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AUTO CAD

Mechanical, Civil AutoCAD 2010 AutoCAD 2D & 3D Drawing 60 Hrs Part 1. The Basics of computer Aided Design Techniques The AutoCAD Window The Pull Down Menu The Toolbars Working with AutoCAD Part 2. Building of the Basics Editing Enhancing Your Drawing Skills Printing, Plotting & La outs Adding Te!t to Drawing

Part 3. Becoming an Expert Drawing Cur"es & Solid #ills Adding Attributes to $locks Working with Area o% an &b'ect Part 4. 3D Modeling & maging (ntroducing )D Solid &*erations on +D Drawing ,sing Ad"ance )D #eatures -endering )D Drawings

Daksh Education Cad Technology

AUTO CAD
Mechanical, Civil AutoCAD 2010 AutoCAD 2D & 3D Drawing 120 Hrs The Basics of computer Aided Design Techniques Creating & Editing ele.entar &b'ects Ad"anced Drawing &b'ects Ad"anced Editing co..ands &rgani/ing Drawing with la ers Te!t Annotation Di.ensioning Pol lines & S*lines $locks Arrtibutes !uto"!D 3D and sometric (ntroduction to )D )D co..ands Editing )D Drawing Shading, -endering & Ani.ation Creating Scri*ts & Slide Libraries CAD on the (nternet

Daksh Education Cad Technology

DAKSH EDUCATION
HISSAR

TRAINING REPORT ON Pro-E

SUBMITTED BY ROSHAN KIRORI R.NO.- 9416590144 HARYANA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNO OGY KAITHA .

Daksh Education Cad Technology

COMPANY PRO !"#


Compan$ Pro%ile
DAK H Education Cad Technologies was esta!lished in August" 1### !y $r% &oshan 'al Kirori at Hisar% (ro) then we are *ro+iding training in CAD,CA$,CAE% -e ha+e trained nu)!er o. students o. $echanical" /roduction" Ci+il" and Architect Engineering% -e ha+e also worked on 0ndustrial li+e *ro1ects% Our %acult$ has more than Nine $ears #&perience in design %ield' (tudents coming to us %or !ndustrial Training )ill *e initiall$ trained on these plat%orms then )ill *e put on to live Design pro+ects' (ome o% our students are )or,ing )ith )ell reputed companies li,e (onali,a, Pun+a* Tractor "imited, !D#( !n%oTech "td', (teel (trip -heels . man$ more'

Daksh Education Cad Technology

Scope of CAD/CAM/CAE
0ntegrated CAD,CA$,CAE o.twares like /ro,Engineer" 02DEA " olid

-orks" Autodesk 3D $a3" $aya & CAT0A hel* )anu.acturers o*ti)i4e *roduct conce*t early in Design *rocess" ena!ling the) to signi.icantly i)*ro+e *roduct 5uality" while reducing *roduct de+elo*)ent ti)e and cost $oreo+er *eo*le ha+ing 3D CAD,CA$,CAE knowledge ha+e !etter chances o. growth" i))ediate e)*loya!ility a.ter co)*letion o. course" graduation and chances o. 1o!s a!road% As the )arket econo)y o*ens )ore and )ore it has !eco)e e3tre)ely co)*etiti+e and with this state o. econo)y" skilled *eo*le *lay the )ost i)*ortant role in organi4ation% Hence it !eco)es i)*erati+e on the *art o. to* Tool &oo) Training centers and Engg% Colleges to es*ecially look .or new initiati+es towards i)*ro+ing the skills and knowledge o. students% An e)erging trend o. Engg% Education in Tool &oo) and the world is the ra*id incre)entation o. CAD,CA$,CAE so.tware as an essential *art o. curriculu)%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

The *ri)ary reasons .or this trend are enu)erated as .ollows6 &a*id shi.t .ro) )anual Design and /roduction syste) o. Engg% 0ndustry to highly *roducti+e 5uality and cost e..ecti+e CAD,CA$,CAE syste)% 0n .act )ost o. Tool and Die" Auto)oti+e" Hea+y Engg%" 0ndustrial E5ui*)ent industry etc% in 0ndia and the -orld are totally working on CAD,CA$,CAE e5ui*)ent% 0n continuation in a!o+e *oints )any o. co)*anies as recruiters are looking at CAD,CA$,CAE knowledge as *art o. essential *ro.ile o. recruiting students% Knowledge o. CAD,CA$,CAE syste) shall !e an added wea*on .or students seeking ad)ission to *ost graduate $% % courses and 1o!s a!road% These CAD,CA$,CAE syste)s shall *ro+e to !e an e3cellent tool .or 0ndustry" &esearch setu* .or /ro.essors and Acade)ically 7ent tudents% The 5uestion" -hich are the industries that need )ore skilled )an *ower and what .or these seg)ents skill sets are a+aila!le" such o. these seg)ents are6 Tool &oo) $,C Tool Auto)o!ile /rocess $,C De.ence Auto Ancillaries Hea+y Engg% 0ndustries

Daksh Education Cad Technology

-OR/!N0 -!T1 CAD2CAM2CA# T#C1NO"O0Y


Essentially design is a decision )aking *rocess where the discretion and knowledge o. the designer *lay a great role% -hile )an still .inally controls decision2)aking" the co)*uter has ser+ed to ease the designer8s task%

CAD

CA$

CAE

$A TE& $9DE'E&

T99' /ATH :E;E&AT09;

0$<'AT09;

HEET $ETA' DE 0:;

$9'D DE 0:;

/0/E DE 0:;

TAT0C A;A'= 0 >-HE; 79D= 0 0; TATE 9( &E T?

D=;A$0C A;A'= 0 >-HE; 79D= 0 0; TATE 9( $9T09;?

Daksh Education Cad Technology

0#OM#TR!C MOD#""!N03 4
Design in+ol+es the de+elo*)ent o. the sha*e and di)ensions o. a co)*onent% During designing se+eral .actors are to !e considered si)ultaneously% o)e o. the) are stress re5uire)ents" )ethod o. )anu.acture% :eo)etric )odeling is the .irst ste* in CAD% A geo)etric )odel is created on the screen using di..erent techni5ues% 9nce creating this )odel can !e easily altered in geo)etry and con.iguration to yield a satis.actory sha*e% The ne3t ste* is deciding on the e3act di)ensions% The results o. geo)etric )odeling will .urther !e use !y CA$ in the *re*aration o. ;C ta*es .or the co)*onent%

#N0!N##R!N0 ANA"Y(!(3 4
The )ost i)*ortant .unction o. CAD is engineering analysis% Engineering analysis !asically in+ol+es deciding the e3act di)ensions o. the co)*onent% These +alues ha+e to !e arri+ed at !y analy4ing the co)*onent in ter)s o. the loads it has to withstand in .unction% CAD *ro+ides so*histicated )ethod like the .inite ele)ent techni5ue% <nsatis.actory design )ay re5uire se+eral iteration o. the whole *rocess% The co)*uter scores o+er the hu)an in its ca*a!ilities o. ra*id in.or)ation retrie+al" nu)erical *rocessing and re*eating a *rocess without .atigue%

(!MU"AT!ON3 4
i)ulation" in the CAD,CA$ conte3t" )eans du*licating on the +ideo screen a re*lica o. the actual *hysical situation the designed co)*onent is likely to !e in% .or instance" an aero*lane will !e su!1ected to wind loads% 0n the con+entional )ethod" the aero*lane will !e tested in a wind tunnel using a *rototy*e% This is an e3*ensi+e and in.le3i!le *rocess" e3*ensi+e !ecause o. the *hysical construction o. the wind tunnel and the *rototy*e" in.le3i!le !ecause it )ay not !e *ossi!le to test +arious si4es and sha*e under a set o. test condition% Co)*uter si)ulation gets rid o. !oth these li)itations% 0t in+ol+es the testing o. a gra*hic )odel whose si4e and sha*e can !e +aried at will% Co)*uter si)ulation does not co)*letely do away with *rototy*e testing% A near *er.ect sha*e can !e deter)ined using si)ulation" which can later !e tested with a *rototy*e under test conditions%

DRA T!N03 4
The logical ste* would !e to *roduce a drawing o. the co)*onent% A drawing is dis*ensa!le .or the *roduction o. the co)*onent% ;ot only the co)*onents designed !y engineering analysis" !ut also co)*le3 layouts"
Daksh Education Cad Technology

asse)!lies can !e created interacti+ely and *lotted in a!out one tenth o. the nor)al ti)e% Auto)ated dra.ting has resulted in enor)ous *roducti+ity gains in ter)s o. ti)e" la!our and e3*enses%

#5P#RT (Y(T#M(3 4
The latest de+elo*)ent in CAD is the use o. E3*ert syste)s% An E3*ert syste) has an @ intelligent data2!aseA called knowledge !ase and reasoning logic% 0t )ay contain" .or e3a)*le" the details o. the !reakdowns that occurred in the industry% 9n a later date" the user has only to .eed in the conditions under which a !reakdown occurred% The e3*ert syste) disco+ers the reason .or the !reakdown% This is only one a**lication o. e3*ert syste)s% -here+er decision )aking under )ulti*le constraints is in+ol+ed e3*ert syste)s are used as logic su**ort syste)s%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

(Y(T#M D#(!0N CYC"# 6Conventional design c$cle7


(or sol+ing any design *ro!le) or engineering *ro!le)" the general *rocedure )ay !e .ollowed%
&EC9:;0T09; 9( A ;EED

/EC0(0CAT09; A;D &EB<0&E$E;T

(EA 070'0T= T<D=

C&EAT0CE DE 0:; =;THE 0

/&E'0$0;A&= DE 0:; A;D DECE'9/E$E;T

DETA0'ED DE 0:;

/&9T9T=/E 7<0'D0;: A;D TE T0;:

DE 0:; (9& /&9D<CT09;

/&9D<CT &E'EA E

Daksh Education Cad Technology

R#CO0N!T!ON O A N##D
This as*ect o. design can ha+e its origin in )any nu)!ers o. sources% Custo)er re*orts on the *roduct .unction and 5uality )ay .orce a redesign% The starting *oint o. a design *ro1ect is a hy*othetical need which )ay ha+e !een o!ser+ed in socio2econo)ic scene% The need )ay !e e3isting or )ay not yet e3ist" !ut the e+idence )ay !e e3isting that the need is latent% The .ollowing *oints will hel* at this stage6 1% tudy the nature o. the need% 2% Esta!lish the need reasona!ly well to the e3tent *ossi!le% 3% $ake *ri)iti+e state)ent o. need% D% Do reconnaissance study with res*ect to 5ualitati+e and 5uantitati+e as*ects%

(P#C! !CAT!ON AND R#8U!R#M#NT(


9nce a need has !een esta!lished" its re5uire)ents )ust !e care.ully s*elled out% Cery o.ten the s*eci.ications are stated in such general ter)s as to indicate that the consu)er has only a +ague idea o. what he wants% 0n these re5uire)ents design and *er.or)ance re5uire)ents are care.ully stated% Also" the s*eci.ications are *re*ared kee*ing in )ind the *roduction co)*etence and ca*a!ility o. the co)*any%

#A(!9!"!TY (TUDY
9nce the *ro!le)8s need has !een esta!lished and the s*eci.ications ha+e !een *re*ared" acce*ted and su!)itted" the .easi!ility study is done% The *ur*ose o. this study is to check the *ossi!ility o. success or .ailure o. the *ur*osed *ro1ect !oth .ro) technical and econo)ic stand*oint% 0n this study" +arious 5uestions are to !e answered% 1% 0s any natural law !eing de.iedE 2% Are so)e o. the s*eci.ications !eyond what is technically a+aila!le at *resentE 3% 0s there any de*endence on source )aterialsE D% -ill the cost o. the end *roduct !e too highE The *ersons doing the .easi!ility study will !e the engineers with strong design !ackground" knowledge o. engineering science" a good knowledge o.
Daksh Education Cad Technology

)aterial usage" knowledge o. *roduction )ethods and re5uire)ents o. the sales de*art)ent%

CR#AT!:# D#(!0N (YNT1#(!(


9nce the .easi!ility o. the design is esta!lished" the creati+e design synthesis has to !e done% Here" the designer can act as engineer" in+entor" artist all in one" !ecause now he is called u*on to create% The 5uantities o. the new design will !e6 1% The 5uality o. newness or uni5ueness% 2% Things" which are either use.ul or a**reciated" are called creati+e% Creati+e things are so)eti)es either *ur*ose.ul or !eauti.ul or !oth% 3% The third 5uality in the design solution will !e that it will ha+e si)*licity% A solution ha+ing the 5ualities o. newness and use.ul or a**reciated !ut co)*le3 would not !e known as a creati+e solution%

PR#"!M!NARY D#(!0N AND D#:#"OPM#NT


A.ter the *rocess o. creati+ity design is co)*lete" there will !e one or )ore *ossi!le designs that satis.y the gi+en set o. s*eci.ications and re5uire)ents% 0t then !eco)es necessary to decide which o. the solutions to choose .or the *reli)inary design and de+elo*)ent stage% ;ote" this stage is *ri)arily concerned with checking the +alidity o. the .unctional and o+erall si4e re5uire)ents o. the s*eci.ications% The stages o. the *reli)inary design can !e su))ari4ed as !elow6 1% election o. the )ost use.ul solution .ro) the se+eral suggested solutions% 2% (or)ulation o. use.ul )odel *re.era!ly )athe)atical .or this selected solution% 3% Analysis o. this )odel% D% /rediction o. *er.or)ance% F% /re*aring layout o. the selected solution" )aking a check .or its .unction%

D#TA!"#D D#(!0N
$any designers o.ten )iss )any o. the acti+ities o. the detailed design *hase o. the design *rocess" *articularly .or s)aller 1o!s" !ecause so )uch o. the detailing in the sense o. co)*onent design is already done in the *reli)inary design *hase% This *hase o. the design work consists o. two )a1or acti+ities6
Daksh Education Cad Technology

>1? >2?

Detailing the *arts" co)*onent and their asse)!ly% :oing into su..icient details o. )anu.acture in i)*le)enting the design%

The second *hase as indicated earlier re5uires a good knowledge o. )anu.acturing *rocess% The )ethod o. )anu.acturing should !e such that the .ollowing are a+oided% >1? Hea+y weight o. )aterial >2? &ecla)*ing o. work >3? *ecial *ur*ose tools >D? (inishing o*erations

PROTOTYP# 9U!"D!N0 AND T#(T!N0


A.ter co)*leting all the details" the su!2asse)!lies and asse)!ly drawings including the )aterials and *arts list" the co)*leted design is sent to the *rototy*e or )odel sho* .or .a!rication% At this 1uncture the *arts are .a!ricated" co))ercial co)*onents are *urchased" and the )achine or syste)" a.ter ha+ing !een asse)!led" is ready .or e+olution and testing% This testing can hel* in6 1% /roducing acce*ta!le *er.or)ance 2% To generate new design in.or)ation 3% To de+elo* i)*ro+ed design conce*ts D% To increase +alidity o. the results%

D#(!0N OR PRODUCT!ON
0n addition to !eing .unctionally sound" a *roduct )ust ha+e sales a**eal and )ust !e co)*etiti+e in *rice% 0n order .or a *roduct to !e )ade econo)ically" it )ust !e designed so that the )ost a**ro*riate )aterial and *rocesses will !e utili4ed% This is called @ design .or *roductionA% (or large scale )anu.acturing" any o. these *rocesses )ay !e )ore econo)ical than indi+idual *art )achining%

PRODUCT R#"#A(#
/roduction *rototy*e are usually )ade and tested" and any draw!ack that can !e easily corrected is generally re.erred !ack to *reli)inary design and de+elo*)ent or to detailed design .or alteration%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

AD:ANTA0#( O CAD
CAD can )ake a dra.t )en )uch )ore e..icient% De*ending u*on the dra.ting task" two to ten ti)es *roducti+ity i)*ro+e)ent is not unco))on when using a CAD syste) %The .ollowing are the ad+antages o. using CAD o+er )anual dra.ting6 2

R#:!(!ON(3 4
9ne o. the )ost ti)e2consu)ing tasks that a dra.t )an *er.or)s is )aking changes to e3isting drawings% -ith a CAD syste)" re+isions are )uch .aster than )anual )ethods% A.ter a drawing has !een co)*leted" it is stored and can !e recalled at any ti)e to )ake changes easily%

&E/0T0T09;6 2
i)*le sy)!ols or )ore co)*le3 ones " are created !y drawing the) with the CAD syste) and storing the) away to !e used at any ti)e% 9nce a drawing has !een *roduced and stored in the co)*uter8s )e)ory" it does not ha+e to !e drawn again i. it is *art o. another drawing% /arts o. *re+ious drawings can !e co)!ined to *roduce new drawings%

ACCURACY3 4
Di)ensions are keyed2in using the co)*uter key!oard or )enu instead o. reading a scale% $ating *arts can !e checked .or .it !y ha+ing the co)*uter )atch the *arts on the screen !e.ore hard co*ies are *roduced%

(P##D3 4
0n al)ost all areas o. dra.ting" CAD is .aster than )anual drawing% This is es*ecially true as the o*erator !eco)es )ore *ro.icient through continued use o. the syste)

N#ATN#((3 4
A.ter the drawing has !een *roduced on screen" it can !e drawn on *a*er with a *lotter% The )echanical *lotting o. a drawing *roduces clean" accurate and neat drawings using *ro*er line weight and consistency" and shar*" consistent lettering%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

CO(T3 4
0n the *ast" CAD syste)s were an e3*ensi+e alternati+e to )anual dra.ting" and only )a1or industrial cor*orations could a..ord the)% ;ow" !ecause o. reduced cost o. )e)ory" increased co)*etition" and i)*ro+ed so.tware and co)*uter technology CAD syste)s are a..orda!le to )ost dra.ting2design o..ices%

D!

#R#NT TYP#( O CAD2CAM (O T-AR#


1% 0;TE:&ATED CAD,CA$ = TE$ 2 /ro,engineer" 02DEA CAT0A" <;0:&A/H0C are integrated CAD,CA$ syste)% -e can do design, analysis, generation o. tool *ath in sa)e en+iron)ent%

2% /oint, tandalone solution2 o.twares" which gi+e only one solution out o. DE 0:;" $A;<(ACT<&0;: & A;A'= 0 are called *oint solution so.tware% 'ike A<T92 CAD gi+es only dra.ting solution" )aster ca) gi+es )anu.acturing solution& A; = " ;A T&A;" ADA$ " A7AB< gi+es only analysis solution%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

-hy industries switcs towards 32d technology

7ecause 32d )odel is centreled to all the acti+ities *ertaining to analysis")anu.acturing"*roduct conce*t& custo)er re5uire)ents%

Daksh Education Cad Technology


A7 9'<TE & &E'AT0CE C99&D0;ATE = TE$
To enter an a!solute G" = coordinate" s*eci.y a *oint !y entering its G and = +alues in the .or)at G"=% <se a!solute G"= coordinates when you know the *recise G and = +alues o. the location o. the *oint% (or e3a)*le" to draw a line !eginning at an G +alue o. H2 and a = +alue o. 1" )ake the .ollowing entries on the co))and line6 Co))and6 line (ro) *oint6 H2"1 To *oint6 3"D AutoCAD locates the line as .ollows6

<se relati+e G" = coordinates when you know the *osition o. a *oint in relation to the *re+ious *oint% (or e3a)*le" to locate a *oint relati+e to H2"1" *recede the ne3t coordinate with the I sy)!ol6 Co))and6 line (ro) *oint6 H2"1 To *oint6 IF"3 This is the e5ui+alent o. entering the a!solute coordinate 3"D%

CART#(!AN COORD!NAT# (Y(T#M


A Cartesian coordinate syste) has three a3es6 G" =" and J% -hen you enter coordinate +alues" you indicate a *ointKs distance >in units? and its direction >L or H? along the G" =" and J a3es relati+e to the coordinate syste) origin >0"0"0? or relati+e to the *re+ious *oint% <sually" when you !egin a new drawing in AutoCADM" you are auto)atically in the world coordinate syste) >-C ?N the G2a3is is hori4ontal" the =2a3is is +ertical" and the J2a3is is *er*endicular to the G= *lane%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

PO"AR COORD!NAT# (Y(T#M(


/olar coordinate syste)s use a distance and an angle to locate a *oint% -hen you enter *olar coordinate +alues" you indicate a *ointKs distance .ro) the origin or .ro) the *re+ious *oint and its angle along the G= *lane o. the current coordinate syste)%

To enter a *olar coordinate" enter a distance and an angle" se*arated !y an angle !racket >O?% (or e3a)*le" to s*eci.y a *oint at a distance o. 1 unit .ro) the *re+ious *oint and at an angle o. DF degrees" enter I1ODF% 7y de.ault" angles increase in the counterclockwise and decrease in the clockwise direction% To )o+e clockwise" enter a negati+e +alue .or the angle% (or e3a)*le" entering 1OHDF is the sa)e as entering 1O31F% =ou can change the angle direction and set the !ase angle on the <nits Control dialog !o3% ee P etting Drawing <nits%P The .ollowing e3a)*le shows a line drawn with *olar coordinates% Co))and6 line (ro) *oint6 0"0 To *oint6 DO120 To *oint6 FO30

To *oint6 I3ODF To *oint6 IFO2QF To *oint6 /ress E;TE& to e3it the co))and

Daksh Education Cad Technology

CR#AT!N0 O9;#CT( !N AUTOCAD


LINE A line can !e one seg)ent or a series o. connected seg)ents" !ut each seg)ent is a se*arate line o!1ect% <se lines i. you want to edit indi+idual seg)ents% 0. you need to draw a series o. line seg)ents as a single o!1ect" use a *olyline% =ou can close a se5uence o. lines so that the .irst and last seg)ents 1oin to .or) a closed loo*% To draw a line 1 2 3 D F (ro) the Draw )enu" choose 'ine% *eci.y the start *oint >1?% *eci.y the end*oint >2?% *eci.y the end*oints o. the ne3t seg)ents >3" D" F" 6?% /ress E;TE& to co)*lete the line%

PO"Y"!N#
A *olyline is a connected se5uence o. line or arc seg)ents created as a single o!1ect% <se *olylines i. you want to edit all seg)ents at once" although you can also edit the) singly% =ou can set the width o. indi+idual seg)ents" )ake seg)ents ta*er" and close the *olyline% -hen you draw arc seg)ents" the .irst *oint o. the arc is the end*oint o. the *re+ious seg)ent% =ou can s*eci.y the angle" center *oint" direction" or radius o. the arc% =ou can also co)*lete the arc !y s*eci.ying a second *oint and an end*oint%

/olylines with arc seg)ents 0n the ne3t e3a)*le" you draw a *olyline line seg)ent" continue with an arc seg)ent" and then draw another line seg)ent in a tangential direction% To draw a line and arc co)!ination *olyline Daksh Education Cad Technology

(irst draw the line seg)ent%

1
2 3 D F 6 R Q

(ro) the Draw )enu" choose /olyline%


*eci.y the start *oint o. the line seg)ent >1?% *eci.y the end*oint o. the line seg)ent >2?% Enter a to switch to Arc )ode% *eci.y the end*oint o. the arc >3?% Enter l to return to 'ine )ode% Enter the distance and angle o. the line in relation to the end*oint o. the arc% =ou can enter these relati+e +alues in the .or) IdistanceOangle% /ress E;TE& to end the *olyline%

A.ter youK+e created a *olyline" you can edit it with /ED0T or use EG/'9DE to con+ert it to indi+idual line and arc seg)ents% -hen you e3*lode a wide *olyline" the line width re+erts to 0 and the resulting line seg)ents are *ositioned along the center o. what was the wide *olyline% MULTILINE $ultilines consist o. !etween 1 and 16 *arallel lines" called ele)ents% =ou *osition the ele)ents !y s*eci.ying the desired o..set o. each ele)ent .ro) the origin o. the )ultiline% =ou can create and sa+e )ultiline styles or use the de.ault style" which has two ele)ents% =ou can set the color and linety*e o. each ele)ent and dis*lay or hide the 1oints o. the )ultiline% Soints are lines that a**ear at each +erte3% There are se+eral ty*es o. end ca*s you can gi+e the )ultiline" .or e3a)*le" lines or arcs%

E3a)*les o. )ultilines Creating Multiline (t$les To create a )ultiline style 1 (ro) the (or)at )enu" choose $ultiline tyle%

2 0n the $ultiline tyles dialog !o3" enter a na)e and descri*tion .or the style%
3 D Descri*tions are o*tional and can !e u* to 2FF characters" including s*aces% To create a )ultiline style" choose Add% To add ele)ents to the style or to )odi.y e3isting ele)ents" choose Ele)ent /ro*erties%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

F 6

R Q #

0n the Ele)ent /ro*erties dialog !o3" highlight the ele)ent in the list" and then )ake changes to 9..set" Color" and 'inety*e% To add an ele)ent" choose Add" and then )ake changes to 9..set" Color" and 'inety*e% Choose 9K% The o..set de.ines the 0"0 origin o. the )ultiline relati+e to which other ele)ents are drawn% An ele)ent does not ha+e to !e drawn at the origin% To set )ultiline *ro*erties" choose $ultiline /ro*erties in the $ultiline tyles dialog !o3% 0n the $ultiline /ro*erties dialog !o3" )ake any changes and choose 9K% /ro*erties include the dis*lay o. seg)ent 1oints and the ty*e o. start and end ca*s with their angles and .ill color% Choose a+e to sa+e the style to an e3ternal )ultiline style .ile >the de.ault is acad%)ln?% =ou can sa+e )ultiline styles to the sa)e .ile%

0. you create )ore than one )ultiline style" sa+e the current style !e.ore creating a new one or you lose the changes to the .irst style% =ou can add u* to 16 ele)ents to a )ultiline style% 0. you create or )odi.y an ele)ent so that it has a negati+e o..set" it a**ears !elow the origin in the i)age tile o. the $ultiline tyles dialog !o3% To s*eci.y the *ro*erties o. the entire )ultiline 1 2 3 D (ro) the (or)at )enu" choose $ultiline tyle% 0n the $ultiline tyles dialog !o3" choose $ultiline /ro*erties% 0n the $ultiline /ro*erties dialog !o3" select Dis*lay Soints to dis*lay a line at the +ertices o. the )ultiline% <nder Ca*s" select a line or an arc .or each end o. the )ultiline" and enter an angle%

'ines cross the end o. the whole )ultiline" and outer arcs 1oin the ends o. the outer)ost ele)ents% 0nner arcs connect *airs o. ele)ents" lea+ing the centerline unconnected i. there is an odd nu)!er o. ele)ents% (or e3a)*le" i. there are si3 ele)ents" inner arcs connect ele)ents 2 and F and ele)ents 3 and D% 0. there are se+en ele)ents" inner arcs connect ele)ents 2 and 6 and ele)ents 3 and FN ele)ent D is le.t unconnected%

F 6 R Q

<nder (ill" select 9n to dis*lay a !ackground color% This color is not dis*layed in the i)age tile o. the $ultiline tyles dialog !o3% Choose Color% 0n the elect Color dialog !o3" select the !ackground .ill color and choose 9K% 0n the $ultiline /ro*erties dialog !o3" choose 9K to return to the $ultiline tyles dialog !o3%

;e3t" sa+e the )ultiline style% Daksh Education Cad Technology

POLYGON
/olygons are closed *olylines with !etween 3 and 1"02D e5ual2length sides% =ou draw a *olygon !y inscri!ing it in" or circu)scri!ing it a!out" an i)aginary circle or !y s*eci.ying the end*oints o. one o. the edges o. the *olygon% 7ecause *olygons always ha+e e5ual2length sides" they *ro+ide a si)*le way to draw s5uares and e5uilateral triangles%

<se inscri!ed *olygons when you want to s*eci.y the distance !etween the center o. the *olygon and each +erte3% This distance is the radius o. the circle within which the *olygon is inscri!ed% 0n this e3a)*le" you draw an inscri!ed s5uare" the de.ault *olygon% <se circu)scri!ed *olygons when you want to s*eci.y the distance !etween the center o. the *olygon and the )id*oint o. each side% This distance is the radius o. the circle the *olygon circu)scri!es%

SKETCH
=ou can use the KETCH co))and to draw .reehand sketches% (reehand sketches co)*rise )any line seg)ents% Each line seg)ent can !e a se*arate o!1ect or a *olyline% =ou set the )ini)u) length or incre)ent o. the seg)ents% ketching is use.ul .or creating irregular !oundaries or .or tracing with a digiti4er% )all line seg)ents allow .or greater accuracy" !ut they can greatly increase the drawing .ile si4e% (or this reason" use this tool s*aringly%

RECTANGLE
Draws a rectangular *olyline% Co))and line6 rectang or rectangle *eci.y .irst corner *oint or TCha).er,Ele+ation,(illet,Thickness,-idthU6 Enter an o*tion or s*eci.y a *oint >1? irst Corner *eci.y other corner *oint6 *eci.y a *oint >2?

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The two s*eci.ied *oints deter)ine the diagonal corners o. a rectangle with sides *arallel to the G and =2a3is o. the current <C %

Cham%er
ets the cha).er distances .or the rectangle% The +alues !eco)e the current cha).er distances .or su!se5uent &ECTA;: co))ands%

#levation
*eci.ies the ele+ation o. the rectangle% The +alue !eco)es the current ele+ation .or su!se5uent &ECTA;: co))ands%

illet
*eci.ies the .illet radius o. the rectangle% The +alue !eco)es the current .illet radius .or su!se5uent &ECTA;: co))ands%

Thic,ness
*eci.ies the thickness o. the rectangle% The +alue !eco)es the current thickness .or su!se5uent &ECTA;: co))ands%

-idth
*eci.ies the *olyline width o. the rectangle to !e drawn% The +alue !eco)es the current *olyline width .or su!se5uent &ECTA;: co))ands%

CIRCLE
=ou can create circles in se+eral ways% The de.ault )ethod is to s*eci.y the center and radius% =ou can also s*eci.y the center and dia)eter or de.ine the dia)eter alone with two *oints% =ou can de.ine the circleKs circu).erence with three *oints% =ou can also create the circle tangent to three e3isting o!1ects or create it tangent to two o!1ects and s*eci.y a radius% 0n the .ollowing illustrations" the darker circles are the ones !eing drawn%

(our )ethods o. drawing circles To draw a circle !y s*eci.ying a center *oint and radius Daksh Education Cad Technology

1 2 3

(ro) the Draw )enu" choose Circle Center" &adius% *eci.y the center *oint% *eci.y the radius%

To create a circle that is tangent to two o!1ects" s*eci.y a tangent *oint on each o. the o!1ects and the radius o. the circle% The tangent *oint can !e any *oint on the o!1ect% 0n the .ollowing illustrations" the darker circle is the one !eing drawn" and the tangent *oints are *oints >1? and >2?%

Circles created tangent to two o!1ects To create a circle tangent to e3isting o!1ects 1 2 3 D (ro) the Draw )enu" choose Circle Tan" Tan" &adius% =ou are now in Tangent sna* )ode% elect the .irst o!1ect to draw the circle tangent to% elect the second o!1ect to draw the circle tangent to% *eci.y the radius o. the circle%

To create a circle tangent at two or three *oints" set 9 ;A/ to Tangent and use the two2 *oint or three2*oint )ethod to create the circle >see P na**ing to /oints on 9!1ectsP?%

ARC
=ou can create arcs in )any ways% The de.ault )ethod is to s*eci.y three *ointsVa start *oint" a second *oint on the arc" and an end*oint% =ou can also s*eci.y the included angle" radius" direction" and chord length o. arcs% The chord o. an arc is a straight line !etween the end*oints% 7y de.ault" AutoCAD draws arcs counterclockwise% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" the start *oint o. the arc sna*s to the end*oint o. a line% The second *oint o. the arc sna*s to the )iddle circle%

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To draw an arc !y s*eci.ying three *oints 1 2 3 D (ro) the Draw )enu" choose Arc tart" Center" End% *eci.y the start *oint >1? !y entering end* and selecting the line% The arc sna*s to the end*oint o. the line% *eci.y the second *oint >2? !y entering cen and selecting the e3isting arc to de.ine the center o. the arc% *eci.y the end*oint o. the arc >3?%

0n the .ollowing illustrations" the center o. an e3isting circle is used as the center o. the arc% 9nce you s*eci.y the center and start *oints o. the arc" you co)*lete the arc !y s*eci.ying the chord length% The distances shown in these illustrations .ro) one end*oint to the cursor are chord lengths%

To draw an arc using a start *oint" a center *oint" and a chord length 1 2 3 D (ro) the Draw )enu" choose Arc tart" Center" 'ength% *eci.y a start *oint >1?% *eci.y the center *oint >2?% *eci.y the chord length%

<se the tart" Center" Angle or Center" tart" Angle )ethod when you ha+e a start *oint and a center *oint you can sna* to% The angle deter)ines the end*oint o. the arc%

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<se the tart" End" Angle )ethod when you ha+e !oth end*oints !ut no center *oint to sna* to%

The .ollowing illustration on the le.t shows an arc drawn !y s*eci.ying a start *oint" end*oint" and radius% =ou can s*eci.y the radius !y entering a length or !y )o+ing the cursor away .ro) the end*oint to s*eci.y a distance%

The illustration on the right shows an arc drawn with the *ointing de+ice !y s*eci.ying a start *oint and end*oint and a direction o. the tangent% $o+ing the cursor u* .ro) the start *oint and end*oint draws the arc conca+e to the o!1ect" as shown here% $o+ing the cursor down would draw the arc con+e3 to the o!1ect% =ou can start a line at the end*oint o. the last drawn arc !y starting '0;E and *ressing E;TE& at the tart /oint *ro)*t% The arcKs end*oint de.ines the start *oint and the tangential direction o. the new line% =ou need to s*eci.y the length%

SPLINE
A s*line is a s)ooth cur+e *assing through a gi+en set o. *oints% AutoCAD uses a *articular ty*e o. s*line known as a nonuni.or) rational 72s*line >;<&7 ? cur+e% A ;<&7 cur+e *roduces a s)ooth cur+e !etween control *oints% *lines are use.ul .or creating irregular2sha*ed cur+es" .or e3a)*le" drawing contour lines .or geogra*hic in.or)ation syste) >:0 ? a**lications or auto)o!ile design%

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ELLIPSE
=ou can create .ull elli*ses and elli*tical arcs" !oth o. which are e3act )athe)atical re*resentations o. elli*ses% The de.ault )ethod o. drawing an elli*se is to s*eci.y the end*oints o. the .irst a3is and the distance" which is hal. the length o. the second a3is% The longer a3is o. an elli*se is called the )a1or a3is" and the shorter one is the )inor a3is% The order in which you de.ine the a3es does not )atter%

0n the .ollowing *rocedure" you draw an elli*se using the de.ault )ethod and the *ointing de+ice% Here" the .irst a3is is the )a1or a3is" and the second is the )inor% The distance increases as you drag the *ointing de+ice away .ro) the )id*oint% To draw a true elli*se using end*oints and distance 1 (ro) the Draw )enu" choose Elli*se A3is" End% 2 *eci.y the .irst end*oint o. the .irst a3is >1?% 3 *eci.y the second end*oint o. the .irst a3is >2?% D Drag the *ointing de+ice away .ro) the )id*oint >3? o. the .irst a3is and click to s*eci.y the distance%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

=ou can *ro+ide a rotation angle instead o. a distance or draw the elli*se !ased on a center *oint" an end*oint o. one a3is" and hal. the length o. the other a3is%

Elli*ses created !y s*eci.ying a3is end*oints and distance 0n the illustrations a!o+e" *oints 1 and 2 are the end*oints o. the .irst a3is" and *oint 3 de.ines the distance >hal. the length? o. the second a3is% The elli*se at the le.t is drawn !y s*eci.ying the center >1? and two a3es% The end*oint o. the .irst a3is is at *oint 2" and *oint 3 de.ines hal. the length o. the second a3is%

DONUT
Drawing donuts is a 5uick way to create .illed rings or solid2.illed circles% Donuts are actually closed *olylines that ha+e width% To create a donut" s*eci.y its inside and outside dia)eters and its center% =ou can continue creating )ulti*le co*ies with the sa)e dia)eter !y s*eci.ying di..erent centers until you *ress E;TE& to end the co))and% To create solid2.illed circles" s*eci.y an inside dia)eter o. 0%

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POINT
/oint o!1ects can !e use.ul" .or e3a)*le" as node or re.erence *oints that you can sna* to and o..set o!1ects .ro)% =ou can set the style o. the *oint and its si4e relati+e to the screen or in a!solute units%

HATCHING AREAS
Hatching .ills a s*eci.ied area in a drawing with a *attern% =ou can hatch an enclosed area or a s*eci.ied !oundary using the 7HATCH and HATCH co))ands% 7HATCH creates associati+e or nonassociati+e hatches% Associati+e hatches are linked to their !oundaries and are u*dated when the !oundaries are )odi.ied% ;onassociati+e hatches are inde*endent o. their !oundaries% 7HATCH de.ines !oundaries auto)atically when you s*eci.y a *oint within the area to !e hatched% Any whole or *artial o!1ects that are not *art o. the !oundary are ignored and do not a..ect the hatch% The !oundary can ha+e o+erhanging edges and islands >enclosed areas within the hatch area? that you choose to hatch or lea+e unhatched% =ou can also de.ine a !oundary !y selecting o!1ects% HATCH creates nonassociati+e hatches only% 0t is use.ul .or hatching areas that do not ha+e closed !oundaries% A.ter youK+e created a hatch" you can edit it with HATCHED0T or e3*lode it into co)*osite lines using the EG/'9DE co))and%

=ou can de.ine a hatch !oundary !y s*eci.ying *oints directly% (or e3a)*le" you )ay want to illustrate a *attern .ill in a s)all section o. a drawing" as shown in the .ollowing illustration% Daksh Education Cad Technology

0sland detection )ethods s*eci.y whether to include o!1ects within the outer)ost !oundary as !oundary o!1ects when you are using /ick /oints% These internal o!1ects are known as islands% 7y de.ault" AutoCAD uses the (lood island detection )ethod% The (lood )ethod includes islands as !oundary o!1ects" as shown in the .ollowing illustration% How AutoCAD hatches the detected islands de*ends on the island detection style% The .ollowing illustration uses the ;or)al island detection style" )eaning that islands re)ain unhatched and islands within islands are hatched%

-hen you use /ick /oints to de.ine your !oundaries" you can re)o+e any detected islands .ro) your !oundary de.inition%

=ou can control how AutoCAD hatches islands detected as !oundaries using the three island detection styles6 ;or)al" 9uter" and 0gnore%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

SNAPING TO POINTS ON OBJECTS


During drawing co))ands" you can sna* the cursor to *oints on o!1ects such as end*oints" )id*oints" centers" and intersections% (or e3a)*le" you can turn on o!1ect sna*s and 5uickly draw a line to the center o. a circle" the )id*oint o. a *olyline seg)ent" or the a**arent intersection o. two lines% =ou turn on o!1ect sna*s in one o. two ways6 ingle *oint >or o+erride? o!1ect sna*s6 ets an o!1ect sna* .or one use% &unning o!1ect sna*s6 ets o!1ect sna*s until you turn the) o..% To sna* to a *oint on an o!1ect 1 tart a co))and re5uiring you to s*eci.y a *oint >.or e3a)*le" A&C" C0&C'E" C9/=" '0;E or $9CE?% 2 -hen the co))and *ro)*ts you to s*eci.y a *oint" choose an o!1ect sna* using one o. the .ollowing )ethods6 Click a tool!ar !utton on the tandard tool!ar 9!1ect na* .lyout or on the 9!1ect na* tool!ar% /ress H0(T and right2click in the drawing area" and choose an o!1ect sna* .ro) the shortcut )enu% Enter an o!1ect sna* a!!re+iation on the co))and line% 3 $o+e your cursor o+er the sna* location and click% A.ter you click to the sna* *oint" the o!1ect sna* clears% 0. you select any *oint other than the o!1ect sna* *oint" AutoCAD dis*lays an in+alid *oint )essage% 0n addition to single2*oint o!1ect sna*s" you can turn on running o!1ect sna*s% &unning o!1ect sna*s stay on until you turn the) o..% =ou can also turn on )ore than one running o!1ect sna* at a ti)e%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

TEXT
<sing TEGT you can create one or )ore lines o. te3t and end each line when you *ress E;TE&% Each te3t line is a se*arate o!1ect that you can relocate" re.or)at" or otherwise )odi.y%

MULTILINE TEXT
(or long" co)*le3 entries" create )ultiline te3t using $TEGT% $ultiline te3t .its a s*eci.ied width !ut can e3tend +ertically to an inde.inite length% =ou can .or)at indi+idual words or characters within a )ultiline te3t o!1ect% $ultiline te3t consists o. any nu)!er o. te3t lines or *aragra*hs that .it within a width you s*eci.y% <nlike single2line te3t" )ultiline te3t includes as *art o. the sa)e )te3t o!1ect all te3t lines or *aragra*hs created in a )ultiline te3t editing session% =ou can )o+e" rotate" erase" co*y" )irror" stretch" or scale )te3t o!1ects% $ultiline te3t has )ore editing o*tions than single2line te3t% <sing the $ultiline Te3t Editor" you can a**ly underlining" .onts" color" and te3t height changes to indi+idual characters" words" or *hrases within a *aragra*h% =ou can also use the /ro*erties window to change all *ro*erties o. )ultiline te3t o!1ects% Daksh Education Cad Technology

WORKING WITH BLOCKS


A !lock is a collection o. o!1ects you can associate together to .or) a single o!1ect" or !lock de.inition% =ou can insert" scale" and rotate a !lock in a drawing% =ou can e3*lode a !lock into its co)*onent o!1ects" )odi.y the)" and rede.ine the !lock% AutoCAD u*dates all current and .uture instances o. that !lock !ased on the !lock de.inition% 7locks strea)line the drawing *rocess% (or e3a)*le" you can use !locks to o 7uild a standard li!rary o. .re5uently used sy)!ols" co)*onents" or standard *arts% =ou can insert the sa)e !lock nu)erous ti)es instead o. re2creating the drawing ele)ents each ti)e% o &e+ise drawings e..iciently !y inserting" relocating" and co*ying !locks as co)*onents rather than indi+idual geo)etric o!1ects% o a+e disk s*ace !y storing all re.erences to the sa)e !lock as one !lock de.inition in the drawing data!ase% -hen you insert a !lock in your drawing" you are creating a !lock instance% Each ti)e you insert a !lock instanceN you assign a scale .actor and rotation angle to the inserted !lock% =ou can also scale a !lock instance using di..erent +alues in any coordinate >G" =" J? direction%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

EDITING METHODS EDITING WITH GRIPS


0. gri*s are turned on" when you select o!1ects with the *ointing de+ice !e.ore starting a co))and" AutoCAD )arks the selected o!1ects with gri*s% >;oun,Cer! election )ust !e turned on in order to select o!1ects .irst%

-ith gri*s you can use the *ointing de+ice to co)!ine se+eral o. the )ost co))on editing co))ands with o!1ect selection to edit )ore 5uickly% -hen gri*s are turned on" you select the o!1ects you want !e.ore editing% =ou can then )ani*ulate the o!1ects%

USING THE OBJECT PROPERTIES TOOLBAR

AutoCAD *ro+ides two )ain tools that you can use to easily edit o!1ect *ro*erties such as layers" colors" linety*es" and line weights% O*+ect Properties tool*ar3 /ro+ides o*tions .or +iewing or changing the o!1ect *ro*erties that are co))on to all o!1ects" including layers and layer *ro*erties" colors" linety*es" line weights" and *lot style% Properties )indo)3 /ro+ides a co)*lete list o. *ro*erties .or any o!1ect% =ou can +iew an o!1ectKs *ro*erties and )odi.y the ones that can !e changed% =ou can use the controls on the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar to 5uickly +iew or change an o!1ectKs layer" layer *ro*erties" color" linety*e" line weight" and *lot style% The 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar consolidates the co))ands needed to +iew and edit these o!1ect *ro*erties% electing an o!1ect when no co))and is acti+e dyna)ically dis*lays these *ro*erties in the controls on the tool!ar% =ou cannot change the *ro*erties o. o!1ects on locked layers% Daksh Education Cad Technology

All controls on the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar su**ort character )atching6 instead o. scrolling through the lists to )ake a selection" you can enter the .irst character o. the *ro*erty na)e to select it% 0. the na)e is too long to !e dis*layed within the control" it is shortened with an elli*sis the control and dis*laying the te3t ti*% 7ecause !locks are distinct o!1ects" it is i)*ortant to understand that" although each o!1ect that co)*oses the !lock )aintains its own o!1ect *ro*erties" the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar re.lects only the o!1ect *ro*erties .or the !lock" not its indi+idual *arts% This is likewise true .or 3re.s" !ecause 3re.s are si)*ly e3ternal !locks% The layer" color" linety*e" and line weight +alues .or a !lock are the layer" color" linety*e" and line weight +alues that were current at the ti)e you inserted the !lock" unless you )anually assigned other +alues to the !lock a.ter insertion% (or an indi+idual o!1ect contained within a !lock" the layer on which AutoCAD draws the o!1ect is always the layer on which the o!1ect e3isted at the ti)e you created the !lock% The color" linety*e" and lineweight in which AutoCAD draws the indi+idual o!1ects are descri!ed in the .ollowing ta!le%

USING THE PROPERTIES WINDOW


-hen you enter /&9/E&T0E " AutoCAD dis*lays the /ro*erties window% -hile the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar *ro+ides con+enient access to the *ro*erties that are co))on to all o!1ects" the /ro*erties window is the )ain )ethod you use to )odi.y the co)*lete set o. o!1ect2s*eci.ic *ro*erties" including *ro*erties that you ha+e de.ined% The /ro*erties window lists the current settings .or all o!1ect *ro*erties when a single o!1ect or )ulti*le sets o. o!1ects are selected% (ro) the /ro*erties window" you can )odi.y any *ro*erty that can !e changed% To )odi.y *ro*erties using the /ro*erties window select the o!1ect whose *ro*erties you want to change and use one o. the .ollowing )ethods6 Enter a new +alue% elect a +alue .ro) a list% Change the *ro*erty +alue in a dialog !o3% <se the /ick /oint !utton to change a coordinate +alue% =ou can lea+e the /ro*erties window o*en while you work% -hen you select an o!1ect" the /ro*erties window dis*lays the *ro*erties o. that o!1ect% -hen )ulti*le o!1ects are selected" the /ro*erties window dis*lays the general *ro*erties and any other *ro*erties that are co))on a)ong o!1ects in the selection set% The general *ro*erties are as .ollows6 Color3 "a$er3 "inet$pe3 "inet$pe scale3 Daksh Education Cad Technology Dis*lays or sets the color% Dis*lays or sets the layer% Dis*lays or sets the linety*e% Dis*lays or sets the linety*e scale%

Plot st$le3 "ine)eight3 1$perlin,3 Thic,ness3

Dis*lays or sets the *lot style% Dis*lays or sets the lineweight% Dis*lays or sets the hy*erlink% Dis*lays or sets the thickness%

EDITING LAYERS
-ith the layer !uttons and the layer control" you can +iew a selected o!1ectKs layer" change an o!1ectKs layer" )ake a layer current" change a layerKs *ro*erties" and access the 'ayer /ro*erties $anager% The layer na)e and *ro*erties dis*layed in the 'ayer control de*end on the current selection set6 =ou can use the 'ayer control to trans.er o!1ects to locked" .ro4en" or turned2 o.. layers" !ut you cannot trans.er an o!1ect to an 3re.2de*endent layer >any layer that is de.ined within an inserted 3re.?% Gre.2de*endent layers are dis*layed as una+aila!le in the list !ecause you cannot )ake the) current and you cannot edit o!1ects on those layers% =ou can" howe+er" still )odi.y the *ro*erties o. 3re.2de*endent layers !y clicking icons in the 'ayer control% 0n the 'ayer /ro*erties $anager" i. you turn on a .ilter and a**ly it to the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar" the 'ayer control does not list layers that )atch the .ilter% 0n this case" when you *osition your *ointer o+er the 'ayer control" the tool ti* indicates either P(ilter a**liedP or P0n+erted .ilter a**lied"P rather than the .ull layer na)e% To change an o!1ectKs layer 1 2 elect the o!1ects whose layers you want to change% 9n the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar" choose the 'ayer control%

7ecause you cannot trans.er o!1ects to 3re.2de*endent layers" their na)es are dis*layed as una+aila!le in the 'ayer control% Choose a layer% AutoCAD a**lies the chosen layer to all selected o!1ects%

Daksh Education Cad Technology

MATCHING PROPERTIES OF OTHER OBJECTS


=ou can co*y so)e or all *ro*erties o. one o!1ect to one or )ore o!1ects using $ATCH/&9/% /ro*erties that can !e co*ied include color" layer" linety*e" linety*e scale" lineweight" thickness" *lot style" and in so)e cases" di)ension" te3t" and hatch%

COPYING THE OBJECTS


To co*y o!1ects within a drawing" create a selection set and s*eci.y a start *oint and an end*oint .or the co*y% These *oints are called the !ase *oint and the second *oint o. dis*lace)ent" res*ecti+ely" and can !e anywhere within the drawing% Co))and6 Co*y

OFFSETTING THE OBJECTS


9..setting creates a new o!1ect that is si)ilar to a selected o!1ect !ut at a s*eci.ied distance% =ou can o..set lines" arcs" circles" 2D *olylines" elli*ses" elli*tical arcs" 3lines" rays" and *lanar s*lines% 9..setting circles creates larger or s)aller circles de*ending on the o..set side% 9..setting outside the *eri)eter creates a larger circle% 9..setting inside creates a s)aller one% Co))and6 9..set

MIRRORING THE OBJECTS


=ou )irror o!1ects around a )irror line" which you de.ine with two *oints" as shown in the .ollowing illustration% =ou can delete or retain the original o!1ects% $irroring works in any *lane *arallel to the G= *lane o. the current <C % Although you can )irror a +iew*ort o!1ect in *a*er s*ace" doing so has no e..ect on its )odel s*ace +iew or )odel s*ace o!1ects% Co))and6 $irror

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ARRYING OBJECTS
=ou can co*y an o!1ect or selection set in *olar or rectangular arrays >*atterns?% (or *olar arrays" you control the nu)!er o. co*ies o. the o!1ect and whether the co*ies are rotated% (or rectangular arrays" you control the nu)!er o. rows and colu)ns and the distance !etween the)% Co))and6 Array

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MOVING THE OBJECTS


-hen you )o+e o!1ects" you can rotate or align the) or )o+e the) without changing 9rientation or si4e% <se sna* )ode" coordinates" gri*s" and o!1ect sna* )odes to )o+e o!1ects with *recision% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you )o+e the window% Co))and6 $o+e

ROTATING OBJECTS
=ou rotate o!1ects !y choosing a !ase *oint and a relati+e or a!solute rotation angle% *eci.y a relati+e angle to rotate the o!1ect .ro) its current orientation around the !ase *oint !y that angle% -hether the o!1ects are rotated counterclockwise or clockwise de*ends on the Direction Control setting in the <nits Control dialog !o3% *eci.y a!solute angles to rotate o!1ects .ro) the current angle to a new a!solute angle%

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0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you rotate the *lan +iew o. a house" using the de.ault relati+e angle )ethod%

o)eti)es itKs easier to rotate with a!solute angles% (or e3a)*le" to align two o!1ects when you know the a!solute angles o. !oth" use the current angle o. the o!1ect to !e rotated as the re.erence angle" and use the angle o. the other o!1ect as the new angle% An easier way is to use the *ointing de+ice to select the o!1ect that you want to rotate and the o!1ect you want to align it with%

ALIGNING THE OBJECTS


=ou can )o+e" rotate" or tilt an o!1ect so it aligns with another o!1ect% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" align the *ieces o. *i*ing using a window selection !o3 to select the o!1ect to !e aligned% <se the End*oint o!1ect sna* to align the *ieces *recisely% Co))and6 Align

Aligning the 9!1ects

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ERASING THE OBJECTS


=ou can erase o!1ects using all the a+aila!le selection )ethods% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you use window selection to erase a section o. *i*ing% 9nly o!1ects enclosed !y the window are erased%

Co))and6 Erase

STRETCHING THE OBJECTS


To stretch an o!1ect" you s*eci.y a !ase *oint .or the stretch and then two *oints o. dis*lace)ent% =ou can also select the o!1ect with a crossing selection and co)!ine gri* editing with o!1ect sna*s" gri* sna*s" grid sna*s" and relati+e coordinate entry to stretch with greater accuracy%

Co))and6 tretch Moving *$ (tretching3 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you )o+e a door .ro) one *art o. a wall to another !y stretching% Turning on 9rtho )ode hel*s you )o+e the o!1ect in a straight line%

STRETCHING BY GRIPS
=ou stretch an o!1ect !y )o+ing selected gri*s to new locations% o)e gri*s )o+e the o!1ect rather than stretching it% This is true o. gri*s on te3t o!1ects" !locks" )id*oints o. lines" centers o. circles" centers o. elli*ses" and *oint o!1ects%

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SCALING THE OBJECTS


=ou scale selection sets using the sa)e scaling .actor in the G and = directions% caling !y a scale .actor changes all di)ensions o. the selected o!1ect% A scale .actor greater than 1 enlarges the o!1ect% A scale .actor less than 1 shrinks the o!1ect% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you decrease the si4e o. the !lock !y hal." scaling it !y a .actor o. 0%F%

-hen you scale !y re.erence" you use the si4e o. an e3isting o!1ect as a re.erence .or the new si4e% To scale !y re.erence" s*eci.y the current scale and then the new scale length% (or e3a)*le" i. one side o. an o!1ect is D%Q units long and you want to e3*and it to R%F units" use D%Q as the re.erence length and R%F as the new length% =ou can also s*eci.y the re.erence length !y selecting a !ase *oint and two re.erence *oints and dragging to s*eci.y the new scale% A 5uick way to change the length o. o*en o!1ects such as lines" arcs" *olylines" elli*tical arcs" and s*lines is to lengthen the)% =ou can use the &e.erence o*tion to scale an entire drawing% (or e3a)*le" use this o*tion when the original drawing units are ina**ro*riate% elect all o!1ects in the drawing% Then use &e.erence to select two *oints and s*eci.y the intended distance% All the o!1ects in the drawing are scaled accordingly%

Co))and6 cale

EXTENDING OBJECTS
=ou can e3tend o!1ects so they end *recisely at a !oundary de.ined !y other o!1ects% =ou can also e3tend o!1ects to where they would intersect a !oundary% This is called e3tending to an i)*lied !oundary% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you e3tend the lines *recisely to a circle" which is the !oundary%

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Co))and6 E3tend 0n this e3a)*le" you e3tend the three hori4ontal lines to an i)*lied !oundary" which is where they would intersect the single line i. it were e3tended%

CHANGING THE LENGTHS OF OBJECTS


=ou can change the angle o. arcs" and you can change the length o. o*en lines" arcs" o*en *olylines" elli*tical arcs" and o*en s*lines% The results are si)ilar to !oth e3tending and tri))ing% =ou can alter the length in se+eral ways6 Dragging an o!1ectKs end*oint >dyna)ically? *eci.ying a new length as a *ercentage o. the total length or angle *eci.ying an incre)ental length or angle )easured .ro) an o!1ectKs end*oint *eci.ying the o!1ectKs total a!solute length or included angle Co))and6 'engthen

TRIMMING THE OBJECTS


=ou can cut an o!1ect *recisely at an edge de.ined !y one or )ore o!1ects% 9!1ects you de.ine as the !oundary edges or cutting edges do not ha+e to intersect the o!1ect !eing tri))edN you can tri) !ack to an i)*lied intersection% Cutting edges can !e lines" arcs" circles" *olylines" elli*ses" s*lines" 3lines" rays" and +iew*orts in *a*er s*ace% -ide *olylines are cut along their centerline% Daksh Education Cad Technology

Co))and6 Tri)

An i)*lied intersection is the *oint where two o!1ects would intersect i. they were e3tended% =ou can tri) o!1ects using their i)*lied intersection as the cutting edge% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you tri) the +ertical wall !ack to its i)*lied intersection with the hori4ontal wall%

An o!1ect can !e one o. the cutting edges and one o. the o!1ects !eing tri))ed% (or e3a)*le" in the light .i3ture illustrated" the circle is a cutting edge .or the construction lines and is also !eing tri))ed%

-hen tri))ing co)*le3 o!1ects" using di..erent selection )ethods can hel* you choose the right cutting edges and o!1ects to tri)% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" the cutting edges are selected with a crossing window%

0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" .ence selection is used to select a series o. o!1ects .or tri))ing%

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INSERTING BREAKS IN OBJECTS


=ou can re)o+e *art o. an o!1ect with the 7&EAK co))and% =ou can !reak lines" circles" arcs" *olylines" elli*ses" s*lines" 3lines" and rays% -hen !reaking an o!1ect" you can either select the o!1ect at the .irst !reak *oint and then s*eci.y a second !reak *oint" or you can select the entire o!1ect and then s*eci.y the two !reak *oints%

EXPLODING OBJECTS
E3*loding o!1ects con+erts single o!1ects to their constituent *arts !ut has no +isi!le e..ect% (or e3a)*le" e3*loding .or)s si)*le lines and arcs .ro) *olylines" rectangles" donuts" and *olygons% 0t re*laces a !lock re.erence or associati+e di)ension with co*ies o. the si)*le o!1ects that co)*ose the !lock or di)ension% :rou*s e3*lode into their )e)!er o!1ects or into other grou*s% 7locks inserted with une5ual G" =" and J scale .actors )ay e3*lode into une3*ected o!1ects%

EDITING POLYLINES
=ou can edit *olylines !y closing and o*ening the) and !y )o+ing" adding" or deleting indi+idual +ertices% =ou can straighten the *olyline !etween any two +ertices and toggle the linety*e so that a dash a**ears !e.ore and a.ter each +erte3% =ou can set a uni.or) width .or the entire *olyline or control the width o. each seg)ent% =ou can also create a linear a**ro3i)ation o. a s*line .ro) a *olyline% 2D and 3D *olylines" rectangles" and *olygons and 3D *olygon )eshes are all *olyline +ariants and are edited in the sa)e way% AutoCAD recogni4es !oth .it *olylines and s*line2.it *olylines% A s*line2.it *olyline uses a cur+e .it" si)ilar to a 72s*line% There are two kinds o. s*line2.it *olylines" 5uadratic and cu!ic% 7oth o. these *olylines are controlled !y the /'0;ET=/E syste) +aria!le% A .it *olyline uses standard cur+es .or cur+e .it and utili4es any tangent directions set on any gi+en +erte3% =ou can change the s*lined *olyline !ack to a *olyline using the Decur+e o*tion% The illustration shows a *olyline edited with the *line o*tion% Howe+er" so)e editing actions" such as tri))ing" !reaking" and any gri* editing" re)o+e the s*line de.inition o. a .it or s*lined *olyline% (or this reason" it is !etter to use a true s*line" which )aintains its s*line de.inition% Daksh Education Cad Technology

Co))and6 /edit

CHAMFERING OBJECTS
Cha).ering connects two non*arallel o!1ects !y e3tending or tri))ing the) to intersect or to 1oin with a !e+eled line% =ou can cha).er lines" *olylines" 3lines" and rays% -ith the distance )ethod" you s*eci.y the a)ount that each line should !e tri))ed or e3tended% -ith the angle )ethod" you can also s*eci.y the length o. the cha).er and the angle it .or)s with the .irst line% =ou can retain the o!1ects as they were !e.ore the cha).er or tri) or e3tend the) to the cha).er line% 0. !oth o!1ects !eing cha).ered are on the sa)e layer" the cha).er line goes on that layer% 9therwise" the cha).er line goes on the current layer% The sa)e rules a**ly to cha).er color" linety*e" and lineweight% 0. no intersection *oint is within the drawing li)its and i. li)its checking is turned on" AutoCAD re1ects the cha).ering% Cham%ering *$ (peci%$ing Distances The cha).er distance is the a)ount each o!1ect is tri))ed or e3tended to )eet the cha).er line or to intersect the other o!1ect% 0. !oth cha).er distances are 0" cha).ering tri)s or e3tends the two o!1ects until they )eet !ut does not draw a cha).er line%

Cham%ering *$ (peci%$ing "ength and Angle =ou can cha).er two o!1ects !y s*eci.ying where on the .irst selected o!1ect the cha).er line starts% Then s*eci.y the angle the cha).er line .or)s with this o!1ect% 0n the .ollowing e3a)*le" you cha).er two lines so that the cha).er line starts 1%F units along the .irst line and .or)s an angle o. 302degrees with this line%

Co))and6 Cha).er

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FILLETING OBJECTS
(illeting connects two o!1ects with a s)oothly .itted arc o. a s*eci.ied radius% Although an inside corner is called a .illet and an outside corner is called a round" AutoCAD treats !oth as .illets% 0. !oth o!1ects !eing .illeted are on the sa)e layer" the .illet line goes on that layer% 9therwise" the .illet line goes on the current layer% The sa)e rules a**ly to .illet color" linety*e" and lineweight% =ou can .illet *airs o. line seg)ents" *olyline line >not arc? seg)ents" s*lines" 3lines" rays" circles" arcs" and true >not *olygon? elli*ses% 'ines" 3lines" and rays can !e .illeted when *arallel% =ou can .illet e+ery +erte3 o. a *olyline at the sa)e ti)e% =ou can .illet a co)!ination o. lines and *olylines and all true solids%

LAYERS
'ayers are like trans*arent o+erlays on which you organi4e and grou* di..erent kinds o. drawing in.or)ation% The o!1ects you create ha+e co))on *ro*erties including colors" linety*es" and lineweights% An o!1ect can assu)e these *ro*erties .ro) the layer it is drawn on" or *ro*erties can !e s*eci.ically assigned to indi+idual o!1ects% Color hel*s you distinguish si)ilar ele)ents in your drawings" while linety*es hel* you di..erentiate easily !etween di..erent dra.ting ele)ents" such as centerlines or hidden lines% 'ineweights re*resent the si4e or ty*e o. an o!1ect through width" enhancing your drawing and increasing legi!ility% 9rgani4ing layers and the o!1ects on layers )akes it easier to )anage the in.or)ation in your drawings% =ou always draw on a layer% 0t )ay !e the de.ault layer or a layer you create% Each layer has an associated color" linety*e" lineweight" and *lot style% =ou can use layers to organi4e drawings into grou*s o. o!1ects as well as to identi.y di..erent o!1ects with +arying colors" linety*es" and lineweights%

0n a layout >*a*er s*ace?" you can s*eci.y layer +isi!ility indi+idually .or each +iew*ort% 0. you do not want to dis*lay or *lot a certain layer" you can turn o.. that layer or turn o.. Daksh Education Cad Technology

*lotting .or that layer% The sa)e drawing li)its" coordinate syste)" and 4oo) .actor a**ly to all layers in a drawing% 0. you consistently use a s*eci.ic layering sche)e" you can set u* a te)*late drawing with layers and their associated linety*es" lineweights" colors" and *lot styles already assigned% 'ayers are one o. )any nongra*hical o!1ects sa+ed in a drawing%

LINETYPES
A linety*e is a re*eating *attern o. dashes" dots" and !lank s*aces% A co)*le3 linety*e is a re*eating *attern o. sy)!ols along with dashes" dots" and !lank s*aces% The linety*e na)e and de.inition descri!e the *articular dash2dot se5uence" the relati+e lengths o. dashes and !lank s*aces" and the characteristics o. any included te3t or sha*es% =ou can create your own linety*es%

E3a)*les o. linety*es To use a linety*e you )ust .irst load it into your drawing% A linety*e de.inition )ust e3ist in an '0; li!rary .ile !e.ore a linety*e can !e loaded into a drawing% To load a linety*e 1 (ro) the (or)at )enu" choose 'inety*e% 2 0n the 'inety*e $anager" choose 'oad% 3 0n the 'oad or &eload 'inety*es dialog !o3" select one or )ore linety*es to load and then choose 9K% To select or clear all linety*es si)ultaneously" right2click the linety*es list and choose elect All or Clear All .ro) the shortcut )enu% The linety*es you select are dis*layed in the linety*e list in the 'inety*e $anager and in the 'inety*e control on the 9!1ect /ro*erties tool!ar% D Choose 9K% (peci%$ing 0lo*al "inet$pe (cale =ou can set the glo!al linety*e scale .or o!1ects that you create% The s)aller the scale" the )ore re*etitions o. the *attern are generated *er drawing unit% 7y de.ault" AutoCAD uses a glo!al linety*e scale o. 1%0 in the current drawing units%

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CREATING DIMENSIONS
A *recise drawing *lotted to scale o.ten does not con+ey enough in.or)ation .or !uilders to construct your design% <sually you add annotation showing o!1ect )easure)ents and the distances and angles !etween o!1ects% Di)ensioning is the *rocess o. adding )easure)ent annotation to a drawing% AutoCADM *ro+ides )any ways to di)ension o!1ects and )any ways to .or)at di)ensions% =ou can create di)ensions .or a wide +ariety o. o!1ect sha*es in )any di..erent orientations% =ou can create di)ension styles to .or)at di)ensions 5uickly and ensure that di)ensions in your drawing con.or) to industry or *ro1ect standards% Design is o.ten di+ided into .our *hases6 drawing" annotating" +iewing" and *lotting% During annotation" the designer adds te3t" nu)!ers" and other sy)!ols to co))unicate such in.or)ation as the si4e and )aterials o. design ele)ents or notes .or constructing the design% Di)ensions are a co))on drawing annotationN they show o!1ect )easure)ents such as a wall length" cylinder dia)eter" or !uilding site area%

The .ollowing ta!le lists the AutoCAD di)ensions and co))on )ethods .or starting di)ensions% As you create di)ensions" you *ro!a!ly will use )ore than one )ethod" !ased on your e3*erience" *ersonal *re.erence" or design tasks%

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=ou can use Buick Di)ension to di)ension )ulti*le o!1ects at one ti)e% <sing Buick Di)ension" you can Buickly create arrange)ents o. !aseline" continued" staggered" and ordinate di)ensions

Buickly di)ension )ulti*le circles and arcs Edit e3isting di)ension arrange)ents Daksh Education Cad Technology

DIMENSION STYLES
Di)ension styles control a di)ensionKs .or)at and a**earance% They hel* you esta!lish and en.orce dra.ting standards .or drawings and )ake changes to di)ension .or)ats and !eha+ior easier to i)*le)ent% A di)ension style de.ines The .or)at and *osition o. di)ension lines" e3tension lines" arrowheads" and center )arks The a**earance" *osition" and !eha+ior o. di)ension te3t The rules go+erning where AutoCAD *laces te3t and di)ension lines The o+erall di)ension scale The .or)at and *recision o. *ri)ary" alternate" and angular di)ension units The .or)at and *recision o. tolerance +alues

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PLOTTING

PRINTING

A layout is a *a*er s*ace en+iron)ent that si)ulates a sheet o. *a*er and *ro+ides a *redicta!le *lotting setu*% 0n a layout" you can create and *osition +iew*ort o!1ects" and you can add a title !lock or other geo)etry% =ou can create )ulti*le layouts in a drawing to dis*lay +arious +iews" each o. which can contain di..erent *lot scales and *a*er si4es% Each layout dis*lays the drawing" as it will !e *lotted on the sheet o. *a*er%

USING MODEL SPACE

PAPER SPACE

As you design your )odel drawing and *re*are it .or *lotting" you can use )odel s*ace and *a*er s*ace 1ust as with *re+ious AutoCADM releases% <sing AutoCAD 2000" howe+er" the en+iron)ent you use to layout and *re*are your drawing .or *lotting is )uch )ore +isual% At the !otto) o. the drawing window are ta!s that include the $odel ta! and one or )ore layout ta!s% $odel s*ace can !e accessed .ro) the $odel ta! or !y )aking a .loating +iew*ort in a layout current% The $odel ta! is where you s*end )ost o. your ti)e creating and editing your drawing% -hen you are in the $odel ta!" you are always working in )odel s*ace% =ou can di+ide the $odel ta! into tiled +iew*orts to re*resent +arious +iews o. your )odel% (or )ore in.or)ation a!out creating and using tiled +iew*orts in )odel s*ace" see P<sing Tiled Ciew*orts%P =ou can also *lot your drawing .ro) the $odel ta!% -hen you are ready to setu* your drawing .or *lotting" you can use a layout ta!% Each layout ta! *ro+ides a *a*er s*ace2drawing en+iron)ent in which you can create +iew*orts and s*eci.y *age settings .or each layout you want to *lot% /age settings are 1ust *lot settings that are sa+ed with the layout% As you designate *age settings .or a layout" you can choose to sa+e and na)e the *age settings .or one layout" then a**ly that na)ed *age setu* to another layout% =ou can also create a new layout .ro) an e3isting layout te)*late >%dwt or %dwg? .ile into a new layout% Ty*ically" when you !egin designing a layout en+iron)ent to *lot" you ste* through the .ollowing *rocess6 o Create a )odel drawing% o Con.igure a *lotting de+ice% o Acti+ate or create a layout% o *eci.y layout *age settings such as *lotting de+ice" *a*er si4e" *lot area" *lot scale" and drawing orientation% o 0nsert a title !lock% o Create .loating +iew*orts and *osition the) in the layout% o et the +iew scale o. the .loating +iew*orts% o Annotate or create geo)etry in the layout as needed% o /lot your layout% Daksh Education Cad Technology

(or switching !etween $odel *ace & /a*er *ace" choose the $odel ta! or enter )odel at the co))and line to )ake the $odel ta! current% To )o+e .ro) the $odel ta! to *a*er s*ace" choose the 'ayout1 ta! or enter *a*er at the co))and line%

DETERMINING LAYOUT SETTINGS


'ayout settings" which are also re.erred to as *age setu*s" control the .inal *lotted out*ut% These settings a..ect the *lot de+ice" *a*er si4e" *lot scale" *lot area" *lot origin" and the drawing orientation% <nderstanding how to use layout settings ensures that the layout *lots as e3*ected% All o. the settings .or a layout can !e changed and sa+ed to the layout" without actually *lotting" using the /age etu* dialog !o3%

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WORKING IN THREE!DIMENSIONAL SPACE


0. you create a three2di)ensional >3D? )odel" you usually set u* di..erent two2 di)ensional >2D? +iews in order to +isuali4e" draw" and edit geo)etry easily% AutoCADM *ro+ides tools that you can use to set u* di..erent +iews o. the )odel% =ou can also assign di..erent user coordinate syste)s ><C ? and ele+ations to the standard orthogonal +iews and easily switch !etween +iews%

SPECIFYING "!D COORDINATES


*eci.ying 3D coordinates is the sa)e as s*eci.ying 2D coordinates with the addition o. a third di)ension" the J2a3is% -hen drawing in 3D" you s*eci.y G" =" and J +alues o. the coordinate in either the world coordinate syste) >-C ? or the user coordinate syste) ><C ?% The .ollowing illustration shows the G" =" and J a3es o. the -C %

Using the Right41and Rule


The right2hand rule deter)ines the *ositi+e a3is direction o. the J a3is when you know the direction o. the G and = a3es in a 3D coordinate syste)% The right2hand rule also deter)ines the *ositi+e rotation direction a!out an a3is in 3D s*ace%

#ntering 5, Y, < Coordinates


Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates >G"=" J? is si)ilar to entering 2D coordinates >G"=?% 0n addition to s*eci.ying G and = +alues" you s*eci.y a J +alue% 0n the .ollowing illustration" the coordinate 3"2"F indicates a *oint 3 unit along the *ositi+e G2a3is" 2 units along the *ositi+e =2a3is" and F units along the *ositi+e J2a3is% =ou can enter a!solute coordinate +alues" which are !ased on the origin o. the <C " or relati+e coordinate +alues" which are !ased on the last *oint entered%

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#ntering C$lindrical Coordinates


Cylindrical coordinate entry is si)ilar to 2D *olar coordinate entry" !ut with an additional distance .ro) the *olar coordinate *er*endicular to the G= *lane% =ou locate a *oint !y s*eci.ying its distance along an angle relati+e to the <C G a3is and its J +alue *er*endicular to the G= *lane% 0n the .ollowing illustration" the coordinate FO60"6 indicates a *oint F units .ro) the origin o. the current <C " 60 degrees .ro) the G a3is in the G= *lane" and 6 units along the J a3is% The coordinate QO30"1 indicates a *oint Q units .ro) the origin o. the current <C in the G= *lane" 30 degrees .ro) the G a3is in the G= *lane and 1 unit along the J a3is%

0n the .ollowing illustration" the relati+e cylindrical coordinate IDODF"F indicates a *oint D units in the G= *lane .ro) the last *oint entered" not .ro) the <C origin *oint" at an angle o. DF degrees .ro) the *ositi+e G direction% The line e3tends to a J coordinate o. F%

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#ntering (pherical Coordinates


*herical coordinate entry in 3D is also si)ilar to *olar coordinate entry in 2D% =ou locate a *oint !y s*eci.ying its distance .ro) the origin o. the current <C " its angle .ro) the G a3is >in the G= *lane?" and its angle .ro) the G= *lane" each se*arated !y an o*en angle !racket >O?% 0n the .ollowing illustration" the coordinate QO60O30 indicates a *oint Q units .ro) the origin o. the current <C in the G= *lane" 60 degrees .ro) the G a3is in the G= *lane" and 30 degrees u* .ro) the G= *lane% The coordinate FODFO1F indicates a *oint F units .ro) the origin" DF degrees .ro) the G a3is in the G= *lane" and 1F degrees .ro) the G= *lane%

USING STANDARD "D VIEWS

PROJECTIONS

Any 3D )odel can !e +iewed .ro) any direction" !ut standard +iews are set .or the si3 orthogonal directions6 o To* o 7otto) o &ight o 'e.t o (ront o 7ack 0n AutoCAD" you can dis*lay 3D )odels .ro) any o. these standard si3 +iews" although three +iews are usually enough in.or)ation .or you to .ully co)*rehend the )odel%

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STANDARD PROJECTIONS
Each o. the si3 standard +iews is a 2D +iew" showing only two o. the o!1ectKs three *ossi!le )easure)ents6 width" length" or height% -hene+er )ulti*le +iews are dis*layed" either on the screen or on *a*er" the +iews )ust !e arranged so that they share one o. the two *ossi!le )easure)ents% -hen they share a co))on )easure)ent" they are said to P*ro1ect%P (irst angle *ro1ection and third angle *ro1ection are standard technical drawing )ethods .or *resenting +iews relati+e to the .ront +iew" as shown in the .ollowing illustrations%

ISOMETRIC VIEWS
An iso)etric +iew in a +iew*ort is used *ri)arily as a +isual guide% 0t hel*s you co)*rehend your 3D )odel as you create and edit chie.ly in the 2D +iews% The ne3t illustration shows the relationshi* !etween the 2D +iews and the iso)etric +iew%

DEFINING A USER!COORDINATE SYSTEM


=ou de.ine a user coordinate syste) ><C ? to change the location o. the 0"0"0 origin *oint and the orientation o. the G= *lane and J2a3is% =ou can locate and orient a <C anywhere in 3D s*ace" and you can de.ine" sa+e" and recall as )any <C s as you re5uire% Coordinate in*ut and dis*lay are relati+e to the current <C % 0. )ulti*le +iew*orts are acti+e" you can assign a di..erent <C to each +iew*ort% Each <C can ha+e a di..erent origin and orientation .or +arious construction re5uire)ents%

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=ou de.ine a user coordinate syste) ><C ? to change the location o. the 0"0"0 origin *oint and the orientation o. the G= *lane and J2a3is% =ou can locate and orient a <C anywhere in 3D s*ace" and you can de.ine" sa+e" and recall as )any <C s as you re5uire% Coordinate in*ut and dis*lay are relati+e to the current <C % 0. )ulti*le +iew*orts are acti+e" you can assign a di..erent <C to each +iew*ort % Each <C can ha+e a di..erent origin and orientation .or +arious construction re5uire)ents% =ou can de.ine a new <C in *a*er s*ace 1ust as you can in )odel s*aceN howe+er" the <C s in *a*er s*ace are restricted to 2D )ani*ulation% :enerally" it is reco))ended that you lea+e the ele+ation set to 4ero and control the G= *lane o. the current <C with the <C co))and% ee P etting Ele+ation and Thickness%P =ou can de.ine a <C in se+eral ways6 o o o o o o *eci.y a new origin" new G= *lane" or new J a3is% Align the new <C with an e3isting o!1ect% Align the new <C with the current +iewing direction% &otate the current <C around any o. its a3es% A**ly a new J2de*th to an e3isting <C % A**ly a <C !y selecting a (ace%

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