Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Earthquake response of inelastic SDOF systems: introduction

: SDOF elastic in shear base Peak


max ,
= w
g
A
V
o
system the of weight
ordinate spectral on accelerati pseudo ) , (
: where
=
mg w
T A
n n
,
system the of weight = = mg w
M t b ildi h d i d Most buildings, however, are designed
for base shear smaller than the elastic
b h i t d ith th t t base shear associated with the strongest
shaking that can occur at the site.
1
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Earthquake response of inelastic SDOF systems: introduction
Therefore, buildings designed for code forces would be deformed beyond the
linear elastic limit when subjected to design ground motion. So not surprising j g g p g
that they suffer damage during intense ground shaking.
Th h ll t th i i t d i th t t th t th The challange to the engineer is to design the structure so that the
damage is controlled to an acceptable degree. If the damage is too severe
to be repaired economically or it causes the building to collapse the design to be repaired economically or it causes the building to collapse, the design
was obviously flawed! Imperial Valley Services Building after EQ of October 15, 1979
2
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Earthquake response of inelastic SDOF systems: introduction
Therefore, buildings designed for code forces would be deformed beyond the
linear elastic limit when subjected to design ground motion. So not surprising j g g p g
that they suffer damage during intense ground shaking.
Th h ll t th i i t d i th t t th t th The challange to the engineer is to design the structure so that the
damage is controlled to an acceptable degree. If the damage is too severe
to be repaired economically or it causes the building to collapse the design to be repaired economically or it causes the building to collapse, the design
was obviously flawed!
Psychiatric Day Care Center after San Fernando EQ of February 9, 1971
3
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Laboratory tests to simulate structural components under EQ conditions
Cyclic tests simulating oscillatory motion with reversal of deformation conducted
on structural members, assemblage of members, reduced scale models or small
full-scale structures indicate that the cyclic force-deformation behavior of a
structure depends on the structural material and on the structural system.
c) masonry
a) structural steel
b) reinforced concrete
4
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Elastic-perfectly plastic (or elastoplastic) idealization
Elastoplastic approximation to the actual force-deformation curve is drawn so that
areas under the two curves are the same at the selected maximum displacement u
m
n deformatio yield
strength yield
=
=
y
y
u
f
5
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Definition of Corresponding Linear System
Useful to evaluate peak deformation of an elastoplastic system due to an EQ ground
motion and to compare it with the peak deformation caused by the same excitation in
the corresponding linear system, i.e. elastic system having same stiffness at initial
loading, as well as same mass and same damping (same T
n
when u u
y
)
y y
y
u f
f
N
= =
: strength yield ormalized
o o
y
u f
f
yields system 1 <
y
f
elastic remains system 1 =
y
y
f
f d i h i ld
o o
y
u
u
f
f
f
R = = =
1
: factor reduction strength Yield
6
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
y y y
u f f
Definition of Corresponding Linear System
u
D : factor uctility
yields system 1 >
y
m
R
f
u
= =
y
m
u
u
=
elastic remains system 1 =
y
y
o
R u
y y
y
u f
f = =
: strength yield Normalized
o o
y
u f
f
yields system 1 <
y
f
elastic remains system 1 =
y
y
f
f d i h i ld
o o
y
u
u
f
f
f
R = = =
1
: factor reduction strength Yield
7
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
y y y
u f f
Equation of motion of elastoplastic system subjected to ground motion
) ( ) , ( ) ( ) ( t u m u u f t u c t u m
g s
= + +
) ( ) , (
~
) ( 2 ) (
2
t u u u f u t u t u
g s y n n
= + + e ,e ) ( ) , ( ) ( ) ( f
g s y n n
,
: where
y
s
s
n
n
f
u u f
u u f
m
c
m
k ) , (
) , (
~

2

= = =
e
, e
It is clear that u(t) depends on e
n
, , and u
y
For a given , depends on e
n
, , and
) (t u
g

y
f
8
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
EQ response of elastoplastic system vs. corresponding elastic system
9
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
EQ response of elastoplastic system vs. corresponding elastic system
After yielding,
t d t system does not
oscillate about its
initial equilibrium
position
Pergola displaced by 9 in after EQ
10
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Influence of yield strength on the EQ response of elastoplastic system
Systems with lower yield
strength yield more frequently
and for longer intervals
With more yielding, permanent
deformation generally tends to
increase
Ductility demand to be
computed and compared with
ductility capacity
11
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Influence of yield strength on the EQ response of elastoplastic system
12
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
EQ response of elastic vs. elastoplastic system
Displacement equivalence Energy equivalence
(V and D sensitive region)
(A sensitive region)
1 2 = R
=
y
R
13
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
1 2
y
R

y
Influence of yield strength on the EQ response of elastoplastic system
14
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
How to determine Constant ductility response spectra ?
For design purposes it is desired to determine the yield strength f
y
(or yield
deformation u
y
) which limits the ductility demand to a specified value.
y
) y p
Response spectra are determined and plotted for the following quantities:

2
y n y y n y y y
u A u V u D e e = = =
And then f
y
can be determined as:
A
w
g
A
mA ) u ( m ku f
y
y y n y y
= = = =
2
15
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
How to determine Constant ductility response spectra ?
16
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Procedure to determine Constant ductility response spectra
1. Numerically define the ground motion and desired ductility ) (t u
g

2. Select and fix the damping ratio , for which the spectrum is to be plotted
3. Select a value for T
n
4. Determine the response u(t) of the linear system for the selected values of
T
n
and ,. Determine peak deformation u
o
and peak force f
o
=ku
o
5. Determine the response u(t) of an elastoplastic system with same T
n
and ,
and yield force for a selected . From u(t) determine peak
o y y
f f f = 1 <
y
f
deformation u
m
and associated . Repeat for different until desired value
of is obtained.
y
f
6. Repeat for a range of T
n
resulting in spectrum for the chosen value of
7. Repeat previuos steps for several different values of
17
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Constant ductility response spectrum for El Centro ground motion (,=5%)
18
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Constant ductility response spectrum for El Centro ground motion (,=5%)
19
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Yield strength-ductility relation for El Centro ground motion (,=5%)
20
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Relative effects of yielding and damping
El Centro ground motion (, = 2, 5, and 10% - = 1, 4, and 8)
Damping has negligible influence in the D- and A-sensitive regions, while is most effective in the V-sensitive
region of the spectrum Yielding cannot be considered in terms of an equivalent viscous damping
21
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
region of the spectrum. Yielding cannot be considered in terms of an equivalent viscous damping.
Derivation of inelastic design spectrum
22
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Derivation of inelastic design spectrum

< <
<
=
a n
T T T
T T
R 1 2
1

>
< < =
'
c n
c n b y
T T
T T T R 1 2

23
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Construction of constant ductility design spectra
24
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Construction of constant ductility design spectra
25
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering
Construction of constant ductility design spectra
26
F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S t r u c t u r a l D y n a mi c s I ( S D o F )
2-years Master STReGA 1-year Master ETeC. Prof. Giorgio SERINO. (Fall 2012)
University of Naples Federico II
Dept. of Structural Engineering