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Heart

Lecture 21, 22, 23

The Heart and the blood circulation system

21, 22, 23 The Heart and the blood circulation system http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/human-heart-obj/273886

The heart is part of a complex circulatory system responsible for maintaining the body's continuous and varying requirements of oxygen.

Principles of Biology

system responsible for maintaining the body's continuous and varying requirements of oxygen. Principles of Biology

Heart matters

Every day, your heart beats about 100,000 times, sending 7500 Liters of blood surging through your body.

No bigger than your fist, your heart has the mighty job of keeping blood flowing through the 100,000 km of blood vessels that feed your organs and tissues.

A man’s heart weighs about 10 ounces, while a woman’s heart weighs approximately 8 ounces.

When women have a heart attack -- and more than a half million do each year -- they’re more likely to have nausea, indigestion, and shoulder aches rather than the hallmark chest pain.

Source: WebMd

Heart Anatomy

(For information only, you will not be asked to draw a detailed diagram)

Actual
Actual
you will not be asked to draw a detailed diagram) Actual Simplified Top View

Simplified

not be asked to draw a detailed diagram) Actual Simplified Top View

Top View

asked to draw a detailed diagram) Actual Simplified Top View http://www.physioweb.org/circulation/heart_structure.html

http://www.urgo.co.uk/260-the-venous-system-within-

the-cardiovascular-system

Heart

Figure 1 The cardiovascular system.

Deoxygenated blood travels from body tissues to the heart along the vena cava (9), the largest vein in the body. Blood drains into the right atrium (1) ,

which contracts and pumps blood into

the right ventricle (2). Once filled, the right ventricle contracts and pumps blood into the pulmonary arteries (3).

The pulmonary arteries carry blood to

the lungs, where the flowing blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the capillary beds (4). Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to

the left atrium of the heart (5). As the left atrium of the heart contracts, blood flows into the left ventricle (6). When the left ventricle contracts, blood is pumped into the aorta, the largest

artery which carries oxygenated blood

to systemic capillary beds (8) throughout the body. Principles of Biology

largest artery which carries oxygenated blood to systemic capillary beds (8) throughout the body. Principles of

Heart

Figure 1 The cardiovascular system.

Heart Figure 1 The cardiovascular system. Principles of Biology

Principles of Biology

Heart Figure 1 The cardiovascular system. Principles of Biology

1.During a relaxation phase

(diastole), blood returning

from the large veins flows into the atria and ventricles.

2.A brief period of atrial systole forces blood out of the atria into the ventricles when atrioventricular ( AV ) valves open

3.Then ventricular systole pumps blood into the large arteries when semilunar valves open.

into the large arteries when semilunar valves open.

http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch42/cardiac_cycle.html

Heart

Figure 2 The cardiac cycle.

The heart pumps bloods by alternately contracting and relaxing the atria (upper chamber) and ventricles (lower chambers), aided by

the opening and

closing of the valves. The ECG’s display the electrical signals that trigger systole (“pump

on” or

CONTRACTION) and diastole (“pump off” or RELAXATION state).

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systole (“pump on” or CONTRACTION) and diastole (“pump off” or RELAXATION state). Principles of Biology

Heart

Tracing the cardiac cycle means following blood through contracting and relaxing chambers.

The heart fills with blood each time it relaxes and pumps blood when it contracts. One

complete cycle of contracting and relaxing is called the cardiac cycle.

Systole refers to the contraction phase of the heart, which lasts approximately 0.4 seconds.

Diastole refers to the phase in the cardiac cycle when the heart is relaxed and will occur for an additional 0.4 seconds in a person with the average heart rate of 72 beats per minute.

The cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute and is measured by multiplying heart rate by stroke volume.

Heart rate is the number of heart beats per minute, whereas stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle per contraction.

In humans, the average stroke volume is approximately 70 mL.

Heart valves are pieces of connective tissue that can stop blood flow into or out of the chambers of the heart to prevent backflow. A defective valve may allow blood leakage or

backflow and causes a distinctive sound, a heart murmur.

Principles of Biology

defective valve may allow blood leakage or backflow and causes a distinctive sound, a heart murmur.

Blood Vessels

Arteries and veins differ in relative structure because they

differ in function.

Arteries carry blood from the heart to the cells.

Arteries are vessels that have thick, elastic, tough walls with relatively narrow openings

called lumina through which blood flows.

Veins carry blood from the cells back to the heart.

By comparison with arteries, venous vessels

have thinner and more elastic walls and wider

lumina.

The difference in structure of arteries and veins reflects inverse function.

The heart pushes blood through arteries under

high pressure, so artery walls must be strong enough to withstand that pressure and must also be flexible enough to expand and contract under changing pressures from the heart.

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vascularconcepts.com

flexible enough to expand and contract under changing pressures from the heart. Principles of Biology vascularconcepts.com

Blood Vessels

Capillaries have a simpler structure with a critical function.

As blood leaves the heart, it flows through progressively smaller vessels, first through arteries and then through their smaller versions, arterioles.

Eventually, blood flows out of the smallest arterioles into capillaries, the only place in the vascular system where the transfer of materials into and out of the bloodstream takes place. Only slightly larger than a red blood cell, capillary walls only have a single layer of cells, facilitating easy passage of small molecules between capillary and interstitial fluid.

The flow of nutrients and gases into and out of capillaries involves two factors: hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of blood on the walls of vessels through which it

flows, a pressure produced by the beating of the heart.

Osmotic pressure is the pressure caused by differences in the concentration of solutes inside a capillary and in the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillaries.

Principles of Biology

of solutes inside a capillary and in the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillaries. Principles of Biology

Blood Vessels

Capillaries have a simpler structure with a critical function.

The exchange of fluids inside and outside of capillaries takes place through tiny holes or poles in the walls of the capillary endothelium, the tissue that lines the blood vessels,

carrying along small molecules of glucose, urea, electrolytes, and other nutrients.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse directly through endothelial cells between the capillary and interstitial fluid.

Approximately 90% of the fluid that leaves a capillary near the arteriole end eventually

returns to the capillary at the venule end.

Ten percent of the fluid that leaves a capillary near the arteriole end enters a different capillary network, called the lymphatic system, which carries lymph back to the upper body, where it drains back into the blood system.

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system, which carries lymph back to the upper body, where it drains back into the blood

Blood Vessels

Figure 1 Flow of fluids through a capillary.

Differences in hydrostatic (or blood pressure) and osmotic pressures drive the flow of fluids out of and into blood capillaries and into lymph

capillaries.

pressures drive the flow of fluids out of and into blood capillaries and into lymph capillaries.

Principles of Biology

pressures drive the flow of fluids out of and into blood capillaries and into lymph capillaries.

Lymph system

Lymph system Ten percent of the fluid that leaves a capillary near the arteriole end enters

Ten percent of the fluid that leaves a capillary near the arteriole end enters a different capillary network, called the lymphatic system, which carries lymph

back to the upper body, where it drains

back into the blood system.

http://www.edu.pe.ca/threeoaks/teacherpages/higginbotham/Biology%20521%20Webpage/resourc

es/chapter9images/lymphatic%20system001.jpg

Fluid movement across the wall of a capillary.

Fluid movement across the wall of a capillary. At the arterial end of the capillary, hydrostatic

At the arterial end of the capillary, hydrostatic (blood) pressure exceeds osmotic pressure contributed by plasma proteins, and a plasma filtrate is forced outside the capillary. At the venous end, osmotic pressure exceeds the hydrostatic pressure, and fluid is drawn inside the capillary. In this way plasma nutrients are carried into the interstitial space where they can enter cells, and metabolic end products from the cells are drawn into the plasma and carried away.

Blood Vessels

Flow of fluids through a capillary.

Blood Vessels Flow of fluids through a capillary. Principles of Biology miracleofthebloodandheart.com

Principles of Biology

miracleofthebloodandheart.com

Blood Vessels Flow of fluids through a capillary. Principles of Biology miracleofthebloodandheart.com

Blood Vessels

Blood pressure has two main features.

Heartbeat functions as a two-part cycle in which contraction of the ventricle forces blood out of the heart under a certain pressure (the

systolic pressure). The second part of the heartbeat cycle occurs when the ventricle relaxes and refills with blood from the atrium. Blood in the vascular system still exerts pressure on the interior walls of an artery during this

time; however, it is a minimal pressure known as the diastolic

pressure. When a person's blood pressure is measured, the report includes a pair of numbers, the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure.

B.P. = 120/80

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Systolic Pressure 120, Diastolic Pressure 80

pressure over the diastolic pressure. B.P. = 120/80 Principles of Biology Systolic Pressure 120, Diastolic Pressure

Blood components

Blood components

Blood

Blood Composition

Plasma is a pale yellow watery solution that transports a variety of organic and inorganic substances throughout the body.

Six inorganic ions, known as electrolytes, are among these solutes: sodium, potassium,

calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate. All have important functions.

Three types of proteins are also transported in blood.

Albumin helps maintain osmotic balance and proper pH level in the blood, whereas fibrinogen plays an essential role in blood clotting.

The compounds known as immunoglobins are critical elements in the body's immune system.

The blood also serves as a transport system for raw materials needed by cells for their proper

function as well as the waste products of cell functioning.

A small fraction of blood consists of leukocytes (white blood cells) which are part of the immune system.

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are cell fragments that lack a nucleus and play a critical role in blood clotting.

Blood also consists of erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), which are responsible for

transmitting oxygen to other cells and, to some extent, the return of carbon dioxide from cells to the lungs.

Each RBC contains approximately 250 million molecules of hemoglobin, a protein molecule with an iron atom at its center. Each iron atom is able to bind to four oxygen atoms,

so every RBC has the capacity to transport approximately a billion oxygen atoms from the

lungs to other cells.

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has the capacity to transport approximately a billion oxygen atoms from the lungs to other cells.

Blood composition

Blood composition http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

Blood

Figure 1 The composition of whole blood.

Blood Figure 1 The composition of whole blood. Blood consists of three main portions: plasma, buffy

Blood consists of three main portions: plasma, buffy coat (which contains leukocytes and platelets) and erythrocytes.

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three main portions: plasma, buffy coat (which contains leukocytes and platelets) and erythrocytes. Principles of Biology

Plasma composition

Plasma composition http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

Blood cells composition http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

Blood cells composition

Blood cells composition http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/blood_composition/

Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are components of the immune system that seek out and

destroy viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens, as well as cleaning up mineral particles,

dead cells, and other debris throughout the body.

particles, dead cells, and other debris throughout the body. Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) size ~ 7-8um,

Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) size ~ 7-8um, Lifetime: ~120 days

dead cells, and other debris throughout the body. Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) size ~ 7-8um, Lifetime:

Platelets

Platelets are colorless cell fragments, about 23 µm in diameter and lacking a nucleus. Their most important function is in the clotting of blood.

The clotting process involves a complex series of reactions that begins when a blood vessel is cut and some blood is lost. At the same time, the blood vessel constricts to reduce the loss of blood.

Platelets in the blood adhere to the damaged area of the blood vessel and become activated. They then release chemicals that attract other platelets and trigger further constriction of the blood vessel. The accumulation of platelets and their release of additional clotting agents is a positive feedback loop that increases the size and density of the plug forming in the wall of the blood vessel.

Eventually, a second series of reactions begins that involves more than a dozen substances

called clotting or coagulation factors. These factors are present in the blood plasma, and are released by damaged cells in the area of the wound or by platelets.

The end result of this sequence of reactions is the activation of an enzyme called thrombin, which converts fibrinogen, found in the blood, to fibrin. The thread-like fibers of fibrin adhere to

the wound, making a mesh that prevents red blood cells and other formed elements from

escaping through the wound.

Platelets securing the wound then release another chemical called Factor XIII. This factor strengthens the fibrin mesh, allowing platelets to pull on the fibers, which tightens the mesh and pulls the wound closed. At this point, the plug has become secure and will remain in place until the wound is completely healed, after which it will dissolve and be carried away in the

bloodstream.

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the wound is completely healed, after which it will dissolve and be carried away in the

Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)

miracleofthebloodandheart.com

Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) miracleofthebloodandheart.com Despite being the smallest cells in the circulatory system,

Despite being the smallest cells in the circulatory system, red blood

cells still encounter some very

narrow passages. The 5- micrometer-wide narrow tunnels represent very difficult tunnels for these red blood cells,

approximately 7 to 8 micrometers in size, to pass through.

Why don’t red blood cells have a nucleus, and how do they function without one? As with most cells, 'form follows function.' A red blood cell has mostly become a rounded gas tank that can carry large amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the bloodstream. A nucleus would take up vital space needed for oxygen storage. Furthermore, RBCs lack any cell organelles and cannot even use any of the oxygen they store for their own aerobic respiration, as they have no mitochondria. RBCs are only capable of anaerobic respiration. This stripping down of RBCs is not

without consequence, as red blood cells have lost many of their homeostatic functions. For

example, most other cells have the ability, within limits, to counteract changes in the concentration of the extracellular fluid. However, red blood cells lost this ability upon becoming completely specialized for gas transport.

Oxygen Transport proteins

Hemoglobin is an oxygen transport protein, but

functions in erythrocytes, enhancing the solubility of oxygen in the blood.

Myoglobin functions as an oxygen transport protein in tissues. It also provides a local oxygen storage site by enhancing the solubility of oxygen.

Myoglobin/hemoglobin slides Adapted from:

faculty.weber.edu/ewalker/

Oxygen %20Transport%20Proteins. ppt

/

Myoglobin is composed of a single polypeptide chain with 153 amino acid residues. It measures

Myoglobin is composed of a single polypeptide chain with 153 amino acid residues. It measures 45x35x25 angstroms with about 70% alpha-

helix content. Each myoglobin molecule contains a prosthetic (helper)

group: a Protoporphyrin IX and a central iron atom collectively called “heme.”:

The heme group is held in place by hydrophobic interactions to the non-polar interior region of the protein. It is not attached by any covalent linkages. (In

fact, it may be removed, leaving

the “apoprotein” behind.)

An iron ion fits perfectly into the center of the protoporphyrin, chelated by four nitrogen atoms of a tetrapyrole ring sytem.

ion fits perfectly into the center of the protoporphyrin, chelated by four nitrogen atoms of a
Myoglobin Structure
Myoglobin Structure

Since iron ions are hexadentate, each has six coordination sites. One of

these two other sites forms a coordinate covalent bond to a nitrogen atom in histidine F8 (proximal). Another histidine (E7, distal) is close to the sixth coordination position.

The iron ion is the binding site for oxygen molecules. The iron ion often converts between the free Fe 2+ (ferrous ion) state and the bound Fe 3+ (ferric ion) state.

In the unbound state, the iron atom is slightly proximal (above) the plane of the protoporphyrin. As oxygen binds to the distal side of the ring, it pulls the iron atom about 0.2 angstrom closer to the plane of the ring.

Although this distance is small, the movement is amplified, causing significant shifts throughout the teritary structure of the protein.

is small, the movement is amplified , causing significant shifts throughout the teritary structure of the

The position of the distal histidine (E7) prevents O 2 from binding too strongly to the iron atom.

Maximal binding strength is achieved when the three atoms [Fe-O=O] form a linear sequence. However, the distal histidine prevents this from occurring, and the diatomic oxygen binds in a “bent” configuration.

Carbon monoxide also binds to the iron atom in

myoglobin. In fact, it will displace oxygen and form a much tighter bond than oxygen, due to its more polar

bond.

Even low concentrations of CO can displace O 2 . This explains how even low concentrations of CO can cause asphyxiation in the presence of O 2 !

Fortunately, CO also binds in a “bent” configuration.

This weakens the attraction, such that eventually the

CO will dissociate over time, allowing recovery.

configuration. This weakens the attraction, such that eventually the CO will dissociate over time, allowing recovery.

Hemoglobin is a much more complex molecule than myoglobin.

The protein is nearly spherical with a 55

angstrom diameter and molecular mass of 64.45 kD.

It is a tetrahedron containing:

4

protein subunits,

4

protoporphyrins, and

4

iron atoms.

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport

four oxygen molecules (one per Fe atom).

35

The two alpha subunits have 141 amino acids, while the

two beta subunits contain 146 residues.

The two alpha subunits have 141 amino acids, while the two beta subunits contain 146 residues.
The two alpha subunits have 141 amino acids, while the two beta subunits contain 146 residues.

Hemoglobin is located in erythrocytes, where it

greatly increases oxygen solubility, facilitating as

much as 68 times higher oxygen concentrations than

in water alone.

greatly increases oxygen solubility, facilitating as much as 68 times higher oxygen concentrations than in water

37

Oxygen binds to hemoglobin each of the four iron

atoms.

This occurs sequentially, with the affinity of each

the four sites changing as the sites become

occupied with oxygen.

L = “ ligand” of molecular oxygen ( O 2 ).

L = “ ligand ” of molecular oxygen ( O 2 ). The hemoblogin molecule exhibits

The hemoblogin molecule exhibits lower affinity for the first

molecule of oxygen to bind. It’s affinity increases as subsequent oxygen molecules bind.

Plotting oxygen binding to hemoglobin at

various oxygen concentrations shows this change in affinity:

Hemoglobin Binding to Oxygen

1.0 Hb 0.5 p50 = 20 Torr 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Fraction
1.0
Hb
0.5
p50 = 20 Torr
0.0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Fraction of Sites Bound

pO2 (mm Hg)

When the binding curve for myoglobin is

compared to hemoglobin, a distinctly different binding profile is observed:

Mb & Hb Binding to Oxygen

1.0 Mb Hb 0.5 p50= 2 Torr p50=20Torr 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100
1.0
Mb
Hb
0.5
p50= 2 Torr
p50=20Torr
0.0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Fraction of Sites Bound

pO2 (mm Hg)

At lower concentrations of oxygen (as in the capillary),

myoglobin has higher affinity for oxygen than does

hemoglobin:

Mb & Hb Binding to Oxygen

1.0 Mb Hb 0.5 Capillary Lungs 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Fraction of
1.0
Mb
Hb
0.5
Capillary
Lungs
0.0
0
20
40
60
80
100
Fraction of Sites Bound

pO2 (mm Hg)

What causes cooperativity in Hb?

The key to understanding this is understanding the changes in Hb’s tetrameric structure when O 2 binds.

in Hb? • The key to understanding this is understanding the changes in Hb’s tetrameric structure

When the first O2 molecule binds to one of the

four heme groups a number of structural changes occur:

The movement of the Fe atom into the heme plane

also draws in the F8 [promixal] histidine, leveraging a big change in its subunit.

The alpha and beta groups rotate ~ 15° with respect

to one another, disrupting non-covalent linkages between its neighboring subunits. – The open “channel” in the center of the subunits becomes much smaller, bringing the beta chains much closer than before

These structural changes increase affinity for oxygen in the remaining three subunits.

Hemoglobin – Oxygen Binding “Cooperativity”

pH of the blood also affects oxygen affinity for Hb.

Lower pH decreases oxygen affinity.

This automatically releases oxygen in peripheral tissues where active respiration has produced increased levels of carbon dioxide, resulting in lower pH caused by carbonic acid: CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3

This phenomenon is often

call the “Bohr Effect.”

by carbonic acid: CO 2 + H 2 O → H 2 CO 3 • This

Gas Exchange Adaptations

Figure 1 Relationship between pH and partial pressure of oxygen on the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin.

As blood pH decreases from 7.6 to 7.2, the ability of hemoglobin to hold

oxygen diminishes, called the Bohr shift.

Because carbon dioxide is nearly 20 times as soluble in water as is oxygen, it is far less essential for it to bond to hemoglobin to return to the lungs. Solubility of Oxygen: 0.003 ml/(dl.mmHg), Solubility of Carbon Dioxide 0.067 ml/(dl.mmHg)

A gas exchange system works most efficiently if it transports oxygen to the cells while simultaneously removing carbon dioxide from the cells to

return to the surrounding atmosphere.

Blood plays a critical role in gas exchange processes. During gas exchange, most of the carbon dioxide dissolves in the blood, producing

hydrogen and bicarbonate ions.

Principles of Biology

most of the carbon dioxide dissolves in the blood, producing hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. Principles of
Liquid blood Alveolar gas O 2 content of blood = Dissolved + Hb bound O

Liquid blood

Alveolar gas

O 2 is “unloaded” in tissues

Hb O 2 O 2
Hb O 2
O 2
O 2 is “unloaded” in tissues Hb O 2 O 2 D’Alecy tissue metabolism H +

D’Alecy

tissue metabolism
tissue
metabolism

H

+

Temperature

CO

2

47

Carbon dioxide is carried in the

blood in three forms

1. Dissolved

2. As bicarbonate

CO 2

+

H 2 CO 3

H 2 O

C.A.

2. As bicarbonate CO 2 + H 2 CO 3 H 2 O C.A. H +
2. As bicarbonate CO 2 + H 2 CO 3 H 2 O C.A. H +

H +

H 2 CO 3

+ HCO 3 -

3. As carbamino compounds

(bound to Hb)

Hb.NH2 + CO2

2 CO 3 H 2 O C.A. H + H 2 CO 3 + HCO 3

Hb.NH.COOH

Gas Exchange Adaptations

Transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen by hemoglobin.

Transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen by hemoglobin. Carbon dioxide can travel between the cells to

Carbon dioxide can travel between the cells to the lungs as part of carbaminohemoglobin complexes or by reacting with water to form bicarbonate. O2 travels primarily as part of oxyhemoglobin. Both molecules bind to the Heme groups on the hemoglobin, which contains the ferrous ion (Fe2+).

At capillary

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bind to the Heme groups on the hemoglobin, which contains the ferrous ion (Fe2+). At capillary

Gas Exchange Adaptations

Transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen by hemoglobin.

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At lungs

Carbon dioxide can travel between the cells to the lungs as part of carbaminohemoglobin complexes or by reacting with water to form bicarbonate. O2 travels primarily as part of oxyhemoglobin. Both molecules bind to the Heme groups on the hemoglobin, which contains the ferrous ion

(Fe2+).

as part of oxyhemoglobin. Both molecules bind to the Heme groups on the hemoglobin, which contains

Blood

Cholesterol and inflammatory molecules in the blood

contribute to disease risk.

Cholesterol is a steroid manufactured by all animals and, in smaller

amounts, by plants and fungi. It is an essential component of all animal

bodies.

The two best known cholesterols are high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and

low-density lipoprotein (LDL). HDL and LDL are popularly known,

respectively, as "good" cholesterol and "bad" cholesterol because of their

roles in the circulatory system.

HDL appears to scour out deposits of cholesterol on the walls of blood

vessels and transport them to the liver, where the cholesterol is removed and recycled.

Principles of Biology

of blood vessels and transport them to the liver, where the cholesterol is removed and recycled.

Blood

Cholesterol and inflammatory molecules in the blood

contribute to disease risk.

By contrast, LDL has a tendency to collect on the walls of blood vessels,

where it is attacked by macrophages and results in the formation of

sticky plaques.

As these plaques grow, they restrict or even stop the flow of blood.

Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on the inner walls of arteries.

Blockage of a blood vessel as the result of atherosclerosis is only one

of the ways in which heart attack or stroke may occur.

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the result of atherosclerosis is only one of the ways in which heart attack or stroke

Blood

Stages of atherosclerosis.

Blood Stages of atherosclerosis. Illustration from Libby P: Inflammation in Atherosclerosis. Nature 202;420:868

Illustration from Libby P: Inflammation in Atherosclerosis. Nature 202;420:868

Blood

Stages of atherosclerosis.

Read more and watch animations on

http://watchlearnlive.heart.org/CVML_Player.php?moduleSelect=athero

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more and watch animations on http://watchlearnlive.heart.org/CVML_Player.php?moduleSelect=athero Principles of Biology

Blood

Some blood diseases are genetic.

Some blood disorders have a genetic basis. One example is a group of

disorders known as thalassemia, in which a person's body makes an

abnormal form of hemoglobin. The disordered hemoglobin is unable to transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells normally, and a person develops anemia.

Another is sickle-cell anemia (SCA), characterized by the presence of abnormally shaped red blood cells that are incapable of carrying adequate

amounts of oxygen

Sickle-shaped red blood cells are stiff and sticky with sharp edges. They have a tendency to coalesce into clumps that can impede blood flow,

causing pain, tissue damage, and infections.

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to coalesce into clumps that can impede blood flow, causing pain, tissue damage, and infections. Principles

Blood

Figure 8 Normal and sickle-shaped red blood cells.

Blood Figure 8 Normal and sickle-shaped red blood cells. http://circuitsurfers.com/2013/02/27/sickle-cell-anemia-cpb/

http://circuitsurfers.com/2013/02/27/sickle-cell-anemia-cpb/

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/sicklecell/

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/sicklecell/