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Chapter 9 : November 1826, Vienna: A Schubertiade at Josef von Spauns

I. Introduction The Schubertiade o Social occasions where Franz Schubert entertained his friends with music, beginning in 1821 o Informal social eventsmall-scale, private, intimate musical experience Concept of Chamber Music o Music played by a small ensemble for a small audience o Genres and ensembles include songs, string quartets, and music for solo instrument with piano o Chamber music is meant to be enjoyable for the players (often amateurs) as well as the audience o Intimate quality, with great detail in the musical writing designed for a privileged audience

II. The Setting: Vienna in 1826 Changes in the City o Repeated occupation by Napoleons troops (180515) and political stabilization by the Congress of Vienna (181415) o Period between Congress of Vienna and 1848 revolution called Biedermeier periodexpansion of the middle class including amateur music-making at home o Public concerts were now regular events, supported by institutions such as the Society of Friends of Music o Music in private = amateur playing at home and gatherings, called salons, in wealthy households Schubert in Vienna: Franz Schubert (1797-1828) o Born and lived his entire life in Vienna o Sang and played piano and violin, becoming a choirboy in St. Stephens Cathedral at the age of 11 o Studied composition with Antonio Salieri o After graduating from the Imperial and Royal City College, began working at his fathers school but decided not to be a teacher; struggled to find eco nomic security o Composed symphonies, operas, piano music, and songs o Contracted a disease (likely syphilis) in 1823 that led to his death in 1828

o Known for his lyrical melodic style and rich harmonies Schuberts Personality and Activities o Circle of friends included poets, painters, theater people, government officials, and bureaucrats o Typically depicted as a private, friendly person whose greatest success was with intimate genres such as songs and piano pieces; did achieve some success with public genres such as the symphony o Some friends reported a tendency toward melancholy and inwardness beneath Schuberts outgoing exterior o By 1826, Schuberts illness had caused him considerable physical and mental pain Schubert and Beethoven o Schubert was a torchbearer at Beethovens funeral in 1827 o Schubert is seen as Beethovens opposite: Viennese native, grew up and lived among friends, did not have close connections to the aristocracy, much less well known

III. Schubert and Music in Viennese Culture o Music was considered a pastime, entertainment, and art o Practiced at home and played at social gatherings o Domestic genres include simple songs, vocal ensembles, four-hand piano music, and dance music o Serious genres include arias, chamber music, overtures, and symphonies performed for salons and music societies Schubertiade o Regular musical gatherings of friends and acquaintances, centered on Schuberts music o Usually at the home of one of Schuberts wealthy friends and included piano music and songs, drinking, eating, games, and dancing o No programsreconstructing an exact Schubertiade is therefore impossible Lieder o German art song is called the lied (plural, lieder) o Mozart and Beethoven composed songs, but they were not an important part of their output o The art songs of Schubert emerged from song in popular culture rather than opera o Schuberts melodies are more like folk songs than arias o Schubert composed more than 600 lieder between 1810 and 1828

o Rise of art song linked to increasing middle-class demand for domestic music, popularity of the piano Song Forms o Strophic form: text is organized into several strophes, and music repeats for each strophe o Modified strophic form: musical repetitions for each strophe include variations o Through-composed form: music does not repeat for strophes or sections of text

IV. The Music Die Forelle (The Trout) o Composed in 1817 to a text by Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart o Modified strophic form, telling a story about a trout and a fisherman but with an underlying symbolic meaning of seduction and betrayal o Piano figuration depicts the rippling of the stream o Change of mode from major to minor at the third verse, along with change in piano figuration, depicts the muddying of the stream o Song ends with an ironic return to the carefree music of the opening Gretchen am Spinnrade (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel) o Composed in 1814 to a text by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, drawn from Faust o Dramatic setting: Gretchen sits alone at her spinning wheel and thinks sadly about Faust, who has abandoned her o Piano accompaniment depicts a spinning wheel o Gretchen alternates between recalling her past and facing the present each return to the present is depicted through harmonic shifts and changes in rhythm o As Gretchen recalls Fausts kiss, the spinning stops entirely; she then returns to the refrain: Meine Ruh ist hin (My peace is gone) General Observations about Schuberts Songs o Variety of forms used: strophic, modified strophic, and through-composed o Inventive, memorable melodies o Piano treated as an equal partner o Piano figuration imitates, interprets, and comments on the poetic text o Expressive use of harmony: shift from major to minor and surprising modulations Stylistic classification of Schubert is difficult: at once Classical (like Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven) and a forerunner of Romanticism

Classical Features o Themes with balanced phrases o Traditional symphonic and operatic forms o Use of keys to articulate form Romantic Features o Fondness for miniatures, such as songs and short piano pieces o Predominance of character pieces o Music for performers of moderate ability