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Experienced writers use a variety of sentences to make their writing interesting and lively. Too many simple sentences, for example, will sound choppy and immature while too many long sentences will be difficult to read and hard to understand. This page contains definitions of simple, compound, and complex sentences with many simple examples. The purpose of these examples is to help the ESL/E L learner to identify sentence basics including identification of sentences in the short !ui""es that follow. #fter that, it will be possible to analy"e more complex sentences varieties. SIMPLE SENTENCE # simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a sub$ect and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. %n the following simple sentences, sub$ects are in yellow, and verbs are in green.

#. Some students like to study in the mornings. &. 'uan and #rturo play football every afternoon. (. #licia goes to the library and studies every day.

The three examples above are all simple sentences. )ote that sentence & contains a compound sub$ect, and sentence ( contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore, contain a sub$ect and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain a compound sub$ects or verbs. COMPOUND SENTENCE # compound sentence contains two independent clauses $oined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows* for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. +,elpful hint* The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.- Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. %n the following compound sentences, sub$ects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red.

#. % tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.

&. #le$andro played football, so .aria went shopping. (. #le$andro played football, for .aria went shopping.

The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are $oined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. )ote how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences & and (, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. %n sentence &, which action occurred first/ 0bviously, 1#le$andro played football1 first, and as a conse!uence, 1.aria went shopping. %n sentence (, 1.aria went shopping1 first. %n sentence (, 1#le$andro played football1 because, possibly, he didn2t have anything else to do, for orbecause 1.aria went shopping.1 ,ow can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses/ 3hat implications would the use of 1yet1 or 1but1 have on the meaning of the sentence/ COMPLEX SENTENCE # complex sentence has an independent clause $oined by one or more dependent clauses. # complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. %n the following complex sentences, sub$ects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas +when re!uired- are in red.

#. 3hen he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. &. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. (. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. 4. #fter they finished studying, 'uan and .aria went to the movies. E. 'uan and .aria went to the movies after they finishedstudying.

3hen a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences # and 4, a comma is re!uired at the end of the dependent clause. 3hen the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences &, (, and E, no comma is re!uired. %f a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences &, (, and E, it is wrong. )ote that sentences 4 and E are the same except sentence 4 begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and

sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent clause in sentence 4 is re!uired, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. %n sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. COMPLEX SENTENCES / ADJECTIVE CLAUSES inally, sentences containing ad$ective clauses +or dependent clauses- are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. The sub$ects, verbs, and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences, and in these sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined.

#. The woman who called my mom sells cosmetics. &. The book that 'onathan read is on the shelf. (. The house which #braham Lincoln was born inis still standing. 4. The town where % grew up is in the 5nited States.

#d$ective (lauses are studied in this site separately, but for now it is important to know that sentences containing ad$ective clauses are complex. CONCLUSION #re sure you now know the differences between simple, compound, and complex sentences/ (lick 65%(7 65%8 to find out. This !ui" is $ust six sentences. The key is to look for the sub$ects and verbs first. #nother !ui", this one about ,elen 7eller contains ten sentences. These !ui" sentences based on the short story, The Americanization of Shadrach Cohen, by &runo Lessing. 6uick 6ui"* Shadrach #fter each !ui", click GRADE QUIZ to see your score immediately. 9emember that with the skill to write good simple, compound, and complex sentences, you will have the flexibility to +:- convey your ideas precisely and +;- entertain with sentence variety at the same time< =ood luck with these exercises<

Download FREE work !""# #o !"l$ %d"n#%&' %($l") *o($o+nd) and *o($l", "n#"n*" Tran %#%on and Conn"*#or

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http://www.benjamins.com/jbp/series/Z/156/workbook/exercise_4.7_answers.html http://www.benjamins.com exercise 4.1 english Wor i!ision

The Internal Structure of Words and Processes of Word Formation in English


Answer to Ex. 4.7: Prefixation
1. "a# dis$ attaches onl% to no&n an !erb roots. 'he a jecti!es in the list gi!en are all eri!e (rom no&ns b% the a ition o( a jecti!ali)ers "$ ate* $ive* $ful* $able* $ly#. "b# "c# 'he pre(ix is class$maintaining. 'he two meanings are pri!ati!e "as in disconnect* disinfect# an negati!e "as indisharmony* disorder#. " # +ll o( these wor s in!ol!e a shi(t in the part o( speech "(rom , to -# as well as eri!ation. "e# "(# 'hese wor s all contain bo&n roots. 'he pre(ixes de$ an dis$ ma% both eri!e (rom the .atin pre(ix dis$*

or de$ ma% eri!e (rom the .atin pre(ix d$/ it is not entirel% clear. 0n an% case* like dis$* de $has the two meanings o( pri!ation "as in denude* deforest* deflower# an negation "as in denounce*deform* detract#. 'he two pre(ixes are in competition with the nati!e pre(ix un$* which likewise expresses pri!ation "as in undo* unwrap# an negation "as in unfair* unhappy#. "g#

is$

heart "4 $ no&n# $en "15 $ !erbali)er# 3

$ing "05 $ prsprt#

"12# 3 3 is$ "12# 3 is$ pro$ "12# 3

portion "4 $ no&n# $ate "15 $ 3 a jecti!ali)er# 3 $cation "15 $ nominali)er#

$l% "15 _ a !erbiali)er#

6&al "4 $ no&n# $i(% "15 $ !erbali)er# 3

"12# 3 3 is$ en$ "12 $

chant "4 $ no&n# 3 $ment "15 $ nominali)er#3 $e "15 $ a jecti!ali)er#

$s "05 $ pl#

"12# 3 !erbali)er# 3 is$ interest "4 $

"12# 3 no&n# 3

"h#

7. "a#

anti $attaches onl% to no&n roots. 'he a jecti!es in the list gi!en are all eri!e (rom no&ns b% the a ition o( a jecti!ali)ers "$al* $ic* $ar#.

"b# "c# " # "e#

'he pre(ix is class$maintaining. 'he meaning is 8co&nter* opposite* in!erse8. 'hese wor s all contain bo&n roots. 'hese wor s all in!ol!e a con!ersion* either (rom , 9 + "antiwar* antitrust* antiwrinkle# or (rom - 9 , "antifreeze* antiknock* antislip#.

"(#

'hese wor s show an allomorph ant$ o( the morpheme occ&rring with roots beginning in a !owel. :owe!er* this allomorph is not consistentl% &se in this context* as e!i ence b% antiaircraft* antiallergenic* antienzyme* anti-inflammatory.

"g# anti$ bacteria "4 $al "15 $ a jecti!ali)er#

"12# $ no&n# 3 3 anti$

perspire "4 $ant "15 $ nominali)er#

"12# $ !erb# 3 3 anti$ re!ol!e "4

$&tion "15 $

$ar% "15 $

"12# $ !erb# 3 3 anti$ commerce

nominali)er# 3 a jecti!ali)er#

$ial "15 $

$i)e "15 $

$ation "15 $ nominali)er#

"12# "4 $ no&n# 3 a jecti!ali)er# !erbali)er# 3 3 3

anti$ "12# 3

is $"12# 3 establish "4 $ !erb# 3

$ment "15 $

$arian "15 $

$ism "15 $

nominali)er# 3 a jecti!ali)er# nominali)er# 3

"h#