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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-1 Published by : LAXMI PUBLICATIONS (P) LTD. 22, Golden House, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002. Phones , | 011-28262368 * | 011-23 26 23.70 011-23 25 2572 011-23 26 2279 Faxes : Branches : 129/1, Ird Main Road, IX Cross, Chamrajpet, Bangalore (Phone : 080-26 61 15 61) 26, Damodaran Street. T. Nagar, Chennai (Phone : 044-24 34 47 26) St. Benedict’s Road, Cochin (Phone : 0484-239 70 04) Pan Bazar, Rani Bari, Guwahati (Phones : 0361-254 36 69, 251 38 81) 4-2-453, Ist Floor, Ramkote, Hyderabad (Phone : 040-24 75 02 47) Adda Tanda Chowk, N.D. 365, Jalandhar City (Phone : 0181-222 12 72) 106/A, Ist Floor, S.N. Banerjee Road, Kolkata (Phones : 033-22 27 37 73, 22 27 52 47) 18, Madan Mohan Malviya Marg, Lucknow (Phone : 0522-220 95 78) 142-C, Victor House, Ground Floor, N.M. Joshi Marg, Lower Parel (W), Mumbai (Phones : 022-24 91 54 15, 24 92 78 69) Radha Govind Street, Tharpagna, Ranchi (Phone : 0651-230 77 64) EMAIL : colaxmi@hotmail.com WEBSITE : www.laxmipublications.com SECOND EDITION : SEPT. 1995 REPRINT : JULY 1998 REPRINT : AUG. 1999 REPRINT : AUG. 2001 REPRINT : AUG. 2002 REPRINT : AUG. 2003 REPRINT : SEPT. 2004 REPRINT : JUNE 2005 ISBN : 81-7008-092-4 EWS-0617-135-WATER SUPPLY ENGG ©1996 = B.C. PUNMIA, ASHOK K. JAIN, ARUN K. JAIN All Rights Reserved by the Authors. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or translated in any other language, without the written permission of the Authors. Price : Rs. 135.00 Only. C—10774/05/06 DTP Composed by : Arihant Consultants, Jodhpur. Printed at : Mehra Offset Press, Delhi CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. WATER SYSTEMS LL Introduction 12. Historical Development 13. Sources _of Water 14. Water Supply Systems CHAPTER 2. HYDROLOGY 21. The Water Cycle 22. — Precipitation 23. Measurement of Rainfall 24. Computation of Average Rainfall over a Basin 25. Evaporation and Transpiration 26. Run-off 22. Computation of Run-off Flood Discharge CHAPTER 3. SURFACE SOURCES 3.1. Storage Reservoirs 3.2. Investigations for Reservoir Planning 3.3. — Selection of Site for a Reservoir 34. Storage Capacity and Yield 35. Dams 3.6. Intakes CHAPTER 4. GROUND WATER : WELLS 41, Introduction 42. Types of Aquifers 43. Storage Coefficient 44. Well Hydraulics 45. Determination of Aquifer Constant T 4.6. Characteristic Well Losses : Specific Capacity of Well 4.7. Interference Among Wells oa Ne BBRBSCUESS ©) 48. Fully Penetrating Artesian-gravity Well 49. — Partially Penetrating Artesian Well 4.10. Spherical Flow in a Well 4.11, Tube Wells 4.12. Methods for Drilling Tube Wells 4.13, Well Shrouding and Well Development 414° Open Wells 4.15. Yield of an Open Well 4.16, Selection of Suitable Site for a Tube Well 4.17. Section of a Tube Well 4.18. Unsteady Flow 4.19. Other Sources of Underground Water 4.20. Radial Collector Wells CHAPTER 5. WATER DEMAND AND QUANTITY 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Design Period a. Population Forecast 54. Factors Affecting Population Growth 5.5. Determination of Population for Inter-censal and_Post-censal Years 5.6. | Water Demand S._. Factors ing Rate of Demand CHAPTER 6, QUALITY OF WATER 61. —_ Introduction 62. Common Impuritiesin Water and their Effect 63. Quality of Source 64, —Water_Analysis 65. Physical Examination . dé Creme Hewdineties 6.7. Micro-organisms in Water 68. Microbiological Examination of Water 69. | The Nuisance Bacteria 6.10. BE Common Water-bome Diseases Standards of Purified Water 139 139 140 49 BERE BERBER eR RS BRR Gi) CHAPTER 7. UNIT OPERATIONS zt. Introduction 22. Important Unit Operations 13. Gas Transfer 14. Ion Transfer 16. — Solids Transfer 21. Water Treatment Processes CHAPTER 8 SCREENING AND AERATION 8&1. Screening 8.2. Coarse Screens or Bar Screens 8.3. Fine Screens 8.4. Micro-strainers 85. Aeration 86. Types of Aerators 8.7. Factors Governing Acration or Gas Transfer 88. Design of Gravity Aerators 8.9. Design of Fixed Spray Acrators 8.10. Limitations of Aeration CHAPTER 9. SEDIMENTATION 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Types of Settlings 9.3, Settling of Discrete Particles 9.4. Types of Sedimentation Tanks 9.5. Horizontal Flow Sedimentation Tank 9.6. Size-weight Composition and Removal 9.7. Maximum Velocity to Prevent Bed Uplift or Scour 9.8 Design’ Elements 29. — Settling Tank Efficiency 9.10. Details of Plain Sedimentation Tanks 9.11. Sedimentation with Coagulation. : Clarification 9.12. Common Coagulants 9.13. Methods of Feeding Coagulants BRESBRRBERBB BEEEEEE BEESRR SRRERES Gai) 9.14. Mixing Devices 9.15. Flocculation 2.16, Clarification - 9.17. Sludge Blanket Tanks or Solid Contact Clarifiers 9.18. © The Pulsator Clarifier 9.19. Shallow Depth Sedimentation : Tube Settler 9.20. Illustrative Examples 9.21. Design Examples CHAPTER 10. FILTRATION 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Theory of Filtration 10.3.. Classification of Filters. 10.4. Filter Media 10.5. Slow Sand Filters 10.6. Rapid Sand Filter : Gravity Type 10.7. Working and Washing of Rapid Sand Filters 10.8. Loss of Head and Negative Head 10.9. Filter Troubles 10.10. Performance of Rapid Sand Filters 10.11. Comparison of Slow Sand and Rapid Sand Filters 10.12. Filtration Hydraulics : Carmen-Kozney Equation : 10.13. Rose Equation 10.14. Flow through Expanded Beds 10.15. Pressure Filters 10.16. Double Filtration : Roughing Filter 10.17. Dual Media and Mixed Media Filters 10.18. Upflow Filters 10.19. Biflow Filters 10.20. Micro-strainers 10.21. Diatomite Filters 274 277 285 287 289 298 EE 312 314 320 329 330 331 333 335 342 345 353 355 355 357 359 359 (uti) CHAPTER 11. DISINFECTION 11.1. Introduction = 363 11.2. Methods of Disinfection ~ 364 11.3. Minor Methods of Disinfection o 365 11.4. Chlorination ~~ 366 11.5. Forms of Application of Chlorine 368 11.6. Application of Chiorine «372 11.7, Forms of Chlorination «= 374 11.8. Tests for Free and Combined Chlorine “~ 379 11.9. Factors Affecting Bactericidal Efficiency of Chlorine ~ 381 11.10. Kinetics of Chemical Disinfection 385 11.11. Iodine Treatment - 390 11.12. Bromine Treatment = 391 11.13. Ozone Treatment (ozonation) ~ 391 CHAPTER 12. WATER SOFTENING 12.1. Introduction = 394 12.2. Type of Hardness and Methods of their Removal 395 12.3. Lime-soda Process 396 12.4. Lime-soda Softening Plant 402 12.5. Water Softening Accelerator 404 12.6. Zeolite Process 405 12.7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Lime Soda and Zeolite Process 407 12.8. Demineralisation or Deionisation Process 408 CHAPTER 13. MISCELLANEOUS TREATMENT METHODS 13.1. Removal of Iron and Manganese 410 13.2. Colour Odour and Taste Removal ww. 413 13.3. Activated Carbon Treatment ww «414 13.4. Use of Copper Sulphate 417 13.5. Fluoridation - 417 13.6. Defluoridatioa. = 418 13.7. Desalination - = «49 Gav) CHAPTER 14. PUMPS AND PUMPING 14.1. Necessity of Pumping «427 14.2. Types of Pumps and their Choice «427 143. Displacement Pumps 430 14.4. Centrifugal Pumps 433 145. Comparsion of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Pumps aw 435 146. Jet Pump a 436 14.7. Air Lift Pumps a 437 148. Well Pumps o 438 149. Centrigual Pump Installation «440 14.10. Characteristics of Centrifugal Pump ae 441 14.11. Multiple Pump Systems we 442 14.12. Variable Speed Operation we 44d 14.13. Suction Lift Limitations : Cavitation 445 14.14. System Head Curve wa 446 14.15. Operating Point or Operating Range of a Pump ow 448 14.16. Selection of Pumping Units w 449 14.17. Power Requirements of Pumps ~ 450 14.18. Economical Diameter of Pumping Mains wen 452 CHAPTER 15, CONVEYANCE OF WATER 15.1, Introduction -~ 473 152. Pipes a 414 153. Cast Iron Pipes a 474 15.4. Wrought Iron and Galvanised Iron Pipes = 479 155. Steel Pipes 480 15.6. Cement Concrete Pipes «480 15.7. Asbestos Cement Pipes 482 15.8. Copper and Lead Pipes 483 15.9. Wood-stave Pipes 483 15.10. Plastic Pipes 484 15.11. Stresses in Pipes 485 15.12. Corrosion in Pipes 491 15.13. 15.14, @) Pipe Appertenances Head Loss through Pipes CHAPTER 16. DISTRIBUTION OF WATER 16.1. 16.2. 163. 16.4. 165. 16.6. 16.7. 16.8. 16.9. 16.10. 16.11. 16.12. 16.13. Introduction Methods of Distribution Pressure in Distribution Mains Systems of Water Supply Storage and Distribution Reservoirs ‘Types of Storage and Distribution Reservoirs Capacity of Distribution Reservoir Pipe Hydraulics Pipes in Series and Parallel Layout of Distribution System Design of Distribution System Analysis of Pressure in Distribution System Hardy Cross Method CHAPTER 17. WATER SUPPLY FOR BUILDINGS 17.1 Materials for Service Pipes 17.2. Service Connection 17.3. Size of Service Pipes 17.4. Water Meters 17.5. Valves 17.6. Loss of Head through Pipes and Pipe Fittings APPENDIX INDEX 494 499 504 505 552 555 558 562