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OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS CHAPTER ONE Topic Introduction o Background of radio o Problem Background of the narcotizing effect of the mass

mass media

CHAPTER TWO Aims of the project R tion !e H"pothesis

CHAPTER THREE Rese rch #uestions Liter ture Re$ie% Theoretic ! fr me%or&

CHAPTER FOUR 'ethodo!o(" ) t co!!ection methods Stud" re nd su*jects

S mp!in( methods nd si+e

CHAPTER FI,E ) t n !"sis

) t interpret tion

CHAPTER SI Conc!usion

Recommend tions Other findin(s Are s of further stud" References

APPEN)ICES Appendi. /0 1ud(et 2 cost Appendi. 30 Wor& p! n Appendi. 40 5uestionn ire

INTRO)UCTION
Radio, Television and Print are potential media for disseminating health information to the public to create awareness on issues of H !"# $%, &alaria, Tuberculosis and other diseases that are found worldwide' Radio in &alawi is regarded as the most effective medium' Radio pla(s a ver( important role in building the nation, developing the countr( economicall(, used as a tool in education and also most importantl( used as a tool in health education' There are 1) radio stations in the countr( which include public, commercial, communit( and religious stations' *ut of these, more than half of them have health programs which feature different issues that educate the listeners+ health wise' Health programs on radio contain issues on TB, H !"# $%, &alnutrition, skin diseases and on how to prevent them' There are a number of programs on different radio stations that contain different health issues' %ome of these programs include Tips of life, umoyo ndi chitukuko mMalawi, Call the Doctor, dziwani za TB, umoyo mmalawi, Kulera, Tichitenji, Womens forum,Tikuferanji, window throu h health, !hukusi la moyo, uchem"ere wa "wino, womens talkin point, #outh alert,!akachere and a lot more programs' n 2,,-, the Malawi Demo raphic and $ealth %ur&ey found out that 64% of people have heard health messages on radio, while 14% heard the messages on Television and .ewspaper, with 32% who have not heard the health messages through an( media' This shows how radio is widel( listened to in the countr( b( people of different status'

PRO1LE' STATE'ENT
There are a number of reasons wh( this stud(, which is tr(ing to establish audience+s perceived influence of radio health program has been conducted' #ccording to Dennis 'ist ()**)+, there are four main reasons wh( audience research is done' #mong them0 audience research helps the researcher to make vital decisions, understand his audience under stud(, and demonstrate facts to outsiders and to provide material for programs' H !"# $%, TB, malaria, malnutrition, teen pregnancies are some of the most common issues being tackled b( a lot sectors in the countr( because the( are one of the most serious public health and development challenges that sub %aharan #frica have been forced to face' The future course of the H !"# $% epidemic in the countr( depends on a number of important variables, including public awareness about H !"# $%' 1urther more the impact of infections, maternal health, child mortalit( and other health issues are affecting all sectors of &alawian societ(, and the nation+s response needs to be matched with multi2sectoral strategies and intervention' This is wh( media houses in the countr( need to be on the forefront, using their most effective media to reach out to the public and create public awareness' t has to be ensured however, that the messages being put across to the people have effective results and are creating the desired results' This research will therefore look at the d(sfunction effect of the mass media which is called the ,narcotizin effect-.

This refers to the phenomenon whereb( the media provide such massive information that the audience becomes numb and generall( fails to act on the perceived information, regardless of how compelling the issue' B( using a sample of listeners, this research is there to determine if health programs in the countr( are being perceived effectivel( or if the( are having an opposite effect of desensitizing the people up to the point where one becomes ignorant of events around him or her' O16ECTI,ES OF THE PRO6ECT 'AIN O16ECTI,E The general ob3ective of this stud( is to establish people+s perception of their reactions to health messages' This research is aimed at finding out how listeners perceive the information the( hear on radio and from there determine if the messages are being effective enough to the people or not' SPECIFIC O16ECTI,ES The specific ob3ectives of the research include4 To show that despite the man( health programs that are there, the rate people contracting the H ! virus continue to rise, the mortalit( rate of an average &alawian continues to drop and cases of TB, malnutrition and teen pregnanc( are not decreasing at the desired rate despite the numerous messages being put forth on radio'

This will create awareness to media houses and other sectors in the countr( to find other strategies that will guarantee a desirable decrease in H !"# $%, TB, malnutrition cases' This will in the end ensure development in the countr(' To show that too much information b( the mass media becomes too much to an individual that instead of sensitizing them on an issue the( tend to be desensitized and because of this the messages that are put across do not have significant impact' t is because of this phenomenon therefore that despite the numerous messages on radio on health issues, problems continue to rise' This will save time and other resources media houses use in creating programs that in the end will not have a meaningful impact to the targeted audiences' 5ith the absence of the narcotizin effect, the audiences will respond to the messages put forth b( the media To point another direction that the media should take so as to make the messages the( bring forth to the people has significant impact and change attitudes of people' #ssist the media to onl( concentrate on the most important details so that it does not become too much for those listening to the messages to understand' RATIONALE2 O16ECTI,E This research is important especiall( to the media houses where the narcotizin effect has not been highlighted to producers of health programs or put in mind when the media is putting forth health messages to its audience' Because this effect is not widel( known therefore, it is not put forth as one of the factors contributing to the little impact health messages have on people'

This therefore makes it impossible for those who produce messages to deal with the effect since the( are unable to recognize it at pla(' This research is also important especiall( now when &alawi is striving to fulfill the 2, (ear time frame of the &illennium $evelopment 7oals 8&$7s9 which were set in 1::), and include reducing child mortalit(, improving maternal health, combating H !"# $%, malaria and other diseases' %ince the media is put on the forefront together with other organizations in fulfilling these &$7s, the media need to come up with health messages that will have an effect on people to change their mindsets instead of putting forth too much unnecessar( information which will trigger this narcotizin effect' The research is also important because health is an important aspect of life' t is seen as a resource for ever( da( life, not the ob3ective of living' t is regarded as a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as ph(sical capacities' 7ood health is ver( important in the development of an( countr( or activit(' # person who is ill will not contribute the well being of his countr( and will not participate in an( development activities' ;mphasis on health is therefore important in order to maintain a health( labor force and ultimatel( a health( nation' The research has targeted radio because research has shown that it is the medium which all classes of people in &alawi encounter in their dail( lives unlike Television and newspapers' #s /. 0khata (1223+ puts in4 78 of !! the possi*!e m ss mediums $ i! *!e inc!udin( ne%sp pers nd cinem 9 r dio is the on!" medium %hich ' ! %i ns encounter in their d i!" !i$es:

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The research has also sampled out Chitawira residents because according to &$H% 2,,-, urban residents have more access to all t(pes of media than those in rural areas' Because of this therefore, it would be e=pected to conclude that people in urban areas are more e=posed to health issues on H !"# $%, TB and other infections' However, &$H% 2,,- have also shown that H ! prevalence is higher in urban areas than in rural areas' %ince Chitawira is one of the urban areas in the countr(, it has therefore been sampled out to determine the reasons wh( those who are more e=posed to the dangers of infections through the media are also those who are e=posing themselves to these dangers' LITERATURE RE,IEW #ccording to Mcleash (1224+ radio acts as a multiplier of change, speeding up the process of informing a population' t disseminates ideas which might be radical, leading to new beliefs and values, so promoting diversit( and change'1 %ociologists !aul 'azarsfeld and 5o"ert Merton in 1:-> created the term narcotizin dysfunction' This term refers to a phenomenon whereb( the media provide such massive information that the audience becomes numb and generall( fails to act on the information'2 'azarsfeld and Merton held that the mass media could not be relied upon to work for changes even minor ones in the social structure' The( perceived that narcotizing effect that distracts and prevents audiences from facing real problems' ;=posure to a flood of information serves to narcotize rather than energize the average audience'/

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&cleash Robert 81::-9 Radio Production /rd edition Butterworth2Heinemann %chaefar T' Richard sociolog( 82,,)9 :th edition &c7raw Hill / http4""peoi'org"courses"coursesen"mass"mass/'html

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The( noted that with this effect an individual falls into a state of apath( or passivit( as a result of too much information to assimilate' Besides that, too much e=posure to news ma( leave man( audience members with little perspective of what is the usual, normal or ordinar( in a societ(' Belsons 1267 stud( of over 1),, teenage bo(s did not find an( support at all for the desensitization h(pothesis' The effect of the ?distance violence+ presented in the news was virtuall( nil and the effect of directl( e=perienced violence was even slightl( negative which if an(thing, suggests increased sensitization to real@world violence' However, in &alawi, despite radio having a high reach and significant impact on health issues-, less than half of women and si= in ten men can identif( the two most common misconceptions about the transmitting of H ! @ H ! can be transmitted b( mosAuito bites and H ! can be transmitted b( supernatural means)' 1rom the functionalist perspective, the media entertain, socialize, enforce social norms, confer status, promote consumption and keep us informed' However the media can also be d(sfunctional to the e=tent that the( desensitize us to events'6 $(sfunction refers to an element or a process of societ( that ma( actuall( disrupt a social s(stem or lead to a decrease in stabilit(' Broadcasting in &alawi at present is still not as satisfactor( as it should be, considering that it is now ;more than< thirt( (ears since the count( got its independence' Because of its nature, the newspaper has not had much impact' The need for greater literar( skills b( readers and high production costs b( media owners, have greatl(

B%# $ 82,,,9 Paper assess $ocument Reach and impact of radio in &alawi

82,,)9$emographic and Health %urve( &alawi 2,,- *RC &acro, Calverton, &ar(land B%#
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%chaefar T' Richard sociolog( 82,,)9 :th edition &c7raw Hill

reduced the power of the newspaper to act as a mass medium' &alawi+s illiterac( is pegged at 6,D'< n spite of its obvious attractive Aualities, Television is also less than a mass medium because it is unaffordable to most &alawians' *nl( about 1,,,,,, Television sets are available for the countr(+s estimated 12 million people'> Radio therefore is the obvious mass medium to which millions of people, especiall( in poor societies, depend for vital information on health and more' ;ducation and household wealth status are strongl( associated with mass media e=posure The dissemination of simple messages b( the media and e=hortations to practice safer se= are unlikel( to have a significant impact on the H ! epidemic because se=ual behavior is rooted in comple= social, economic and cultural environments where choices are often severel( limited': Radio has more than survived0 it has prospered b( changing the nature of its relationship with audiences' t has become local, fragmented, specialized, personal and mobile, unlike in the past' Radio+s audience, though is not growing' n fact it is declining' The annual MT8 0etworks98iacom %tudy of Media, /ntertainment, and 'eisure Time released in Eune 2,,, showed a sharp decline from the previous (ear+s level of listening among teen and adults' The primar( factors for this loss of audience, according to the industr( itself, are the availabilit( of online music and listener dissatisfaction with unimaginative programming and h(per commercialization'1, However not much has been written about the narcotizin effect of the mass media' This could probabl( be because it has not been full( proven in a scientific wa( if indeed there
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.ational %tatistics *ffice Tenthani Raphael 82,,,9 &alawi+s Television Bnveils ;=pansion Plans Pan #frican .ews #gencies : 7ordon 7' 81::)9 Participation empowerment and se=ual health in #frica F;$ Books Gondon 1, Baran E' %tanle( 82,,29 ntroduction to &ass Communication 2nd edition &c7raw2Hill B%#

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is such a thing' This therefore made it a bit difficult for this stud( to have all the necessar( literature it needed' THEORETICAL FRA'E WOR= This research has used the cultivation anal(sis theor(' This theor( states that media e=poses audiences to attitudes, realities, and ideologies and in the process cultivate the nature and pattern of responses' This theor( emerged from a group of researchers led b( :eor e :er"ner (12249 which stated that heav( e=posure to a medium imparts a worldview that is consistent with the ?world+ of that particular medium'11 Bnlike the users and ratification theory this theor( which was originall( used to anal(ze television assumes that that particular medium in Auestion shapes a societ(+s wa( of thinking and relating' To conduct this theor(, the first step is to anal(ze the particular medium in Auestion and find its patterns of contents' The second step is to formulate the audiences+ understandings of their ever( da( lives' The third step is finding the levels of consumption of that particular medium' 1inall( (ou compare the social realities of light and heav( consumers of that medium'12 The theor( has been applied in this research, with the medium being radio programs on health issues to show that heav( consumption of health issues tend to narcotize the audiences'

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5est R' 82,,-9 ntroducing Communication Theor(, #nal(sis and #pplication 2nd ;dition &c27raw2 Hill, .ew Hork
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5est R' 82,,-9

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5ith the use of this theor(, this stud( as evaluated those who consume health issues on radio and find out their social realities as to whether the( are affected b( what the( listen on the radio or not'

RESEARCH )ESI>N
This stud( used a surve( as a method for data collection' # surve( was used mainl( because this stud( was tr(ing to find out from the listeners themselves on how health issues influence them and if indeed the( feel desensitized after listening to too much information about health issues'

)ATA COLLECTION 'ETHO)S


Iuestionnaires were used as a method of data collection' This was there to determine how people perceive health programs on radio' To avoid the inconvenience of not having the Auestionnaires answered at the reAuired time and to avoid getting inappropriate answers, the Auestionnaires were not distributed and collected on different da(s' The Auestions were asked and filled up for them'

SA'PLE AREA
The research was conducted in Chitawira Residential area, Blant(re' This area was chosen because it has people from all walks of life' t has people of all kinds of professions like teachers, doctors, mem"ers of parliament, "usiness people, students and a lot more' This stud( also reAuired an area of stud( which is in the urban area but which still has the radio listening culture'

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The houses in Chitawira are designed in wa(s that make the roads around the area accessible and this made it easier for the researcher to move from one area to another without getting confused' Chitawira is also situated in an area that made it possible for freAuent visitation from the researcher an( time it was necessar( to'

SA'PLE SI?E
n this stud(, 100 respondents from different household each were chosen from the sample area' The( all had to answer the Auestionnaires individuall(' t could not be established on the actual total population of houses in Chitawira since the area has had new constructions for the past (ears' *ther houses have also been combined into one plot for a single individual' Because of this therefore, there had to be the use of 3udgment sampling to come up with a sample of households which had to be a true representative of the area but also a manageable sample that could cover the available resources' Therefore 100 respondents was the ideal sample size that was used in this stud(' The characteristics of this sample size were men, women and (ouths' The age group ranged from 16 to over 50 (ears of age' ;ducational Aualification ranges from !rimary %chool !upils to those with tertiary education ;ualifications' 1urthermore, this research had respondents who were sin le, married, di&orced and widowed.

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SA'PLIN> 'ETHO)S
n this research, the pro* *i!it" and non pro* *i!it" methods were used' n probabilit( methods, members are selected from a population in a non random manner while non probabilit( methods, members are selected in a random manner'

NON PRO1A1ILIT@ SA'PLIN>


5ith this method, the researcher used the judgment sampling to select the sample area for the stud(, which in this case is Chitawira'

PRO1A1ILIT@ SA'PLIN>
Random sampling was used in sampling out the 100 respondents for the stud(' #ll residents in Chitawira had eAual chances of being involved in this stud(' This method was chosen to prevent biasness and to give eAual chance to all residents involved in this stud(' Those respondents who do not listen to health programs on radio were recorded and used as control variables because this stud( was targeting those who listen to the radio'

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)ATA ANAL@SIS
SUR,E@ FIN)IN>S
This section presents the results of the surve( that was conducted with the use of Auestionnaires to residents in Chitawira. The Auestionnaires were designed to establish the influence that is perceived b( listeners of health issues on radio' 1rom the sample size of 100 respondents, 42 were male while 58 were female' The larger number of women was also contributed b( the willingness of most of the women to be interviewed and be part of the stud(' &ost of the men were either bus( or claimed the( do not listen to the radio at all' This can be seen in the diagram below4

Population size and sex

1)

70

60

58

50

SAMPLE SIZE

42
40

30

20

10

FEMALE
1

MALE
2

SEX

1rom the overall sample, 38 of the respondents were married, 42 were single, and 18 were divorced while 2 were widowed' 45 of the sample belonged in the age group of 16- 24 (ears of age' 27 of the sample belonged to the 25 34 (ears' 18 members of the sample belonged to the 50 64 age group' 10 members belonged to the 67 and above age group' The diagram blow shows this'

Age g oup o! espondents

16

50

45
45

40

35

SAMPLE SIZE

30

27

25

20

18

15

10
10

16 - 24

25 - 34

35 - 41

42 ABOVE

AGE GROUP

#ccording to the findings of this stud(, a lot of the respondents onl( listen to health issues on radio a few times in a week' 81 of the 100 listen to the radio 1 to 3 times a week' 12 of the respondents listen to health programs 4 6 times a week while onl( 7 respondents listen to 7 or more times in a week' The graph below e=plains this'

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NUMBER OF TIMES RESPONDENTS LISTEN TO HEALTH ISSUES ON RADIO


7 - MORE TIMES A WEEK

7 RESPONDENTS 12 RESPONDENTS
4 - 6 TIMES A WEEK

81 RESPONDENTS

1- 3 TIMES A WEEK

"#at #ealt# p og ams and issues do t#e espondents listen to$


This research did not come up with specific health programs it targeted' t relied on the information that came from the respondents on which health programs the respondents listen to' 1rom the findings however, less than half of the respondents could not come up with the specific names of the health programs the( listen to' The( could onl( come up with the health issues that are discussed in the program' 1rom all the health programs that are aired on more that 10 radio stations in &alawi, the health programs that could be remembered b( the respondents were Dokotala wa pawayilesi and Dziwani za TB. 47 respondents from the 100, could remember the actual names of the radio programs while the remaining 53 of the respondents could onl( remember the issues that the( listen to and not the actual names of the program'

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n this stud( the health issues that the respondents listen to are $<89=<D%, >amily !lannin , Cancer, teen pre nancy, Malnutrition, %Tls, ood hy iene around the hous e, se?ual reproduction health and others' !akachere radio Drama was remembered b( most of the respondents as a program which also contains a lot of health issues the( listen to' The diagram below e=plains'

%! espondents &ne' t#e a(tual names o! t#e #ealt# p og ams t#e) listen to

53

52

51

50

49

48

47

46

45

YES
44 1

NO

"#at in!luen(es people to listen to #ealt# issues on adio


n tr(ing to establish the perceived influence of health issues to the respondents under this stud(, the researcher had to first of all find out what influences people to listen to the health issues that are aired on the numerous radio stations in the countr('

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There numerous reasons the respondents gave as factors that influence them to listen to radio station' 52 of the respondents listen to health programs to gain knowledge' The( are influenced on how educative a health program is' The( want to learn more about health issues that goes on in the countr(' 20 respondents of this stud( are influenced to listen to health programs simpl( for entertainment' f the health programs have entertaining and funn( issues then the( end up pa(ing attention to it' The remaining 28 said the( do not intentionall( listen to health issues on radio' #t times it is when the( are doing something else and somebod( is listening to the program that the( end up hearing the issues'

*easons '#) espondents listen to #ealt# p og ams on adio

FOR ENTERTAINMENT 20

52 NOT INTENTIONAL FOR NO!LEDGE 28

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*espondent+s ,ie's to'a ds #ealt# issues on adio


n tr(ing to prove the h(pothesis that too much health issues on radio desensitizes its audience, this stud( set up to find out the views of the respondents towards health issues that are aired on radio The respondents were given options to choose from a scale of e?cellent, &ery ood, ood, satisfactory, not satisfactory and poor 1rom the 100 respondents, 6 of them views health programs as e=cellent' This meant that the( were impressed with the issues that are presented, the( like how the issues are presented and would not change a thing bout them' 40 respondents felt that radio health issues are ver( good and need not change the messages the( carr( since the( are able to give out the intended messages' 3 respondents said the health programs are good but needed to add more time and change the formats to suit the tastes of the people toda(' How ever none of the respondents chose the satisfactor( option' 35 of the respondents selected the not satisfactor( option' The( had a number of reasons the( gave on wh( the( regarded health issues on radio as not satisfactor(' The remaining 16 felt that health issues on radio are poor and that the radio can either do without or change their formats completel(' This is further e=plained in the graph below4

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Points t#at s#o's t#e espondents+ opinions to'a ds #ealt# issues on adio

NOT SATISFA"TOR#
40

VER# GOOD

35

30

25

POOR
20

15

EX"ELLENT
10

GOOD

22

*espondents '#ose -e#a,io s (#anged as a esult o! #ealt# issues ai ed on adio


#s one wa( of establishing the perceived influence of health issues to the respondents, the stud( went ahead in tr(ing to find out how man( of the respondent+s behaviors changed after listening to certain issues of health on radio' These behavioral changes included abstaining or having protected se= after hearing about H !"# $%' Those who have decided to Auit smoking after hearing about the dangers TB on radio, consulting doctors after getting certain s(mptoms that signif( an infection, avoiding stigma and discrimination to # $% patients and also home based care to # $% patients' #ccording to the results 41 respondents said that the( have been influenced b( radio to change certain aspects of their lives after hearing about certain health issues' These respondents were able to specif( the particular aspects of their which the( changed' 52 of the respondents however said that health issues on radio did not influence them to change an( aspect of the life' # common answer that was found as one of their reasons were that one cannot change the time when the( get die, therefore no one can prolong his or her life b( changing some aspects in their lives' #nother common reason was that health issues on radio are not influential enough to change their behaviors' The remaining 7 respondents said the( had no idea whether health issues on radio have influenced them at all' The( were unaware and unable to point out some aspects in their lives that were changed as a result of a health message on radio' 1rom the findings above, a higher number of the respondents have not been influenced b( health messages on radio to change their life st(les for a healthier life' The diagram below e=plains this0 2/

./0A1%2*A3 40A56/7 %5 */7P258/597 %5:3;/54/8 .< 0/A390 P*26*A=7 25 *A8%2

NO IDEA

41

BEHAVIORAL "HANGE

NO BEHAVIORAL "HANGE

52

The stud( also tried to find out from those who have been influenced b( the radio programs if the( have also been motivated to contribute to the societ( in an( wa(' To gauge the e=tent of influence health issues had on those 41 respondents, there were asked if the( have ever been motivated or urged b( the messages the( hear to involve themselves in activities that could benefit their entire societ(' These activities included becoming members of a pressure group on an( health issue in their societ(, being part of a peaceful demonstration or big walk to sensitive other people in their communities on health issues or participating in an( phone in program on radio to contribute to the societ( on health issues'

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1rom the 41 therefore, 11 are members of pressure groups and clubs in their societ(' 10 have taken part in a demonstration and big walk before' 5 have participated in a phone in program on radio to contribute to the societ(' The remaining 15 have not done an( of the activities above' &ost of them blamed it on the lack of free time that the( can use to be involved in the activities' *thers blamed it on the absence of organizations and groups the( can 3oin in the communities' %ome however, could not see the need to be involved in activities that can contribute to the societ('

*espondents+ opinions on #o' #ealt# issues a e - oad(ast on adio


The health programs on radio have been viewed with different opinions from the audiences' %ome like their formats others view that the( need to improve and add other aspects in their messages' This stud( went ahead to establish how the respondents view the wa( health programs are aired on radio' 34 from the 100 respondents felt that health programs on radio contain too much information' The disadvantage of this opinion is e=plained and e=plored in the data interpretation' The remaining 66 did not agree with this opinion

0ealt# p og am on adio (ontain too mu(# in!o mation


2)

66
70

60

50

34
40

30

20

10

#ES
0

NO

#nother opinion that was shared between 57 respondents was that health programs on radio are not interesting enough, therefore the( are unable to attract listeners there fore people do not pa( much attention to these programs unlike with other programs' The remaining 43 did not agree with this view'

0ealt# p og ams a e not inte esting enoug#

26

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

57 43

#ES

NO

*e(ommendations ! om t#e espondents in 4#ita'i a


The respondents who were involved in this stud( had a lot to sa( on how health programs should be handled so as to have much more influence to its audience' Health programs should not onl( concentrate on manufactured medicines which are sold in the market for this does not attract people from the villages who can not afford it' nstead the( should also concentrate on herbs that can be found locall(' 1or e=ample using the leaves of the avocado pear tree to increase blood suppl( instead of taking iron pills that are e=pensive for some people' This would attract audiences from all walks of like'

Radio stations should take a particular stand and stick to it when giving out health information instead of giving information on different issues because this confuses its listeners' 1or e=ample in the case of abstinence and using condoms during se=' The( tend to use these methods together all the time' This confuses 2<

the audiences on which side the( should take because the radio did not make a particular point to stand for'

Health programs should change their format and make it much more entertaining instead of using the ver( same formats used (ears ago' This does not attract an( new or modern audiences'

)ATA INTERPRETATION

This section will measure the perceived influence of health issues on radio to residents in Chitawira. The perceived influence was measured b( looking at how respondents have been influenced b( health issues on radio up to the point of changing some aspects in their live and also contributing to the societ('

%nte p etation o! esults on t#e su ,e) 'it# t#e use o! t#e >uestionnai es
1rom the answer of the 100 respondents it has shown that the( were all aware of the health issues that are aired on radio' The( have all heard them before and the( could all specif( the particular sub3ects the( have heard' However, less than half of the respondents could name the actual programs the( listen to' This shows that much as the people have heard health issues on radio the( are not so keen in listening to all the details that are there' t means that health programs are not among the favorite programs the respondents listen to' This was also seen as in the number of times the respondents listen to health programs on radio'

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1rom the findings, it has shown that respondents are not e=posed to too touch information on radio' This is because a lot of them onl( listen to health issues on radio one to three times week' This ca not be regarded as too much e=posure to radio' 1rom the findings, less than half of the respondents views health issues on radio positivel(' The rest felt that the( leave a lot to be desired' t shows that as much as the respondents do listen to the health issues on radio, the( are not satisfied with it' There fore health programs are not effective enough to residents in Chitawira' #lthough there were a number of the respondents who were influenced b( the health issues to change their behaviors, most of the listeners of the health programs have not been influenced to change their behaviors' The( use the health programs to simpl( gain knowledge and do not find them influential enough to change their mindsets on certain aspects of their lives' This finding means that those people who do not feel the need to change their wa(s of life to reduce cases of infections like TB, # $% or other %T s are not necessaril( ignorant' The( do listen to the issues that talk against their wa(s of life but the( simpl( do not feel the need to change' These findings therefore have the element of desensitization in them because the( do hear about the dangers of infections but choose to remain unmoved and unconcerned' 1rom those respondents who have been influenced b( the health issues the( listen on radio, onl( a few of them have been motivated to be involved in other activities that would benefit other people in their communit(' The( did not see the need of doing this and this means that the health issues on radio do not make it known to its listeners that it is ever(one+s responsibilit( to contribute and assist the rest of the societ('

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Gess than half of the respondents feel that health programs contain too much information' The( feel the time that is given for health programs is not enough but not that it contains too much information' This finding is ver( important because then the h(pothesis of this stud( would have to be proven wrong in the terms on too much information on radio desensitizing people' This stud( has also established that health issues on radio are not interesting and attractive enough for its audiences' This means that the( fail to attract new listeners and those listeners who have alwa(s been there do not feel the urge to listen to the programs al the times because the( are not interesting enough'

CONCLUSION
RECO''EN)ATIONS This stud( has made a number of recommendations that the producers of health programs could use and follow for an effective perceived influence of health messages to its audiences' Health programs on radio should be made more interesting to attract more listeners' People look for something that can capture and hold their attention for a considerable amount of time' f health program were to become more interesting then a lot more people would be influenced to listen to them and put to use whatever is being said in it'

Consider other aspects that are not put in mind when producing these programs' Gike music, drama, Auiz, competitions and other creative things that can ensure something new and effective' /,

Program producers should find a wa( to get feed back from the listeners' This will help them know what to improve or leave out of the program to ensure that health programs have ma=imum influence on its audiences'

To take a particular stand in their fight against infections and stick to it instead of talking about different things which can in the end confuse the audiences' 1or e=ample MBC for abstinence or @A# >M for condoms'

Health programs should have enough time given on air so as to give a chance to clarif( and e=plain on some complicated matters that have to do with health' This avoids confusion since the( are not 3ust pilling up information for the listeners without clearl( e=plaining to them'

Broadcast houses should take note of the desensitization effect when bringing forth messages to its listeners' This will ensure that the messages that are aired have a positive effect on its audiences'

The( should aim for behavioral change in their messages' Bnless listeners put to use the messages the( hear on radio, then health programs will not have an( use at all in the fight against diseases and other infections like # $% in the countr('

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OTHER FIN)IN>S t was established that most of the residents in Chitawira were proud to sa( that the( never listen to the radio because the( own a Television set' The( associated not listening to the radio with prestige' The( felt that if the( admit to listening to the radio and knowing the issues that are discussed there will mean the( do not own a T! set' t was also noted that during the stud(, most (ouths in Chitawira onl( listen to Cavalr( Radio %tation' t could not however be established wh( this is so' AREAS OF FURTHER STU)IES

The findings of this stud( are not alone enough in establishing different roles of the media to its audiences' 1urther research needs to be done on other aspects that were not covered in this pro3ect' There should be a further stud( on wh( some residents in Chitawira associate listening to the radio with their status' 5h( the( feel radio is for the low class and not those who want to have prestige because such thoughts are simpl( wrong' # stud( should also be conducted to establish wh( health programs are not made livel( and interesting enough as some (ouths in Chitawira felt' $etermining this could help most radio stations improve their programs ad attract more listeners' There should be a further stud( to establish the relationship between the media and the Millennium De&elopment :oals (MD:s9' The( is a need to evaluate if the media is fulfilling its dut( of being in the forefront with other organizations in striving for the countr( to fulfill these goals b( the (ear that was set'

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CONCLUSION This stud(+s findings do not totall( agree with the research h(pothesis' The h(pothesis was that too mu(# #ealt# issues on adio #a,e a na (otizing pe (eption on its audien(es? 1rom the findings however, it has shown that one need not to be e=posed to too much information to be desensitized' n this stud(, those respondents who onl( listen to health programs 1 to / times a week are still ignorant and have not changed their behavior after being e=posed to the health issue on radio' t can therefore be concluded that #ealt# issues on adio tend to desensitize some o! its audien(es? Radio stations therefore need to change their courses of broadcast if the( want to assist the nation in fulfilling &$7s

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REFERENCES Boafo Jwame %T 81::19 &odule on $evelopment Communication 1, #CC; 7ordon 7eorge 81:<:9 &ass Communication Theories Coppclark Gtd &cleish Robert 81::-9 Radio Production /rd edition, Butter2Heinemann &cAuail $ennis 81:>/9 &ass Communication an ntroduction %#7; Publications Gtd .khata ;'& 81::/9 The Role of radio in &alawi+s .ational $evelopment %chaefer T' Richard 82,,)9 %ociolog( :th ;dition &c27raw2Hill %traubhaar Garose 82,,-9 &edia .ow -th ;dition Thomson Gearning nc 5atson Eames 82,,/9 &edia Communication, an ntroduction to theor( and Process 2nd ;dition Palgrave &acmillan, Hampshire 5est R' 82,,-9 ntroducing Communication Theor(, #nal(sis and #pplication 2nd ;dition &c27raw2Hill, .ew Hork 82,,)9 $emographic and Health %urve( &alawi 2,,- *RC &acro, Calverton, &ar(land B%# http4""www'peoi'org"courses"coursesen"mass"mass/'html http4""www'cultsock'ndirect'co'uk"&BHome"cshtml"media"empism'html

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WOR=PLAN

ACTI,IT@ )ATE $esigning Auestionnaires, finding more information about the narcotizing effect on 6u!"9 3AABC the internet, Testing Auestionnaires on a group of people Collecting data on health programs from radio stations, collecting past and present Au(ust 3AABC mortalit( rates from $emographic and Health %urve( !isiting Chitawira residential area to Au(ust 3AABC

determine on how to go about sampling Handling out actual Auestionnaires to Au(ust 3AABC residents in Chitawira Collecting the Auestionnaires $ata anal(sis Refining and presentation Septem*er Octo*er Octo*er 1U)>ET ITE' Contingencies %tationer( ITE' )ESCRIPTION 1ood, water and transport 1 rim of plain papers COST ;'=< 1),, 2,,, of /,,,

Pens, pencils, Tipp2e= nternet, Printing, Binding and / copies of the pro3ect Photocop(ing services 1lash disk Telephone calls ), copies Auestionnaires 1 )BCMB to store the soft cop( of the pro3ect K), Celtel units

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T*T#G

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