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Sistem Agribisnis

Matrikulasi MMA-IPB Angkatan R-34, Tahun 2005
Matrikulasi MMA-IPB
Angkatan R-34, Tahun 2005
Staf Pengajar: Prof. Dr. Ir. E. Gumbira-Said, MA.Dev. Prof. Dr. Ir. Bunasor Sanim, M.Sc. Dr.
Staf Pengajar:
Prof. Dr. Ir. E. Gumbira-Said, MA.Dev.
Prof. Dr. Ir. Bunasor Sanim, M.Sc.
Dr. Ir. Arief Daryanto, M.Ec.(Koordinator)
Sinopsis Matakuliah: Topik-topik yang dibahas antara lain adalah definisi dan ruang lingkup agribisnis, agribisnis
Sinopsis Matakuliah:
Topik-topik yang dibahas antara lain adalah
definisi dan ruang lingkup agribisnis, agribisnis
sebagai suatu sistem dan keterkaitan antara
komponen-komponen sistem, deskripsi statitistik
sektor agribisnis, isyu-isyu pokok (key issues)
yang dihadapi perusahaan agribisnis dan analisis
mendalam (in-depth look) tentang produksi,
pengolahan dan pemasaran produk-produk
agribisnis terpilih.
Definition of Agribusiness (1): Davis and Goldberg (1957): Agribusiness is the sum total of all
Definition of Agribusiness (1):
Davis and Goldberg (1957):
Agribusiness is the sum total of all
operations involved in the manufacture and
distribution of farm supplies; production
activities on the farm; and storage,
processing and distribution of farm
commodities and items made from them.
Definition of Agribusiness (2): Beierlein and Woolverton (1991): Agribusiness includes not only those that farm
Definition of Agribusiness (2):
Beierlein and Woolverton (1991):
Agribusiness includes not only those that farm the
land but also the people and firms that provide
inputs (e.g., seed, chemicals, credit), process the
outputs (e.g., milk, grain, meat), manufacture the
food products (e.g., ice cream, bread, breakfast
cereals), and transport and sell the food products
to consumers (e.g., restaurants, supermarkets).
Definition of Agribusiness (3): The food and fiber system is increasingly being referred to as
Definition of Agribusiness (3):
The food and fiber system is increasingly being
referred to as agribusiness.
Schaffner, Schroder and Earle (1998):
The food system includes suppliers of farm inputs,
agricultural producers, suppliers of fish and game,
producers of fermentation products, packaging
suppliers, processors and manufacturers,
commodity merchants, wholesalers, food retailers,
restaurants, institutions, and facilitating industries,
such as transport, finance and future markets.
The Agribusiness System (1): To capture the full meaning of the term agribusiness it is
The Agribusiness System (1):
To capture the full meaning of the term
agribusiness it is important to visualize
some sectors as interrelated parts of a
system in which the success of each part
depends heavily on the proper functioning
of the other sectors.
The Agribusiness System (2):
The Agribusiness System (2):
The Agribusiness System (3):
The Agribusiness System (3):
The Agribusiness System (4):
The Agribusiness System (4):
The Agribusiness System (5):
The Agribusiness System (5):
Organization of the Agribusiness System: The agribusiness system has both a horizontal and a vertical
Organization of the Agribusiness
System:
The agribusiness system has both a
horizontal and a vertical dimension.
Coordination can be at one of two extremes:
administrative control or open market.
Vertical and horizontal relationship in the agribusiness system:
Vertical and horizontal relationship in
the agribusiness system:
Means of Influence: Power It can be simply defined as the ability to influence (or
Means of Influence:
Power
It can be simply defined as the ability to
influence (or to resist being influenced by)
the behavior of another individual or
company
Cooperation
The basic prerequisite for cooperation is the
possibility of mutual gain
Power: Power relationships can be analyzed at an industry level, between companies, and within organizations.
Power:
Power relationships can be analyzed at an
industry level, between companies, and
within organizations.
The Five Forces Model developed by Porter
can be used as a framework for analyzing
power relationships in the agribusiness
system.
Five Forces Model of Porter: The potential for the exercise of power is greatest when
Five Forces Model of Porter:
The potential for the exercise of power is
greatest when there is:
• little rivalry among existing companies
• no threat of new entrants (high barriers to
entry)
• low bargaining power of suppliers
• low bargaining power of buyers
• no threat of substitute products
Structure and Power Relationships in the Agribusiness System:
Structure and Power Relationships in
the Agribusiness System:
Conditions for Exercising Power: As a general rule, the power held by companies at any
Conditions for Exercising Power:
As a general rule, the power held by
companies at any level in the agribusiness
system is positively related to industry
concentration.
Companies may choose not to exercise power for three reasons: It may result in consumers
Companies may choose not to exercise
power for three reasons:
It may result in consumers paying more and
farmers receiving less. Response: BULOG,
Statutory Marketing Authority (Boards).
It may result in the other party using
countervailing power.
The more powerful party in the relationship
may wish to encourage cooperative
behavior from the less powerful.
Individual company power: At the level of an individual company or collective bargaining group, power
Individual company power:
At the level of an individual company or
collective bargaining group, power derives
either from having power yourself or from
facing buyer or seller who lacks power.
The key variables are: having alternatives,
switching costs, the financial importance of
the deal, financial structure, potential for
vertical integration.
Cooperation: Power and cooperation are not mutually exclusive: opponent pain and opponent gain. The main
Cooperation:
Power and cooperation are not mutually exclusive:
opponent pain and opponent gain.
The main factors affecting a cooperative
relationship:
(1) Both parties have about the same amount to
lose if the relationship collapses.
(2) The relationship has the capacity to continually
provide new benefits.
(3) Reciprocity.
(4) Flexibility.
(5) The development of trust.
The Size and Scope of Agribusiness: Agribusiness is the single most important contributors of the
The Size and Scope of Agribusiness:
Agribusiness is the single most important
contributors of the world’s economy.
Agribusiness worldwide represents approximately
one-fourth of total world economic production and
provides employment for nearly half the
population on the planet.
Agribusiness also plays an important role in the
economic development of most countries.
Generally, before economic growth can occur, a
country must be able to generate productivity
gains in production agriculture.