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Good morning III PABLO!

! We are the representatives of Group 3, Leah Rose Paras and Ruth Anne Abalos We are in front of you to discuss the long journey in the development of the periodic table So, these are the topics involved in our discussion of the History of the Periodic Table. And we will tackle these things as we go on. As you can see, this is the Modern Periodic Table. It has come a long way before it ended up like this one we have today. Before written history, people were aware of some of the elements in the periodic table. Elements such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), and mercury (Hg). It wasn't until 1649, however, until the first element was discovered through scientific inquiry by Hennig Brand . That element was phosphorous (P). By 1869, 63 elements had been discovered. When did the development of the periodic table really started? Creating Some Early Blocks for the Periodic Table 1809-1829 - at least 47 elements were discovered, and scientists began to see patterns in the characteristics. Just like Dobereiners triads. He discovered trends in certain elements. 1862 - In 1862, Alexander Emile Beguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to reveal that the elements were arranged according to their atomic weights with similar elements occurring at regular intervals. He drew the elements as a continuous spiral around a cylinder divided into 16 parts. 1863 - It all started in 1809. At this time, 56 elements were already discovered. And this man on the screen named John Alexander Reina Newlands, divided these 56 elements into 11 groups based on the elements atomic weights. Continuing the work of earlier scientists, Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner and Jean Baptiste, he published in 1865 his 'Law of octaves', which stated that "any given element will exhibit analogues behaviour to the eighth element following it in the table." Newlands arranged all of the known elements into seven groups, which he likened to the octaves of music. In Newlands' table, the elements were ordered by the atomic weights that were known at the time and were numbered sequentially to show their order. Periods were shown going down the table, with groups going across the opposite from the modern form of the periodic table.
The Fathers of the Periodic Table 1864 Another scientist, Lothar Meyer, who published a paper in 1864 describing 28 elements classified by their valence, but with no prediction of new elements. Meyer, who is often credited with the discovery of the periodic system, opposed and criticized the Periodic Law. He said that they are arranged in the order of their atomic weights they fall into groups in which similar chemical and physical properties are repeated at periodic intervals.

*The Periodic Law, in chemistry, law stating that many of the physical and chemical properties of the elements tend to recur in a systematic manner with increasing atomic number. 1869 - In 1869 Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev started the development of the periodic table, arranging chemical elements by atomic mass. He predicted the discovery of other elements, and left spaces open in his periodic table for them. He used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements and also to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered. Mendeleev published his periodic table of all known elements and predicted several new elements to complete the table. Only a few months after, Meyer published a virtually identical table. Some consider Meyer and Mendeleev the co-creators of the periodic table, but everybody agrees that Mendeleev's accurate prediction of the qualities of what he called germanium, gallium and scandium qualifies him for the majority of the credit for the table. He pointed out that some of the atomic weights being used at the time were incorrect, and provided for variance from atomic weight order. However, his table did not include any of the noble gases, which were discovered later by William Ramsay. Mendeleev periodic table appeared in his work "On the Relationship of the Properties of the Elements to their Atomic Weights" in 1869.

Other Contributions for Modern Periodic Table 1886 - Marie and Pierre Curie started working on the radiation of uranium and thorium, and subsequently discovered radium and polonium. They discovered that beta particles/ electrons (as said by Antoine Bequerel in 1900) were negatively charged.

1894 - In 1894 Sir William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh discovered the noble gases, which were added to the periodic table as group 0. 1914 - British physicist Henry Moseley confirmed earlier suggestions that an element's chemical properties are only roughly related to its atomic weight (now known to be roughly equal to the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus). In 1914 Henry Moseley found a relationship between an element's X-ray wavelength and its atomic number (Z), and therefore resequenced the table by nuclear charge rather than atomic weight. Before this discovery, atomic numbers were just sequential numbers based on an element's atomic weight. Moseley's discovery showed that atomic numbers had an experimentally measurable basis.
The Modern Periodic Table 1945 - In 1945 Glenn Seaborg identified lanthanides and actinides (atomic number >92), which are usually placed below the periodic table. Glenn Seaborg discovered the transuranium elements, atomic numbers 94 to 102. The completion of the actinide series allowed Seaborg to redesign the periodic table into it current form. Both the lanthanide and actinide series of elements were placed under the rest of the periodic table. Dr. Seaborg and his colleagues are also responsible for the identification of more than 100 isotopes of elements.

By now, Scientists have identified 90 naturally occurring elements, and created about 28 others. The periodic table organizes the elements in a particular way. A great deal of information about an element can be gathered from its position in the period table. For example, you can predict with reasonably good accuracy the physical and chemical properties of the element. You can also predict what other elements a particular element will react with chemically. Different periodic tables can include various bits of information, but usually: atomic number symbol atomic mass number of valence electrons state of matter at room temperature. Elements in the periodic table are also grouped into families/groups. Columns of elements are called groups or families. Families range from IA-VIIIA and from IB-VIIIB Elements in each family have similar but not identical properties. For example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and other members of family IA are all soft, white, shiny metals. All elements in a family have the same number of valence electrons. Elements in the periodic table Each horizontal row of elements is called a period. The elements in a period are not alike in properties. In fact, the properties change greatly across even given row. The first element in a period is always an extremely active solid. The last element in a period, is always an inactive gas.

Hydrogen Hydrogen is in a class of its own. Its a gas at room temperature. IA - Alkali Metals They are shiny, have the consistency of clay, and are easily cut with a knife. They are the most reactive metals. They react violently with water. IIA Alkali Earth Metals They are never found uncombined in nature. They have two valence electrons. IIIB IIB Transition Metals They are good conductors of heat and electricity. Many transition metals combine chemically with oxygen to form compounds called oxides. IIIA Boron Family Atoms in this family have 3 valence electrons. This family includes a metalloid (boron), and the rest are metals. IVA Carbon Family Atoms of this family have 4 valence electrons. This family includes a non-metal (carbon), metalloids, and metals. VA Nitrogen Family The nitrogen family is named after the element that makes up 78% of our atmosphere. This family includes non-metals, metalloids, and metals. VIA Oxygen Family Most elements in this family share electrons when forming compounds.

VIIA Halogens Halogens have 7 valence electrons, which explains why they are the most active nonmetals. They are never found free in nature. They react with alkali metals to form salts. VIIIA Noble Gases Noble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive. One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full. All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere. Rare Earth Elements Transuranium Elements The thirty rare earth elements are composed of the lanthanide and actinide series. One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide series are called trans-uranium, which means synthetic or manmade.