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Q.1. For a transistor if E 1 ma and a 0.

98, determine value of Ig

Q. 2. What is field effect transistor? List its applications. Ans Field effect transistor is a three terminal semiconductor. It is a unipolar device that is current flow is due to one type of charges only. The flow of current is controlled by electric field. It is used as low noise amplifier, buffer amplifier and a phase shift oscillator. Q. 3. Enumerate types of transistor configuration and show their circuit diagram. Ans There are Three transistor configuration: (a) Common base: Base is common to emitter and collector (b) Common emitter : Emitter is common to base and collector (c) common collector : Collector is common to base and emitter. The circuit representation is shown below:

Q. 12. What is BJT ? Why is it so called?

Ans BJT is bipolar junction transistor. It is so called because current conduction is due to flow of both minority and majority charge carriers.

Q. 13. What is IGFET? Ans IGFET is insulated gate field effect transistor. It is a MOSFET whose gate terminal is insulated from channel. Q. 14. Sketch turn on characteristics of thyristor. Ans.

Q. 15. Define ripple factor in rectifiers and give its significance. Ans Ripple factor is defined as component of a.c. present in d.c. output of rectifier. It helps to find out what is the a.c. content in rectified a.c.

Q. 16. What is gauge factor? Ans Gauge factor is defined as ratio of change in resistance per unit resistance to change in length per unit length.

Q. 17. Draw symbols of BJT and Zener diode.

Q. 18. Sketch turn on characteristics of Thyristor. Ans. Turn on characteristics of thyristor.

is gate current.

Q. 19. For a transistor, if IE = 1 ma and a = 0.98, determine the value of B. Ans

Q. 20. Draw turn off characteristics of thyristor.

Ans Thyristor gets turned off when anode current falls below holding value or when it is reverse biased.

Q. 21. State salient features of zener diode. Ans The salient features of Zener diode are: (i) The diode is heavily doped as compared to ordinary diode. (ii) It has sharp reverse breakdown characteristics. (iii) It can act as a voltage regulator.

Q. 1. Explain FET as an amplifier. Ans FET is Field Effect Transistor. It is used to amplify weak signals. The circuit is as shown: The above circuit is for FET as an amplifier. The gate is made negative w.r.t source thereby implying that input circuit is always reverse biased. The output is taken across drain and source. On application of weak signal, fixed reverse bias of gate changes and small change in reverse bias on gate causes large change in drain current. This is because width of channel changes. During positive half cycle of input signal the reverse bias on gate decreases causing increase in channel width and hence drain current. During negative half cycle of input signal, reverse bias on gate increases causing drain current to decrease.

The result is that a small change in voltage at gate produces large change in drain current. This is available across load resistance RL.

Q. 2. What is difference between MOSFET and JEET?


Q. 3. Discuss working principle of a P-N junction diode. Also show its characteristics and mention some of its applications? Ans P-N junction diode is a two layer device having a p-n junction. When we connect positive terminal of battery to p-side and negative to n side, this arrangement is called forward biased. Due to the provided biasing, small increase in voltage leads to large increase in current. When we connect negative terminal to p-side and positive terminal to N-side, it is reverse biased . In reverse biased region, diode or p-n junction does not conduct large increase in voltage is required for small increase of current. Also, if we continue to increase voltage beyond a certain value, the current increases abruptly. This is called as reverse breakdown. The characteristics of P-n junction are as shown. p-n junction is used for rectification full wave and half wave. It can also be used as a switch.

Q. 4. A germanium diode has a saturation current of 10-8 A. Calculate the junction current for a forward bias of 0.40 V and 300 K, and VT = 2.6 mV. Ans.

Q. 5. Define an SCR and derive its VI characteristics describing working of SCR. Ans SCR is silicon controlled rectifier. It is a four layer, three terminal device. It has three terminals-anode, cathode and gate. For deriving VI characteristic of SCR, we need to consider its operation in forward bias and reverse bias region. In forward bias characteristic, anode is made positive w.r.t. cathode. In this condition, if we keep gate terminal open, only small current flows as soon as gate is made forward biased i.e. positive w.r.t cathode, large amount of current starts flowing. When anode is negative to cathode i.e. SCR is reverse biased, even if we apply a gate pulse only a small current flows. If we increase negative biasing, the junction breaks and

suddenly a large amount of current flows. The forward bias state is ON state and reverse bias state is blocking mode.

We can see that as we increase the gate voltage, the breakdown occurs earlier. After forward breakdown, even if gate voltage is reduced, the SCR continuous to conduct.

Q. 6. What is a MOSFET ? Explain its working? Ans MOSFET is metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. MOSFET has N substrate which is lightly doped. Two contacts drain and source are brought out from substrate. It has a p - type channel. There is a insulating layer of silicon oxide between metal and N channel. Gate is taken from this metal plate. This insulating layer gives a very high input impedance. MOSFET can operate in two modes: Depletion mode : The gate is mode -ye and drain side is connected to positive of battery chage in gate Voltage changes the conductivity of Nchannel and controls drain current.

(b) Enhancement mode : Here gate is connected to +ve voltage. The drains and transfer characteristic of MOSFET are as shown:

Q. 7. What is Bipolar junction transistor? List its applications. Ans A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is formed by sandwiching a p-type layer between two n type layers or a n-type layer between two p-type layers. The control layer is called base and two outer layers are termed as emitter and collector. The base of transistor is lightly doped. Ern heayily doped and collector is moderately doped. Depending on the layers used fraisistors are NPN or PNP type.NPN and PNP transistors are used in amplifier circuits, oscillator circuits.

Q. 8. What is an FET ? Discuss its characteristics. Ans FET is Field Effect Transistor, it is a unipolar device i.e. conduction is due to only one type of charges. FET may be N-channel or P-channel. In Nchannel PET, the base is made of N type material with small amount of P-type material deposited to make gate terminal. For P-Channel, Base is of P type. Two terminals are brought out from the base channel and are known as drain and source. For drawing characteristics we need to discuss working. When we forward bias source drain circuit is forward biased. As we go on increasing the voltage across drain source, the region around gate layer increases and finally restucts flow of current. The characteristics are as shown:

Q.10. What is an optocoupler ? Where is it used? Ans Optocoupler is a device which contains an infrared LED and a photodetector combined in a package. It is basically an interface between two circuits which operate at different voltages. Optocouplers are used as signal converters, as isolators.

Q. 11. What is difference between avalanche and zener breakdown. How does zener diode maintain constant voltage acrossthe load? Ans When a diode is reverse biased, the minority carriers acquire kinetic energy which increases with increase in voltagecAt sufficiently high reverse voltage, kinetic energy of minority cairiers becomes so large that they knock

out electrons from covalent bonds of semiconductor materials. As a result of collision, liberated electrons liberate more electrons and current becomes very large leading to breakdown of crystal structure. This phenomenon is called avalanche brackdown. Under veryhigh reverse voltage, the depletion region expands and potential barrier increases leading to a very high electric field across junction. The electric field breaks down some covalent bonds leading to large number of free minority carriers which suddenly increase reverse current. This is called zener breakdown. Zener breakdown is sharper than avalanche breakdown and usually occurs at lower reverse voltages. The zener diode maintains a constant voltage across source by acting as a regulator. We use zener diode in combination with a series resistor whose function is to limit reverse current through diode to safe value. Zener diode is operated in breakdown region and supplier constant voltage as long as supply_voltage is more than zener voltage.

Q. 12. Distinguish between JFET and BJT? Ans

Q. 13. Discuss classification of materials as insulator, semiconductor and conductor based on energy band theory.

Ans The energy band is formed by collection ofelecfrons having similar energy levels. According to this theory, within a material there exist three distnict energy bands Conduction band, forbidden band and valence band. The number of electrons in valence band and the band width of forbidden band determine conduction behaviour of a material. For conductors, the valence band and conduction band overlap and forbidden band does not exist as shown in fig. (a) In semiconductors, the forbidden band is present but has energy of the order of I eV, this is shown in fig (b) For insulators, forbidden band is quite large having energy of order of 5 eV or more. It is difficult for valence electrons to cross this band and come into conduction band, hence, insulating property. This is shown in fig (c).

Q. 14. Define following: (a) Doping (b) Diffusion (c) Donor or dopant (d) Acceptor. Ans (a) Doping: It is addition of impurity to pure semiconductor. (b) Diffusion : The process of doping a semiconductor with impurities is diffusion. (c) Donor or dopant: Impurities which are capable of donating an electron (pentavalent toms such as arsenic, antimony) are called donors or dopants. (d) Acceptor: Impurities which are deficient in electrons and need electrons to complete their octet are called acceptors. Examples are trivalent atoms as Boron, gallium, indium etc.

Q. 15. What is an ideal diode ? Draw its characteristics. Ans An ideal diode permits flow of current only in one direction. It conducts in forward bias region and behaves as perfect conductor with zero

resistance. In reverse bias region it behaves as an insulators with infinite resistance. An ideal diode is an automatic switch. The characteristics of an ideal diode are as shown:

Q. 16. List applications of zener diode. Ans The following are applications of zener diode: as voltage regulator (h) meter protection (c) peak clipper (d) reference element (e) switching operation.

Q. 17. Discuss half wave and full wave rectification using p-n junction diodes. Ans Rectifier converts a.c. voltage to either positive or negative pulsating d.c. p-n junction diode is used for rectification. Half wave rectifier: In half wave rectifier only alternate half cycles are rectified. Here only one p-n junction diode is used. The circuit is as shown:

In the above, for the positive half cycle, the diode is forward biased and conducts, so we get output wave. In next half cycle, diode is reverse biased and does not conduct so, the output is not available. We get a half wave rectified wave. Full wave rectification:

for full wave rectification, we can have two different circuits (a) Centretap (b) Bridge circuit. We discuss centre tap circuit here. In this the secondary of transformer has a central tapping. The circuit is as shown below:

In the above circuit, during first half cycle diode D1 is forward biased and conducts whereas diode D2 is reverse biased and does not conduct. The current in circuit follows path AB CF. During next half cycle diode. D2 is forward biased and diode D1 is reverse biased. So diode D2 conducts and D does not conduct. The current follows path EDCF. -W can see that current across RL. The load resistance always flows in same direction and hence, we get fully rectified wave.

Q. 18. Discuss transistor as an amplifier. Ans Transistor is used to increase amplitude of input or weak signal. The circuit for transistor to act as an amplifier is shown below

For transistor to act as an amplifier we use common emitter configuration. In the base emitter circuit the input signal is impressed. A d.c. battery in this circuit provides necessary biasing potential. The output is taken across a load resistor connected in collector emitter circuit. Input circuit should always be forward bias. Since input-circuit is forward bias it has low resistance and small change in input voltage causes large change in emitter current E This causes same change in collector current because of

transistor action and we get large voltage drop across load resistance and hence amplification.

Q. 19. List applications of FET. Ans The applications of FET are (a) Low noise amplifier (b) Buffer amplifier (c) Cascade amplifier (d) Analog switch (e) Chopper (f) Multiplexer (g) Current limiter (h) Phase shift oscillator. Q. 20. Draw two transistor model for an SCR. Ans An SCR can be modelled astwo transistors one NPN and other PNP joined back to back. The circuit is as shown:

Q. 21. Discuss diode as used in full wave bridge rectifier. Ans A bridge circuit for full wave rectification is as shown

In this first half cycle, diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and D2 and D4 are reverse biased. Hence, only D1 and D3 conduct and D2 and D4 do not. The current flows from AB FG DC. In next half cycle, diodes D2 andD4 become forward biased and conduct whereas diodes D3 and D1 are reversebiased and do not conduct. The current flows from CB FG DA Hence, in load resistance the current always follows same path and output is a fully rectified wave. Waveform is as shown:

Q. 22. What are merits and demerits of bridge rectifiers over centre tap rectifiers? Ans Merits are: 1. Since no center tap on transformer is required, It is simpler in construction. 2. The Peak inverse voltage is one half of centre tap rectifier. 3. Transformer utilization factor is higher. Demerits: 1. Number of diodes required are twice for bridge rectifier. 2. Losses are more in bridge rectifier. 3. Rectification efficiency is less.

Q. 23. Describe constructional details, working principle and characteristics of field effect transistor. Ans Field effect transistor: Construction: Field effect transistor is a three terminal device. It has a bar of either ntype or p-type material which has two ohmic contacts brought out. These are termed as drain and source. On both sides of the box material (n or p-type), heavily doped regions of p or n type are diffused to create np or pn junction. Depending upon base, FET can be classified as p type of n-type FET.

The gate source voltage controls the amount of current flowing. As gate source voltage goes on increasing a stage comes where depletion layers touch each other and no current can flow. This is pinch off point. The characteristics are as shown in fig:

Q. 24. Explain the working of full wave bridge rectifier and derive expression for ripple factor. Ans A full wave bridge rectifier uses four diodes. The circuit for such a rectifier is a shown:

INPUT WAVE FROM During first half cycle when point A is positive, diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased and conduct with current flowing from C to D. During next half cycle when point B is positive diodes D3 and D4 are forward biased and conduct with current flowing from C To D. Hence, we see current always flows in same path. Ripple factor is the amount of a.c. component in d.c. output waveform. It is found as:

Q. 25. Define gauge factor. Explain why semiconductor strain gauge have high values for the gauge factor. Ans Guage factor is defined as ratio of change in resistance per unit resistance to AR/R change in length per unit length. Stated mathematically G = Where G is guage factor; iR is change in resistance R is original resistance i1 is change in length I is original length. Guage factor is an indication of sensitivity of a strain guage semiconductor strain guages have high values of the guage factor because the relative change in resistance due to application of strain is more than the change in length. The resistance change is more as the crystal structure is loosely bound for semiconductors.

Q. 26. Discuss the operation of n-channel JFET and plot its drain characterisitcs. Define pinth off voltage. Ans A JFET is a three terminal semiconductor device in which current conduction is by one type of carrier either electrons or holes. The three terminals are named as gate, source and drain. A n channel FET has a substrate of n and terminals of gate as p type semiconductor. For normal operation, the voltage between gate and source is such that gate is reverse biased. The connection is as shown in figure:

When a voltage V is applied between drain and source terminals, voltage VGS remaining zero, the two pn junctions of side bars establish depletion layers. The electrons flow from source to drain through channel between depletion layer. Now, when we apply reverse voltage VGS between gate and source, the width of depletion layer is increased which reduces width of conducting channel, increasing resistance of n type bar. The current from source to drain is decreased. This shows that source to drain current flow is controlled by potential of gate. The drain characteristics of n type JUET are plotted between V as abscissa a and TD as ordinate for different of V. These are as shown below:

The drain source voltage above which drain current becomes constant is known as pinch off voltage.

Q. 27. Briefly compare the turn on methods of thyristors. Ans Various methods of turning on of thyristor are: (a) By raising the temperature. (b) By focusing light dv (c) By applying high voltage (d) By applying voltage at high .dv/dt (e) By increasing gate current. Comparison : SCR turn on by increasing temperature is seldom done as it is likely to cause thermal run away. SCR turn on the light is suitable only for lightactivated SCR. SCR also gets turned on when forward anode to, cathode voltage is greater than forward breakdown voltage. But this type of turn on can prove destructive as it might destroy the barriers in SCR. If rate of rise of voltage is high, it may also turn on the SCR. But high dv/dt may damage the SCR. It is advisable to limit dv/dt to the manufacturer specified rating increasing the gate current is one of the safest method. Care should be taken so that gate triggering pulse is longer than the time taken by anode current to reach holding current.

Q. 28. Draw and explain input and output characteristic of NPN transistor. Ans We shall explain input and output characteristics of NPN transsitor connected in common emitter mode.

The input characteristics are the curves plotted between base current B and base emitter voltage keeping collector emitter voltage constant. The curves are as shown in figure.

The characteristics resemble characteristics of a diode in forward biased mode. The base current does not flow till the Base emitter voltage reaches approximately 50% of its rated value. After this the junctions are forwarct biased and the curve is as shown. The output characteristics are the curves drawn between collector current I and collector emktter vo1tage VCE keeping base current constant. The curves are as shown:

We see here current amplification isachieved. With small increase in VCE, 1 increases rapidly.