady
models which do not consider the influence of the holding time on stress-strain
generation. For the first time, this influence was studied experimentally in this work.
The results obtained showed that completion of the plastic deformation caused by
the autofrettage process requires a much longer period than the assumed several
seconds in industrial series production.
Owing to the time-dependent nature of the movement of dislocations in the inner
layers of the fuel line during the autofrettage treatment, the applied tangential strain
measured on the outer surface indicated asymptotic time behaviour. The influence of
the movement of dislocations resulted in a very slight difference in the strain values
measured in the axial direction on the outer surface of the fuel line during the
treatment. In contrast to the applied strains, there was a negligible influence of the
relaxation time on the behaviour of the residual strains.

180
The interdependence between the time required for the completion of the plastic
deformation process, the corresponding autofrettage pressure and the generated
strain state was investigated for the first time in this work. Experimental testing
indicated that the relationship between these parameters can be graphically
presented by a 3D plot. This relationship was determined experimentally for the
particular 8 x 2.2 fuel line made of steel St 52 DI. As shown, the time required for the
completion of the plastic deformation process and the difference between the strain
states generated at the beginning and at the end of the holding period increased with
increase in the autofrettage degree. A third-order polynomial equation best described
the behaviour of the generated strain state as a function of the autofrettage pressure.
Furthermore, the behaviour of the generated strain state as a function of the time
required for the completion of the treatment can also be expressed by a third-order
polynomial equation.
Experimental investigation revealed that fuel lines should be autofrettaged at some
higher pressure for a short period instead of keeping them for a longer period at the
pressure determined by the analytical calculation. In this way, a desirable stress-
strain state can be generated during the time required to maintain profitable series
production ( s t
holding
10 < ). The results of the investigation presented by a 3D plot
indicated that in the region of lower autofrettage degrees the difference between the
pressure determined by the analytical calculation and the required pressure is
significant and it decreases with increase in the autofrettage degree.
This work also showed the potential of the Q-100 SI measuring system for the
localization of cracks in the fuel line wall by analysis of the strain maps measured on
the outer surface of the fuel line.
Further works could provide information on the additional influence of the geometry
(wall thickness) on the generated stress-strain state. In experiments, fuel lines made
from same material and having different wall thicknesses could be autofrettaged at
different pressure levels, observing the behaviour of strains during the treatment. In
this way, the interdependence between all four parameters (autofrettage pressure,
holding time, geometry and generated strain state) for a particular material could be
determined.
Another important question is how the pressure holding time influences the fatigue
life of autofrettaged components. For that purpose, a large number of fatigue tests
should be performed on fuel lines autofrettaged at different pressures and with
different holding time periods.

181
7.4 Speckle Interferometry as a Quality Control Tool in
the Series Production of Fuel Lines
An important part of this work was devoted to the possible implementation of speckle
interferoemtry as a quality control tool in the series production of fuel lines. Reasons
for this were frequent damage to and unexpected failures of the existing fuel injection
system components under nominal loads in recent years.
For example, the variations in material properties within one batch of semi-finished
tubes could cause differences in the autofrettage quality of fuel lines when they are
autofrettaged at a particular pressure. As shown, a rapid strain analysis on the outer
surface of a fuel line exposed to internal pressure allowed the determination of the
material properties in the reception control.
In the final control, before fuel lines are delivered to the customer, the effects of an
autofrettage process can be proved in the same way by such strain analysis on the
outer surface of the autofrettaged fuel line exposed to internal pressure.
For both mentioned purposes, speckle interferometry matches todays industrial
demands, providing fast and reliable measurements without operating costs and with
significantly less effort than with conventional measuring techniques.
Moreover, in order to avoid any influence of geometric and metallurgical
imperfections and disturbances during the autofrettage process, monitoring of the
process in the series production of fuel lines is required. The potential of light-contact
application on fuel lines demonstrated in this work represents an important basis for
the employment of the Q-100 SI measuring system as an inspection instrument in
series production. On this account, a concept for the quality inspection of fuel lines
and a concept for the control of the strain generation during the autofrettge process
were developed. For the purpose of the implementation of the concepts in series
production, the corresponding industrial robot equipped with the Q-100 SI measuring
system, which can be attached to an autofrettage machine, could be developed.

182

Nomenclature
Base symbols
a [mm] crack length
d
a
[%] autofrettage degree
b [mm] Burgers vector
B [-] factor of a Wheatstone bridge circuit
D [mm] tube diameter
E [N/mm] modulus of elasticity
f [mm
3
/Ns] factor of dislocation velocity
G [N/mm] shear modulus
h [m] depth of the object along the view direction; roughness height
i
r

[-] vector in the illumination direction
I [mW/mm
2
] intensity of light
k

[-] strain gauge factor; wall ratio
l , m, n [-] direction cosines
P
l [m] optical path length associated with the random variation of the
surface height
L [mm] average glide length
L [-] matrix of displacement vectors
m [-] exponent of dislocation velocity
M [-] Schmidt factor
n [rad] unknown phase bias
N [-] matrix of unknown phase offsets; number of fringes
FS
N
[-] number of cycles concerning the specific fatigue strength
FL
N

[-] number of cycles concerning the fatigue limit
o
[-] vector in the observation direction
O [-] point on the observing plane
in
p

[bar] internal pressure


183
in
r in
p
,

[bar] magnitude of internal pressure which causes yielding of
material at the inner surface
j
r in
p
,

[bar] magnitude of internal pressure which causes yielding of tube
wall up to radius
j
r
out
r in
p
,

[bar] magnitude of internal pressure required to bring the complete
wall of the tube into a state of plastic deformation
p
[bar] pressure difference
P [N/mm] plastic modulus
P [-] point on the object surface
Q [eV] activation energy
r

[mm] radius
r
[-] position vector from the observing point O
R [J/molK] universal gas constant
e
R
[N/mm] yield strength of material
m
R

[N/mm] tensile strength of material
s
[-] sensitivity vector
S [-] point on the source; matrix of sensitivity vectors; speckle image
t

[s] time
T [N/mm] tangent modulus
u , v , w [m] displacement component
u
r
, v
r
, w
r
[-] displacement vectors of object surface
v [mm/s] dislocation velocity
A
U [V] output voltage
B
U [V] excitation voltage
x , y , z
[mm] coordinate lengths in the Cartesian frame of reference
W [mm] wall thickness of tube
Greek symbols
[-] factor of the interaction type

[] angle between the position vector and the view direction
1
(
2
) [] angle between the illuminating ray (scattered ray) and
displacement vector

[-] visibility

184

[m/m] shear strain
[m/m] (engineering) strain
[m/m] true strain; mean value of strain

&
[m/m/s] rate-of-true-strain
[m/m] strain gradient
1
,
2
[]
angle between the illuminating rays and the view direction

[] plane polar coordinate
[m] wavelength of illuminating light
[-] Poissons ratio

[mm
-
] dislocation density
[N/mm] stress
[N/mm] true stress
[N/mm] shear stress
F
[N/mm] yield strength in shear

[rad] phase difference between the object and reference beams

[rad] phase change of the object beam
[-] matrix of phase changes

[mm/N] flow function

[rad] phase difference due to the shift of the illuminating beam

[rad] phase change due to the shift of the illuminating beam
Subscripts
a actual values; activated
add additional
allowable allowable
applied ( APPLIED)
applied values
unload After
values measured after unloading
B background
ca completely autofrettaged
e equivalent
er elastic region
el elastic
eM equivalent according to von Mises criteria

185
eR equivalent according to Rankine criteria
eT equivalent according to Tresca criteria
g fluctuatin
fluctuating nature
holding
holding period
i immobilization (a resistance against movement)
in inner; inner surface; internal
j
plastic-elastic junction
Load values measured under load
m shifted phase; number of negative values
max( ) MAX maximum value
MEAN mean value
min( ) MIN minimum value
n number of speckle pattern; nominal values; number of positive
values
FS
N
number of cycles concerning the specific fatigue strength
FL
N number of cycles concerning the fatigue limit
out outer; outer surface
OB object beam
pa
partially autofrettaged
pr
plastic region
r radial direction
RB reference beam
residual ( RESIDUAL ) residual value
ref 1 referent gauge 1
ref 2 referent gauge 2
z r
z r, - plane
r
, r - plane
ta applied tangential
tr residual tangential
total total value
z axial direction
za applied axial
zr residual axial

186
z
z , - plane
y
yield component computed according to the work hardening
data

tangential direction
I , II , III principal components
Superscripts
t total component
e elastic component
p
plastic component
/ current values; values after deformation; values in the
tangential normal coordinate system
ends open
tube with open ends
ends closed
tube with closed ends


187

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[112] Wegner, R., Ettemeyer, A., The Miniaturization of Speckle Interferometry for
Rapid Strain Analysis, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3824, 1999
[113] Wykes, C., DE-correlation Effects in Speckle Pattern Interferometry I,
Opt. Acta 24, 517, 1977
[114] Zou, Y., Diao, H., Peng, X., Tiziani, H., Geometry for Contouring by Electronic
Speckle Pattern Interferometry Based on Shifting Illumination Beams,
Appl. Opt., 31, 6616-6621, 1992
[115] www.alfacentro.com

196

197


Evaluierung von Hochdruckbauteilen
der Einspritzsysteme mit Hilfe
der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie






Der Technischen Fakultt der
Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg





zur Erlangung des Grades

DOKTOR-INGENIEUR





vorgelegt von

Adis Basara




Erlangen, 2007



198

199

Inhalt

Vorwort....................................................................................................................... i
Kurzfassung............................................................................................................. iii
Inhalt.......................................................................................................................... v
Kapitel 1
Einleitung und Zielsetzung...................................................................................... 1
Kapitel 2
Evaluierung von Hochdruckbauteilen:
Literaturberblick und Stand der Technik ............................................................. 6
2.1 Aktuelle Hochdrucktechnik und Aussichten fr die Zukunft ............................................. 6
2.2 Hochdruck im Einspritzsystem eines Dieselmotors ......................................................... 8
2.2.1 Rolle und Bedeutung von Hochdruck in einem Verbrennungssystem........................ 8
2.2.2 Entwicklung von Diesel-Einspritzsystemen und Abgasgesetzgebung...................... 10
2.2.3 Anforderungen an Hochdruckbauteile ..................................................................... 14
2.3 Theorie dickwandiger Rohre ......................................................................................... 17
2.3.1 Elastisches dickwandiges Rohr ............................................................................... 17
2.3.1.1 Spannungsverlauf in einem elastischen dickwandigen Rohr ........................... 18
2.3.1.2 Dehnungsverlauf in einem elastischen dickwandigen Rohr............................. 20
2.3.2 Hypothesen zur Vorhersage des Fliebeginns an der Innenfaser ........................... 21
2.3.3 Elastisch-plastisches dickwandiges Rohr ................................................................ 23
2.3.3.1 Teilautofrettiertes dickwandiges Rohr ............................................................. 25
2.3.3.1.1 Spannungsverlauf in einem teilautofrettierten dickwandigen Rohr....... 27
2.3.3.1.2 Dehnungsverlauf in einem teilautofrettierten dickwandigen Rohr......... 30
2.3.3.2 Vollautofrettiertes dickwandiges Rohr ............................................................. 31
2.3.3.2.1 Spannungsverlauf in einem vollautofrettierten dickwandigen Rohr ...... 32
2.3.3.2.2 Dehnungsverlauf in einem vollautofrettierten dickwandigen Rohr........ 34
2.4 Auswirkung von Eigenspannungen auf die Betriebsverhalten von autofrettierten
Bauteilen....................................................................................................................... 35
2.5 Herausforderungen und Probleme der Evaluierung des Autofrettageprozesses ........... 41
Kapitel 3
Versuchseinrichtung und Messverfahren............................................................ 45
3.1 Versuchseinrichtung ..................................................................................................... 45
3.2 Datenerfassung und Datenverarbeitung........................................................................ 47
3.3 Dehnungsmessungen mit Dehnungsmessstreifen ........................................................ 50
3.4 Dehnungsmessungen mit der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie........................................ 52
3.4.1 Messung von Verschiebungen an der Oberflche................................................... 54
3.4.1.1 Bestimmung des Phasenunterschiedes .......................................................... 56
3.4.1.2 Physikalische Beziehung zwischen Phasenunterschied und Verschiebung
an der Oberflche .......................................................................................... 58

200
3.4.1.3 Prinzip der Berechnung des Phasenversatzes................................................ 61
3.4.2 Vermessung der Oberflchenkontur ........................................................................ 63
3.4.3 Evaluierung von Spannungen und Dehnungen ....................................................... 66
3.4.4 Genauigkeit des Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-Messsystems Q-100 ..................... 68
Kapitel 4
Evaluierung von Einspritzleitungen mit der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie .....70
4.1 Anwendungspotential des speziellen Q-100 Messsystems fr die Evaluierung
von Einspritzleitungen................................................................................................... 70
4.1.1 Verwendete Verfahren............................................................................................. 72
4.1.1.1 Analytische Berechnungen ............................................................................. 73
4.1.1.2 Berechnungen mit der Finite-Elemente-Methode ............................................ 73
4.1.1.3 Messungen mit Dehnungsmessstreifen .......................................................... 75
4.1.1.4 Messungen mit der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie.......................................... 76
4.1.2 Experimentelle Vorgehensweise ............................................................................. 77
4.1.3 Ergebnisse, Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen .................................................... 81
4.1.3.1 Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen an einem Rohr 30 x 10 ................................ 81
4.1.3.2 Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen an einem Rohr 6 x 2 .................................... 84
4.1.3.3 Abschlussbemerkungen.................................................................................. 89
4.2 Bestimmung der Streckgrenze...................................................................................... 91
4.2.1 Ausgewhlte Einspritzleitung und angewendetes Dichtungsprinzip......................... 92
4.2.2 Experimentelle Vorgehensweise und Auswertung der Ergebnisse .......................... 93
4.2.3 Ergebnisse, Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen .................................................... 95
4.3 Bestimmung des effektiven Autofrettagedruckes........................................................... 99
4.3.1 Ausgewhlte Einspritzleitungen, experimentelle Vorgehensweise und
Prinzip der Ergebnisauswertung............................................................................ 101
4.3.2 Angewendetes Dichtungsprinzip ........................................................................... 102
4.3.3 Untersuchungsergebnisse und Abschlussbemerkungen ....................................... 103
4.4 Evaluierung der Auswirkungen des Autofrettageprozesses in Bauteilen mit
komplexer Geometrie.................................................................................................. 108
Kapitel 5
Einfluss der Druckhaltezeit auf die erzeugten Dehnungen...............................114
5.1 Einleitung.................................................................................................................... 114
5.2 Ausgewhlte Einspritzleitungen und angewendetes Dichtungsprinzip......................... 116
5.3 Experimentelle Vorgehensweise und Prinzip der Ergebnisauswertung ....................... 117
5.4 Ergebnisse und Diskussion......................................................................................... 118
5.4.1 Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen ........................................................................... 118
5.4.2 Allgemeine Diskussion der Ergebnisse.................................................................. 125
5.4.3 Zusammenhang zwischen Autofrettagedruck, Haltezeit und erzeugtem
Dehnungszustand ................................................................................................. 129
5.4.4 Bestimmung der optimalen Parameter eines Autofrettageprozesses fr eine
Serienproduktion ................................................................................................... 133
5.4.5 Ermittlung von inneren Rissen durch Dehnungsmessungen an der
Rohrauenseite mit der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie ......................................... 136
5.5 Abschlussbemerkungen.............................................................................................. 149

201
Kapitel 6
Konzept fr eine Kontrolle der Produktionsqualitt von Einspritzleitungen .. 151
6.1 berblick ber Messmethoden zur Spannungs-Dehnungsermittlung .......................... 152
6.2 Versuche zur Anwendbarkeit des Messsystems Q-100 mit einem
berhrungslosen Sensor ............................................................................................. 157
6.2.1 Leicht lsbare Sensorbefestigung zum Zweck einer berhrungslosen
Anwendung des optischen Sensors an einem Rohr 30 x 10.................................. 157
6.2.2 Leichtkontakt-Anwendung des optischen Sensors an einer
Einspritzleitung 8 x 2.2 .......................................................................................... 161
6.3 Konzept fr die Qualittskontrolle von Einspritzleitungen in einer Serienproduktion.... 165
6.3.1 Konzeptbeschreibung............................................................................................ 165
6.3.1.1 Modul RMC................................................................................................... 166
6.3.1.2 Modul PSA.................................................................................................... 166
6.3.1.3 Modul NAVC................................................................................................. 166
6.3.1.3.1 Untermodul FILE CONVERTER........................................................ 167
6.3.1.3.2 Untermodul MEAN VALUE................................................................ 167
6.3.1.3.3 Untermodul DATABASE.................................................................... 169
6.3.1.3.4 Untermodul ANALYTICAL CALCULATIONS..................................... 170
6.3.1.3.5 Untermodul COMPARISON CONDITIONS ....................................... 171
6.3.2 System fr eine industrielle Anwendung................................................................ 171
6.4 Konzept fr die Kontrolle der Dehnungserzeugung in einer Serienproduktion
von Einspritzleitungen................................................................................................. 171
6.4.1 Konzeptbeschreibung............................................................................................ 171
6.4.2 Grenzen der Konzeptrealisierung.......................................................................... 175
Kapitel 7
Zusammenfassung, Schlussfolgerungen und Ausblick................................... 177
7.1 Leistungsvermgen der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie fr die Evaluierung
von Hochdruckbauteilen.............................................................................................. 177
7.2 Evaluierung der Autofrettageeffekte in Bauteilen mit komplexen Geometrien ............. 178
7.3 Einfluss der Druckhaltezeit auf die erzeugten Dehnungen whrend
des Autofrettageprozesses ......................................................................................... 179
7.4 Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie als ein Qualittskontrollwerkzeug in
der Serienproduktion von Einspritzleitungen ............................................................... 181
Symbolverzeichnis............................................................................................... 182
Literaturverzeichnis ............................................................................................. 187
Inhalt...................................................................................................................... 199
Einleitung und Zielsetzung.................................................................................. 202
Zusammenfassung, Schlussfolgerung und Ausblick....................................... 207
Lebenslauf ............................................................................................................ 213


202

Einleitung und Zielsetzung
Hochdruck wird heutzutage als ein bewhrtes Mittel in einer Reihe von
Industrieprozessen, in der Produktion und bei der Entwicklung neuer Produkte sowie
bei der Einfhrung von speziellen Produktionsablufen eingesetzt. Der Einsatz von
Hochdrucktechnik bietet groes Potential und Nutzen bei der Qualittsverbesserung
von bestehenden Prozessen und Produkten unter wirtschaftlichen und
umweltvertrglichen Gesichtspunkten. Die Entwicklung von neuartigen und
nachhaltigeren Prozessen und Produkten fr zuknftige Generation ist ein weiterer
interessanter Aspekt. Somit gewinnt die Anwendung von Hochdrucktechnik
zunehmend an Bedeutung und Verbreitung.
Ein Beispiel fr die vorteilhafte Anwendung von Hochdrucktechnik ist der Einsatz von
Einspritzsystemen bei Verbrennungsmotoren. In diesem Fall wird durch den
physikalisch-hydrodynamischen Effekt des Hochdrucks dessen Energie in die
kinetische Energie der Flssigkeit umgewandelt. Dies geschieht durch den
sogenannten Zerstubungsprozess, bei dem der flssige Kraftstoff unter Hochdruck
eingespritzt und in kleine Tropfen umgewandelt wird. Je hher dabei der
Einspritzdruck, desto feiner ist das erzeugte Spray. Die Erzeugung eines feinen
Sprays mit kleinen Tropfen ist essentiell fr einen sauberen und effektiven
Verbrennungsprozess. Moderne Hochdruck-Einspritzsysteme ermglichen einen
Verbrennungsprozess mit hchstem Wirkungsgrad bei gleichzeitig niedrigen
Abgasemissionen in einem groen Leistungsbereich.
Einspritzsysteme von Dieselmotoren bentigen bedeutend hhere Arbeitsdrcke als
die von Benzinmotoren. Die Grnde hierfr sind das hhere Verdichtungsverhltnis
eines Dieselmotors, die hhere Viskositt des Dieselkraftstoffes, das unter-
schiedliche thermodynamische Verhalten und das verschiedenartige Arbeitsprinzip
eines Dieselmotors. Auslegung und Entwicklung von mechanischen Bauteilen fr
solche Systeme sind deshalb viel komplexer.
Ein Merkmal von Hochdruckprozessen ist es, dass in ihnen mit Betriebsdrcken von
100 bis 10000 bar Zustnde herrschen, die weit von denen der natrlichen
Umgebung entfernt liegen. Durch die sehr hohen Drcke werden die Bauteile auch
bei statischen Belastungen bereits hufig bis zu ihrer Streckgrenze belastet. Jedoch
werden viele eingesetzte Bauteile im Betriebszustand durch eine pulsierende
Innendruckbelastung beansprucht. Dies gefhrdet den Werkstoff noch strker als
eine reine statische Beanspruchung.

203
Zum Beispiel werden mechanische Bauteile von Einspritzsystemen (Bild 1.1) ber
einen langen Zeitraum mit extrem hohen schwankenden Druckamplituden
beansprucht (mehr als 1000 Einspritzungen pro Minute).

Bild 1.1. Mechanische Bauteile eines Common-Rail-Diesel-Einspritzsystems
(nach [115]).
Der stndige Wechsel zwischen hohem und niedrigem Druck verursacht eine
zyklische Beanspruchung des Werkstoffes. Dies fhrt zu einer Ermdung des
Werkstoffes, bis Ausfall des Bauteils auftritt. Die Dauerfestigkeit des Bauteils, das der
schwankenden Belastung ausgesetzt ist, liegt im Allgemeinen niedriger als die
Streckgrenze und nimmt in dem Mae ab, wie die Lastwechselzahl zunimmt.
Mechanische Bauteile von Einspritzsystemen (z.B. Einspritzleitungen, Rail,
Hochdruckpumpe, Injektoren) mssen eine nahezu unbegrenzten Anzahl von
Lastwechselzyklen ohne Schaden whrend ihrer Lebensdauer ertragen. Um dieses
zu gewhrleisten, wird die Belastung der Bauteile durch einen maximal
zugelassenen schwankenden Innendruck begrenzt. Es stellt deshalb eine groe
Herausforderung dar, die Bauteile auszulegen und zu entwickeln, die fr einen
sicheren Betrieb bei solch extremen schwankenden Druckamplituden geeignet sind
und eine lange Lebensdauer aufweisen.
In den Fllen, in denen sowohl hohe Belastbarkeit als auch eine erhhte
Bauteillebensdauer gefordert sind, werden die Bauteile in der Serienproduktion
blicherweise autofrettiert. Der Autofrettageprozess ist ein Fertigungsvorgang, bei
dem das Bauteil einem statischen Innendruck weit oberhalb des vorgesehenen
Betriebsdrucks unterworfen wird, um ein partielles plastisches Verformen des

204
Bauteils zu erzeugen. Nach einer kurzen Belastungszeit wird das Bauteil bei diesem
Vorgang entlastet und die geforderte bleibende plastische Verformung stellt sich ein.
Diese plastische Verformung fhrt zu einer Eigenspannungszustand im Bauteil. Das
Ziel des Autofrettageprozesses ist es, einen Eigenspannungszustand zu erhalten,
der der Betriebsbelastung entgegen wirkt. Durch den Autofrettageprozess kann die
statische Belastungsfhigkeit der Bauteile auf Grund des eintretenden
Verfestigungseffekts zunehmen. Darber hinaus reduziert der erzeugte Druck-
eigenspannungszustand die Rissbildung und verzgert das Risswachstum. Beides
fhrt zur Erhhung der Dauerfestigkeit des Bauteils [31, 77, 87].
Fr die Erzeugung eines fr die Betriebsbedingungen gnstigen Eigenspannungs-
zustand ist es wichtig, den Autofrettageprozess sachgerecht durchzufhren,
andernfalls wird das Bauteilverhalten negativ beeinflusst. Um einen Autofrettage-
prozess sicher und verlsslich handhaben zu knnen und so gleichzeitig das
Schadensrisiko zu reduzieren, bentigt man ein Messverfahren, mit dem Spannungs-
Dehnungs-Zustnde in autofrettierten Bauteilen bestimmt werden knnen.
In dieser Arbeit werden neue Erkenntnisse ber die Autofrettage von Hochdruck-
bauteilen gewonnen. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit gilt dabei den Leitungen von
Diesel-Einspritzsystemen. Die notwendigen Daten ber das Spannungs-Dehnungs-
Verhalten werden mit Hilfe der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie als ein flchenhaftes
berhrungsloses optisches Messverfahren ermittelt. Der erste Schritt dieser Arbeit
war die berprfung der Anwendbarkeit des Q-100 Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-
Messsystems fr die Auswertung des Autofrettagevorganges an Hochdruckbauteilen.
Bis heute sind die Auswirkungen eines Autofrettageprozesses auf Hochdruckbauteile
nur teilweise bekannt. Die analytische Lsung ist in der Literatur [43, 46, 55, 56, 60,
79, 88] fr sehr einfache Geometrien wie ein glattes Rohr bekannt und ist unter
bestimmten Annahmen hergeleitet (elastisch-ideal plastisches, homogen isotropes
und inkompressibles Werkstoffverhalten). Durch solche Lsungen kann nur eine
begrenzte Vorhersage ber den Eigenspannungszustand erreicht werden, da die
realen Werkstoffe berwiegend nicht isotrop und nicht inkompressibel sind und sich
in den meisten Fllen nicht so verhalten wie in idealen Werkstoffgesetzen
angenommen. Die hier vorgelegte Arbeit enthlt Untersuchungen an
Einspritzleitungen, welche auf Grund des Kaltzieh-prozesses ein orthotropisches
Werkstoffverhalten aufweisen.
Analytische Lsungen fr Bauteile mit komplexen Geometrien werden nur fr
einfache Flle von quergebohrten Rohren vorgeschlagen [21, 39, 40, 63, 78].
Numerische Methoden, die die Nachteile und Mngel von analytischen Lsungen
berwinden, werden heutzutage hufiger fr die Auswertung des
Autofrettageprozesses in Bauteilen mit komplexen Geometrien genutzt. Einige
Ergebnisse solcher numerischer Untersuchungen der letzten Jahrzehnte sind in der

205
Literatur zu finden [18, 31, 87, 95, 96]. Jedoch musste festgestellt werden, dass das
Hauptproblem der numerischen Methoden die groe Abhngigkeit von den
Werkstoffdaten ist, die in der industriellen Serienfertigung nicht immer verfgbar sind.
Fr diese Problematik kann die Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie als eine flchenhafte
Messtechnik fr die Spannungs-Dehnungs-Ermittlung in Bauteile mit komplexen
Geometrien zu neuen Erkenntnissen fhren. Die gewonnenen Ergebnisse dieser
Arbeit zeigten, dass es mglich ist, durch die Benutzung der Laser-Speckle-
Interferometrie 3D-Spannungs-Dehnungs-Images ber die gesamte Oberflche des
Bauteiles zu erhalten. Dies ist besonderes wichtig, um die Wirkung des
Autofrettageprozesses bei komplexen Geometrien wie z.B. Bgen in Einspritz-
leitungen zu verstehen.
Einen anderen wichtigen Teil dieser Arbeit bildet die Untersuchung des Einflusses
der Druckhaltezeit auf die Spannungs-Dehnungs-Erzeugung whrend des
Autofrettageprozesses. Der Einfluss der Druckhaltezeit auf die Endqualitt des
autofrettierten Bauteils ist bis heute nicht beachtet worden. Er wird zum ersten Mal in
dieser Arbeit experimentell untersucht. Bei einer industriellen Produktion von
Bauteilen sttzt man sich entweder auf die begrenzte analytische stationre Lsung
oder auf einfache numerische stationre Berechnungen, die den Einfluss der
Druckhaltezeit auf den plastischen Verformungsprozess nicht bercksichtigen. Es ist
Stand der Technik, dass die Bauteile dem Druck whrend des Prozesses nur fr
einige Sekunden (ungefhr 3 bis 10) ausgesetzt sind unter der Annahme, den
gewnschten Spannungs-Dehnungs-Zustand dabei erzeugt zu haben. Jedoch
zeigten die Ergebnisse der experimentellen Untersuchungen in dieser Arbeit, dass
das vollstndige Erreichen eines bestimmten Autofrettagegrades eine weit lngere
Haltezeit bentigt.
Ein zustzliches Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Ermittlung der Anwendbarkeit der Laser-
Speckle-Interferometrie als ein Qualittskontrollwerkzeug in der Serienproduktion
von Einspritzleitungen. Mechanische Bauteile in Einspritzsystemen werden
heutzutage serienmig autofrettiert. Es ist Stand der Technik, dass eine
Evaluierung von Spannungs-Dehnungs-Zustnden whrend des Autofrettage-
prozesses und eine Evaluierung der Bauteilqualitt in der Serienfertigung nicht
stattfindet. Der gesamte Ablauf der Auslegung, Entwicklung, Prozessplanung und
Herstellung der Bauteile sttzt sich allein auf analytische und numerische
Berechnungen. Da diese Methoden keine Aussagen zur Bauteilqualitt ergeben, ist
die Kenntnis ber die tatschlich erzeugten Eigenspannungen hchst sprlich.
Zustzlich knnen diese Berechnungen einen Einfluss anderer Parameter wie
geometrische Unstetigkeiten und metallurgische Imperfektionen, den Einfluss von
vorhergegangenen Fertigungsprozessen oder sogar Strungen durch den Prozess
selber nicht bercksichtigen. All dies kann auf die endgltige Qualitt der
autofrettierten Bauteile Einfluss haben. Hufige Schden und unerwartete Ausflle

206
von Einspritzsystembauteile unter nominalen Beanspruchungen, die in den letzten
Jahren auftraten, knnen damit erklrt werden.
Um derartige Mngel zu vermeiden und um eine sichere und verlssliche
Anwendung des Autofrettageprozesses zu erreichen, wurde das Laser-Speckle-
Interferometrie Verfahren fr die Anwendung in einer Eingangskontrolle von
Halbzeug-Leitungen und in einer Endkontrolle der autofrettierten Einspritzleitungen
untersucht und in dieser Arbeit dargestellt. Weiterhin wurde ein Konzept fr eine
Qualittskontrolle von Einspritzleitungen in einer Serienproduktion und ein Konzept
fr eine Kontrolle der Eigenspannungserzeugung whrend des Autofrettage-
prozesses entwickelt und in der vorliegenden Arbeit beschrieben.

207

Zusammenfassung, Schlussfolgerung und
Ausblick
Obwohl das Autofrettageprinzip erstmalig Anfang des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts
Anwendung fand, sind der Autofrettageprozess und seine Auswirkungen auf
Hochdruckbauteile auch heute noch kaum bekannt. Die Forschungsttigkeit, die in
vorliegender Arbeit vorgestellt wird, ist ein Beitrag zu einem besseren Verstndnis
des Autofrettagephnomens. Die Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie als ein flchenhaftes
berhrungsloses optisches Messverfahren wurde als Werkzeug fr diesen
Forschungszweck benutzt.
Leistungsvermgen der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie fr
die Evaluierung von Hochdruckbauteilen
Der erste Schritt dieser Arbeit war die berprfung der Anwendbarkeit des Q-100
Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-Messsystems fr die Auswertung des Autofrettage-
vorganges an Hochdruckbauteilen. Nach Lu [64] hngt die Eignung eines
Messsystems zur Evaluierung von Spannungen und Dehnungen von Bauteilen
neben anderen Parametern auch von der Bauteilgeometrie und dem untersuchten
Bereich ab (Tiefe, Groe und Oberflchenkontur). Whrend des letzten Jahrzehnts
wurde das Messsystem Q-100 zu Spannungs-Dehnungs-Messungen an
Bauteiloberflchen angewendet, die ausschlielich grer als die Messflche des
optischen Sensors sind [33, 34, 86, 107]. Bauteile mit physikalisch sehr kleinen und
gekrmmten Oberflchen, die vorwiegend in der Hochdrucktechnik eingesetzt
werden (z.B. Oberflchen von Einspritzleitungen), wurden daher auch mit dem
Messsystem Q-100 bis heute nicht untersucht. In Untersuchungen zu dieser Arbeit
wurde das Leistungsvermgen des Messsystems Q-100 an zylindrischen
Hochdruckbauteilen mit unterschiedlichen Geometrien erprobt und folgende
Schussfolgerungen aus den Ergebnissen gefasst:
1. Die Geometrie des geprften Bauteils wirkte sich auf die Anwendbarkeit und die
Genauigkeit des Messsystems aus. Bei Bauteiloberflchen, die den Groteil der
Messflche des optischen Sensors einnahmen (z.B. Rohrprobe 30 x 10 nahm
etwa 70% der Messflche ein), war es mglich, sowohl das absolute als auch
das relative Phasenberechnungsverfahren anzuwenden. Andererseits war das

208
absolute Phasenberechnungsverfahren fr kleine gekrmmte Oberflchen nicht
einsetzbar, da relativ hohe Offset-Werte in der Out-of-plane-
Verformungskomponente entstanden. Dies verursachte groe Abweichungen in
der Phasenberechnung und lieferte somit ungenaue Ergebnisse fr die
Spannungs-Dehnungswerte. Da die Rohrprobe 6 x 2 nur etwa 20% der
Messflche des optischen Sensors einnahm, wurde das relative Phasen-
berechnungsverfahren verwendet. Dieses verursachte kleinere Fehler und
fhrte zu genaueren Ergebnissen.
2. Die Auswertung der Spannungs-Dehnungsmessungen zeigte mit dem
absoluten Phasenberechnungsverfahren generell eine hhere Genauigkeit als
mit dem relativen Verfahren. Bei dem relativen Phasenberechnungsverfahren
wird angenommen, dass die relative Verschiebung zwischen dem optischen
Sensor und der Bauteiloberflche in dem Bereich der Sensorfixierung (den
Referenzpunkt definiert der Benutzer) Null sei. Diese Annahme fhrt zu
ungenauer Auswertung der Spannungs-Dehnungsmessungen.
3. Die Genauigkeit des Messsystems Q-100 nderte sich mit der Gre der
Bauteiloberflche. Je grer die Bauteiloberflche war, desto kleiner waren die
absoluten Abweichungen der gemessenen Spannungs-Dehnungswerte (d. h.
desto hher war die Genauigkeit).
4. Die Anzahl erzeugter Streifen im Phasenbild wirkte sich auf die Genauigkeit in
der Auswertung der Spannungs-Dehnungsmessungen aus. Wenn die Streifen
eine zulssige Anzahl berstiegen, so wurden diese sehr schmal und fhrten
zum Rauschen im Phasenbild. Dies erschwerte ein wirksames Phase-
Unwrapping. Die zulssige Anzahl von Streifen fr zylindrische
Hochdruckbauteile kann man durch eine Gleichung, die in dieser Arbeit
gewonnen wurde, bestimmen.
Die Fortschritte in Design und Entwicklung der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-
Messsysteme der letzten Jahre waren essenziell fr den erfolgreichen Wandel vom
"optischen Labor" zum heutigen Testsystem [33, 107]. Sowohl weitere
Verbesserungen des Phasenberechnungsverfahrens als auch zustzliche
Miniaturisierungen des optischen Sensors samt Weiterentwicklung der gesamten
optischen Ausrstung knnten hier zu noch hherer Genauigkeit bei der Anwendung
auf kleinen gekrmmten Oberflchen von Hochdruckbauteilen fhren.

209
Evaluierung der Autofrettageeffekte in Bauteilen mit
komplexen Geometrien
Zur Verwendung des Q-100 Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-Messsystems fr die
Auswertung des Autofrettagevorganges an Hochdruckbauteilen waren die
Ergebnisse der einleitenden Untersuchungen sehr wichtig. In der vorliegenden Arbeit
werden Untersuchungen der Leitungen von Diesel-Einspritzsystemen durchgefhrt.
Im Vergleich zu der herkmmlichen Messmethode mit Dehnungsmessstreifen zeigte
die Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie groe Vorteile bei der Evaluierung der
Autofrettageeffekte in geometrisch komplexen Bauteilen.
Das Dehnungsverhalten an der Oberflche einer Einspritzleitung wurde an einem
geraden Abschnitt und einem Abschnitt in der Nhe eines Rohrbogens untersucht.
Solange die Einspritzleitung mit einem Innerdruck belastet wurde, der nur eine
elastische Verformung des Materials verursachte, war die Oberflchenverformung
der beiden Abschnitte homogen. Nachdem die Einspritzleitung mit einem Innendruck
belastet wurde, der im Rohrinneren eine plastische Verformung verursacht, wurde
erwartungsgem ein signifikanter Unterschied in der Oberflchenverformung der
Abschnitte gemessen. Die Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie, welche ein flchenhaftes
berhrungsloses optisches Messverfahren ist, war in der Lage, den Dehnungs-
gradienten ber die gesamte betrachtete Oberflche in beiden Abschnitten zu
detektieren. Die Messung des Dehnungsgradienten durch die Benutzung der Laser-
Speckle-Interferometrie ermglicht ein besseres Verstndnis des Einflusses der
vorherigen Fertigungsverfahren (z.B. Kaltverformungsprozess, Biegeprozess des
Rohres) auf die Spannungs-Dehnungs-Erzeugung whrend des Autofrettage-
prozesses. Die Dehnungsgradienten an der Oberflche konnten mit Dehnungs-
messstreifen nicht gemessen werden, da derartige punktuelle Messverfahren keine
Flche erfassen, sondern nur vom Ort des applizierten Messstreifens Werte liefern.
Das Applizieren einer groen Anzahl von Dehnungsmessstreifen auf einer derartig
kleinen Oberflche ist nicht realisierbar und kann somit nicht zur Dehnungs-
gradientenbestimmung ber die gesamte Einspritzleitungsoberflche verwendet
werden.
Es ist also mglich, durch die Benutzung der Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie
3D-Spannungs-Dehnungs-Images ber die gesamte Oberflche der komplexen
gekrmmten Einspritzleitung zu erhalten. Auf diese Weise kann die Wirkung des
Autofrettageprozesses in einer Einspritzleitung bereits in der Entwicklungsphase,
also bevor dieses Bauteil in Serienproduktion geht, evaluiert werden.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit stellen die Grundlage fr weitere mgliche
Anwendungen des Q-100 Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-Messsystems dar und
knnen auch der Evaluierung anderen Hochdruckbauteilen wie z. B. Injektoren,
Railelemente und Pumpen dienen.

210
Einfluss der Druckhaltezeit auf die erzeugten Dehnungen
whrend des Autofrettageprozesses
In der Produktion von Bauteilen im Industriemastab werden fr die Voraus-
berechnung der Autofrettageprozessparameter bis heute analytische oder einfache
numerische stationre Berechnungen verwendet, die den Einfluss der Druckhaltezeit
auf den plastischen Verformungsprozess nicht bercksichtigen. Dieser Einfluss auf
die Endqualitt des autofrettierten Bauteils wird zum ersten Mal in dieser Arbeit
experimentell untersucht. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen dieser Arbeit zeigten,
dass fr die Erzeugung des gewnschten Spannungs-Dehnungs-Zustandes eine
weitaus lngere Haltezeit bentigt wird als in der Industrie blicher Weise verwendet.
Infolge der zeitabhngigen Versetzungsbewegung im Rohrinneren whrend des
Autofrettageprozesses zeigte die gemessene tangentiale Dehnung an der
Oberflche der Einspritzleitung ein zeitabhngiges asymptotisches Verhalten. Der
Einfluss der Versetzungsbewegung lief auf einen sehr geringen Unterschied der
gemessen Dehnung in axialer Richtung hinaus. Im Gegensatz zu dem zeitlichen
Einfluss auf das Dehnungsverhalten unter Belastung war der Einfluss der
Relaxationszeit auf die bleibende Dehnung vernachlssigbar.
Der Zusammenhang zwischen der erforderlichen Druckhaltezeit zur vollstndigen
Ausbildung des plastischen Verformungszustandes, dem entsprechenden
Autofrettagedruck und dem erzeugten Dehnungszustand wurde zum ersten Mal in
dieser Arbeit untersucht. Die Ergebnisse der experimentellen Untersuchungen dieser
Arbeit zeigten, dass die Beziehung zwischen diesen Parametern durch ein
3D-Diagramm grafisch dargestellt werden kann. Der Zusammenhang wurde in dieser
Arbeit fr eine Einspritzleitung 8 x 2.2 aus dem Werkstoff St 52 DI experimentell
bestimmt. Wie bereits gezeigt, nahmen mit der Erhhung des Autofrettagegrades die
erforderliche Zeit bis zur vollstndigen Ausbildung des plastischen Verformungs-
zustandes und der Unterschied zwischen den erzeugten Dehnungszustnden am
Anfang und am Ende der Druckhaltezeit zu. Ein Polynom dritten Grades beschrieb
das Verhalten des erzeugten Dehnungszustands in Abhngigkeit vom
Autofrettagedruck am besten. Auerdem kann das Verhalten des erzeugten
Dehnungszustands in Abhngigkeit der erforderlichen Zeit fr die vollstndige
Ausbildung des plastischen Verformungszustandes ebenfalls durch eine
polynomische Gleichung dritten Grades ausgedrckt werden.
Die Ergebnisse der experimentellen Untersuchungen zeigten, dass
Einspritzleitungen bevorzugt bei einem hheren Druck ber eine kurze Haltezeit als
ber einen lngere Haltezeit bei einem durch die analytischen Berechnungen
bestimmten Druck autofrettiert werden sollten. Auf diese Weise kann der gewnschte
Spannungs-Dehnungs-Zustand in einer Zeit erreicht werden ( s t
Haltezeit
10 < ), die eine

211
gewinnbringende Serienproduktion zulsst. Die Ergebnisse im 3D-Diagramm
zeigten, dass der erforderliche Unterschied zwischen dem berechneten Druck und
dem verwendeten Autofrettagedruck fr niedrige Autofrettagegrade grer ist und mit
der Zunahme des Autofrettagegrades abnimmt.
Diese Arbeit zeigt auch das Leistungsvermgen des Messsystems Q-100 fr die
Lokalisierung von Rissen in der Einspritzleitungswand durch die Analyse des auf der
Auenoberflche der Einspritzleitung gemessenen Dehnungsgradienten.
Weitere Arbeiten knnen Erkenntnisse ber den zustzlichen Einfluss der Geometrie
(Wanddicke) auf die Spannungs-Dehnungs-Erzeugung bringen. In Experimenten
knnen Einspritzleitungen aus demselben Werkstoff und mit unterschiedlichen
Wanddicken bei verschiedenen Drcken autofrettiert und das Dehnungsverhalten
whrend der Behandlung beobachtet werden. Auf diese Weise kann der
Zusammenhang zwischen allen vier Parametern (Autofrettagedruck, Haltezeit,
Geometrie und erzeugter Spannungs-Dehnungs-Zustand) fr den betrachteten
Werkstoff bestimmt werden.
Eine andere wichtige Frage ist, wie die Druckhaltezeit die Ermdungsfestigkeit der
autofrettierten Bauteile beeinflusst. Zu diesem Zweck sollten zahlreiche
Dauerfestigkeitsuntersuchungen an Einspritzleitungen, die bei unterschiedlichen
Bedingungen (Autofrettagedruck, Haltezeit) autofrettiert wurden, durchgefhrt
werden.
Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie als ein Qualittskontroll-
werkzeug in der Serienproduktion von Einspritzleitungen
Ein zustzliches Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Ermittlung der Anwendbarkeit der Laser-
Speckle-Interferometrie als ein Qualittskontrollwerkzeug in der Serienproduktion
von Einspritzleitungen. Hufige Schden und unerwartete Ausflle von
Einspritzsystembauteilen, die unter nominalen Betriebsbedingungen in den letzten
Jahren auftraten, machen ein solches berprfungsverfahren notwendig.
Beispielsweise knnten Schwankungen der Werkstoffeigenschaften innerhalb einer
Charge von Halbzeug-Leitungen zu einer unterschiedlichen Autofrettagequalitt von
Einspritzleitungen fhren, auch wenn diese bei gleichem Druck autofrettiert wurden.
Wie die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit zeigten, ermglicht eine schnelle Dehnungsanalyse
an der Einspritzleitungsoberflche whrend der Eingangkontrolle eine genaue
Bestimmung der Werkstoffeigenschaften.
Bei der Endkontrolle der Einspritzleitungen knnten vor der Auslieferung auf die
gleiche Weise die Autofrettageprozesseffekte durch eine solche schnelle
Dehnungsanalyse an der Einspritzleitungsoberflche nachgewiesen werden.

212
Fr beide erwhnten Anwendungen erfllt die Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie heutige
Industrieanforderungen, da sie sowohl sehr schnelle als auch zuverlssige
Messungen ohne jegliche Betriebskosten und mit signifikant weniger Aufwand als bei
herkmmlichen Messtechniken ermglicht.
Des Weiteren ist eine berwachung der Autofrettage von Einspritzleitungen in der
Serienproduktion erforderlich, um den Einfluss der geometrischen Unstetigkeiten und
metallurgischen Imperfektionen oder sogar Strungen beim Autofrettageprozess zu
vermeiden. Das Leistungsvermgen einer Leichtkontakt-Anwendung des optischen
Sensors an Einspritzleitungen, das in dieser Arbeit nachgewiesen wurde, ist eine
wichtige Grundvoraussetzung fr die Anwendung des Laser-Speckle-Interferometrie-
Messsystems Q-100 als ein Qualittswerkzeug in der Serienproduktion von
Einspritzleitungen. Aus diesem Grund wurden ein Konzept fr die Qualittskontrolle
von Einspritzleitungen in der Serienproduktion und ein Konzept fr die Kontrolle der
Eigenspannungserzeugung whrend des Autofrettageprozesses entwickelt, die in
der vorliegenden Arbeit beschrieben wurden. Um dieses Konzept in der
Serienproduktion einzusetzen, kann ein mit dem Messsystem Q-100 ausgersteter
Industrieroboter als Bestandteil einer Autofrettagemaschine entwickelt werden.

213

Lebenslauf


Persnliche Daten:
Name: Adis Basara
Geburtsdaten: 27. Juli 1975 in Donji Vakuf, Bosnien-Herzegowina
Staatsangehrigkeit: Bosnisch-herzegowinisch
Familienstand: Ledig
Schul- und Hochschulbildung:
09/1982 - 09/1990 Grundschule in Donji Vakuf, Bosnien-Herzegowina
09/1990 - 09/1994 "Gemischte Mittelschule: Schule fr Maschinenbau und Technik" in
Bugojno, Bosnien-Herzegowina,
Fachabitur mit dem Abschluss: Maschinenbautechniker
09/1994 - 07/2001 Studium an der Fakultt fr Maschinenbau der Universitt Sarajewo,
Bosnien-Herzegowina, Studienrichtung: Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik,
Studienabschluss: Diplom-Ingenieur (Universitt)

Diplomarbeit (03/2001 - 06/2001) am Lehrstuhl fr Strmungsmechanik
der Friedrich-Alexander-Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, Deutschland,
Titel der Diplomarbeit: "Experimental Investigations of Solar-Fossil
Heating System"
Berufliche Ttigkeit:
09/2001 - 12/2002 Entwicklungsingenieur bei der Firma Invent GmbH, Erlangen,
Deutschland
seit 01/2003 Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl fr Prozessmaschinen und
Anlagentechnik der Friedrich-Alexander-Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg,
Deutschland