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Program / Course: Unit of Competency Module Title

Automotive Servicing NC 1 Service Automotive Battery Servicing Automotive Battery

This module contains information and suggested learning activities on Servicing Automotive Batteries. It includes instructions and procedure on how to test automotive battery, remove and replace batteries, service and charge batteries and jump start vehicle. Completion of this module will help you understand the succeeding module on Test and Repair Wiring and Lighting System. This module consists of four learning outcomes. Each learning outcome contains learning activities with instruction sheets. Before you follow the instruction, read the information sheets and answer the self-check and activities provided to assess your competence by your teacher. He/she will check if you have acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill portion of the particular learning outcome.

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of the module, you should be able to: LO1. Test Automotive Battery; LO2. Remove and Replace Batteries; LO3. Service and Charge Batteries; and LO4. Jump Start Vehicle

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SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY

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Pre-Test Select the correct answer to each question and write the letter on the blank provided for. 1. The battery in an electro chemical device, this means the battery a. makes chemicals by electronic means b. uses chemicals to provide electricity c. has non-chemical plates d. does not use an electrolyte 2. The battery performs the following EXCEPT a. supplies current to crank the engine b. supplies current when the charging system cannot handle the lead c. supplies current to the ignition system with the engine is off. d. supplies current to the ECM while the engine is off 3. When working around the battery be sure to; a. Disconnect the negative first b. Disconnect the positive first c. Never disconnect the terminals d. A and B 4. A type of battery which do not have removable caps. a. maintenance free battery b. battery with caps c. 3A battery d. B and C 5. This type of hydrometer which is similar to ball type coolant hydrometer. a.) ball hydrometer b.) flat hydrometer c.) barometer d.) A and B 6. A type of hydrometer which the state of charge marks on the float stem to show electrolyte specific gravity. a.) ball type hydrometer b.) float hydrometer c.) A and B d.) None of the above 7. The indication if the battery is in full charge in using ball hydrometer. a.) all balls float b.) no balls float c.) A and B d.) None of the above 8. The more fully charge the battery is, the higher the float is indicating the state of charge of. a.) float hydrometer b.) ball hydrometer
TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY circuit to determine faults.

c.) A and B d.) All of the above 9. The more balls float, the higher the state of charge is. a.) ball hydrometer b.) float hydrometer c.) A and B d.) None of the above 10. In disconnecting the battery the correct tools used are______. a.) box wrench (12x13) b.) open wrench c.) battery pliers d.) A and C

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY circuit to determine faults.

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing Service Automotive Battery Servicing Automotive Battery

Learning Outcome 1: Test Automotive Battery An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. Usually this refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, ignition ) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicles engine. An automotive battery may also be a traction battery used for the main power source of an electric vehicle therefore; preventive maintenance procedures must be performed frequently to avoid automobile malfunctions. Assessment Criteria 1.Battery is tested to avoid damage to the vehicle or to any property within the work area. 2. Appropriate test equipment and instrument are selected. 3. Test results are analyzed and interpreted. 4. Findings are reported to immediate supervisor or automotive instructor. Definition of Terms BATTERY CELL - the active unit of the battery BATTERY HOLD DOWNS - brackets that secure the battery to the chassis of the vehicle. BATTERY LEAKAGE TEST - test used to determine if current is discharging across the top of the battery fuse. BATTERY TERMINAL TEST - test that checks for poor electrical connections between the battery cables and terminals. BATTERY TERMINALS - terminals of the battery where the positive and the negative battery cables are connected. The terminals may be posts or threaded insert. BATTERY CHARGER - an equipment that is use to charge battery capacity given in ampere hours. ELECTROLYTE - Any solution that conducts an electric current.

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYAutomotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of Test open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

INFORMATION SHEET No.1 Battery Construction and Operation An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. Usually this refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicles engine. An automotive battery may also be a traction battery used as the main power source of an electric vehicle. Automotive SLI batteries are usually lead-acid type, and are made of six galvanic cells in series to provide a 12 volt system. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volt at full charge. Heavy vehicles, like highway trucks or tractors, often equipped with diesel engines, may have two batteries in series for a 24-volt system, or may have parallel strings of batteries. Lead-acid batteries are made of plates of lead and separate plates of lead dioxide, which are submerged in electrolyte solution of 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water. This composition causes a chemical reaction that releases electrons which flow through conductors to produce electricity. When the battery discharges, the acid of the electrolyte reacts with the materials of the plates, changing their surface to lead sulfate. When the battery is recharged, the chemical reaction is reversed: the lead sulfate converted into lead oxide and lead.

Recycling automotive batteries reduce resources required to manufacture new batteries. It also prevent improper disposal of toxic waste.
TYPES OF BATTERY The following are two types of automotive batteries. The battery on left has removable caps so the battery state of charge can be checked; adding water if needed. The battery is a "Maintenance Free" battery (lead acid or alkaline) which is sealed and does not require adding with distilled water because the electrolyte level does not change because they do not produce much gas. The charge indicator in the top shows the state of change.

Fig. 1 Two types of Automotive Battery (left) ordinary wet battery (right) maintenance free battery. (www. goggle. com.ph.)
TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMAUTOMOTIVE Test electrical BATTERYsystemAutomotive ofTest open Automotive and short Battery [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

BATTERY CONSTRUCTION The battery case is molded plastic. The plates are molded to plate straps to form plate groups. To make a battery cell, a positive plate group fits into a negative plate group. Porous separators are placed between the plates. This make-up prevents positive and negative plates from touching one another while allowing electrolyte to circulate between the plates. The assembly of plate groups and separators is an element. The elements fit into compartments in the battery case to form cells. Heavy lead connectors are attached to the cell terminals that connect the cells in series. A plastic cover forms the top of the battery. Some batteries have openings in their cover with filler plugs or vent caps that are removable for adding water. Maintenance-free batteries do not have removable caps.

Fig. 2. Parts of Automotive Battery. (Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A. ,Inc.)

WORKING SAFELY ON BATTERIES Observe the following safety measures when working with batteries, testing or charging. 1. The sulfuric acid in the electrolyte is very corrosive. It can make holes in cloth. It can cause serious burns on human skin. It can cause blindness if it gets into the eyes. Wear eye protector when testing or charging a battery. If you get battery acid on your skin, flush it off at once with water. If you get battery acid (electrolyte) into your eyes, flush them with water at once then go to the school nurse, doctor or hospital emergency room. 2. When disconnecting a battery, always disconnect the negative or ground cable first.

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYAutomotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of Test open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

3. If the battery has vent caps, make sure the vent holes are open before charging. Cover the caps with a damp cloth. Discard the cloth after the battery is charged. 4. Never lean over a charging battery. 5. Do not charge a frozen maintenance-free battery because when the charge indicator dot shows light yellow or clear the battery could explode.

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYAutomotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of Test open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

SELF CHECK No.1 Select the correct answer to each question and write the letter on the blank provided for. ________1. The battery in an electro chemical device, this means the battery a. makes chemicals by electronic means b. uses chemicals to provide electricity c. has non-chemical plates d. does not use an electrolyte ________2. The battery performs the following EXCEPT a. supplies current to crank the engine b. supplies current when the charging system cannot handle the lead c. supplies current to the ignition system with the engine is off. d. supplies current to the ECM while the engine is off ________3. When working around the battery be sure to; a. disconnect the negative first b. disconnect the positive first c. never disconnect the terminals d. a and b ________4. A type of battery which do not have removable caps. a. maintenance free battery b. battery with caps c. 3A battery d. b and c

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYAutomotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive ofTest open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

INFORMATION SHEET No. 2 Testing the Battery TWO WAYS OF TESTING THE BATTERY Batteries are tested in two ways: the state of charge and performance. The state of charge of a ventcap battery is determined by a hydrometer. The built-in battery provides this information. The battery load test is performed to determine the serviceability of the battery. HYDROMETER TEST Two types of hydrometer: 1. Ball hydrometer 2. Float hydrometer Ball hydrometer is similar to the ball type coolant hydrometer. To perform hydrometer testing using ball hydrometer, insert the rubber tube into the vent hole of the battery, then squeeze and release the bulb. Electrolyte will be drawn into the tube. If all balls float, the battery is fully charged. If none, the battery is discharged. The more balls that floats, the higher the battery state of charge. The float hydrometer is used in the same way as the ball hydrometer. it will float as the electrolyte is drawn from the battery. Marks on the float stem show the electrolyte specific gravity. This indicates the battery state of charge. The more fully charged the battery, the higher the float. As a precaution, make sure no electrolyte drips on the car or on you. Electrolyte will damage the car paint or your clothes. The following table shows the relationship between specific gravity and state of charge. SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.265 -1.299 1.235 -1.265 1.205 -1.235 1.170 -1.205 1.140-1.170 1.110-1.140 STAGE OF CHARGE Fully charged battery Three fourths charged One-half charged One-fourth charged Barely Operative Completely discharged

While the next table provides the specific gravities and freezing temperatures for battery electrolytes. SPECIFIC GRAVITY STAGE OF CHARGE 1.100 1.160 18 [-8.2] 1.200 1 [-7.2] 1.220 -17 [-27.3] 1.260 -31 [-35] 1.300 -75 [-59.4] -95 [-70.5]
TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMAUTOMOTIVE Test electrical BATTERYsystemAutomotive ofTest open Automotive and short Battery [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

SELF- CHECK No. 2 Write the correct letter of your choice on the blank provided for. _________1. This type of hydrometer which is similar to ball type coolant hydrometer. a. ball hydrometer b. flat hydrometer c. barometer d. a and b A type of hydrometer which the state of charge marks on the float stem to show electrolyte specific gravity. a. ball type hydrometer b. float hydrometer c. a and b d. None of the above The indication if the battery is fully charged using a ball hydrometer. a. all balls float b. no balls float c. a and b d. none of the above The more fully charged the battery is, the higher the float is indicating the state of charge. a. float hydrometer b. ball hydrometer c. a and b d. all of the above The more balls float, the higher the battery state of charge. a. ball hydrometer b. float hydrometer c. a and b d. None of the above

_________2.

_________3.

_________4.

_________5.

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYTest Automotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Testing Automotive battery using hydrometer Procedure: Your teacher will discuss the procedure with you with the aid of pictures and actual battery. 1. Remove all battery vent caps. 2. Check the electrolyte level, it must be high enough to withdraw the correct amount of solution into the hydrometer. 3. Squeeze the bulb and place the pick-up tube into the electrolyte of a cell. 4. Slowly release the bulb. Draw in enough solution until the float is freely suspended in the barrel. Hold the hydrometer in vertical position. 5. Read the electrolyte level on eye level as shown in the figure below. 6. List the test result.

Fig. 3A. Drawing electrolyte from the battery

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYTest Automotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 3b. Checking specific gravity of electrolyte using float hydrometer. (Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A)

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMAUTOMOTIVE Test electrical BATTERYsystemAutomotive of Test open Automotive and short Battery [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Criteria A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 - Exemplary 25 - Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under a specified time 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the work maybe incomplete/misdirected C. Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 Select and use properly of tools/equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES Points

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYTest Automotive Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults.

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing Service Automotive Battery Servicing Automotive Battery

Learning Outcome 2: Remove and Replace Batteries The service life of automobile battery ranges from two years to five years depending on the type and its usage of. In replacing battery, correct procedures must be observed to avoid damage to the electronic components of the automobile. Assessment Criteria 1. Battery is removed and replaced to avoid damage to any work place property or vehicle. 2. Appropriate tools and equipment are selected. 3. Actions are taken to prevent loss of vehicles if electronic memory is applicable Definition of Terms BATTERY CELL - the active unit of the battery BATTERY HOLD DOWNS - brackets that secure the battery to the chassis of the vehicle. BATTERY LEAKAGE TEST - test used to determine if current is discharging across the top of the battery fuse. BATTERY TERMINAL TEST - test that checks for poor electrical connections between the battery cables and terminals. BATTERY TERMINALS - terminals at the battery to which the positive and the negative battery cables are connected. The terminals may be posts or threaded insert. BATTERY CHARGER - an equipment that is use to charge battery capacity given in ampere hours. ELECTROLYTE - Any solution that conducts an electric current. In a car battery, (40% sulfuric acid and (60%) distilled water is the electrolyte. It reacts with the battery's lead plates to produce voltage and current.

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE Remove and Replace Batteries TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] |BATTERYServicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Correct procedures in connecting and disconnecting a battery Connect a memory holder (a 9-volt battery and adaptor) to the cigarette lighter to keep the volatile memories alive, while the battery is disconnected from the vehicle. Follow the manufacturers instruction to avoid overloading the 9-volt battery. Disconnect the ground cable clamp using a box wrench or battery pliers. Loosen the clamp ball then pull the clamp from the terminal. Do not use other pliers or an open-end wrench. If the clamp sticks, use a battery clamp puller, do not pry the clamp off with screw driver or pry bar. This may break the cover. Disconnect the insulated cable from the battery. Clean the terminals and cable clamps. Loosen the hold-down clamps and remove the battery. Clean the battery tray and hold-down clamps. If these parts are metal, clean them with stiff brush in a solution of baking soda and water. When installing the battery, do not reverse the terminal connections. Reconnect the insulated cable first then the ground cable, tightening enough the hold down clamps. BE CAREFUL: Never install a battery in incorrect polarity. The reversed polarity may cause high current flow which will damage the cars electrical components.

Fig. 4 Loosen the clamp bolt using open end wrench (http://www.google.com.ph.)

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYRemove and and Replace Batteries TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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SELF-CHECK No. 1 Write the letter of the correct answer in the blanks provided. ______1. In disconnecting the battery the correct tools used are______. a. box wrench (12x13) b. open wrench c. battery pliers d. a and c ______2. The tool to be used to clamp the battery is _______. a. battery clamp puller b. screw driver c. pry bar d. b and c ______3. In cleaning the corrosion and foreign materials on the battery tray you must clean with___________. a. brush with soda and water b. oil c. gasoline d. none of the above ______4. To disconnect the battery first ________. a. remove the vent plug b. disconnect the insulated cable from the battery c. disconnect the ground cable from the battery d. put the transmission in park or reverse

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYRemove and and Replace Batteries TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET No.1 Removing and Replacing Battery Supplies and materials Apron Safety goggles Gloves Soda solution Battery lithium grease

Tools Box wrench(12x13) Screw drivers Lifting clamp Wire brush

Equipment Engine mock-up Vehicle New battery

PROCEDURE: 1. Look for sulfate build-up in the form of a whitish or blue residue around the terminal. Removing this residue can sometimes solve issues of a faulty battery. DO NOT TOUCH THIS POWDER WITH YOUR BARE HANDS, as it can often contain dried sulfuric acid which could corrode your skin. Verify also if the battery has been recharged properly by driving constantly for 30 minutes (with minimal electrical usage, including the air conditioner). Finally, check the alternator. The alternator usually maintains a charge close to 13.8-14.2 volts in a properly functioning charging system. The battery should have 12.412.8 volts with the engine off, and with no accessory load. If determined that the battery problems can't be attributed to any of the above, or if cracks or oozing liquid on the top of the battery are noticed, it's probably safe to proceed with replacement. 2. Buy the correct replacement battery. To do this, know the kind of battery to be replaced, its dimensions, car make model and engine size and bring these information to a local auto parts dealers. That is important because automotive batteries vary in size and electrical capacity and the replacement battery will match the size of the battery tray and support of the vehicle. 3. Set up a secure working environment - Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface at a safe distance from traffic sparks or open flames. Put on the parking brake. Make sure the work area is smoke-free. Remember that electricity is not the only danger. Batteries contain a sulfuric acid

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMAUTOMOTIVE Test electrical system Remove of open and Replace and short Batteries [Type the company name] | BATTERYServicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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electrolyte solution, which is highly corrosive, that is, it can burn your skin and produces a flammable gas. Put on gloves and safety goggles.

Fig. 5: Vehicle parked on a flat, level surface. (http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

4. Remove the cigarette lighter and plug the memory keeper into the lighter socket. A complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) will keep the PIN codes and settings for radios and navigation systems from getting erased when you disconnect the battery. If you don't have a memory keeper make sure you have all the PINs for your electronic equipment before you start. You may wish to check your car manual to see what devices may be affected. 5. Open the hood and use the prop rod to keep it open. Most of the latest model cars have hoods that hold themselves up.

Fig. 6: Opening the hood of the vehicle. (Courtesy of http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMAUTOMOTIVE Test electrical BATTERYsystem Remove of open and and Replace short Batteries [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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6. Locate the battery. The battery should be located in an accessible part on either side of the car's frame. The battery is a rectangular box with two cables attached to it. Some European cars (BMW's, new BenzChrystler's) have the battery under the metting in the trunk, or inside the fender of the wheel well (The latter is often very difficult to remove).

Fig.7: Location of battery in a vehicle.


( http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

7. Identify battery terminals. Locate the positive and the negative terminals of the old car battery. The positive terminal will have a plus sign and the negative terminal will have a minus sign. 8. Disconnect the negative terminal. Loosen the negative cable clamp with a wrench (Usually 8mm or 10mm) and slide it off of the terminal. If the cables are unmarked, label them so that they don't get mixed up (otherwise you may ruin your car's electric system later on). It is also important that you disconnect the negative terminal socket before the positive terminal socket. Otherwise, you may short circuit the positive terminal to a grounded part of the car.

Fig.8: Disconnect the negative terminal first. ( http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYRemove and and Replace Batteries TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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9. Disconnect the positive terminal. 10. Remove the car battery by unfastening the battery holder and remove any screws, clamps or bars holding the battery in place. Carefully lift the battery out of the car. Remember that a battery can weigh 30 to 60 pounds, or 13.5 to 27 kilos, so if you have any back problems, get a helping hand.

Fig. 9: Removing the car battery. (http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

11. Clean the terminal clamps and the battery tray. You can use a baking soda solution and a wire brush. If there's any severe corrosion, consider replacement by a mechanic. Otherwise, let the area dry before moving onto the next step. 12. Replace the battery - Place the new battery where you just took the old battery out, with the positive and negative terminals on the correct sides. Connect all the screws, clamps or bars that may hold the battery in place.

Fig. 10: Replacing the battery. (http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] | BATTERYServicing Automotive Battery SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE Remove and Replace Batteries circuit to determine faults.

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13. Reconnect the positive terminal - Tighten the clamps using a wrench.

Fig. 11: Reconnecting the positive terminal first. (http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

14. Reconnect the negative terminal - Tighten the clamp with the wrench. 15. Apply battery lithium grease - Spray the terminals with lithium grease to prevent corrosion.

Fig. 12: Applying battery lithium grease to prevent corrosion. ( http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

16. Close the hood - Shut the hood of your car firmly and start your car. Check that all the electronic devices are working properly.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open short SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYRemove and and Replace Batteries [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 13 Close the hood of the vehicle. (http://www.wikihow.com/Change-a-Car-Battery)

17. Dispose of the used battery at service garages, auto supply stores, and recycling centers. There may be a small fee for the service, but throwing the battery away as normal garbage is not an option. In the US, most battery retailers charge a deposit on the battery; this will be refunded with the return of an old battery.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] | BATTERYServicing Automotive Battery SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE Remove and Replace Batteries circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship/Performance A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 - Exemplary 25 - Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under a specified time 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the work maybe incomplete/misdirected C. Proper use of tools/equipment with safety measures 35 Select/use properly of tools/equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES Points

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical systemAutomotive of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Battery circuit to determine faults. SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY- Remove and Replace Batteries

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency Module Title Servicing

Automotive Servicing Service Automotive Battery Automotive Battery

Learning Outcome 3: Service and Charge Battery To prolong the service life of the battery and to make sure that the battery is always in good working condition, battery servicing must be performed. Assessment Criteria 1. Battery is charged using the appropriate battery charger. 2. Electrolyte level is checked and tapped. 3. Battery and its terminals are cleaned Definition of Terms BATTERY CELL - the active unit of the battery BATTERY HOLD DOWNS - brackets that secure the battery to the chassis of the vehicle. BATTERY LEAKAGE TEST - test used to determine if current is discharging across the top of the battery fuse. BATTERY TERMINAL TEST - test that checks for poor electrical connections between the battery cables and terminals. BATTERY TERMINALS - terminals at the battery to which the positive and the negative battery cables are connected. The terminals maybe posts or threaded insert. BATTERY CHARGER - an equipment that is use to charge battery capacity given in ampere hours. ELECTROLYTE - Any solution that conducts an electric current. In a car battery, (40% sulfuric acid and (60%) distilled water is the electrolyte. It reacts with the battery's lead plates to produce voltage and current.

AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYService and Charge Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [TypeSERVICING the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Charging Batteries METHODS OF BATTERY CHARGING: A battery in good condition may occasionally fail to crank the engine fast enough to make it start. In such a case, the battery may require charging. All battery chargers operate on the battery to reverse the chemical action in the cells. Never connect or disconnect the leads with the charger is turned ON. Follow the battery charger manufacturers instruction. Do not attempt to charge a battery with frozen electrolyte. When using a battery charger, always disconnect the battery ground cable first. This will minimize the possibility of damage to the alternator or to electronic components. Otherwise, use a charger with polarity protection to prevent reverse charging. The battery can be considered fully charged when all cells are gassing freely and when there is no change in specific gravity readings for more than one hour.

Fig. 14: A battery being charge (Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A.,Inc.) A. Fast Charging: Fast charging is used to charge a battery for a short period of time using a high rate of current. Fast charging may shorten battery life. If time allows, slow charging is preferred. Some low maintenance batteries can be fast charged. 1. Preparation for charging. Clean the dirt, dust, or corrosion of the battery. If necessary, clean the terminals. Check the electrolyte level and add distilled water if needed. If the battery is to be charged while in the vehicle, be sure to disconnect both (-) (+) terminals. 2. Determine the charging current and time for fast charging. Some chargers have a test device for determining the charging current and required time. If charger does not have a test device, refer to the chart on the next page to determine current and time(Table 1).
TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYService and Charge Battery [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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Table 1. Showing typical charging rates for fully discharged batteries. 3. Turn off the main switch and timer and check if the current adjust switch is at the minimum position. Connect the positive lead of the charger to the battery positive terminal (+) and the negative lead of the charger to the negative terminal (-). Connect the chargers power cable to the electric outlet. Set the voltage switch to the correct battery voltage. Turn on the main switch. Set the timer to the desired time and adjust the charging current to the predetermined amperage. 4. After the timer has been turned off, check the charged condition using a voltmeter. The correct voltage must be 12.6 volts or higher. If the voltage does not increase, or if gas is not emitted no matter how long the battery is charged, there may be a problem with the battery, like an internal short circuit. 5. When the voltage reaches the proper reading, set the current adjust switch to a minimum. Turn off the main switch of the charger. Disconnect the charger cables from the battery terminals. Wash the battery case to clean off the acid emitted. B. Slow Charging: High charging rates are not good for completely charging a battery. To completely charge a battery, slow charging with a low current is required. Slow charging procedures are the same as those for fast charging, except for the following: 1. The maximum charging current should be less than 1/10th of the battery capacity. For instance, a 40AH battery should be charged slowly at 4 amperes or less. 2. Set the charger switch to slow position (if provided). 3. Readjust the current control switch from time to time while charging. 4. As the battery gets near full charge, hydrogen gas is emitted. When there is no further rise in battery voltage for more than one hour, the battery is completely charged. The battery voltage should be 12.6 volts or higher.

AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYService and Charge Battery TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [TypeSERVICING the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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FACTORS AFFECTING CHARGING Five factors affect charging by increasing its internal resistance and CEMF (counter-electromotive force produced by the electrochemical reaction): 1. Temperature. As the temperature decreases the electrolyte resist charging. A cold battery will take more time to charge; a warm battery, less time. Never attempt to charge a frozen battery. 2. State of charge. The condition of the batterys active materials will affect charging. A battery that is severely discharge will have hard sulfate crystals in its plates. The vehicles charging system may be charged at a very high rate to remove such sulfates. 3. Plate area. Small plates are charged faster than large plates. When sulfation covers most of the plate area, the charging system may not be able to restore the battery. 4. Impurities. Dirt and other impurities in the electrolyte increase the difficulty of charging. 5. Gassing. Hydrogen and oxygen bubbles form in the plates during charging. As these bubble goes out of the battery during the charging process, they wash away active material, causes water loss, and increase charging difficulty.

Fig.15: Factors Affecting Charging (Toyota Motor Sales,U.S.A.,Inc.)

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of and openCharge and short SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYService Battery [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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SELF- CHECK No. 1 Write the letter of your answer in the space prodived. ________1 A method of charging the battery using low current for several hours. a. slow charge b. fast charge c. A and B d. None of the above ________2.The presence of hydrogen and oxygen bubbles at the plate during charging. a. gassing b. sulfation c. impurities d. A and B ________3. A method of battery charging for a short period of time with a high rate of current. a. quick or fast charge b. slow charge c. A and B d. None of the above ________4.When charging the battery in a vehicle, first a. disconnect the ground cable b. disconnect the positive cable c. A and B d. None of the above ________5. The voltage for a completely charge battery is ______ a. 10.2 volts b. 12.6 volts c. 20 volts d. All of these

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [TypeSERVICING the company AUTOMOTIVE name] BATTERY| Servicing Service Automotive and Charge Battery Battery circuit to determine faults.

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing Service Automotive Battery Servicing Automotive Battery

Learning Outcome 4: Jump Start a Vehicle Jump starting is a process of starting a vehicle with a dead battery. It is done on a car to quickly start its engine. It is easier to do than to replace the dead battery with a new unit or to recharge the battery that takes at least 2 hours. However, extra care must be observed to avoid damaging the automobiles electronic and electrical components. Assessment Criteria 1. Vehicle is jump started to avoid damage to any workplace property or vehicle. 2. Jumper leads are selected and used to ensure spark protection which is employed when necessary. 3. Leads are connected and disconnected correctly according to sequence and polarity. Definition of Terms BATTERY TERMINAL TEST - test that checks for poor electrical connections between the battery cables and terminals. BATTERY TERMINALS - terminals at the battery to which the positive and the negative battery cables are connected. The terminals maybe posts or threaded insert. BATTERY CHARGER - an equipment that is use to charge battery capacity given in ampere hours. ELECTROLYTE - Any solution that conducts an electric current. In a car battery, (40% sulfuric acid and (60%) distilled water is the electrolyte. It reacts with the battery's lead plates to produce voltage and current.

SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYJump Start Vehicle TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Jump starting safely a vehicle Supplies and Materials Tools Wrenches Pliers Correct size of cable wires

Equipment Fully charge battery Vehicle

PROCEDURE 1. Verify that everything is off in the vehicle with the dead battery, i.e. lights, ignition. 2. Use a vehicle with a good battery to power (or start) a vehicle with the bad battery. Make sure the vehicles are not touching, but close enough for the jumper cables to reach both batteries. 3. Identify the red positive terminals and black negative terminals on both batteries. 4. Make sure the vehicle with a good battery is running, then in the following sequence, connect the jumper cables 5. Connect one of the red clips on the cables to the red positive terminal on the dead battery. 6. Connect the other red clip of the jumper cables to the red positive terminal of the good battery. 7. Connect the black clip to the black negative terminal on the good battery. 8. Find a solid piece of metal underneath the hood of the dead vehicle to act as a ground. Do not connect the last black clip to the black negative terminal on the dead battery. A bracket or bolt can act as a solid ground for the dead vehicle. You most likely will see a small spark when this connection is made, do not be alarmed, this is completion of the circuit.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYJump Start Vehicle circuit to determine faults.

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Figure: 16: showing steps and connection in jumpstarting a vehicle. (Autoshop 101.com)

NOTE: Do not connect the negative jumper cable end to the battery negative terminal. Doing so may create a spark that will cause the battery to explode. 9. Wait a minute or two to give the dead battery a chance to charge. A good way to check that this is working is to turn on the interior lights of the dead vehicle. 10. Attempt to start the car with a dead battery. If it doesnt start, try two or three more times. If it still doesnt start, discontinue starting the engine, because you could burn out the ignition switch.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMTest AUTOMOTIVE electrical system BATTERYof open Jump and Start short Vehicle [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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11. Remove all the cables the opposite way they were connected: black clip off ground of dead car, black clip off the negative terminal of the good battery, red clip off of positive terminal of dead battery, and red clip off of positive terminal of good battery. 12. Let the car that had the dead battery run for a few minutes, and then it is safe to drive.

CAUTION: Do not use more than 16 volts to jump start a vehicle that is equipped with an engine control module (EICM). The excess voltage may damage the electronic components of the vehicle.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEMTest electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery SERVICING AUTOMOTIVE BATTERYJump Start Vehicle circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 Exemplary 25 Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under a specified time 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the works are incomplete or misdirected C. Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 Select and use properly of tools and equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES Points

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SERVICING SYSTEMTest AUTOMOTIVE electrical system BATTERYof open Jump and Start short Vehicle [Type the company name] | Servicing Automotive Battery circuit to determine faults.

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC 1 Test and Repair Wiring and Lighting System Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting System

This module contains information and suggested learning activities on testing and repairing electrical system. It includes instructions and procedure on how to use hand tools and electrical instruments in accordance to the manual instructions and specifications. Completion of this module will help you understand the succeeding module on Test and Repair Wiring and Lighting System. This module consists of three learning outcomes. That contains learning activities with instruction sheets. Before you follow the instruction, read the information sheets and answer the self-check and activities provided to assess your competence by your teacher. He/she will check if you have acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill portion of the particular learning outcome. Upon completing this module, report to your teacher for assessment. If you pass the assessment, you will be given a certificate of completion. SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of the module, you should be able to: LO1. test electrical system for open and short circuits to determine faults; LO2. repair electrical system; and LO3. test and repair starting system.

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM circuit to determine faults.

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Pre-Test Write the letter of the correct answer. 1. The exterior lights consist of several components except one. a. signal light c. parking light b. stop light d. dome light 2. The type of switch that controls the high and low head lamp beam function. a. signal switch c. dimmer switch b. hazard switch d. stop light switch 3. The components of exterior light which are mounted on the brake pedal. a. back-up light c. emergency light b. stoplight d. signal light 4. The back-up light switch is mounted on the side of the.. a. transmission c. differential b. engine d. brake pedal 5. Type of lighting system that permits the driver to turn the vehicle to the left or to the right. a. stop light system c. back-up light system b. signal light system d. head lamp system 6. Before repairing or testing any lighting system, check the following except one. a.) battery b.) tire c.) cable connection d.) wires for damage 7. The circuits in the vehicle include all, except--a.) protectors b.) switches c.) lamps d.) battery 8. The lighting systems of a vehicle should be checked to avoid--a.) danger to the driver and other people b.) improper functioning of the lighting circuits c.) prevent injury and damaged to property d.) all of the above. 9. In repairing the lighting system of a vehicle, the following must be observed. a.) be sure to use the correct lamp types b.) size of the wire to be used c.) assure safety at all times d.) all of the above 10. The number of light bulbs and length of wiring in the lighting circuits. a.) 10 bulbs and 2 feet of wire b.) 15 bulbs and 3 feet of wire c.) 50 bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring d.) 20 bulbs and 5 feet of wires

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM circuit to determine faults.

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing Test and Repair Wiring/Lighting System Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting System

Learning Outcome 1: Test electrical system of open and short circuit to determine faults. To determine the electrical faults, electrical components must be tested and evaluated. Information must be correctly interpreted based on the manufacturers specification to prevent serious damage to the components. Assessment Criteria 1. Correct information is assessed and interpreted from appropriate manufacturers specifications. 2. Tests are to determine faults using appropriate tools and techniques. 3. Faults are administered, interpreted and applied 4. Tests are completed without causing damage to the workplace property or vehicle. Definition of Terms: AMMETER - An instrument which measures the amount of amperes of current flowing through an electrical circuit. Known also as an Ampere Gauge. CONTINUITY refers to the circuit being continuous with no open contact. FUSE - a device that contains a small piece of wire that melts if excessive current flows through it and designed to prevent the circuit from getting overloaded. OHMMETER is a test meter to check the resistance and continuity in a circuit. OPEN CIRCUIT a term used to indicate that current flow is stopped. By opening the circuit, the path for electron flow is broken. RESISTANCE - opposition to current flow. SHORT CIRCUIT - a defective electrical circuit where the current in a wire or device takes an alternate (typically shorter) path to ground. Usually the result of melted, burned or broken wire(s) or damaged electrical part. Usually referred to as just short. WIRING HARNESS - an arrangement of bundled color-coded wires which is routed through a vehicle and carries electric current to the engine and all electrical parts of the automobile. An automobile's equivalent of a circulatory system.
TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Automotive Lighting System and Components The lighting system of an automobile comprises of various lighting and signaling devices or components fixed in the front, sides and rear of the vehicle. Automobile lighting system has multiple functions as follows: It provides illumination for the driver of a vehicle to drive safely in the dark. Automobile lights enhance the visibility of an automobile. Automobile lights act as the warning signals. With lights the cars presence, position, size, speed and direction are detected by other motorists.

Fig. 17. Schematic wiring diagram of automotive lighting system Exterior Lights Typically these include the headlights, signal lights, stoplights, parking lights, back up lights and side marker lights. Interior Lights Normally these are the dome light instrument light, in the dash board, trunk light.

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 18. Components of the lighting system. Headlights These lighting devices are affixed in front of an automobile, main function of which is to light the road ahead. These lights are really powerful and have reflectors as well. Its use is not only restricted during night time but can also be used during foggy conditions. Headlights are intrinsic parts of a vehicle, which are affixed to the header panel assembly in front of an automobile. These lights have three basic components: reflectors, filament and special lenses that are combined in an airtight unit. Headlights come in variety of shapes, designs, colors, materials and sizes. Circular is the common shape as it is easy to manufacture. Headlights are mostly made of plastic, and usually come in pairs and are operated electronically.

Fig. 19. Construction of a sealed-beam headlamp (courtesy of Toyota Corp.)

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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Head Lamp Switch is an on/off switch and rheostat in the dash panel or on the steering column.

Fig. 20. Exploded view of headlight switch Dimmer Switch controls the high and low head lamp beam function. This switch may be mounted on the steering column or flow board. HIGH__________ LOW___________ BATTTERY________ Dimmer Switch Fig. 21 Dimmer switch Head Lamp Circuit The headlight circuit is composed of the headlights, dimmer switch, fuse, light switch, and storage battery. Although the ammeter properly belongs to the charging system, it may also be considered as part of the lighting system if the current used in this system passes through the ammeter. Note that the headlights have two filaments, one for the bright and the other for dim lights. Both filaments are connected to a common ground terminal. However, only one of these filaments lights at a time. Switching the headlights from bright to dim or vice versa is done using the dimmer switch. The fuse, which may be found in a fuse box, protects the headlights from damage or burning due to grounded live wire. The fuse burns to cut off the flow of excessive current. The light switch is the main switch of the lighting system. It controls the flow of current to the headlight circuit, taillights, and instrument panel lights
TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 22 Schematic diagram of headlight circuit. ( Courtesy of http://www.google.com.ph)

Fig. 23 Headlight Circuit without relay

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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HEAD LIGHT CIRCUIT WITH SINGLE RELAY

86
RELAY

87

DIMMER SWITCH

HEAD LIGHT SWITCH

H P

HEAD LAMP

85

30
IGNITION SWITCH B

FUSE
BATTERY

Fig. 24 Headlight Circuit with single relay

HEAD LIGHT
HEAD LIGHT CIRCIUT WITH DOUBLE RELAY
RELAY
86
DIMMER SWITCH HEAD LIGHT SWITCH

87

H P

85
HEAD LAMP

30
IGNITION SWITCH

86

87 FUSE BLOCK
B

85

30 BATTERY RELAY

Fig.25 Headlight circuit using two relays.

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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TAIL LIGHTS Tail lights are the lamps, usually covered by a red or translucent body, which are installed at the rear end of an automobile. Taillights are mounted at the backside of a vehicle and usually come in pairs. PARK LIGHTS Park lights are used for warning or signaling the driver about the presence of another vehicle. These are especially useful during foggy, rainy or dark weather. These lights are also used as brake lights.

PARK AND TAIL LIGHT

PARK AND TAIL LIGHT CIRCUIT WITH OUT RELAY

FRONT

FRONT
HEAD LIGHT SWITCH IGNITION SWITCH

ST

H
PLATE LAMP

IG
ACC

FUSE

BATTERY REAR

REAR

Fig. 26 Schematic diagram of park and tail lights circuit without relay.

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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PARK AND TAIL LIGHT

PARK AND TAIL LIGHT CIRCUIT WITH OUT RELAY, GROUND SWITCHING

FRONT

FRONT HEAD/PARK SWITCH

IGNITION SWITCH

ACC ST B IG

FUSE REAR

REAR

battery

Fig. 27 Schematic diagram of park and tail lights circuit without relay and using ground switching.

PARK AND TAIL LIGHT

PARK AND TAIL LIGHT CIRCUIT WITH RELAY

FRONT

FRONT
86 87 RELAY

HEAD LIGHT SWITCH

PLATE LAMP

85

30
ACC B ST IG IGNITION SWITCH

REAR

REAR

FUSE

Battery
BATTERY

Fig. 28 Schematic diagram of park and tail lights circuit with relay.

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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Directional Light Circuit The turn light system basically consists of a fuse, switch, flasher unit, turn light bulbs, indicator bulbs, and related wiring. The turn signal light is used by the driver to indicate his/her intention of driving either to the right or to the left. A directional signal light switch is used by the driver to operate the right signal lights if his/her intention is to drive to the drive to the right, or the left signal lights if he is proceeding to the left.

Fig. 29 Turn signal light lever on the steering column (courtesy of Chysler Corporation)

Fig. 20 Schematic diagram of turn signal light circuit without relay.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 21 Schematic diagram of turn signal light circuit with relay.

Emergency Light System The emergency light is known more as hazard warning system. The switch of this light system is normally mounted on the steering column. It is usually a push-pull switch.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 22 Schematic diagram of signal and hazard light circuit without relay

Fig. 22 Schematic diagram of signal and hazard light circuit with relay.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Stoplight Circuit The stoplight system is commonly made up of a fuse, brake light switch, two rear lamps, and wiring. The brake light switch is normally mounted on the brake pedal.

Fig. 23 (a) Off position (b) On position of stoplight switch

Fig. 24 A typical schematic diagram of stoplight circuit

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 24 A typical schematic diagram of stoplight circuit with relay. Backup Light Circuit A back-up light circuit typically has a fuse, transmission mounted switch, two back-up lamps and wiring connections. The back lamp switch closes the light circuit when the transmission is shifted into reverse, to illuminate the area behind the car.

Fig. 25 A simple diagram of back-up light circuit

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 24 A typical schematic diagram of backup light and backing horn circuit with relay. Horn The horn is an electromechanical device consisting of a switch, wiring and a buzzer which produces noise when activated. It is used to warn or communicate to other drivers. Large trucks often use air horns which sound louder. Automobile horns are usually electric, driven by a flat circular steel diaphragm that has an electromagnet acting upon it and is attached to a contactor that repeatedly interrupts the current to the electromagnet. This arrangement works like a buzzer or electric bell and is commonly known as "sounding" or "honking" one's horn. There is usually a screw to adjust the distance or tension of the electrical contacts for best operation. A spiral exponential horn shape (sometimes called the "snail") is cast into the body of the horn, to match better the acoustical impedance of the diaphragm with open air, and thus more effectively transfer the sound energy. Sound levels are approximately 107-109 decibels, and current draw 5-6 amperes.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 25 A typical schematic diagram of horn circuit.

Fig. 26 Pictorial diagram of horn circuit. (Courtesy of http://www.secondchancegarage.com/public/133.cfm)

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 27 A schematic diagram of horn circuit without relay.

Fig. 28 A schematic diagram of horn circuit with relay.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 29 A schematic diagram of horn circuit with relay. (http://www.google.com.ph)

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Lighting Circuit Repair and Diagnosis The lighting system of a vehicle is becoming very complex. There may be over 50 light bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring in the lighting circuits. The circuits include circuit protectors, switches, lamps, and connectors. Any failure requires a systematic approach to diagnose, locate, and correct the fault in a short time. The importance of a lighting system cannot be overemphasized. The lighting system should be checked whenever the vehicle is brought to the shop for repairs. Often a customer may not be aware of a light failure. If a lighting circuit is not operating properly, there is a potential danger to the driver and other people. Repairing lighting systems, vehicle safety and meet all applicable laws must be assured. It is also important to use the correct lamp type and size for the application. Before performing any lighting system tests: a. Check first the battery on its state of charge. b. Be sure that all cable connections are clean and tight. c. Visually check the wires for damaged insulation, loose connections, and improper routing. When troubleshooting the lighting system, if only one bulb is malfunctioning it is usually faster to replace it with a known good unit first. Check the connector for signs of corrosion. When testing the circuit with a voltmeter, or test light, check first those components that can be easily accessed.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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AUTO LIGHTING TROUBLE DIAGNOSIS CHART PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE SOLUTION One light bulb Burned bulb Check, repair or doesnt light up Faulty or grounded socket replace Headlight did not Blown fuse Repair, check, lights on Faulty relay repair or replace Faulty headlight switch Faulty dimmer switch Faulty wiring High beam of Faulty headlight switch Repair, check, headlights or Faulty dimmer switch repair or replace flasher did not Faulty wiring lights on Tail light and Blown fuse Repair, check, parking light did Faulty relay repair or replace not turn on Faulty switch Faulty wiring Stop light did not Blown fuse Repair, check, turn on Faulty relay repair or replace Faulty switch Faulty wiring Stop light did not Faulty switch Repair, check, turn off repair or replace Signal light did Faulty switch Repair, check, not flash Faulty wiring repair or replace Signal light did Blown fuse Repair, check, not turn on Faulty flasher repair or replace Faulty switch Faulty wiring Hazard light did Blown fuse Repair, check, not operate Faulty flasher repair or replace Faulty switch Faulty wiring Backup light did Blown fuse Repair, check, not operate Faulty flasher repair or replace Faulty switch Faulty wiring Fig.29 Lighting system trouble-diagnosis chart.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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SELF-CHECK No. 1 Write your answer on the space provided. _______ 1. The exterior lights consist of several components except for one. a. signal light c. parking light b. stop light d. dome light _______ 2. The type of switch that controls the high and low head lamp beam function. a. signal switch c. dimmer switch b. hazard switch d. stop light switch _______ 3. The components of exterior light which are mounted on the the brake pedal. a. back-up light c. emergency light b. stoplight d. signal light _______ 4. The back-up light switch is mounted on the side of the--a. transmission c. differential b. engine d. brake pedal _______ 5. Type of lighting system that permits the driver to turn the vehicle to the left or to the right. a. stop light system c. back-up light system b. signal light system d. head lamp system

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Connecting Back up Light Circuit Supplies and Materials Tools Electrical Pliers Long nose plier Test light Screw Driver Automotive wires

Equipment Battery 12 volts Electrical mock-up/Vehicle

Plan/Working Drawing PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment. 2. Connect a wire to the lamp specified as the backup light to the backup switch found on the transmission. 3. Connect the other terminal to one terminal of the fuse box. 4. Connect a wire from the fuse box to the ACC terminal of the ignition switch. . 5. Connect a wire from the fuse box to the AM terminal of the ignition switch. 6. Connect a wire from AM terminal to the positive terminal of the ampere, and a wire from negative terminal to the positive terminal of the battery. 7. Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the ground part of the vehicle.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 - Exemplary 25 - Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under specified time limit 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the work maybe incomplete/misdirected C. Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 Select or use properly of tools and equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES Points

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM- Test electrical system of open and short [Type the company name] circuit to determine faults.

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing Test and Repair Wiring and Lighting System Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting System

Learning Outcome 2. Repair Electrical Circuit Correcting electrical faults are quite tricky and needs more patience. Correct diagnosis is a must and accurate tools and equipment must be used to carry out the repair. Extra care must also be observed because it deals with electric current and working with electric current needs no mistake. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Correct information is assessed and interpreted using appropriate tools and equipment 2. Necessary repairs are carried out using appropriate tools, techniques and materials 3. Electrical circuit is repaired without causing damage to the work place, property or vehicle Definition of Terms AMMETER - An instrument which measures the amount of amperes of current flowing through an electrical circuit. Also known as an amp. gauge. BACK UP LIGHTS- Light bulbs in the taillight housing come on when the shifter is put in the reverse position. These lights used to illuminate the area behind the vehicle when backing up. CONTINUITY refers to the circuit being continuous with no open. DIMMER SWITCH - a switch and lever system that switch between low beam and high beam headlights. In modern vehicles the lever is positioned on the left side of the steering wheel. When the lever is pulled back (or push forward in some vehicles) it controls an electrical switch which changes current that power the bright and dim headlight circuits when the headlights are turned on. Many vehicles have an additional mode which turns on the lights automatically and momentarily when the lever is pulled back as a signal to other drivers. FUSE - a device that contains a small piece of wire that melts or "blows" if excessive current flows through it. Designed to prevent the circuit from being overloaded. GROWLER - test equipment for testing starter armatures for shorts and grounds. It produces a very strong magnetic field that is capable of inducing a current flow and magnetism in a conductor. HAZARD LAMPS - flashing lights which can be turned on in emergency situations or to warn other drivers. Also known as emergency lights.
TEST AND REPAIR TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMWIRING/LIGHTING Test electrical SYSTEM system of| Repair open and and Electrical short Circuit [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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HEADLIGHTS - high-performance light bulbs mounted on the front of vehicles to provide illumination at night and in low-visibility conditions. Most older vehicles use four headlights; two for high-beam (brighter), two for lowbeams. Modern vehicles use composite headlamps that are designed to complement the aerodynamic shape of a vehicle's front end. These headlights generally have removable/replaceable bulbs. HORN - an electromechanical device consisting of a switch, wiring and a buzzer which produces noise when activated. Used to warn or communicate to other drivers. Large trucks often use air horns which are louder. OHMMETER a test meter resistance and continuity in a circuit. OPEN CIRCUIT a term used to indicate that current flow is stopped. By opening the circuit, the path for electron flow is broken. PARKING LIGHTS - lights that mark the front of a parked vehicle and to mark the front of a vehicle if a headlamp fails. RELAY- An electromechanical device that when operated opens/closes another electric circuit; acts as a remote power switch. Relays are used to engage many accessories from remote switches. The main advantage is eliminating the need to route high current wires throughout a vehicle to each switch. RESISTANCE - opposition to current flow. SHORT CIRCUIT - a defective electrical circuit where the current in a wire or device takes an alternate (typically shorter) path to ground. Usually the result of melted, burned or broken wire(s) or damaged electrical part. Usually referred to as just short. SOLENOID CIRCUIT RESISTANCE TEST - diagnostic test used to determine the electrical condition of the solenoid and the control circuit of the starting system. STATOR - the stationary coil of the ac generator in which current is produced. TURN SIGNAL LIGHTS - a lights which indicate an intended change in directions by flashing lights on the side towards which the turn will be made. TROUBLESHOOTING - the diagnostic procedure of locating and identifying the cause of the fault. It is a step-by-step process of elimination by use of cause-and-effect. WIRING HARNESS - an arrangement of bundled color-coded wires which is routed through a vehicle and carries electric current to the engine and all electrical parts of the automobile. An automobile's equivalent of a circulatory system

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of| Repair open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM Electrical Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Safety Measures in Repairing Electrical Circuit Safety is a basic requirement for the teacher and the students. Most accidents can be prevented if all students cooperate in eliminating unsafe conditions and acts. To this end, each individual is responsible for understanding and applying safety rules, standards, and regulations. In all activities, safety consciousness will help prevent personal injury and damage to property. The lighting system of the vehicle should be checked whenever the vehicle is brought to the shop for repairs. Often a costumer may not be aware of a light failure. If a lighting circuit is not operating properly, there is a potential danger to the driver and other people. The electrical circuit of the vehicle is becoming very complex. There may be over 50 light bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring in the lighting circuits. The circuits include protectors, switches, lamps, and connectors. Any failure requires a systematic approach to diagnose, locate and repair or correct the fault immediately. When performing repairs on the lighting or electrical circuits/systems, the repairs must assure vehicle safety and should meet all the applicable laws. Be sure to use the correct lamp type and size for the application. Before performing any lighting systems test or repair, check the battery connections. Also be sure that all cable connections are removed. Visually check the wires for damage and insulation, loose connections, and improper routing.

TEST AND REPAIR TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMWIRING/LIGHTING Test electrical SYSTEM system of | Repair open and and Electrical short Circuit [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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SELF-CHECK No. 1 Write the letter of your answer in the space provided for. __________1. Before performing any lighting system repairs or tests, check the following except one. a. battery b. tire c. cable connection d. wires for damage _________ 2. The circuits in the vehicle include all except--a. protectors b. switches c. lamps d. battery ______ ___3. The lighting systems of the vehicle should be checked to avoid. a. danger to the driver and other people b. improper functioning of the lighting circuits c. prevent injury and damaged to property d. all of the above. _________4. In repairing the lighting system of a vehicle, the following must be observed. a. be sure to use the correct lamp types b. correct size of the wire to be used c. assure safety at all times d. all of the above _________5. The number of light bulbs and length of wiring in the lighting circuits. a. 10 bulbs and 2 feet of wire b. 15 bulbs and 3 feet of wire c. 50 bulbs and hundreds of feet of wiring d. 20 bulbs and 5 feet of wires

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of open Electrical and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM | Repair Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Connecting Back up Light Circuit Supplies and Materials Tools Electrical Pliers Long nose pliers Test light Screw Driver Multi-tester Automotive wires

Equipment Battery 12 volts Electrical mock-up or Vehicle

Plan/Working Drawing PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the necessary tools, materials and equipment. 2. Connect a wire to the lamp specified as the backup light to the backup switch found on the transmission. 3. Connect the other terminal to one terminal of the fuse box. 4. Connect a wire from the fuse box to the ACC terminal of the ignition switch. 5. Connect a wire from the fuse box to the AM terminal of the ignition switch. 6. Connect a wire from AM terminal to the positive terminal of the ampere, and a wire from negative terminal to the positive terminal of the battery. 7. Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the ground a part of vehicle body.

TEST AND REPAIR TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMWIRING/LIGHTING Test electrical SYSTEM system of | Repair open and and Electrical short Circuit [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship/Performance A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 - Exemplary 25 - Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under specified time limit 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the work may be incomplete/misdirected C. Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 Select and use properly of tools and equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES Points

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of| Repair open and and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM Electrical Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET NO. 2 Head Light Repair and Replacement Supplies and Materials: Headlamp Test lamp Soldering iron Electrical tapes Wire terminal Tools: Philip screw drivers Standard screw drivers Electrical pliers Wrenches(Box and Open) Equipment: Battery (12 volts) Electrical mock-up or Vehicle PROCEDURE: 1. Place fender covers around the work area 2. This type of replacement usually requires the removal of the bezel. The bezel is the retaining trim around a component.

Fig. 30 Remove the light bezel. 3. Remove the retaining ring screws and the retaining trim. Do not turn the two headlight aiming adjustment screw. 4. Remove the headlight from the shell assembly. 5. Disconnect the wire connector from the back of the lamp. 6. Check the wire connector for corrosion or other foreign materials. Clean as needed.

TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM Repairand Electrical Circuit TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of | open and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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Fig. 31 Exploded view of headlight assembly. 7. Coat the connector terminals and the prongs of the new headlight with the dielectric grease to prevent corrosion. 8. Install the wire connector to the headlight prongs and place the headlight into the shell assembly. When positioning the headlight, be sure that the embossed number is at the top. 9. Install the retainer trim and fasteners. 10. Check the operation of the headlight. 11. Check headlight aiming as described. 12. Install the headlight bezel.

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of| open and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM Repairand Electrical Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 - Exemplary 25 - Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under specified time limit 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the work may be incomplete and misdirected C. Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 Select and use properly of tools and equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES Points

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of | open and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM Repairand Electrical Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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OPERATION SHEET NO. 3 Repair Automotive Wiring Supplies and Materials: Soldering lead Safety glasses Soldering iron Electrical tapes Wire terminal Wires Tools: Philip screw drivers Standard screw drivers Electrical pliers Wrenches(socket and ratchet) Soldering gun Equipment: Battery (12 volts) Electrical mock-up or Vehicle PROCEDURE: Automotive wiring can damaged and will need repair during the lifetime of a vehicle. You can repair wiring in multiple ways; though it is important to follow industry standards on the proper way of repairing damaged wiring. This standard is way of doing it is to solder the broken pieces together to create a strong bond that is equal to the strength of new wiring. 1. Put on the safety glasses. Disconnect the positive and negative battery cables from the vehicle's battery using the socket and ratchet. 2. Place a piece of heat-shrink tubing over either side of the broken wire and slide as far away from the break as possible.

Figure 32. Preparing wires for soldering

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of | open and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM Repairand Electrical Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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3. Trim back the remaining protective coating with the wire trimmers and provide about an inch of bare wire on each end of the break, then overlap and twist the wire together, creating a strong connection.

Figure 33. Stripping wires 4. Heat up the soldering iron and solder over the twisted wire. When done correctly the heat will cause the solder to wick into the wiring, creating a strong joint. Allow to cool and provide a gentle tug to the wire to ensure a good solder.

Figure 34. Soldering wires 5. Slide the heat-shrink tubing up and over the bare wire joint and use the heat gun to shrink the tubing, effectively creating an air-tight seal.

TEST AND REPAIR TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMWIRING/LIGHTING Test electrical SYSTEM system of| Repair open and and Electrical short Circuit [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring Lighting circuit to determine faults.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance Quality of Work with application of safety measures 35 Functional 25 Not Functional 10 None Functional Accuracy of Performance under specified time limit 30 All procedures are followed 20 3-5 procedures are followed 10 more than 5 procedures are not followed Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 proper selection and use of tools and equipment 25 wrong handling of tools 10 tools are not suitable for the job. TOTAL SCORE POINTS

TEST AND REPAIR SYSTEMTest electrical system of open Electrical and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting TEST AND REPAIR WIRING/LIGHTING SYSTEM | Repair Circuit circuit to determine faults.

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Program / Course:

Automotive Servicing NC 1

Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Service ignition system Servicing ignition system

In this module, you will find the relevant activities for you to complete--- information to read and understand and operations to perform under every learning outcome covered in this module. Each learning outcome may have more than one learning activity. This module contains learning outcomes, information sheets and essential operation sheets. The information sheets cover the following: Servicing ignition timing. Checking ignition coil resistance.

While the operation sheets of this module will guide you in performing the operation after the teacher demonstration. The procedures covered are-- Spark testing of the spark plugs while cranking the engine. park testing while running the engine. Performing triggering test while engine not cranking or running. Checking ignition coil resistance. Checking ballast resistor of ignition coil. Adjusting contact point when the distributor assembly is installed to engine. Adjusting contact point when distributor assembly removed from engine. Checking ignition system components with the use of ohmmeter. Checking ignition system components with the use of voltmeter. Performing the wiring installation of ignition system. Performing the initial ignition timing. Performing the setting base ignition timing. Maintaining, servicing, and repairing the ignition system component

TEST AND REPAIR Test electrical system of open and short [Type theWIRING/LIGHTING company name]SYSTEM| Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM circuit to determine faults.

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Pre-Test Identify the following. Write your answers on a separate sheet. 1. It is the point in the distributor assembly that distributes high voltage from coil center cable to different spark plug. 2. It is a type of distributor assembly that consists of the following parts; contact point, condenser, springs, lobes, contact set attaching screw, breaker plate, dwell-angle adjusting slot, vacuum advance unit and primary lead. 3. The rotating parts of the distributor assembly that distribute high voltage from coil center cable to different spark plug. 4. It is a key-operated main power switch that opens and closes the circuit that supplies current to the ignition and other electrical system. 5. It is a device connected to the ignition primary circuit to reduce battery voltage to the coil during engine operation. 6. The rotary switch that directs high voltage surges to engine cylinders in the proper sequence. 7. A type of distributor assembly composed of the following parts: pick-up coil assembly, reluctor, pick-up coil, pole piece, mounting bracket, permanent magnet, reluctor teeth, cap clip, connector, pick up coil lead and vacuum advance unit. 8. It is the ignition system component that serves as a transformer to step-up( increase) the battery voltage into many thousands of volts. 9. It is connected across the contact point to prevent arcing and burning. It also provides the storage of electricity when breaker point opens. 10.It is a device in the system that serves as lighter to produce spark on the gap. 11.It is a wire connected from the distributor assembly lead wire with insulated terminal to the negative sign of coil. 12.It prevents heat and helps to cool the coil. 13.It is the center of the ignition coil, a laminated soft iron or steel. 14.This winding is surrounded by the secondary coil windings which is approximately 200 turn of 20-gauge wire. 15.It is winded in the core approximately 22,000 turns of very fine wire.

71 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM [Type the company name] | Testing and Repairing Wiring and Lighting System

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 1. Check Ignition System In order to create fire or combustion, the fire triangle is needed fuel, air and heat. Inside the engine, the air and fuel mixture is compressed by the piston, and it is ignited by the electric spark from the ignition system. If the compressed air is not ignited, there will be no fire or combustion because one factor of the fire triangle is mixing. So it is important that there will be always ignition, a good ignition, to operate the engine. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Spark plug is checked and inspected in accordance with standard testing procedure. 2. Ignition distributor and associated parts are checked or evaluated following standard procedure. 3. Ignition system harness is checked and inspected. Definition of Terms Ignition - the action of the spark in starting the burning of the compressed air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. Ignition advance - the moving forward, of the ignition spark relative to the piston position. Ignition timing - the delivery of the spark from the coil to the spark plug at the proper time for the power stroke, relative to the piston position. Centrifugal advance is a rotating weight mechanism in the distributor that advances and retard ignition timing through the centrifugal force resulting from changes in the rotational speed of the engine distributor. Condenser - a device in the ignition system that is also called a capacitor. It is connected across the contact points to reduce arcing by providing a storage space for electricity (electrons) as the contact points open. Dwell meter - a precision electrical instrument used to measure the cam angle, or dwell or number of degrees the distributor points are closed while the engine is running.
72 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION IgnitionSystem System

Timing the precise delivery of the high voltage spark inside the combustion chamber when the piston is nearing TDC compression stroke Ignition resistor provides resistance in the primary circuit of the ignition system which resulted to reduce the voltage applied in the primary windings of the ignition coil. Dwell in a contact point distributor, is the number of degrees of distributor cam rotation that the points stay closed before they open again. The length of time the points are closed and current flows through the primary winding of the coil. Arcing - name given to the spark that jumps the air gap between two electric conductors.

73 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION IgnitionSystem System

INFORMATION SHEET No.1 Functions of the Ignition system The ignition system feeds high voltage surge to the spark plugs at proper time. Its three major functions are: 1. It must supply an electric spark with sufficient heat in order to ignite the air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of the engine. 2. It must maintain the spark long enough to permit the combustion of all fuel charges in the cylinder of the engine. 3. It must draw the spark to each cylinder so that combustion can begin at specific time during the stroke of compression for every cylinder engine. Types of Ignition System The ignition system may be a breaker point and a breakerless type known as electronics, which is mostly applied in the ignition system today. There is also a computerized type of ignition system and the latest is the distributor less type A. BREAKER POINT TYPE Most four-stroke engines have used a mechanically timed electrical ignition system or breaker point type. The heart of the system is the distributor. The distributor contains a rotating cam driven by the engine's drive, a set of breaker points, a condenser, a rotor and a distributor cap. External to the distributor is the ignition coil, the spark plugs and wires linking the distributor to the spark plugs and ignition coil. (See fig.1) The system is powered by a lead-acid battery, which is charged by the car's electrical system using alternator. The engine operates contact breaker points, which interrupt the current to an induction coil (known as the ignition coil).

74 [Type the company SERVICE IGNITION name] | SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition Ignition System System

Fig. 1 Components and circuit diagram of the breaker point type ignition system. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignition_system)

Fig. 2 Dismantled breaker point type ignition distributor (Toyota Corp.U.S.A

75 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION IgnitionSystem System

B. BREAKERLESS TYPE Breakerless type of distributor assembly is composed of the following parts: pick-up coil assembly, reluctor, pick-up coil, pole piece, mounting bracket, permanent magnet, reluctor teeth, cap clip, connector, pick up coil lead and vacuum advance unit.

Fig. 3 Top view of an electronic ignition distributor showing the different parts. (Chysler Corporation)

76 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION IgnitionSystem System

COMPARISSON BETWEEN BREAKERLESS TYPE AND BREAKER POINT TYPE IGNITION SYSTEM BREAKERLESS TYPE (Electronic Ignition) Electronic ignition module won't burn under normal use. BREAKER POINT TYPE (Mechanical Ignition System) Points burn even under normal use and need to be replaced many times during the life of the car.

Module won't burn if ignition switch is left in Points burn if ignition switch is left in run the run position (with ignition turned off). position. Electronic ignition develops up to 30,000 volts at the spark plug when a car is running at 10 mph up to 100 mph. In addition, many electronic ignition systems maintain this voltage at speed of 8,000 RPM. Electronic ignition systems can operate as high as 8 amps which further enhance the performance of the overall ignition system. Conventional system develops only 24,000 volts when a car is running at 10 mph. But this voltage drops to 17,000 volts when the car reaches 100 mph. A detrimental 40% drop in voltage to ignite the air/fuel mixture under high load conditions. Conventional point's deterioration problems limit the primary current to the coil to about 4.5 amps.

Maintenance-free with higher ignition voltage, more accurate timing, longer plug life, Constant adjustments (gapping) are necessary to increased fuel economy, quick start, and insure peak performance. improved performance Incorporates "Active Dwell" technology. "Dwell" is measured in degrees and is the amount of 'time' the points stay closed. When the points are closed, the coil is building up charge (inductive). When the points open, the coil releases its charge. Electronic ignitions also have dwell. It's just Points need adjusting to compensate for dwell controlled by the electronics in the ("dwell" is how long your points stay closed, or module. The breakerless incorporates "Active "dwell" together, as the distributor shaft rotates). Dwell" technology to maintain high RPM spark energy; delivering up to 30,000 volts with the ignition coil, while reducing coil heating at idle. Active dwell control is a very clever [electronic] way to further increase the output of the coil. Maintenance is not necessary for the distributor cam. Very reliable solid-state circuitry. Condenser is no longer necessary, and is removed. Distributor cam requires periodic lubrication so cam wheel lobes can slide past the points. In addition the cam lobes will wear, eventually causing performance problems. Not reliable (owing the above mentioned reasons). Condenser can degrade and/or fail, needing replacement

Fig. 4. A chart showing the comparison between two types of ignition system. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignition_system

77 SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System System [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition

PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE IGNITION SYSTEM 1. Battery - supplies current to starter in order to crank the engine for operation. It also supplies the required electric current to the ignition system.

2. Ignition Switch - the key-operated main power switch that opens and closes the circuit that supplies current to the ignition and other electrical system.

3. Ignition Resistor - a resistor connected into the ignition primary circuit to reduce battery voltage to the coil during engine operation.

78 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION IgnitionSystem System

4. Ignition Coil - the ignition system component that sets as a transformer to step up(increase) the battery voltage into many thousands of volts.

5. Distributor - any device that distributes. In the ignition system, the rotary switch that directs high voltage surges to engine cylinders in the proper sequence.

6. Rotor - the rotating parts of the distributor assembly that distributes high voltage from coil center cable to different spark plug.

SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System 79 [Type the company name] | SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition System

7. Contact Points - the point in the distributor that opens & closes the primary circuit to build-up and collapse the magnet line of force.

8. Condenser - connected across the contact point to prevent arcing and burning. It also provides the storage of electricity when breaker point is open.

80 [Type the company SERVICE IGNITION name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition IgnitionSystem System

9. Distributor Cap top cover of distributor assembly that prevents dirt or any particles from entering the delicate parts.

10.

High Tension Wires serve as bridges of high voltage to the spark plugs.

11.

Spark Plugs - a device in the system that serves as lighter to produce spark on the gap.

81 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System System

12.

Vacuum Advancer - provides advancing and retarding the ignition timing by means of intake manifold vacuum. It advances the timing just to maintain the spark at top dead center.

The ignition system is of two interconnected electrical circuits. 1. Primary ( low voltage ) 1 Battery 2 Ignition Switch 3 Ballast Resistor or resistance wire 4 Ignition coil primary winding 5 Condenser 6 Contact Point 7 Ground 2. Secondary (high voltage circuits) 1. Ignition coil 2. Secondary winding 3. Distributor cap 4. Rotor 5. Ignition cable or high tension wire 6. Spark plug

82 [Type the company name] | SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System

Fig 5. Block diagram of the ignition system

Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of the ignition system showing the primary and secondary circuits. (http://www.google.com.ph)

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of the ignition system

83 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System System

OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF THE IGNITION SYSTEM The ignition system has two interconnected circuits, the primary circuit and the secondary circuit. Secondary circuit is also called as the high voltage secondary circuit. The ignition system has an ignition coil that serve as step up transformer increasing the battery voltage into thousand volts. Inside the ignition coil are two windings of magnetic wires called the primary windings and secondary windings. The primary windings are composed of hundred turns of thick magnetic wires while the secondary windings composed of thousand turns of very fine magnetic wires. Switching ON the ignition switch and the breaker points are closed, electric current flows from the battery through the primary windings in the ignition coil and through the points back to the ground producing a magnetic field inside the ignition coil. When a high lobe of the cam pushes the pivot arm of the contact point and opens the points, the primary circuit is broken. The magnetic field built up in the coil while the primary current is closed will collapse. Since there are many more secondary windings than primary windings, the induced voltage is higher than the voltage that drives the primary current. This high voltage is sent through the center wire of the coil to the center of the distributor cap, which is always in contact with the rotor. From the rotor, current flows to the desired terminal inside the distributor cap where high tension wires and spark plugs are connected. The spark created at the tip of the spark plug is the spark that ignites the compressed air and fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber. The delivery of this spark must be in precise time to obtain the right combustion of the air and fuel mixture. Delivering it not in precise time will result to engine failure.

84 SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System System [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition

Fig. 6 Diagram showing the primary and secondary circuit. (http://www.google.com.ph)

SAFETY MEASURES IN CHECKING IGNITION SYSTEM 1. In spark testing, use insulated pliers in holding the high tension cable. The high voltage surge can jump to noninsulated cables and can provide a dangerous electric shock to the person holding the pliers. 2. Disconnect first the negative cable of the battery when checking resistance of coil. Cut all wires connected from it to ensure the correct reading of resistance. Note that individual checking of ignition parts are properly illustrated in LO.8 3. Do not use jumper wire in checking the ignition system for continuity. Instead use appropriate instrument for testing with VOM or multi-tester. 4. Be sure to wear proper working shoes and laboratory uniform in order to avoid heated loose ground or live wires.
85 [Type the company name] SYSTEM-Check | Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System System

5. Avoid using spark test on common lead wire to earth when there is leak gasoline in any part of the fuel line. They may lead to explosion. 6. Avoid replacement of local parts with other brands to maintain. 7. Make sure the parts and wires are correctly connected to their own designated point of contact. SERVICING IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENTS Pointers to be followed by the technician before proceeding to servicing procedures. 1. Gather information regarding the problem to be serviced. If possible, ask the driver or the owner of the vehicle. 2. Apply visual view to inspect thoroughly the troubles. 3. List all parts or items that were checked and detected using the appropriate instruments for diagnosing the troubles. If possible, use service repair manual as your guide for the maintenance and servicing of contact point type of ignition system.

86 [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition SERVICE IGNITION Ignition System System

SELF-CHECK Identify the following. Write your answers on a separate sheet. 1. It is the point in the distributor assembly that distributes high voltage from coil center cable to different spark plug. 2. It is a type of distributor assembly that consists of the following parts; contact point, condenser, springs, lobes, contact set attaching screw, breaker plate, dwell-angle adjusting slot, vacuum advance unit and primary lead. 3. The rotating parts of the distributor assembly that distribute high voltage from coil center cable to different spark plug. 4. It is a key-operated main power switch that opens and closes the circuit that supplies current to the ignition and other electrical system. 5. It is a device connected to the ignition primary circuit to reduce battery voltage to the coil during engine operation. 6. The rotary switch that directs high voltage surges to engine cylinders in the proper sequence. 7. A type of distributor assembly composed of the following parts: pick-up coil assembly, reluctor, pick-up coil, pole piece, mounting bracket, permanent magnet, reluctor teeth, cap clip, connector, pick up coil lead and vacuum advance unit. 8. It is the ignition system component that serves as a transformer to step-up( increase) the battery voltage into many thousands of volts. 9. It is connected across the contact point to prevent arcing and burning. It also provides the storage of electricity when breaker point opens. 10.It is a device in the system that serves as lighter to produce spark on the gap.

87 SERVICE IGNITION IgnitionSystem System [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I Service ignition system Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 2. Perform Spark Test To determine if the ignition system is generating spark, a spark test must be performed. Safety measures must be applied since the high voltage surge of current is involved. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Engine is started based on standard operating procedures. 2. Spark test is conducted in accordance with standard testing procedures. 3. Safety measures are applied in compliance with standard testing procedure. Definition of Terms: Ground - the common negative connection of the vertical system that is the point of the lowest voltage. Ground circuit - an electrical defect that allows current to return to ground before it reaches the intended load component. Ground side - the portion of the circuit that starts from the load component to the negative side of the source. Ignition - the action of the spark in burning the compressed air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. Timing the precise delivery of the high voltage spark inside the combustion chamber when the piston is nearing TDC compression stroke

88 [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test

OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Performing Spark Test by cranking the engine Supplies and materials Rug cloth Sand paper Tools

Screw Driver Insulated Pliers (special tool) Spark Plug wrench Feeler Gauge

Equipment

Engine Battery Charger Mock up

Procedure: 1. Prepare the needed supplies, materials, tools, and equipment. 2. Remove the spark plugs from the engine using spark plug wrench. Before spark testing clean the tip of the spark plugs with fine nylon brush. 3. Connect the spark plug no. 1 to high tension wire no. 1 then attach ground electrode of the spark plug to the engine ground. Do not interchange the cable wires. 4. Switch on key to crank the engine and watch the sparking across the gap. Hold plug no. 1 with insulated pliers. Use a fully charged battery with a good cranking motor capacity. 5. Proceed to spark plug no. 2, 3, and 4 by performing the same step as step no. 5. 6. Replace any spark plug if defective. Follow the required gap as specified in the manual of the car model

89 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System

Fig. 7. Making a spark test using insulated pliers

Fig. 8. Making a spark test using insulated pliers

90 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System

ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE

Workmanship/Performance A. Quality of Work with Application of Safety Measures 35 - Exemplary 25 - Adequate 10 Needs improvement B. Accuracy of Performance under specified time limit 30 All work is complete and correct 20 Minor mistake or error 10 Some of the work may be incomplete and misdirected C. Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 Select and use properly of tools and equipment 25 Wrong handling of tools 10 Tools are not suitable for the job TOTAL SCORES

Points

91 [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test

OPERATION SHEET No. 2 Performing spark test while the engine is running Supplies and materials: Tools: Set of box wrench Spark plug wrench fitted. Insulated pliers rugs sandpaper soft brush nylon battery starter motor

Equipment vehicle engine mock up battery charger

Procedure 1. Prepare the needed supplies, materials, tools and equipment. 2. Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug one by one while the engine is running. 3. Used non-conductive pliers or insulated pliers to hold the spark plug at a distance of about extender about 10mm directly to ground in the black head engine. 4. While the engine is running, observe the sparking across the gap. Bluish spark from no.1-4 end of cables shows that the ignition system is at normal condition. 5. If theres no spark, proceed to the triggering test of the primary circuit to determine if there is opening and closing operation in the circuit. If spark shows but the engine does not continuously operate, the failure maybe caused by other systems.

92 [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test

Look for another pic, copyright prob

Fig. 9 Steps in making a spark testing while the engine is running. (ATW)

93 [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test

ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE

Workmanship and Performance Quality of Work with application of safety measures 35 Functional 25 Not Functional 10 None Functional Accuracy of Performance under specified time limit 30 All procedures are followed 20 3-5 procedures are followed 10 more than 5 procedures are not followed Proper use of tools and equipment with safety measures 35 proper selection and use of tools and equipment 25 wrong handling of tools 10 tools are not suitable for the job. TOTAL SCORE

POINTS

94 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System

OPERATION SHEET No. 3 Performing Spark Test by turning the ignition distributor Supplies and materials: Tools: Set of box wrench Spark plug wrench fitted. Insulated pliers rugs sandpaper soft brush nylon battery starter motor

Equipment vehicle engine mock up battery charger

Procedure 1. Prepare the needed supplies, materials, tools and equipment. 2. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise in order to set piston no.1 at compression stroke, both valves closed. 3. Align the timing marks. 4. Loosen the distributor assembly hold down nut. 5. Switch On the ignition switch. 6. Slowly rotate the distributor assembly opposite to the rotation of the rotor. A spark must occur as soon as the contact points open. 7. If spark does not occur, check contact point, condenser, ignition coil, and insulator in the primary lead.

95 [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test

SAFETY MEASURES IN SPARK TEST. 1. Do not use conductive pliers with only insulated handle. In high-energy ignition system, the spark can jump even more than one inch or (25.4mm). 2. The spark can jump around or through the insulation and can shock a technician, even dangerously. 3. See to it that there is no fuel or fuel vapor nearby. The spark may ignite the fuel causing fire or explosion. 4. Do not allow spark to occur in the dipstick, cam/rocker cover or battery as this can cause an explosion of oil or hydrogen fumes.

96 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System

ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance Spark tested when cranking the engine safely. With 95-100% standard of specifications, all spark plugs are spark tested correctly 90-94% standard of specifications, three spark plugs are spark tested correctly 85-89% standard of specifications, two spark plugs are spark tested correctly 80-84% standard of specifications, one spark plug is spark tested correctly 75-79% no spark plug is tested correctly Spark tested safely when running engine. With 95-100% standard of specifications, All high tension wires are spark tested properly 90-94% standard of specifications, three high tension wires are spark tested properly 85-89% standard of specifications, two high tension wires are spark tested properly 80-84% standard of specifications, one high tension wires is spark tested properly 75-79% no high tension wires are tested correctly Spark triggering tested safely by turning the distributor assembly With 95-100% standard of specifications 90-94% standard of specifications 85-89% standard of specifications 80-84% standard of specifications 75-79% standard of specifications Points 100

100

100

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Perform Spark Test 97 [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I Service Ignition System Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 3. Check Ignition Coil Resistance To determine the condition of the ignition coil, the ignition coil resistance must be checked. Ignition coil is a series of coil that converts the battery voltage into thousand volts. A high ignition coil resistance means that the current cannot pass easily thus creating a much lower voltage than the required voltage of the engine to ignite the compressed air and fuel mixture. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Coil terminal of ignition coil is disconnected 2. Ignition coil resistance is checked Definition of Terms Ohm - unit of measure for resistance. One ohm is the resistance of the conductor such that a constant current of one ampere produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. Ohmmeter - a test meter used to measure resistance and continuity in a circuit. Ground - the common negative connection of the vertical system that is the point of the lowest voltage. Ground circuit - an electrical defect that allows current to return to ground before it reaches the intended load component. Ground side - the portion of the circuit from the load component to the negative side of the current. Ignition - the action of the spark in starting the burning of the compressed air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System 98

INFORMATION SHEET No. 1 Checking Ignition Coil Resistance FUNCTIONS OF IGNITION COIL Ignition coil is considered as the heart of the ignition system. It works in the same pulse transformer to step up the low voltage of 12.6 volts to a voltage high enough to ionize (electrically charge) the spark plug gap and ignite the fuel charges. The coil has the capacity to produce approximately 30,000 to 60,000 volts. However, the amount of voltage produced is dependent on many factors. The coil will produce current depending on many factors. The coil will produce only sufficient voltage required to overcome these factors sush as plug gap, air/fuel ratio, plugs wire resistance, engine speed, compression ratio, and so forth. The margin of voltage which can be produced above what is required to fire the spark plug represents the electrical reserve built into the ignition system. As plugs wear and other resistances in the system increase, the ignition system is capable of compensating for this through the electrical reserve. PARTS OF IGNITION COIL 1. Soft iron core is the center of the ignition coil, a laminated soft iron or steel. 2. Primary coil winding - these are several hundred turns of heavy wire, wrapped around or near the secondary (approximately 200 turns of gauge wire). 3. Secondary coil windings These are several thousand turns of very fine wire located inside or near the primary windings (approximately 22,000 turns of very fine wire) 4. Positive terminal is the terminal connected to the positive terminal of the battery. 5. Negative terminal is the terminal connected to the distributor assembly of the ignition system. 6. Center pole negative This is the plug polarity. Negative plug polarity requires less voltage to ionize the plug than does positive polarity. This is because of the relative temperature between the center electrode (hot) and the ground electrode (cold).

SERVICE IGNITIONname] SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance [Type the company | Servicing Ignition System 99

Fig. 10 Cut-away view of an ignition coil showing some internal and external parts. (http://www.google.com.ph) INTERPRETING SECONDARY AND PRIMARY CIRCUIT 1. Operation of the Primary Circuit When the ignition switch is on or it is in the run position, current from the battery flows through the ignition switch and primary circuit resistor to the primary winding of the ignition coil. From there, it passes through a switching device that can be mechanically or electronically controlled by a triggering device. The current flow in the ignition coil primary winding creates a magnetic field. The switching device or control module interrupts this current flow at predetermined times. When it does, the magnetic field in the primary winding collapses. This collapse generates a high-voltage surge in the secondary winding of the ignition coil. The secondary circuit of the system begins at this point. 2. Operation of Secondary Circuit The secondary circuit carries high voltage to the spark plugs. The exact manner in which the secondary circuit delivers these high-voltage surges depends on the system design. Until 1984 all ignition systems used some types of distributor to accomplish this job. However, in an effort to reduce emissions, most auto manufacturers are now using distributor less or electronic ignition (EI) system to improve fuel economy, and boost component reliability.

[Type the company | Servicing Ignition System 100 SERVICE IGNITION name] SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance

Fig. 11 Schematic diagram of the ignition system showing primary and secondary circuits. (http://www.google.com.ph)

[Type the company | Servicing Ignition System 101 SERVICE IGNITIONname] SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance

Identify the following.

Self-Check

1. It is a wire connected from the distributor assembly lead wire with insulated terminal to the negative sign of coil. 2. It prevents heat and helps to cool the coil. 3. It is the center of the ignition coil, a laminated soft iron or steel. 4. This winding is surrounded by the secondary coil windings which is approximately 200 turn of 20-gauge wire. 5. It is winded in the core approximately 22,000 turns of very fine wire.

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System 102

OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Checking Ignition Coil Resistance Supplies and materials

Ball pen/pencil Bond paper Pliers VOM Multi-tester

Tools

Equipment

Engine mock-up

Procedure in checking ignition coil resistance: Before checking the resistance of the ignition coil, the coil must be inspected and cleaned for carbon path around the terminal, the coil body for cracks and the secondary terminal for carbon deposit or corrosion.

Fig. 12 Parts of the ignition coil to be checked (http://www.google.com.ph)

SERVICE IGNITIONname] SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance [Type the company | Servicing Ignition System 103

A.

Measuring the primary coil resistance A. Measure Without the use of resistor the reading must be 2.6 4.0 ohm. This is the primary coil resistance (reference only) Note: If the reading is not within the specified resistance replace the coil. Causes: If the readings show the specified ohms or very high resistance the condition of the primary coil is burn. But if it is low, the condition will be weak, but if the hand, remains at infinity () the condition of primary winding is open. Fig.13 Shows how to check primary coil resistance without resistor using ohmmeter. (http://www.google.com. ph)

b. With the use of resistor The reading must be 1.3 1.6 ohms this is the primary coil resistance (reference only) Note: If the reading is not within the specified resistance replace the coil. Causes: If the reading appears higher than the required ohms or higher resistance, the condition of the primary coil is burn out, but if it is low than specified ohms the condition is weak. But if the hand of ohmmeter remains at infinity ()the condition of primary coil maybe open.

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System 104

4. Inspect and check test the secondary coil resistance. c. the following resistance b. Measure With the use of resistor Without the use of resistor the reading secondary The reading must be 9.5 14.5 of k the ohms, the must be 6.0 9.0 k ohms(references only) secondary coil resistance (references only) Note: not meet meet the within the range Note:IfIfthe the reading reading does does not minimum and of minimum and maximum in the secondary coil resistance, maximum of secondary coil resistance recommend for recommend for replacement. replacement. Cause: If the more than the Cause: If thereading readingof ofohmmeter ohmmetershow shows more than specified ohms the condition will be is burn out winding, but the specified ohms the condition burn out, if lower if reading it is lower reading, the coil is weak, but if remain the coil is weak. But if remain at infinity () at infinity () the condition of secondary coil maybe opened. the condition of secondary coil maybe opened.

[Type the company | Servicing Ignition System 105 SERVICE IGNITIONname] SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance

ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance 50 A. Checked ignition coil safety when disconnected from the circuit. With 45-50% standard of specifications. 39-44% standard of specifications. 33-38% standard of specifications. 27-32% standard of specifications. 21-26% standard of specifications. 50 Points

B. Checked safely the ignition coil, as it is connected to the circuit, while engine is functioning With 45-50% standard of specifications. It was checked properly using the correct instrument 38-44% standard of specifications, it was not checked correctly with the instrument. 32-37% standard of specifications, it was not checked correctly without instrument.

Total=100

[Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System 106 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM-Check Ignition Coil Resistance

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 4. Check Ballast Resistor The ballast resistor prevents the overflowing of current to the ignition coil. If this is not prevented, the service life of the coil is reduced. To determine the functionality of the resistor, the resistor must be checked in accordance with the manufacturers specification. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: Ballast resistor is checked as required Definition of Terms Ignition resistor - a resistance connected to the ignition primary circuit to reduce battery voltage to the coil during engine operation. Ohm - unit of measure for resistance. One ohm is the resistance of the conductor such that a constant current of one ampere produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. Ohmmeter - a test meter used to measure resistance and continuity in a circuit.

107 SERVICE IGNITION Ballast System Resistor [Type the company name] |SYSTEM-Check Servicing Ignition

OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Checking Ballast Resistor Supplies and materials:


Ballpen/pencil Bond paper Box wrench Screw driver VOM tester Multi-tester Screw drive Ignition mock-up Engine mock-up

Tools:

Equipment:

A. PROCEDURES IN CHECKING BALLAST OF IGNITION COIL. 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment needed. 2. Disconnect wires connected to the ballast resistor 3. Check and test ballast resistor of ignition coil.

Fig. 17 Diagram of the ignition system showing the parts to be checked. (ATW) 4. Turn the selector switch to R X 1 of the ohmmeter. 5. Both test prods of the ohmmeter will be injected to both ends of the ballast resistor.
108 [Type the SERVICE company IGNITION name] SYSTEM| Servicing Check Ignition Ballast System Resistor

6. If the readings show 0.8 1.2 ohms the ballast resistance is normal. 7. But if the readings show infinity or does not move the hand of the tester, the condition is open 8. If the reading is not within the specified resistance replace the resistor. B. ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE TEST RESULTS The appropriate instrument used for testing and checking the resistance expressed in ohms is no other than the ohmmeter tester. If the resistance varies from .08 to 1.2 ohms, meaning the hand of the tester will move and stop within the range, see the repair manual of the ballast resistor specifying the resistance of the ignition resistor. When you turn the selector to RX1, the hand will move from () infinity to the correct range given from the manual, the condition is normal, but if the hand will move from () infinity to (0) zero the condition is weak. But when the hand remains at () infinity the condition maybe open.

[Type the SERVICE company name] SYSTEM| Servicing Ignition System 109 IGNITION Check Ballast Resistor

ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Points Workmanship and Performance A. Checked safely the ballast resistor when it is not connected to the coil as per requirements. With 45 to 50% standard of specification 39 to 44% standard of specification 33 to 38% standard of specification. 50

B. Checked safely the ballast resistor when it is connected to the coil while engine is running. With 40 to 50% standard specifications 29 to 39% standard specifications

50

Total=100

110 SERVICE IGNITION Check Ballast System Resistor [Type the company name] SYSTEM| Servicing Ignition

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 5. Adjust Contact Point Clearance Contact point clearance is very important in the ignition timing. The clearance is one of the factors that determine if the ignition timing is advance or retard through its opening which affects also the dwell angle. The other important function of the contact point is that it opens and closes the primary circuit of the ignition system which results to the collapse of the current flow in the primary circuit and the current flow to the secondary circuit towards the spark plug. Therefore, correct contact point clearance must be obtained. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Contact point is adjusted based on the service manual specification 2. Contact point adjustment is analyzed and interpreted Definition of Terms Ignition advance - the moving forward, in time, of the ignition spark relative to the piston position. Ignition timing - in an internal combustion engine, it is the method of preparing the piston for the supply of the high voltage surge of current from the ignition coil at the right time. Dwell meter - a precision electrical instrument used to measure the cam angle, or dwell or number of degrees the breaker cam revolve while the points are in contact. Arcing - name given to the spark that jumps the air gap between two electric conductors.

[Type the company name] | Adjust Servicing Ignition System 111 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMContact Point Clearance

OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Adjusting contact point when the distributor assembly is installed to engine Supplies and materials:

Sand paper Rags Grease

Tools

Set of screw driver Feeler gauge Set of wrench

Equipment

Ignition mock-up Procedures

1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools and equipment needed. 2. Turn the engine to correct the direction of rotation by the use of correct size box or socket wrench that fits the crankshaft pulley fixing bolt. 3. Position the contact point set in the highest portion of the cam lobe in the distributor shaft. 4. Use the proper type and size of screw driver fitted to the kind of screw. 5. Loosen slightly the lock and adjusting screw then insert the feller gauge with the correct thickness of gauge based on the manual of specification. 6. Tighten first the adjusting screw with two working screw drivers for it to lock, the tighten the lock screw. Check it again by retightening the adjuster and locker screws. 7. Test run, then proceed to next operation sheet.

[Type the company name] | Adjust Servicing Ignition System 112 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMContact Point Clearance

Fig.19: Adjusting the breaker point gap

[Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System 113 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMAdjust Contact Point Clearance

ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Points Workmanship and Performance A. Checked safely the ballast resistor, when it is not connected to the coil as per requirements With 45 to 50% standard of specification 39 to 44% standard of specification 33 to 38% standard of specification 51 50

B. Checked safely the ballast resistor when it is connected to the coil, while engine is running. With 40 to 50% standard specifications. 29 to 39% standard specifications.

Total=100

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMContact Point Clearance [Type the company name] | Adjust Servicing Ignition System 114

OPERATION SHEET No. 2 Adjusting contact point when distributor assembly removed from engine Conditions: Supplies and materials:

Sand paper Rags Grease

Tools

Set of screw driver Feeler gauge Set of wrench

Equipment

Ignition mock-up

Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed. 2. Position correctly and firmly the distributor assembly in the bench vise. 3. Position the contact point set in the highest part camlobe in the distributor shaft. 4. Use proper type and size of screw driver fitted to the kind of screw. 5. Loosen slightly lock and adjusting screw, then insert the feller gauge with correct size of clearance. Follow what is stated in the manual. 6. Tighten first the adjusting screw with two working screw drivers for it to lock, the tighten the lock screw. Check it again by retightening the adjuster and locker screws. 7. Set engine correctly then install the distributor assembly, time it properly. See the steps of initial ignition timing. [Type the company name] | Adjust Servicing Ignition System 115 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMContact Point Clearance

8. Test run, then check if dwell angle is within the specified value using the dwell meter. Follow the dwell of 4 cylinders which is 510 (500 - 520). If dwell angle is below the specified degrees, point gap is too big. But if the dwell angle is above the specified degrees, point gap is too small. Readjust the point clearance to achieve the correct dwell angle.

Fig. 20 Illustration of dwell angle. (Chysler Corporation) SAFETY MEASURES IN ADJUSTING CONTACT POINT. 1. When testing a vehicle, never use short plug lead for the dipstick, cam/rocker arm cover, battery or other components, which is not directly connected to the ground. This can cause an explosion of oil fumes or hydrogen. 2. Beware of the danger from rotating components of ignition system. 3. Never bend movable point arm with your hand. 4. Do not use the car if the contact breaker point is not exactly adjusted to the manufacturers specifications. 5. Use the proper screw driver for the right head of bolt screw. 6. In replacing contact points, also replace the condenser with the same capacitance. [Type the company name] |Adjust Servicing Ignition System 116 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMContact Point Clearance

ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance A. Adjusted contact point safely as per service manual specification when distributor assembly is installed in the engine. With 45 to 50% standard of specification 39 to 44% standard of specification 33 to 38% standard of specification Points 50

B. Adjusted contact point safely as per service manual specification when distributor assembly is not installed in the engine With 45 to 50% standard of specification 39 to 44% standard of specification 33 to 38% standard of specification Total=100

50

[Type the company name] | Adjust Servicing Ignition System 117 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMContact Point Clearance

Program/Course:

Automotive Servicing NC I

Unit of Competency Module Title:

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 6. Perform Ignition Wiring Installation Ignition wiring installation is the process of connecting correctly the ignition system peripherals. The correct firing order of the engine must be observed to deliver the spark to the correct cylinder at proper time. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Tools and ignition wiring materials are checked and evaluated per standard specifications. 2. Ignition wirings are installed based on a required diagram. 3. Safety measures are applied in installing wirings of the ignition system in accordance with OHS policy. Definition of Terms Ground circuit - an electrical defect that allows current to return to ground before it reaches the intended load component. Ground side - the portion of the circuit that is from the load component to the negative side of the source. Timing the precise delivery of the high voltage spark inside the combustion chamber when the piston is nearing TDC compression stroke

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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Checking ignition system components with the use of ohmmeter Supplies and materials: Soldering leads Automotive wires Wire terminals Electrical tape Tools:

Equipment:

Electrical pliers Set of screwdriver Wire stripper Soldering iron

Engine mock-up Vehicle

PROCEDURE 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed. 2. Disconnect negative terminal of battery. 3. To check the ignition switch by the use of ohmmeter, set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect one prod to AM terminal, while the other prod to IG terminal. If the dial of the ohmmeter will move from infinity to zero in two pull positions of ignition key, and then the system is in proper condition. 4. Test auto wire from ignition of switch to positive terminal of coil. Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect the two test prods of the ohmmeter to the AM terminal of the ignition switch and to the positive terminal of the ignition coil. If the dial of the ohmmeter will move from infinity to zero, then the system is in proper condition. 5. Test auto wire from negative terminal of coil to ground part of distributor assembly. Open the cap to see the position of contact point. Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect the two test prods of the ohmmeter to the negative terminal of the coil and to the ground. The contact point should be in closed and if the dial of the ohmmeter will move from infinity to zero, then the system is in proper condition.

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Fig. 21 Diagram indicating the partsof the ignition system to be checked using ohmmeter.

6 Test or check condenser using ohmmeter. Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect one prod to the eye tail of condenser, and the other prod to the body ground parts. If the dial of the ohmmeter will move from infinity to zero then back to infinity, then the condenser in in good condition, otherwise it needs replacement.

Fig. 22 Using an ohmmeter to check the condenser in the ignition system.

(http://www.google.com.ph) 7. Test or check high tension wire individually by using ohmmeter. Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX 25. Both prods of the ohmmeter must be connected both ends of the cable. The reading must be on the specified resistance in all cords.

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Fig. 23 Checking the high tension wire using an ohmmeter.

8. Check spark plug gag using the feeler gauge. Follow the gap specification in the manual.

Fig. 24. spark plug and its different parts. (http://rmfletcher.hubpages.com)

Fig. 25. Spark plug gap adjustment tool. (http://rmfletcher.hubpages.com)

GAP ADJUSTMENT Check the plug gap with plug gap gauge. If it is not according to the specified value, adjust by bending the ground (outer) electrode.

SERVICE [Type the IGNITION company SYSTEMname] Perform | Servicing Ignition Wiring Ignition Installation System

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance Checked ignition system components safely with the use of ohmmeter. With 95-100% standard of specifications. 75% standard of specifications. 50% below. Total=100 Points

100

SERVICE [Type the IGNITION company SYSTEMname] Perform | Servicing Ignition Wiring Ignition Installation System

122

OPERATION SHEET No. 2 Checking ignition system components with the use of voltmeter Supplies and materials: Soldering leads Automotive wires Wire terminals Electrical tape Tools: Electrical pliers Set of screwdriver Wire stripper Soldering iron Equipment: Engine mock-up Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed. 2. Connect the voltmeter positive lead to the positive terminal of the ignition coil. Connect the negative lead to engine ground. 3. Set the voltmeter to a scale that will read to 12 volts accuracy. 4. Turn the ignition switch to the start position while observing the voltmeter reading. Check manufacturers specification for proper voltage reading, usually about 9.5 volts. 5. If the voltage is too low then there is a resistance in the supply circuit to the coil. This could be caused by any of the following. a. Battery condition b. Excessive starter draw c. Excessive resistance in the ballast by pass circuit d. Excessive resistance in the ignition switch start circuit e. Excessive resistance in the starter relay to the pass circuit 6. With the voltmeter still connected as in step one, turn the ignition switch to the run position. The voltmeter reading should now be about7.5 volts. 7. If the reading is below specifications, it could be due to a. Battery condition b. Ignition switch resistance c. Excessive resistance in the ballast resistor circuit. If the results of this test show that the coil supply circuit is operating properly, then the coil should be tested.
SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Wiring Installation [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System

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Fig. 26. Diagram showing the different component of the ignition

[Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Wiring Installation

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance Checked ignition system safely with the use of voltmeter. With 95-100% standard of specifications. 75% standard of specifications. 50% below. Total=100 Points

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Ignition Wiring Installation [Type the company name] | Servicing System

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OPERATION SHEET No. 3 Performing ignition wiring installation Supplies and materials

Soldering lead 40/60 Auto wires size no. 12 & 14 Eye terminals Electrical tape Fuse and fuse box Wire harness flexible hose Battery clamp and cables Battery log Cutter pliers Wires stripper Soldering rod or iron Set of insulated pliers Set of screwdrivers Functional engine mockup for ignition wiring circuit materials, tools, and

Tools

Equipment

Procedure: 1. Prepare the supplies, equipment needed.

2. Connect new battery cables to earthly ground, from negative post and positive cable to battery solenoid terminal. 3. Connect the solenoid battery terminal to the positive side of ammeter and from negative side to Bat/AM terminal of ignition switch. 4. Connect the ignition terminal of the ignition switch to ballast resistor, and then to positive terminal of coil. But in order to complete the circuit to crank the engine to start, connect from ST terminal of switch to ST terminal of the solenoid starter switch. 5. Connect the negative terminal of coil to insulated lead terminal in the distributor assembly. See to it that the engine and distributor assembly are set properly and contact point adjusted to specified gap. 6. Proceed to the proper connection of high tension wires from center lead of coil to center terminal of
SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Ignition Wiring Installation [Type the company name] | Servicing System

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cap. If the rotor points to no.1 terminal cap it could be the no.1 spark plug. Then follow the firing order given. 7. All wires should be provided with eye terminals to ensure proper contact. 8. Crank the engine and make a test run, if not satisfied with the engine performance, perform troubleshooting.

Fig. 27. Diagram showing the different wiring connections of the ignition system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignition_system)

SAFETY MEASURES IN WIRING INSTALLATION 1. Do not perform resistance checking in the ignition circuit, if the battery is connected. The meter may be damaged. 2. Always connect the battery negative terminal to the ground and the positive terminal to the load side. Do not invert the connection, otherwise, the harness will be burned or affected 3. Always install protective materials to the wiring harness with electrical tape and flexible hose [Type the company name] | Servicing System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Ignition Wiring Installation
127

4. Provide fuse for the ignition circuit. 5. The wire connectors must be soldered properly to ensure good contact between terminal points. 6. Avoid open wires, unshielded wires and overloaded terminals within the circuit.

SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Ignition Wiring Installation [Type the company name] | Servicing System

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship of Performance Performed wiring installation of ignition circuit or system safely. With 95-100% standard of specifications. 75% standard of specifications. 50% below. Total=100 Points

[Type the company name] | Servicing System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Ignition Wiring Installation

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Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 7. Perform Ignition Timing Ignition timing is the components in correct timing of current in correct time. consumption, poor engine combustion. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Ignition timing procedure is applied per engine requirement 2. Ignition timing is checked based on ignition specifications 3. Safety measures are applied Definition of Terms Ignition advance - the moving forward, in time, of the ignition spark relative to the piston position. Centrifugal advance - a rotating weight mechanisms in the distributor that either advances or retard ignition timing through the centrifugal force that results from changes in the rotational speed of the engine distributor. Timing light is an instrument connected to the ignition system to flash each time the no.1 spark plug fires. Use in adjusting the timing of the ignition spark. Vacuum advance it is used to rotate the base plate of the contact point in order that the distributor cam will be able to open the points earlier. Retard - to delay the occurrence of the spark in the combustion chamber. process of setting the ignition system in order to deliver the high voltage surge Incorrect timing results to more fuel performance and excessive exhaust

130 IGNITION SYSTEMPerform Ignition Timing [Type theSERVICE company name] | Servicing Ignition System

OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Perform ignition timing Supplies and Materials Rags White chalk

Tools Box wrenches Set of screw drivers

Equipment Engine mock-up Vehicle Ignition timing light Dwell meter Tachometer

Procedure 1. 2. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed. Initially set the piston no. 1 to the top dead center compression stroke. The timings marks must be in the correct position based on the engine manual of specifications. Before installing distributor to the engine adjust the contact point to the correct specified contact point gap or set point to specification.

Fig. 28. Initial setting of the ignition system.


131 [Type theSERVICE company name]SYSTEM| Servicing Ignition System IGNITION Perform Ignition Timing

3. 4. 5.

Set the contact point just about to open. Install rotor and cap arrange high-tension wire in cap according to the firing order. Run engine and check timing with power timing light at idling speed. To determine if the contact point is about to open use spark test method or ignition timing light

Fig. 29 Using the timing light in setting ignition timing .

132 [Type theSERVICE company name]SYSTEM| Servicing Ignition System IGNITION Perform Ignition Timing

ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE Points Workmanship/Performance A. Performed initial ignition timing safely using only a pair of tools. 95-100% of all the steps. 75% only of the steps. 50% only of the steps. Total=100 100

133 [Type theSERVICE company IGNITION name]SYSTEM| Servicing Perform Ignition Ignition System Timing

OPERATION SHEET No. 2 Perform setting base ignition system Supplies and Materials Rags White chalk Tools Box wrenches Set of screw drivers Equipment Engine mock-up Vehicle Ignition timing light Dwell meter Tachometer Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed. Use a stroboscopic timing light to check the timing. Follow these steps for ignition timing adjustment. 2. Connect the timing light, and start the engine. 3. The engine must be idling at the manufacturers recommended rpm and all other timing procedures must be followed. 4. Aim the timing light marks at the timing indicator, and observe the timing marks. Compare this reading to the manufacturers specifications. For example, if the specification reads 10 degrees before top dead center and the reading is 3 degrees before top dead center, the timing is retarded or off by 7 degrees. 5. If the timing mark is not at the specified location, rotate the distributor until the mark is at the specified location. 6. Tighten the distributor hold-down bolt to the specified torque, and recheck the timing mark position. 7. Connect the vacuum advance hose and any other connectors, hoses, or components that were disconnected based on the timing procedure. 8. Do a road test

134 SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMPerform IgnitionSystem Timing [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition

SAFETY MEASURES IN PERFORMING IGNITION TIMING 1. 2. Do not puncture cables or nipples with test probes. This will ruin the cables of ignition timing light. Do not point laser flashes of stroboscopic light to anybody due to the strong ultraviolet rays that may affect especially peoples eyes. Keep off your hands from the rotating parts of the engine in performing the test. Remove jewelries and wear suitable working clothes in conducting the ignition timing with stroboscopic light. See to it that the test probes of timing light and other connections are tight, set and connected correctly. Always use the service manual as your guide for the adjustment.

3. 4. 5. 6.

135 IGNITION Perform Ignition Timing [Type theSERVICE company name]SYSTEM| Servicing Ignition System

ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance A. Performed setting base ignition timing safely with the use of stroboscopic timing light, dwell meter, and tachometer. 95-100% of all the steps 75% only of the steps 50% only of the steps Total=100 Points 100

136 IGNITION Perform Ignition Timing [Type theSERVICE company name]SYSTEM| Servicing Ignition System

Program/Course: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

Automotive Servicing NC I SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEM Servicing Ignition System

Learning Outcome 8. Repair Non-electronic Ignition System Component There are two ways to normalize operating condition of an automobile: repair or replace. If after diagnosis, the problem can be repaired, proceed with the needed repair. There are problems that only need minor repair, while some need major repair including the replacement of the defective parts. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Parts and components of non-electronic ignition system are identified and located 2. Ignition system components are repaired without causing any damage on them
Definition of Terms

Ohm - unit of measure for resistance. It is the opposing force concerning two points of a conductor when provided with current. Ohmmeter - a test meter used to measure resistance and continuity in a circuit. Ground - the common negative connection of the vertical system that is the point of the lowest voltage. Ground circuit - an electrical defect that allows current to return to ground before it reaches the intended load component. Ground side - the portion of the circuit that is from the load component to the negative side of the source. Ignition - the action of the spark in starting the burning of the compressed air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. Ignition advance - the moving forward, in time, of the ignition spark relative to the piston position. TDC or one degree ATDC is considered advanced as compared with 2 degrees ATDC.

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Ignition timing - the delivery of the spark from the coil to the spark plug at the proper time for the power stroke, relative to the piston position. Centrifugal advance - a rotating weight mechanisms in the distributor that advances and retard ignition timing through the centrifugal force resulting from changes in the rotational speed of the engine distributor. Condenser - in the ignition system a device that is also called a capacitor, connected across the contact points to reduce arcing by providing a storage place for electricity (electrons) as the contact points open. Dwell meter - a precision electrical instrument used to measure the cam angle, or dwell or number of degrees the distributor points are closed while the engine is running. Timing - in an engine delivery of the ignition spark or operation of the valves (in relation to the piston position) for the power stroke. Timing light a light that can be connected to the ignition system to flash each time the no.1 spark plug fires. Used for adjusting the timing of the ignition spark. Vacuum advance - the advancing of ignition timing by changes in intake-manifold vacuum; Reflecting throttle opening and engine load. Also, a mechanism on the ignition distributor that uses intake-manifold vacuum to advance the timing of the spark to the spark plugs. Arcing - name given to the spark that jumps the air gap between two electric conductors. Dwell in a contact point distributor, the number of degrees of distributor cam rotation that the points stay closed before they open again. The length of time the points are closed and current flows through the primary winding of the coil. Ignition resistor - a resistance connected into the ignition primary circuit to reduce battery voltage to the coil during engine operation. Magnetic line of force - the imaginary lines by which a magnetic field maybe visualized. Retard - to delay the occurrence of the spark in the combustion chamber
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OPERATION SHEET No. 1 Repairing non-electronic ignition system Component Supplies and Materials Rags Paint brush Soldering lead Wire Fine sand paper Tools Set of box wrenches Set of screw drivers Pliers Volt meter Soldering iron/gun Equipment Ignition system mock-up Running engine with complete ignition system Vehicle Procedure 1. Prepare the supplies, materials, tools, and equipment needed. 2. Repair wiring harness for burnt, loose, cut wires and wires not shielded with electrical tape. Rewire, if necessary, the circuit with a wire flexible hose. 3. Inspect and repair the needed spare parts; ignition switch, ballast resistor, ignition coil, distributor component assembly and its components; contact point, condenser, spring, cam lobe, rotor distributor cap, distributor insulated terminals, high tension wires and spark plugs. 4. Check and inspect mechanical parts.

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IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENT a. Electrical Testing Procedures: TESTING IGNITION SWITCH Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect the two prods of the tester to AM and IG terminals. The dial indicator of the ohmmeter will move from infinity to zero, on ignition switch to position click two. If this happens, it indicates that the AM to IG internal connection of the ignition switch is in good condition. Do it in the other terminals of the ignition switch using the AM terminal as the base terminal

AM ACC ST IGN

RX1

Fig.32 Testing the ignition switch using an ohmmeter TESTING BALLAST RESISTOR Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect the two prods of the tester to the two terminals of the resistor. Ohmmeter reading should in between 1.3 to 1.7 . A replacement resistor is needed if the output reading is less than or more than the desired resistance output.

Fig.33 Testing the ballast resistor using an ohmmeter

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TESTING SECONDARY COIL RESISTANCE Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX10. Connect the two prods of the tester to the positive terminal and to the high tension terminal. The reading should be 6.0k to 9.0k if the coil has no resistor installed and 9.5k to 14.5k if there is an installed resistor.

Fig. 34. Testing the ignition coil resistance using an ohmmeter.

TESTING PRIMARY COIL RESISTANCE Set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect the two prods of the tester to the positive terminal and negative terminal of the ignition coil. The output resistance should be 2.6 to 4.0 for ignition coil with installed resistor and 1.3 to 1.6 for ignition coil without installed resistor. Replace the ignition coil if the resistance reading is beyond the specified limit.

Fig. 35. Testing the primary coil resistance using an ohmmeter

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TESTING INSULATION RESISTANCE The ignition coil transforms the battery voltage into thousand volts to ignite the compressed air and fuel mixture. Ignition coil must be properly insulated to prevent current leakage to attain the desired current output of the coil. To test the insulation resistance of the coil, set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX10M. connect the two test prods to the negative terminal of the coil and to the coil body. Insulation resistance must be over 10M at 500V.

TESTING HIGH TENSION WI

Fig. 36. Testing the insulation resistance of the ignition coil using ohmmeter

TESTING HIGH TENSION CABLE RESISTANCE High tension cable delivers the spark from the ignition distributor to the spark plugs. High resistance in the cable reduce the voltage delivered to the spark plugs. To test high tension cable resistance, set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX100K. Connect the test prods to ends of the cable. The resistance must be less than 25K. : If the reading exceeds the limit replace the cord.

Fig.37. Testing the resistance of the high tension cable.

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TESTING DISTRIBUTOR TERMINAL INSULATION To test the distributor terminal insulation, set the selector knob of the ohmmeter to RX1. Connect the test prods to the distributor body and to the distributor terminal and the contact point should be opened. The dial pointer should remain in the infinity side otherwise if it moves to zero, the insulator is broken.

RX1

Fig. 39. Testing the distributor terminals with open contact points.

Rotate the distributor shaft to close the contacts of the contact points. The ohmmeter reading should move from infinity side to zero. This indicates that the distributor is in normal condition, otherwise it needs repair to check for open connections.

RX1

Fig. 40. Testing the distributor terminals with closed contact points

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b. Mechanical Inspection and repair procedures DISTRIBUTOR CAP Visual inspection must be performed in the distributor cap to check for cracks, carbon tracks; burn or corroded terminals and the center terminal must be free from wear. Replacement of the cap is recommended if any abnormalities are discovered.

Fig. 40 Inspection of the distributor cap for damage

DISTRIBUTOR ROTOR Visual inspection is also performed in the distributor rotor to determine if there are cracks, carbon tracks, burn or corroded terminals. Replace if necessary.

Fig. 41 Inspection of rotor.

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BREAKER PLATE Check the breaker plate condition. The thread holes must not be cross threaded, no bent areas, no distortions and it is securely fitted in the distributor housing. Replace if defects are found.

Fig.42 Inspection of the breaker plate. GOVERNOR WEIGHTS AND PINS Even though governor weights has a very less chance of having defects, but it must be check also to make sure that it is always in good running condition. Check the fitting portions of the governor weights and the support pins for binding. It must move freely with no resistance from moving in and out of the shaft. The springs should be securely fitted to the spring posts.

Fig. 43. Inspection of governor weights and pin of the distributor.

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VACUUM DIAPRHAGM ADVANCER Aside from the mechanical advance mechanism, the ignition system also utilizes a vacuum advance mechanism to help the mechanical advance mechanism reacts to the timing advancing of the engine. There are two ways to check functionality of the vacuum advancer diaphragm, first is by sucking the vacuum tube, the diaphragm should move. If it does not move, replace the vacuum diaphragm. The other way is using the engine tachometer. Connect the engine tachometer and start the engine. Record the tachometer reading and then disconnect the vacuum hose from the vacuum diaphragm. There must be a difference in tachometer reading once the vacuum hose is removed, otherwise the vacuum diaphragm is defective or there is a leak in the vacuum hose.

Fig. 44. Checking the vacuum diaphragm by sucking. CAM AND SHAFT The cam and shaft must be free from scratches, deformities and wear. The fitting of the shaft in the housing should be fitted but will rotate freely with a very minimum free play.

Fig. 45. Checking the cam and shaft of the distributor for damage.

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INSPECTING GOVERNOR SHAFT AND HOUSING 1. The governor shaft must be freely rotate in the housing with a very minimum clearance. To check the thrust clearance, use dial indicator to measure the clearance. It should be 0.15mm to 0.5mm (0.006in to 0.020in). Excessive clearance needs a replacement shaft.

Fig. 46. Measuring governor shaft clearance 2. Remove pinion gear from the shaft by grinding off the pin end and pushing it out using the prick punch and pin punch.

Fig. 47. Removing pinion gear pin 3. Inspect the governor shaft for wear, bent and other possible damages.

Fig. 48. Governor shaft


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4. Inspect housing bushing and O ring for wear, deformation and damage. Replace if necessary.

Fig. 49. The distributor housing 5. After inspection and repair of the different parts of the distributor, it is now ready for assembly. Start the assembly of the washers as shown in the picture below.

Fig. 50. Assembling the washers of the shaft. 6. Install the gear as shown in the picture below. Check for the thrust clearance. If it exceeds specified value, adjust the clearance by inserting shim.

Fig. 51. Installing pinion gear

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7. Insert the retainer pin and pressing it with the bench vice.

Fig. 52 Inserting retainer pin 8. Install the governor springs securely in the spring post.

Fig. 53. Installing governor spring 9. Install the breaker point and adjust the breaker point gap using the feeler gauge based on the engine manual of specifications.

Fig. 54. Installing breaker points

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10.

Set the octane selector to the standard line.

Fig. 55. Setting the octane selector SPARK PLUG CHECKING 1. Check the spark plugs for cracks or damages in the threads or insulator and gaskets.

Fig. 56. Spark plug insulator checking 2. Check the electrodes for wear, burn and carbon deposits.

Fig. 57. Inspecting spark plug eledtrodes [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMRepair non-electronic ignition system/component
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3. Check the gap of the electrode using the spark plug gap gauge. If not in the specified value, adjust based on the specifications written in the manual.

Fig. 58. Checking spark plug cleanrance

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ASSESSMENT of PERFORMANCE Workmanship and Performance A. Repaired, maintained and serviced safely the ignition system parts and components. With 95-100% standard of specifications. 90-94% standard of specifications. 85-89% standard of specifications. 80-84% standard of specifications. 75-79% standard of specifications. Total=100 Points 100

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Information Sheet No. 1 Diagnosing Non-Electronic Ignition Component Causes of Ignition Failures Ignition failure results from normal wear of the contact points, sparkplugs, and other components. Ignition failure can be classified under three headings: a. Loss of energy in the primary circuit due to defective. 1. Resistance in the primary circuit due to defective leads, bad connections, burned distributor contact points or switch, or open coil primary. 2. Points not properly set. 3. Discharged battery or defective alternator. 4. Defective condenser (shorted, low insulation resistance, high series resistance). 5. Grounded primary circuit in coil, wiring, or distributor. b. Loss of energy in the secondary circuit. 1. Plugs fouled, broken, or out of adjustment. 2. Defective high-voltage wiring, which allows high voltage leaks. 3. High-voltage leakage across coil head, distributor cap, or rotor. 4. Defective connections in high-voltage circuits. 5. Defective ignition coil c. Out 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. of time Timing not set properly Distributor bearing or shaft worn, or shaft bent. Vacuum advance defective. Centrifugal advance defective. Pre-ignition, due to plugs of wrong heat range, fouled plugs, etc.

Quick checks of Ignition System. a. Engine does not run If the engine cranks at normal speed but does not start, the trouble could be in either the ignition or the fuel system. To check the ignition system, disconnect the lead from one spark plug (or from the center distributor-cap terminal). Use insulated pliers to hold it about 3/16 inch [4.76 mm] from the engine block. Crank the engine. If a good spark occurs, chances are that the ignition system is in reasonable condition (although the timing could be off). If no spark occurs, check the ignition system further. Connect a test ammeter into the ignition-coil primary circuit, and watch it while cranking the engine. If there is a small, steady reading that fluctuates somewhat, the primary circuit is probably all right. The trouble is probably a defective coil secondary or secondary leads,
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a defective condenser, or high-voltage leakage across the cap, rotor, or coil head. If the ammeter shows a fairly high steady reading: 1. The contact points are out of adjustment. 2. The condenser is shorted. 3. The coil primary circuit is grounded. If there is no ammeter reading, the primary circuit is open. This could be due to out-of-adjustment contact points, a loose connection, defective wiring or switch, or an open coil primary winding. b. Engine misses Missing is caused by such defects in the ignition system as: a. Worn or out-of-adjustment contact points. b. Defective condenser. c. Centrifugal or vacuum advance malfunctioning. d. Defective secondary wiring. e. Defective ignition coil. f. Poor connections. g. High-voltage leakage across ignition-coil head, rotor, or cap. h. Defective spark plugs. The wrong ignition coil for the engine, or reversed connection to the ignition coil may also cause misfiring. Putting a battery backwards can also cause misfiring, because this also reverses the polarity of the coil. c. Overheating and Spark These conditions may be caused by Improper Ignition Timing. Ignition troubles various troubles that will occur mostly to the NON-ELECTRONIC IGNITION SYSTEM COMPONENT a. Burned or oxidized contact points It is normal for ignition-distributor contact points gradually to burn away over a long period of time. Rapid burning or oxidizing of the points may be due to several conditions. Excessive resistance in the condenser circuit caused by high series resistance in the condenser or by a loose mounting or connection. High voltage produces by a high-voltage-regulator setting. Dwell angle is too large (point opening too small). If the points, are too closed it will burned rapidly. Weak spring tension that causes the contact points to bounce and arc. Oil or crankcase vapors entering the distributor housing are deposited on the pint surfaces, causing them to burn rapidly. A glance at the breaker plate usually discloses this condition [Type the company name] | Servicing Ignition System SERVICE IGNITION SYSTEMDiagnose non-electronic ignition system/component
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it causes a black smudge on the breaker plate under the points. Clogged engine crankcase PCV valves or hoses and worn distributor bearings can produce this trouble. b. Sooty, burned, or cracked spark-plug insulator Spark plugs may fail for a variety of reasons. Spark-plug manufacturers usually recommend replacement of spark plugs at 10,000 mile [16,090-km] intervals. This will help prevent failure and maintain the engine at food operating efficiency. One cause of spark plug trouble is the installation of plugs o f the wiring heat caused by careless installation of the plug or by careless adjustment of the plug gap.

Fig. 59. Illustration showing the spark plug conditions. (http://www.google.com.ph)

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The basic steps to building the high tension wires are as follows 1. Attach wire to plug and layout wire to the coil. Measure for length and strip. 2. Slide wire through coil terminal boot. 3. Bend conductor and attach terminal. 4. Crimp terminal. 5. Bend terminal 90 6. Pull terminal back into boot.

Fig. 60. Steps repairing high tension wires or cables. http://www.stealth316.com/2-msd-ignwires.htm

Safety Measures in Repairing Ignition Component Parts. 1. In pulling out the high tension cord from the spark plug, grip the end of the plug cord properly then, pull suddenly the cable.

Fig. 60. How to pull the high tension cable

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2. Match 15 mark with stopper, fit it on the cam and tighten with screw.

Fig. 61. Matching the marker of the advance mechanism

3. Remove with care the high tension cable by way of pulling the rubber boot. Do not bend cords that will cause the conductor to be broken.

Fig. 62. Removing the rubber boot

4.

Use insulated pliers or non-conductive pliers in conducting spark test for ground.

Fig. 63. Using insulated pliers in spark testing

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5. Wires, Cord, Cables, Resistance, Capacitance, Fuses and switches for shorts, Ground, open wrenches and continuity as well. 6. Do not use any kind of cleaning solvents for cleaning the spark plugs. Use only the recommended spark plug cleaner.

Fig. 63. Proper cleaning of the spark plug

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Self-check Answer Key


Servicing Automotive Battery Self Check No. 1 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. a Self Check No. 2 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. a Self Check No. 3 1. 2. 3. 4. D A A C

Self Check No. 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A A A A B

Testing and Repairing Wiring/Lighting System


Self Check No. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. d dome light c dimmer switch b stoplight a transmission b signal light system

Self Check No. 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B D D D C

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LO3 Self Check No. 1 1. true 2. false 3. false 4. true 5. false3 Self Check No. 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a b a c d

Self Check No. 1. b 2. d 3. a

Servicing Ignition System LO1 1. contact point 2. breaker point type 3. rotor 4. ignition switch 5. ignition resistor 6. distributor 7. breaker less type 8. ignition coil 9. condenser 10. spark plugs LO3 1. negative terminal 2. oil in the coil 3. soft iron core 4. primary coil winding

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REFERENCES FOR FURTHER READINGS Auto. Mechanics 10th Edition by Crouse/Anglin, Glencoe Division of Macmillian/Mc Graw-Hill School Publishing Company, USA 1993 Automotive Electricity, Electronics and Computer Controls By: Barry Hollembeak, Delmar Cengage Learning, USA 1998 http://www.google.com.ph http://www.autoshop101.com http://www.wikihow.com. http://auto.howstuffworks.com

Resources
Auto. Mechanics 10th Edition by Crouse/Anglin, Glencoe Division of Macmillian/Mc Graw-Hill School Publishing Company, USA 1993 Automotive Electricity, Electronics and Computer Controls By: Barry Hollembeak, Delmar Cengage Learning, USA 1998

http://www.google.com.ph http://www.autoshop101.com http://www.wikihow.com. http://auto.howstuffworks.com

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is a great privileged that this endeavor was given by the Task Force Tech-Voc, Department of Education to the following participants of the Writeshop on the Refinement and Enrichment of Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC), Contextual Learning Matrix (CLM) and Modules of Arts and Trades, conducted at Marikina Hotel on April 20-25, 2009. It is the fervent hope of the writers that through their consolidated efforts they are able to strengthen and enrich the Vocational Education curriculum to fully prepare and equip Tech-Voc students to become locally and globally competitive in the world of work. Copyright Department of Education 2008 First Published JUNE 2008. Revised December 2011 This draft was prepared at the Competency-Based Learning Materials Development Workshop conducted at the Development Academy of the Phils, Tagaytay City on May 5-10, 2008. This learning instrument was developed by the following personnel: Jonathan O. Diaz TVE-Automotive-Technology Coordinator San Pedro Relocation Center National High School Langgam, San Pedro, Laguna Romeo Q. Ibloguin Sr. Teacher III E. Rodriguez Vocational High School Division of City Schools, Manila Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila Robert S. Domingo Teacher I AFG Bernardino Memorial Trade School Lias, Marilao, Bulacan Lino A. Olit Teacher I Community Vocational High School Masipit, Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro

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Arpil P. Medrano Teacher I Tanza National Trade School Paradahan I, Tanza, Cavite This work was produced with funding provided by the Department of Education.
Revised and Edited at the Development Academy of the Philippines, Tagaytay City, November 20-26 2011 and December 4-10, 2011) JULIUS J. JARDIOLIN Head Teacher III Antonio J. Villegas Vocational High School Manila NCR DEO L. TARNATE Teacher III San Grabriel Vocational High School San Gabriel, La Union Region I JERSON G. SARSUEDA Alona Trade High School Alona Misamis Occidental Region X

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