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GLOBAL GNS-XLS FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMPUTER BASED TRAINING PROGRAM WORKBOOK ________________________________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Operation of Selected Control Heads ...................................................1 Helpul Hints for Simulator Start-up .......................................................1-2 Suggestions for Using the Training Program .........................................2 INTRODUCTION TO THE GLOBAL GNS-XLS FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM What is an FMS? .................................................................................. 3 What does it do? .................................................................................. 3 How does it work? ................................................................................ 3-4 NORMAL PROCEDURES MODULE 1: GENERAL TERMS AND KEYBOARD FAMILIARIZATION General Terms ......................................................................................5 Keyboard Familiarization ...................................................................... 5-6 Test Gate - Keyboard Familiarization ................................................... 7 MODULE 2: SYSTEM INITIALIZATION General Information .............................................................................. 8 Entering Date and Time (GMT)............................................................. 8-9 Position Initialization ............................................................................. 9 Selecting a Stored/Company or AFIS Flight Plan to Active FPL .......... 9-10 Programming the FROM and TO Waypoints ........................................10 Normal/Abbreviated System Initialization ............................................. 11 Test Gate - System Initialization ........................................................... 12

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

MODULE 3: FLIGHT PLANNING STORED FLIGHT PLANS General Information .............................................................................. 13-14 Stored Flight Plan Information .............................................................. 14 How does the Depart (SID) Page Work? ..............................................15-17 How does the Arrive (STAR) Page Work? ........................................... 17 How does the Approach Page Work? .................................................. 18 FLIGHT PLANNING - ALL ABOUT WAYPOINTS General waypoint information ...............................................................19 Specific waypoint information ...............................................................20-21 Test Gate - Flight Planning - Stored Flight Plans ..................................22-24 MODULE 4: PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Flight Plan Section................................................................................ 25-26 Navigation Section................................................................................ 27-30 Plan Section.......................................................................................... 30-32 Test Gate - Page Highlights.................................................................. 33-34 MODULE 5: SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURES Direct To Function ................................................................................ 35 Holding.................................................................................................. 36 Heading Mode....................................................................................... 37 Test Gate - Special Functions and Procedures..................................... 38 MODULE 6: ADVISORY VNAV VNAV Operation ................................................................................... 39-40 Test Gate - Advisory VNAV................................................................... 41

MODULE 7: ACARS/AFIS OPERATIONS General Information .............................................................................. 42-43

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES

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MODULE 8: Abmormal Indications, Cause, Effect and Response General Information .............................................................................. 44-48

FINAL EXAM The Flight Plan...................................................................................... 49-51

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PC SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

Operation of the selected Control Heads: Before you can operate any Control Head it must be enlarged by moving the cursor over the desired control head then clicking the mouse button. Altitude Preselector - Click on the Control Head. To set the altitude to a lower value, move the cursor to the lefthand edge of the knob. Click or click and hold the mouse button until the desired setting is reached then release the mouse button. To increase the value, move the cursor to the right-hand edge of the knob and click the mouse button in the same manner. Mode Controller Panel (MCP) - Click on the Control Head. The AP, FD, CLIMB, NAV and ALT Modes are set automatically by the program if the default SETUP is not altered. To begin a Descent click on the Control Head then press the VNAV button to arm the VNAV Mode. Close the MCP and click on the Altitude Preselector. Set the desired altitude then close the Preselector. At TOD the airplane will automatically begin a descent. The CLIMB and DESCEND buttons may also be used independently of VNAV but the Preselector and the ALT ARM must also be set. HSI Control Panel - Pressing the HSI button will change the CDI displayed to a MAP display. The Range may be changed by pressing the RANGE UP or DOWN arrow keys. The NAV key is used to change between FMS and VOR steering modes. For further information on the operation of the simulator consult the PC Simulator Users Guide .

Helpful hints for simulator start-up: Before you turn the FMS on, click on it to enlarge it. Turn it ON then click on the FAST key located near the center, lower edge of the PC screen. This will speed up the Self Test. Turn the FAST mode off before you push the power levers forward to fly.
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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

PC SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

Helpful Hints- continued

Click on the SETUP button. If AFIS is on as indicated by the red dot adjacent to the word AFIS, turn it off. To do this, move the little airplane over the red dot with the mouse. Click on the red dot and it will disappear indicating that AFIS is disabled. Move the little airplane over the blue bar that reads SYSTEM SETUP and click the mouse button. AFIS will now be disabled. Click on the HSI. Next, click on the HSI button so that the word MAP is displayed on the HSI. Because there is no Active flight plan on the FMS yet, the map will be blank. Having the map displayed will improve your situational awareness as your flight progresses.

Suggestions for using the Training Program: Have the FMS Operators Manual available Use the PC Simulator while going through each Module and not just Test Gates. At the end of each Module and Test Gate, reset the system using the Master Reset function in preparation for the next lesson. When performing the Test Gate for each Module cover the right-hand column until you have completed the action. Check for correct Pilot Action and System Response by looking at the right-hand column.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION TO THE GNS-XLS FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

WHAT IS AN FMS? It is a small, magical, black box that has been designed to intimidate and confuse any pilot who dares to attempt to understand it................. Seriously, an FMS is primarily a computer that takes inputs from both the pilot and certain airplane systems to help guide the airplane from take-off to landing. An FMS is loaded with features that can help pilots if they understand how these features work, or confuse them if they dont. WHAT DOES IT DO? The FMS provides flight information to the pilot. The flight information provided is the same information you used to write on a piece of paper when you first started flying; information like distance to go, magnetic course, ETE, ETA and so on, only now its done automatically. It also provides steering information to the airplane that is used to guide the airplane along your flight planned route. HOW DOES IT WORK? You enter waypoints, better known as Intersections, NDB or VOR identifiers into the FMS in the order you want to fly them. You now have a flight plan. The FMS has an internal world-wide database that contains the latitude and longitude (Lat/Lon) of every published waypoint on earth. Because the database has this information, the FMS can compute a Course and Distance between any two waypoints. You can even make up your own waypoints by giving the waypoint a unique name then entering a latitude and longitude for it. Next, the FMS has to know where it is in order to provide guidance. To do this, the FMS must be initialized at the actual Lat/Lon starting point, i.e...... the airport youre departing from. Now the FMS knows its position in Lat/Lon and it knows, from the database, the Lat/Lon of the waypoints you want it to take you to. The FMS can now compute a Course and Distance from where it is to where you want it to go. An internal GPS navigation sensor is installed in the FMS. The FMS also accepts inputs from external navigation sensors like VOR/DME, VLF/Omega or Inertial Navigation Systems that it believes are internal navigation sensors. The FMS can use any one or all of these sensor inputs to update its position. For example, if the FMS uses VOR/DME inputs to compute its position, it will take the radial and distance information it receives and convert it to a Lat/Lon position.
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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION - continued

HOW DOES IT WORK? - continued You now have all this information coming to and going from the FMS. How do you get it to guide the airplane. Easy. Just push the button. The simulator program uses the NAV button on the EFIS control panel located below the HSI. In the airplane it is labeled LNAV. Whatever the label says, the only thing you need to know is that in order for the FMS to provide guidance information to the airplane, it must be selected as the navigation source. Currently, either VOR or TACAN are the standard navigation sources in the airplane. When you want VORTAC information on the HSI/CDI to steer the airplane you select NAV on the Flight Director (F/D) Mode Controller Panel (MCP). Engage the autopilot and away you go. When you want the FMS to provide information on the HSI/CDI to steer the airplane you press the LNAV button. Engage the autopilot and away you go. Its as easy as that! Unlike the VOR or TACAN which guide the airplane FROM one VORTAC TO the next, an FMS guides the airplane FROM the airplanes present position to the selected TO waypoint in the Active Flight Plan. Normally, you will not see a FROM flag on the HSI when the FMS is guiding the airplane. The secret to successfully operating any FMS is knowing what the capabilities of the system are and which section and page will allow you to perform that function. How to perform an individual function will for the most part become intuitive. To help you find the function you are looking for, the pages in each section are numbered. For example Navigation 1/4 is the first of 4 pages in the Navigation section. Now that you have completed FMS101, lets proceed to the training modules and learn the details of how to operate this FMS.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 1 GENERAL TERMS and KEYBOARD FAMILIARIZATION Page 1 of 2

General Terms: FIELD - A line of information on the screen consisting of up to 22 characters. PAGE - Individual screen displays are referred to as pages. These pages are arranged in sections and subsections much like chapters in a book. Depressing a Chapter key, formally known as a Display Selector Key (NAV, VNAV, FPL, PLAN, TUNE or D ) will bring up the first page of the section. The first press of any Display selector Key will bring up the first page of that section. Subsequent key presses will display the next page in that section. CURSOR - A yellow box placed over an active field by pressing an active line-select key. Information can be typed in the cursor. Pressing the ENTER Key will enter the data into the FMS and either the cursor will move to the next active field on the present page or the page itself will change to the appropriate page. Data blinking in the cursor indicates that the data entered has not been accepted due to an unreasonable or invalid entry. WAYPOINT - A navigation point consisting of from 1 to 6 alpha numeric characters that has a specific latitude and longitude. If an airport is identified as an ICAO airport, the ICAO identifier must be entered when using an airport as a waypoint. ICAO airports in the continental U.S. begin with K. Appleton is an ICAO airport and is identified as KATW. Keyboard Familiarization:
ON

A momentary press will turn the system on. A 40 second Self Test will begin upon depressing the ON Key. If the display has been dimmed, momentarily depressing the ON Key will bring the display to full bright. Pressing and holding the ON Key for more than 3 seconds will turn the system Off. Line Select (LS) Keys are used to bring the cursor on a page so that data may be entered. They are referred to as LS 1 through 5 Left or Right, i.e..... LS-1L, LS-5R etc. A LS key is active when a small white chevron can be seen on the screen adjacent to the active key. Each key covers 2 lines of data. The second or third key press will remove the cursor from the display.

ENTER

Will load data into the computer when data is keyed in the cursor box. It may be used in lieu of LS keys to cycle through active fields on certain pages when the cursor is on the page. In certain cases the ENTER key automatically cycles the display back to the page where data entry began.
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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 1 GENERAL TERMS and KEYBOARD FAMILIARIZATION Page 2 of 2

MSG

Allows the operator to view FMS messages. The first press brings up the System Messages page, the second press brings up the Sensor Messages page. If no Sensor Messages exists, the Sensor Messages page will not appear. A message alert light will illuminate when an appropriate message is present. The message pages should be checked prior to selecting a flight plan to insure that the database is current and no systems problems are present.

PRV

Will page the display backwards through a Section or Subsection. The display pages will remain in a loop in the selected Section or Subsection.

NXT

Will page the display forward through a Section or Subsection. The display pages will remain in a loop in the selected Section or Subsection.

BACK

Is a multi-function key. When the cursor is on a page and data is being entered in the cursor, individual letters or numbers can be erased. They will be erased from right to left similar to the way a Back Space key works on your computer. In certain cases, if the cursor is placed on the page where data already exists and the BACK is pressed the data will disappear but will not be erased unless an Erase prompt appears and the ENTER key is pressed. Pressing this key under certain conditions will change what is displayed in the Plan section. In the Flight Plan sections it can be used to delete waypoints. In the Navigation section, it can be used to change CDI scaling, select and deselect sensors or display altitude constraints. We will go into more detail on the BACK key when we get to the particular section. The bottom line is that if youre not sure what to do next, put the cursor on the page and press BACK. When the cursor is not on a page and more than one page exists in a section, it can be used to page backwards to previous pages of the section. If you are in a subsection, it will take you to another subsection or back to the main section. You will see how this works when we get to the Flight Plan and Sensor Subsection pages.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

TEST GATE MODULE 1

KEYBOARD FAMILIARIZATION

Page 1 of 1

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. Pressing the ON key turns the system on. The system will complete its Self Test and display the Initialization page with the cursor over the IDENT field. 2. LS-2R must be pressed twice to place the cursor over the Time (GMT) field. A third press will remove the cursor from the page. 3. Pressing the ENTER key will move the cursor from the date field to the IDENT field. 4. If the cursror was not moved to another field after the identifier was entered, pressing the BACK key will remove the last W. If the cursor was moved, pressing the BACK key will temporarily blank the data within the cursor box. In this case to change the identifier, simply type over the identifier. The new entry will over-write what was in the IDENT field. 5. The position initialization is completed by pressing the ENTER key 3 times when the cursor is over the IDENT field. 6. The second press of the MSG key will display the SENSOR MESSAGES page. 7. Press and holding the ON key for 3 or more seconds will turn the system off.

2. Place the cursor over the Time (GMT) field. Remove the cursor from the page. 3. Place the cursor over the DATE field. Without using a LS key, move the cursor to the IDENT field. 4. Key-in KATWW in the IDENT field. The identifier is in error. Remove the last W from the identifier.

5. Complete the position initialization.

6. View the SENSOR MESSAGES page without using the PRV or NXT key. 7. Turn the system off.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 2 SYSTEM INITIALIZATION Page 1 of 4

General Information: Trying to explain system initialization when data entry is required may seem lengthy and confusing. In reality, most of the entries that will be explained are rarely required. A shorter version of system initialization will be explained at the end of this module. The Initialization page is only accessible upon system turn-on. When you leave the initialization page and go to the Stored flight plan pages, the only way to return to the initialization page is to turn the system off then back on. System initialization is complete and the system is ready to provide navigation information, after the following data has been entered or verified: The system is turned on and Self Test is complete. The DATE and TIME are verified or entered. The initialization position or airport identifier are entered or verified. A Stored, AFIS or Company flight plan has been selected as the Active Flight Plan. A From and To leg have been entered on NAV page 1. The System/Sensor Message pages have been reviewed and the Database is verified current. Entering Date and Time (GMT): Normally, DATE and GMT do not have to be entered. They will remain in memory after the system is shut down. It is important however, that they are correct. GPS acquisition time, the effective date of the database and the TAKE OFF time are all dependent upon the accuracy of the date and time. Updating the DATE Press LS-2R and place the cursor over the DATE field. Use the number keys to type in the date. Two digits are always required for the day, the month and the year. To enter the date first type the day of the month, then the number of the month, then the last two digits of the year. July 4th, 1996 would be entered as 4 July 96 or 040796. Press the ENTER key to load the data and the cursor moves to the GMT field.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 2 SYSTEM INITIALIZATION Page 2 of 4

Updating Date and Time (GMT) - continued:

Updating GMT Use the number keys to type in the four digit GMT time in a 24 hour clock format. 4:35 PM will be typed in as 1635. Press the ENTER key and the cursor moves to the IDENT field where the position initialization is verified or updated.

Position Initialization: Normally, the initialization position does not have to be entered. After the system is shut down, the airport reference point (ARP) position is retained in memory. The next time the system is turned on, the INDENT field will prefill with the shut-down ARP. Updating the Initialization Position With the cursor over the IDENT field, type in the appropriate airport identifier then press the ENTER key. The airport continuation records page appears where either the ARP, a Runway or an Outer Marker may be selected. Normally the ARP is selected by just pressing the ENTER key. Pressing the appropriate LS key to place the cursor over the desired runway and pressing ENTER, will initialize the FMS position to that runway. When the ENTER key is pressed the Initialization page will again be displayed with the cursor over the Lat/Lon field. Verify that the coordinates are reasonable and press ENTER. The display will change to either the AFIS, Stored or when available, Company flight plans page.

Selecting a Stored/Company or AFIS flight plan to the Active Flight Plan: On the simulator program it may be necessary to turn off AFIS in order for the Stored flight plan to be displayed automatically from the Initialization page. This is done by pressing the SETUP button located near the lower left hand corner of the screen, then moving the cursor (the airplane symbol) over the red dot adjacent to AFIS and clicking the mouse. The red dot should now be out of view and AFIS will be deselected.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 2 SYSTEM INITIALIZATION Page 3 of 4

Selecting a Stored/Company or AFIS flight plan to the Active Flight Plan - cont.

Selecting a Stored Flight Plan to the Active Flight Plan If necessary, press the flight plan (FPL) key, until the desired Flight Plan List page is displayed. Press the appropriate, right hand LS key to place the cursor over the desired flight plan number. For training purposes put the cursor over any flight plan number and press the ENTER key. Review the waypoints of the flight plan you selected using the PRV or NXT key. Press LS-5R to bring the cursor over the SELECT prompt then press the ENTER key. The Stored flight plan has now been transferred to the Active flight plan.

Programming the FROM and TO waypoints:

This is the final step needed to initialization the system! When a From and To waypoint are established, the system computes a track between the two waypoints and can output steering information to guide the airplane along this track. Programming the FROM and TO waypoints Press the NAV key to display Navigation page 1. The cursor will be displayed over the from (FR) field with the first waypoint of the flight plan in the cursor. Press the ENTER key to load the From waypoint in the FR field. The cursor moves to the TO field where the next waypoint in the flight plan following the FR waypoint is displayed in the cursor. Press the ENTER key to load the TO waypoint in the TO field The cursor moves to the leg change mode field. Press ENTER to remove the cursor from the page and accept the AUTO leg change mode. The leg change mode will be addressed later in the syllabus.

Now that you thoroughly understand what you have just read, you will be able to initialize the system under the worst of conditions! Take heart, the next page will show you how to do the normal abbreviated version of system initialization.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 2 SYSTEM INITIALIZATION Page 4 of 4

Normal/Abbreviated System Initialization: When minimal data entry and only verification of data is required, system initialization is a breeze! The following requirements must be met before a normal initialization can be performed: The DATE and GMT must be correct. The system must have been turned off at the same airport that it is turned on. The desired flight plan must be stored in the system. The system is not configured for AFIS. Normal system initialization Press the ON key to turn the system on and wait the 40 seconds for the system to complete the Self Test. The cursor will appear over the IDENT field. After about 3 seconds the departure airport will appear in the cursor. Pressing the ENTER key will bring up the airport continuation records page that contains the available runways and outer markers. Press ENTER again. The ARP will be selected and the display will change back to the initialization page with the cursor over the Lat/Lon field. Verify that the coordinates are reasonable then press ENTER again and the Stored flight plan page will appear. If a stored flight plan exists with the same departure point as the point at which the FMS position was initialized the cursor will appear over the first flight plan number with that same waypoint identifier. If not, you will have to put the cursor over a fight plan number using a right hand LS key. Press ENTER again and the waypoints of the flight plan number you selected will appear. Review and verify the waypoints of the flight plan using the PRV or NXT. Press LS-5R to bring the cursor over the SELECT prompt. Press the ENTER key. The Stored flight plan is selected to Active and the Active flight plan page is displayed. Press the NAV key to bring up Navigation page 1 so that you can load the From and To waypoints and establish the first leg of the flight plan. Press ENTER three more times and you now have a system that is ready to take you places. When dual FMS systems are installed the cursor will move to the Crossfill (XFILL?) prompt. If you press ENTER, all the data will be crossfilled to the other system.

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TEST GATE MODULE 2

SYSTEM INITIALIZATION

Page 1 of 1

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on. Simulate an incorrect date by keying in July 4th, 1996 then change it back to the current date.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. The system turns on and completes the Self Test. LS-2R must be pressed to place the cursor over the DATE field. Key in 040796 and ENTER to display 04 July 96. Press LS-2R twice to return the cursor to the date field then type todays date in the same manner as the 4th of July was entered. 2. Pressing the ENTER key 5 times brings up the Stored Flight Plan List page.

2. From the DATE field using any number of key presses and only one of the keys on the keyboard, bring up the Stored Flight Plan List page on the display. 3. Select flight plan number 10 from the list and make it the Active flight plan.

3. The PRV or NXT is used key to cycle through the list until flight plan 10 is found. The cursor must be placed over the number 10 using the appropriate right-hand LS key. Pressing ENTER will bring up the flight plan for selection and review. Cursor over the SELECT prompt using LS-5R. Pressing ENTER will select the flight plan to the Active flight plan. 4. Pressing the NAV key will bring up NAV page 1 with the cursor over the From (FR) field. Pressing the ENTER key twiice will load the first leg of the flight plan. When dual FMSs are installed the cursor will be over the XFILL? prompt. Pressing ENTER will crossfill the data in that system to the other system. 5. Press and hold the ON key until the system turns off.

4. Complete the system initialization by inserting the first leg of the flight plan on the appropriate page.

5. Turn the system off.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS Page 1 of 9

General Information:

The database in the actual system will contain company routes. This virtually eliminates most of the requirements for flight planning. However, you still need to know how to modify flight plans. The simulator requires that the information contained in your database be manually entered, so for training purposes, you get to go through all of the flight planning process. This is where the bulk of the systems capabilities will become evident. Flight planning is a fairly involved process but its also interesting. This key allows the pilot access to the flight plan section. Except during system initialization, pressing this key will take you to the first page of the Active fight plan. Once in the flight plan section, the key may be used to page forward through the four subsections of the Flight Plan section. When you want to remain or loop in one of the subsections remember to use the PRV or NXT key.

FPL

The Flight Plan section contains up to four subsections; the Active, Stored, AFIS and Company flight plans and all of the waypoints associated with each flight plan. This is where either a Stored AFIS or Company flight plan is selected to the Active flight plan.

In this section you can build, edit or view a Stored or Active flight plan. Unlike a Stored flight plan, a Company route can only be edited when it becomes the Active flight plan. Editing the Active flight plan does not affect any Stored flight plan or stored Company route. Neither the FR nor the TO waypoint on the Active flight plan page can be edited in any way. The only place the TO waypoint can be edited is on Navigation pages 1,2 or 3.

An easy way to pull up a flight plan when the Stored Flight Plan List page is full or the List has several pages, is to bring the cursor on the page with one of the righthand LS keys, type the flight plan number in the cursor (you have to remember the number) and press the ENTER key. If youre looking for the next available flight plan on the list, press any right-hand LS key then press the BACK key. The NEXT FPL prompt and the next available flight plan number will appear. Press the ENTER key and an empty Stored flight plan will be displayed.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS Page 2 of 9

General Information - continued: Youll want to get in the habit entering the Departure and Arrival airport on the flight plan prior to accessing the Depart, Arrive or Approach pages. This will preclude having to type the airport identifier again on the flight plan.

Anytime a SID, STAR or Approach procedure is loaded on a flight plan the waypoints of that procedure will be indented one space to the right from the non-procedure waypoints. Adding or Deleting waypoints from a procedure will invalidate it, indicating that it is no longer a valid database procedure. The waypoints will no longer be indented. In the case of the Approach procedure, the Approach will be canceled.

If only one SID, STAR or Approach procedure is available at an airport all of the waypoints of the selected procedure will automatically be loaded on the SID ,STAR or Approach page.

Stored flight plan information:

No altitude, distance or ETA information is displayed on a Stored flight plan page.

What are the Five prompts on the Stored flight plan page? DEPART - Used to either change or erase a SID or select it on to the flight plan after the Runway, SID name and Transition have been entered. ARRIVE - Used to either change or erase a STAR or select it on to the flight plan after the Transition, SID name and or the Runway have been entered. APPROACH - Used to either change or erase a stand-alone GPS or GPS Overlay Non-precision Approach or insert it on to the flight plan after the Runway, Approach Type and Transition have been entered. SELECT/INVERT - Used to select the Stored flight plan being displayed to the Active flight plan. When the cursor is over SELECT pressing the BACK key will display INVERT?. IF the ENTER key is pressed the waypoints of the flight plan will be selected to the Active flight plan in reverse order. ERASE - Used to erase all of the waypoints from the selected flight plan.
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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS Page 3 of 9

Stored Flight Plan Information - continued: How does that DEPART (SID) page work? Cursor over the DEPART prompt on the flight plan page and press ENTER.

When all of the parameters are entered, the cursor is over the SELECT? prompt and the ENTER key is pressed, the waypoints of the SID will be loaded into the flight plan. Only waypoints that the system is capable of flying to are in the SID portion of the database. This means two things. All of the waypoints that are on the published SID may not appear on your flight plan and the system may not fly the full procedure. Make sure that the published SID is always available when flying SIDs.

When a SID is added to a flight plan, the flight plan may need to be edited so that the waypoints are sequenced in the proper order.

Pilot Nav and Vector SIDs are not in the database. So even though there may be a SID at an airport, if its a Pilot Nav or Vector SID you will get a prompt that says NO SIDS AVAILABLE.

When there is a published altitude constraint at a waypoint on a SID it will automatically be loaded at that waypoint from the database unless that constraint is an expect to cross altitude. Expect to cross altitudes are a part of published procedures but are not in the database.

Fields and prompts on the Departure Page Departure Airport field - If you typed the airport identifier on the flight plan, the identifier will prefill in the DEPARTURE airport field. The airport identifier may be changed here and you can view the SID at the airport of your choice.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS Page 4 of 9

Fields and prompts on the Departure page - continued Runway field - If a runway has been selected on the flight plan the Departure airport field and the Runway field will be prefilled. Pressing LS-1R twice will bring up the runway list with the cursor over the first runway in the list. Press the appropriate LS key to bring the cursor over the desired Runway. Pressing the ENTER key will load the runway identifier into the runway field.

SID field - The SID field may prefill with a SID if only one SID exists for that airport or runway. Normally the system defaults to the SID list with the cursor over the first SID in the list when the page is accessed. Press the appropriate LS key to bring the cursor over the desired SID. Pressing the ENTER key will load the desired SID into the SID field and if more than one Transition exists for that SID, the Transition list will appear with the cursor over the first waypoint in the Transition list .

Transition field - The Transition field may prefill if only one transition exists for that airport or SID/Runway combination. When more than one Transition exists and data has been loaded into the SID field, the Transition list will appear with the cursor over the first transition waypoint in the list. Press the appropriate LS key to bring the cursor over the desired transition. Pressing the ENTER key will load the desired transition into the Transition field. The waypoints of the SID are displayed with the cursor over the SELECT? prompt. Pressing ENTER will load the SID onto the flight plan.

SELECT prompt - When the cursor is over this prompt and the ENTER key is pressed the SID will be loaded on to the flight plan

ERASE prompt - When the cursor is over this prompt and the ENTER key is pressed, all of the waypoints of the SID are erased. However, the Departure airport will remain on the flight plan.

To leave the Departure page other than by selecting the SID procedure, press the FPL key or any Chapter key.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS Page 5 of 9

Making changes to the SID The easiest way to make a change to a SID is to change the data thats in the Runway, SID and Transition fields to dashed (------) lines. This is accomplished while on the Departure page by first, pressing LS-1R twice then LS-2R twice. This is done to maximize the number of options available for each field. For example, once a SID name is entered in the SID field, it limits the number of options in the Runway and Transition fields to only those runways and transitions associated with the SID name that was selected. Once all three fields are dashes all limiting is removed. How does the Arrive (STAR) page work? Operationally the DEPART and ARRIVE pages are identical. If you replace the word SID with STAR on the previous pages you will understand how the ARRIVE page works.

There are a couple of subtle differences that you should be aware of: When the ARRIVE page is first accessed and more than one STAR exists for the airport, the display defaults to the Transition field. You may choose to select the STAR instead. Simply press LS-2R and the STAR list will appear with the cursor over the first STAR in the list. If a runway is selected on the STAR the same runway must be selected for the Approach procedure. A change to one or the other procedure is required or you will be unable to load an Approach. If the STAR is erased the airport identifier will be erased from both the STAR and flight plan page even if the identifier was keyed in on the flight plan page. Like SIDs, the system may not fly the entire STAR procedure.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS Page 6 of 9

How does the Approach page work? Operationally this page works the same as the DEPART and ARRIVE pages.

After an approach is selected into the flight plan, confirm the waypoint sequencing. Waypoint editing may be required if the waypoints are out of sequence.

Upon accessing the Approach page when more than one approach is available the RUNWAY list will be displayed with the cursor over the first runway on the list. If a Circling approach is desired it may be necessary to dash (------) the runway field by pressing LS-1R then LS-2R. If a Circling approach is available, CIRCLE will be displayed in the TYPE list. Cursor over Circle and press ENTER to load the circling approach on to the Approach page. The type of circling approach is depicted in the upper right-hand corner of the display. Only one circling approach is available per airport. The one you want may not be in the database.

The best way to change an approach parameter at the same airport is to change all of the parameter fields (RUNWAY, TYPE and TRANSITION) to dashed (------) lines and start over.

Anytime an Approach is erased the airport identifier will also be erased. The approach procedure should be erased anytime the destination airport is changed. This will make flight plan waypoint editing easier.

The ++++++ field, some times referred to as a fence, that separates the Missed Approach Point (MAP) from the Missed Approach Procedure waypoint is one of the two types of flight plan discontinuities. The system will not automatically sequence to the next waypoint following the fence. You must use the Direct To feature to sequence beyond the fence. Well discuss the Direct To feature in Module 7.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - ALL ABOUT WAYPOINTS Page 7 of 9

General waypoint information: There are five main categories of waypoints. VORs, Intersections, NDBs, Pilot Entered and Offset waypoints. VORs, Intersections and NDBs are in the database and their Lat/Lon position cannot be altered. Pilot Entered and Offset waypoints are created by the pilot.

The database is designed to recognize waypoints by their unique identifiers. Thats why on some SID, STAR and Approach procedures you may see waypoints from the database that are not named exactly as they are on the approach charts.

There are several VOR and NDB waypoints in the database that have the same identifier but are located in different parts of the world. These are called Duplicate Waypoints. TRM is the identifier for the Thermal, California VOR. It is also the identifier for three other VORs located in other countries. When the identifier is keyed in and the ENTER key is pressed the Database WPT page will be displayed. If the waypoint is a Duplicate Waypoint, a country code is displayed beneath the identifier and the title line shows that more pages are available in this section.

When adding waypoints to a flight plan make sure that you are selecting the waypoint you really wanted. Usually, if the wrong waypoint is selected a gross increase in the total flight plan distance is evident.

Multiple waypoints can be loaded into flight plans. You are already familiar with this capability because the DEPART, ARRIVE and APPROACH features load multiple waypoints. There is one more way to load multiple waypoints. The database contains strings of waypoints associated with Jet and Victor airways. You can call up these airways and load a string of waypoints into a flight plan.

Waypoints can be added to or deleted from flight plans. Deleting waypoints is allowed only on flight plan pages. To delete a waypoint simply LS the cursor over it, press the BACK key, DELETE? will appear, then press ENTER. To add a waypoint within a sequence of waypoints, LS the cursor over the existing waypoint that will follow the one youre adding. This applies to the Direct TO pages as well as flight plan pages.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - ALL ABOUT WAYPOINTS Page 8 of 9

Specific waypoint information: VORs Key in the 3 letter identifier. Press ENTER to review the Database WPT page and verify the correct identifier is in view. Press ENTER again to load it into the flight plan.

Intersections Normally intersections are inserted on flight plans as part of an airway or procedure. Intersections are keyed in and inserted on the flight plan the same way as VORs.

Some intersections on SIDs, STARs and Approaches have rather cryptic names. For example, the waypoint at the beginning of a DME Arc may look like this: D259J. D, indicates this waypoint is a DME distance; 259 indicates the radial from the Arc center VOR waypoint; J indicates it is a10 mile Arc. An L, would indicate a 12 mile Arc; M, a 13 mile Arc and so on. See the operators manual for an explanation of the naming convention for other unusual procedure waypoint intersections.

NDBs NDBs require a unique entry procedure. Key in the NDB identifier then add the letters NB to the end of the identifier.

Pilot Entered Waypoints Normally this page is accessed inadvertently because a waypoint identifier was keyed in, in error. To return to the page you started from, first press LS-3R to remove the cursor from the page then press the Back key.

To enter a Pilot Entered WPT, key in the desired name. (This name cannot be in the database). First press the N or S key, key in the desired 6 numbers and press ENTER. Next press the W or E key, key in the desired 7 numbers and press Enter. If this waypoint remains in any Stored flight plan it will remain in memory just like a database waypoint.
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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 3 FLIGHT PLANNING - ALL ABOUT WAYPOINTS Page 9 of 9

Specific waypoint information - continued Offset Waypoints Offset waypoints are entered by first keying-in a waypoint identifier followed by an asterisk (*). The Offset WPT page will appear with the cursor over the Radial (RAD) field. Key-in the desired radial then press ENTER. The cursor moves to the distance (DIS) field. Key-in the distance of the offset and press ENTER. Review the coordinates for accuracy then press ENTER to return to the page you started from.

Jet and Victor Airways The waypoint preceding the Airway entry, must be one of the waypoints that makes up part of the Airway. If the preceding waypoint is not part of the Airway the Airway entry will flash within the cursor.

To enter an Airway on the flight plan, place the cursor below the waypoint that will be the starting waypoint on the Airway. Key in the Airway identifier preceded by the # symbol then J for a Jet Airway or V for a Victor Airway. Next, Key in the number of the Airway, ENTER, choose the ending waypoint then ENTER. For example, after OSH key-in #V341 then ENTER. Choose MSN as the ending waypoint by pressing the appropriate LS key, then Press ENTER. The waypoints are now loaded into the flight plan.

This was a long Module! Finally, youre ready to do some serious flight planning. Remember, most of your waypoints in the real system will be pre-programmed in the database so all youll need to do is SELECT the company flight plan to the Active flight plan. The Test Gate is long as well. Because a lot of the waypoints on the company Departures and Arrivals are not in the database as procedures, we have to enter them manually in order to fly them in this simulator. Legally, you cannot create any procedure by manually entering waypoints. All procedures must come from the database. Once you enter them on a Stored flight plan they will remain in memory even in the simulator.

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TEST GATE MODULE 3

FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS

Page 1 of 3

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on. Initialize the system position to Denver and display the Stored flight plan list page. 2. Place the cursor over any flight plan number, select it then erase it. Do this to 3 more flight plans in the list.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. Pressing the ON key turns the system on. Key in KDEN in the IDENT field and press ENTER until the Stored flight plan list appears. 2. Any LS key brings the cursor on the page. Press ENTER to select a flight plan. LS the cursor over the ERASE prompt and press ENTER. Press the FPL key to go back to the list. Do this 3 more times. 3. Press the FPL key to bring up the flight plan list. Place the cursor on the page with a LS key. Press BACK, then ENTER to bring up the working Stored flight plan. Key-in KDEN, then ENTER twice. Press LS-4L to place the cursor over the DEPART prompt then press ENTER. The SID list appears. Press LS-4L to place cursor over ROCKI2 and ENTER. The Transition list appears with the cursor over DBL. Press ENTER and Waypoints of the SID are displayed with the cursor over the SELECT? prompt. Pressing ENTER will select the SID waypoints to the working Stored flight plan. Keyin KASE. The flight plan is now complete. 4. Press PRV to return to page 1 of the flight plan. Press LS-4L to place the cursor over KASE (the waypoint that will follow the Offset waypoint). Key-in DBL, then press ENTER. Key-in 244, ENTER, 74, ENTER then ENTER again. Press NXT to display the next page in the flight plan. Press LS-1L to place the cursor over KASE. Key-in FAWP and ENTER. Key-in N391854 and ENTER then W1065446 and ENTER. Key-in MAWP and ENTER. Key-in N391531 and ENTER then W1065310 and ENTER. With the cursor over KASE press ENTER. Press LS-4L to place the cursor over RW15 and press ENTER. RW15 at KASE is the destination and the flight plan is now complete.

3. Use the procedure for bringing up the NEXT available FPL. Create a flight plan with a Departure airport, SID Transisiton and destination airport by keying-in waypoints for the following route clearance: Cleared from Denver, Rocki2 Red Table (DBL) Transition, direct Aspen.

4. Modify the Stored flight plan above and Create an Offset and Pilot Entered Waypoints by adding the following waypoints to the flight plan. Cleared after Red Table, company GPS 15 approach to KASE, via Red Table 244 radial for 7.4nm, FAWP(N 3918.54 W 10654.46), MAWP(N 3915.31 W 10653.10), RW15 at Aspen.

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TEST GATE MODULE 3

FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS

Page 2 of 3

PILOT ACTION 5. Bring up the NEXT FPL available and build a Stored flight plan from the Missed Approach Point (MAWP) for RW15 at KASE via the company missed approach procedure (MAWP, CROWS, LINDZ) .

SYSTEM RESPONSE 5. Press the FPL key until the Flight Plan List page appears. Press LS-4R if necessary to place the cursor over a flight plan number. Press BACK then ENTER to bring up the next available stored flight plan. Key-in MAWP then ENTER, ENTER. Key-in CROWS then ENTER,ENTER. Key-in LINDZ then ENTER, ENTER. The flight plan is now complete. 6. Use the procedure for selecting the NEXT FPL available (press the FPL key if necessary to bring up the Stored flight plan list. Press any LS to bring the cursor on the page. Press BACK then ENTER and the working Stored flight plan appears). Key-in KASE then ENTER, ENTER. Key-in DBL, then ENTER. Key-in 1776 then ENTER. Key-in 95 and ENTER, ENTER. Key-in LOCWP then N391845 ENTER then W1070255 and ENTER. Key-in DBL and ENTER, ENTER. Key-in KDEN then ENTER, ENTER. Press LS-5L to place the cursor over the ARRIVE? prompt then ENTER. Press LS-4R twice to place the cursor over DBL then ENTER. Waypoints of the STAR appear with the cursor over SELECT? Press ENTER to load the wapoints of the STAR into the flight plan. Press LS-3L to bring the cursor on the page then key-in KDEN and ENTER, ENTER. The flight plan is now complete. 7. Press LS-5L to place the cursor over ARRIVE? and press ENTER. Press LS-2R twice to clear the STAR and Transition fields. Press LS-4L twice to place the cursor over Larks1 in the list. Press ENTER then LS-4L to place the cursor over PUB then ENTER. Press ENTER again to SELECT? the STAR and load it into the flight plan. Use nearly the same procedure to reselect Powdr1 with a DBL transition. 8. Press LS-3L to place the cursor over KDEN (the waypoint to follow the NDB entry). Key-in EGVNB then ENTER, ENTER. The NDB is now loaded into the flight plan so that KDEN follows EGVNB. Press LS-3L twice to place the cursor over EGVNB. Press BACK then ENTER to delete the waypoint.

6. Build a Stored flight plan from Aspen to Denver based on the following clearance: Cleared from KASE, company RW33 River Departure (Offset waypoint from DBL R177.6 for 9.5nm, LOCWP N391845 W1070255), DBL, Powdr1, KDEN.

7. Mini Exercise - Change the Powdr1 Arrival on the flight plan above to the Larks1, PUB Transition then back to Powdr1, DBL Transition.

8. Mini Exercise - Load the Eagle River NDB (EGV) into the flight plan above so that KDEN follows the NDB entry. After the NDB is loaded delete it from the flight plan.

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TEST GATE MODULE 3

FLIGHT PLANNING - STORED FLIGHT PLANS

Page 3 of 3

PILOT ACTION 9. Mini Exercise - Add Thermal VOR (TRM) to the same flight plan so that KDEN follows the VOR entry. Select the TRM located in another country whose Frequency is 112.5 with a MAG VAR of 1 West. (Note that the simulator does not display the country code beneath the identifier, however the real system does). Delete TRM from the flight plan 10. Mini Exercise - Add OSH after KDEN on the flight plan you have been working with. You receive a clearance reads: After OSH cleared V341 MSN. Add the waypoints of the Airway to the flight plan. Once the waypoints are loaded, delete them. 11. Build the LDA/FMS RW25 Approach to KEGE on a Stored flight plan. The waypoints are: RLG, F058R, TALIA, IEGE, RW25.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 9. Place the cursor over KDEN if necessary using the appropriate LS key. Key-in TRM then ENTER. Press the PRV key once, to display the TRM that has a Frequency of 112.5. Press ENTER to load it into the flight plan. Now press LS-3L twice to place the cursor over TRM. Press BACK then ENTER to delete TRM.

10. Press the appropriate LS to place the cursor below KDEN. Key-in OSH then ENTER, ENTER. Key-in #V341 then ENTER again. Press LS-4L twice to place the cursor over MSN. Press ENTER and the waypoints of V341 will be loaded into the flight plan. 11. Use the NEXT FPL available procedure to bring up a working Stored flight plan. If no more flight plans are available bring up a Stored flight plan then erase it. Key-in RLG then ENTER, ENTER. Key-in F058R then ENTER, ENTER. Key-in TALIA then IEGE and load them in the same manner. Key-in KEGE then ENTER. Press LS4L twice to place the cursor over RW25 then press ENTER. The flight plan is now complete. 12. Use the NEXT FPL available procedure to bring up a working Stored flight plan. Key-in F247A, then ENTER, ENTER. Use this same procedure for the remaining waypoints. The flight plan is now complete. 13. Press and hold the ON key for more than 3 seconds.

12. Build the FMS Missed Approach procedure for the LDA/FMS RW25 Approach at KEGE on a Stored flight plan. The waypoints are: F247A, F222C, F219G, F204K, JESIE. 13. Turn the system off.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 1 of 8

FPL

Flight Plan Section:

Active Flight Plan The Active flight plan is almost identical to the Stored flight plan. The Active flight plan displays additional information such as ETA, ETE and DIS between waypoints as well as Altitude Constraints at waypoints..

Information pertaining to specific waypoints is also displayed. The Active flight plan will identify a waypoint that is a FAF, MAP or IAF. A waypoint will be identified as having a Holding Pattern (HP), Procedure Turn (PT) or DME ARC (ARC) associated with it when that procedure is programmed at that waypoint.

A Stored flight plan can be used for planning purposes but cannot be used to provide guidance until it is selected as the Active flight plan. Waypoints are loaded into the Active flight plan exactly like they are on the Stored flight plan.

The TO waypoint on the Active flight plan page can not be erased or altered in anyway. The ERASE prompt will erase everything except the FR and TO waypoint. Changes made to the Active flight plan do not affect any Stored ACARS/AFIS or Company flight plans.

If a Stored flight plan has been selected as the Active flight plan and the system initialization is complete, a flight plan discontinuity, or fence (------) will appear, when another Stored flight plan is selected as Active. Automatic waypoint sequencing stops at the fence. A fence is also displayed when a waypoint that is not on the Active flight plan is entered in the TO field on NAV page 1, 2 or 3.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 2 of 8

Active Flight Plan - continued There are two prompts in the lower right-hand corner of the screen that are different from the prompts on the Stored flight plan page. They are the ACARS/AFIS UPDATE and ETE prompts. If ACARS/AFIS is turned off in the simulator or not installed in the airplane the ACARS/AFIS UPDATE prompt will not appear.

The ETE prompt can be changed to ETA, DIS or ALT by placing the cursor over ETE and pressing the BACK key. Press the BACK key until the desired prompt appears in the cursor. Pressing the ENTER key will select that prompt. The information related to that prompt will be displayed on the Active flight plan until it is changed or the system is turned off.

When the cursor is placed over the UPDATE prompt and the ENTER is pressed an AFIS UPDATE page will appear. Fill in the appropriate data in each field. Press the ENTER key after each entry. The Actual Flight Level and Fuel Remaining fields may already be prefilled. The Cruise Mode options are either MACH i.e. (M72), Max Cruise Power (MCP) or Max Range Cruise (MRC). When all the data has been entered in the appropriate field place the cursor over the Transmit Request? prompt and press Enter.

What happens when you transmit request and what gets updated? Your current flight plan and the data you entered is sent via the ARINC network to the Global Data Center. Their computers contain the aircrafts performance specifications, the forecast temperatures and winds aloft at your altitude. Based on this data they calculate what the expected, or planned aircraft performance should be. This information is sent back to the airplane. When the airplane receives it the FMS MSG light will flash and an AFIS FPL UPDT message will appear on the SYSTEM MESSAGES page. Press the MSG key to view the message and extinguish the MSG light. Press the NAV key until NAV page 5 is displayed. You can now compare the aircrafts Actual performance to the Planned performance.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 3 of 8

NAV

Navigation Section:

Navigation Page 1 This is the page that is usually displayed during flight. All of the pages in the NAV section contain information associated with the current TO waypoint and the Active flight plan. There will be 5 pages in this section if ACARS/AFIS is installed or 4 pages if it is not.

The second line down from the top of the display normally contains the From (FR) waypoint. When a direct to function is initiated the FR will change to DIRECT. When the airplane is in a holding pattern, HOLD LEFT or HOLD RIGHT is displayed in this field. The ATA field adjacent to the FR field normally displays the time over the From waypoint. While holding, the holding pattern EXIT MODE is displayed; either MANUAL or AUTO. When flying a DME ARC the FR field changes to DME ARC. When flying a Procedure Turn, you guessed it, the FR field changes to PROCEDURE TURN. When a desired track (DTK) is selected either on this page or the FMS Heading page PSUEDO VORTAC will replace the FR field. Well go into PSUEDO (pronounced sue-dough) VORTAC a little later.

The third line down, the TO field, isnt quite as busy as the FR field. TO itself can change to PT before entering a procedure Turn or AT during a Procedure Turn. TO will change to HP when there is a holding pattern programmed at the TO waypoint. The ETA field adjacent to the TO field can manually be changed to display an altitude constraint when one is programmed at the TO waypoint. Press LS-2R to place the cursor of the ETA field. Press the BACK key and ALT? will appear. To select ALT press ENTER. The field will be dashes if no altitude constraint has been programmed at the current TO waypoint. ALT should be selected during the Approach phase of flight to improve vertical situational awareness.

Line 4, which is normally blank will supply you with lots of information at the appropriate time. Thirty seconds prior to reaching the current TO waypoint the next waypoint identifier and the ETA at that waypoint will appear in this field. At the same time in the Distance (DIS) and Desired Track (DTK) fields below, the distance and desired track to the next waypoint are displayed in parenthesis.
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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 4 of 8

Navigation Page 1 - continued PSUEDO VORTAC - When a desired track (DTK) is selected either on this page or the FMS Heading page PSUEDO VORTAC will appear in the FR field. Psuedo Vortac is nothing more that an indication that you have selected a course to intercept and fly that may not be a course between two waypoints on the Active flight plan. It is used primarily as an aid for intercepting the final approach course. To select a course to the current TO waypoint on NAV page 1, the FR field must read DIRECT. To go direct to the TO waypoint simply place the cursor over the TO field and press ENTER. The cursor will move to the DTK field. The desired course to the current TO waypoint can be keyed-in. When ENTER is pressed the FMS will provide guidance to turn the airplane and intercept the entered course, then fly via that course to the TO waypoint.

CROSSFILL - When dual FMSs are installed a crossfill (XFILL?) prompt appears in the lower left-hand corner of the screen anytime the data in one system differs for the data in the other. This prompt only appears on NAV page 1. To crossfill the data, place the cursor over the XFILL? prompt. When the ENTER key is pressed the data will be pushed over to the other system. This eliminates the need to always enter data twice. As long as nothing is crossfilled the data in each system will remain independent of the other.

LEG CHANGE MODES - The last item of interest is the white prompt at the bottom of the screen that reads AUTO. This is an indication of the waypoint sequencing mode of the Active flight plan. The field can be changed to MAN by placing the cursor over AUTO, pressing the BACK, then the ENTER key. In the MAN (manual) mode no waypoint sequencing will occur unless the pilot manually does a Direct To procedure. Anytime AUTO is displayed and the airplane passes over a waypoint the system will automatically sequence to the next waypoint in the flight plan. As a rule of thumb, AUTO should always be displayed. In certain situations, when Pseudo Vortac is selected, MAN will be displayed within the cursor. This is a cue to the pilot to decide if a leg change is or is not appropriate. Normally it is, so the field should be changed back to AUTO. Simply press the BACK key then ENTER to restore the AUTO sequencing mode.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 5 of 8

Navigation Page 1 - continued LEG CHANGE MODES continued - When is MAN appropriate? The only time it is really used is when youre instructed to intercept a radial on a heading and the intercept point is past your current TO waypoint. Once past the current TO waypoint, MAN will prevent the FMS from providing guidance to turn and intercept the leg to the next waypoint in the flight plan. This allows the system to fly the assigned heading until reaching the radial. Once the intercept is complete, return the leg change mode to AUTO. One final note. The leg change mode is not displayed while the airplane is Holding at a waypoint. This is a rather lengthy explanation of something you will rarely use but you need to at least be familiar with what the leg change mode is all about.

Navigation Page 2 CDI SCALING - The highlight of this page is the CDI scale sensitivity required for GPS approaches. It is located on the second line from the bottom of the screen. Either ENRTE, TRMNL or APRCH will be displayed depending on the phase of flight youre in. It is completely automatic, however it can be manually changed at any time. Even if it is manually changed it will automatically be changed to the current phase of flight anytime the phase of flight changes. The CDI scale criteria is : Enroute 5.0nm full scale deflection; Terminal - 1.0nm full scale deflection; and Approach - 0.3nm full scale deflection. At 30nm from the destination airport the scaling changes from Enroute to Terminal. Two nautical miles from the FAF the scaling changes from Terminal to Approach. Upon system start-up the scaling sensitivity defaults to the Automatic Mode.

SELECTED CROSSTRACK (SXTK) - This field located at the bottom of the screen, allows you to program an offset, parallel course to your current course. The airplane has to have a valid ground speed before this field is active. To program an offset, place the cursor over the SXTK offset value field, key-in an L or R, depending upon which side of the planned course you are directed to fly on, then key-in the offset in NM and ENTER. This option isnt used that often but it is available.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 6 of 8

Navigation Page 4 This page displays the FMS/aircraft position and information associated with each sensor interfaced to the system. Individual sensor information is accessed by placing the cursor over the desired sensor and pressing ENTER. Use the NAV key to page forward through the subsection and return to NAV page 4 or the NXT key to loop in the subsection. When the GPS is operating normally it is the only sensor contributing to the FMS position. The GPS sensor error field is normally colored green. Anytime a sensor is contributing to the FMS position the error field will be green. When a sensor is not contributing to the FMS position it is set in a stand by mode as indicated by the yellow colored sensor error field. In the event GPS accuracy is degraded or fails, the other sensors will be set active so that they can contribute to the FMS position.

A sensor may be deselected if its position becomes inaccurate. During a GPS Approach the VPU often times goes into Dead Reckoning (DR) because of the lack of adequate VOR signals. The FMS MSG light may become a nuisance especially in mountainous terrain. The VPU can be deselected by placing the cursor over the sensor error field, pressing the BACK key then the ENTER key. OUT will now be displayed in the error field. To reselect the sensor use the same procedure as deselecting the sensor.

PLN

Plan Section:

The Plan Section contains information that is generally used for planning purposes. This is where all of your what ifs can be done on Stored or the Active flight plan without affecting any other portion of the system. Data pertaining to the Active flight plan is available and can be altered in this section without affecting the the actual flight plan. Aircraft weight, fuel information, Take-off, Landing and Flight times can also be found in this section.

Predicted RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) availability information is located in this section. RAIM is part of the GPS receiver and is used insure that the GPS position accuracy is sufficient to meet the requirements for executing GPS approaches. The system predicts RAIM availability at the time of arrival at the destination. RAIM availability is required to shoot a GPS approach.
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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 7 of 8

Plan Page 1 FUEL STATUS - This is where the fuel on board and reserve fuel entries are made. The cursor must be placed over the REMAINING field, key-in the fuel on board and ENTER. The cursor moves to the RESERVE field. Key-in the amount of reserve and ENTER. The cursor moves to the FLOW field. If the FMS is capable of reading the aircrafts fuel flow, press ENTER and the entries are complete. A manual fuel flow may be entered if auto fuel flow is not available. This can be accomplished by placing the cursor over the FLOW field and keying-in the proposed flow. The flow field requires updating every 15 minutes. To return to auto flow, place the cursor over the FLOW field, press the BACK key then ENTER.

The system will compute the number of hours that can be flown until the programmed reserve fuel level is reached. This number is based on the present fuel flow. The Range and LB/NM fields will display data as soon as a valid ground speed is available.

Plan Page 2 When an Active flight plan is loaded and the airplane is airborne, this page contains valuable information about the Active flight plan. An A is displayed in the Trip Plan field indicating that you are looking at the Active flight plan. A Stored flight plan can be reviewed by placing the cursor over the A, keying-in the Stored flight plan number then pressing ENTER. Here is a good place to do what ifs with either the Stored of the Active flight plan.

A manual ground speed can be entered and used to determine the ETE to the TO waypoint, the ETA at the destination and whether or not RAIM will be available at the destination. A time can be entered in the ETA field by placing the cursor over the ETA field and keying-in a new ETA. A new ground speed and RAIM availability will be calculated. To return to auto ETA or ground speed place the cursor over one of these fields, press BACK then ENTER.

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NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 4 PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS Page 8 of 8

Plan Page 2 - continued To cycle the waypoints of the flight plan in view, press LS-2L twice then press ENTER. Each press of the ENTER key will sequence the next waypoint in the flight plan. At the end of the flight plan it will be necessary to place the cursor over TO waypoint and key-in the identifier of the first waypoint in the flight plan in order to return to the beginning of the flight plan. If a Stored flight plan number has been entered in the Trip Plan field an A will have to be entered there so that the system looks at the Active flight plan each time the Trip Plan page is viewed.

Plan Page 3 When an Active or Stored flight plan is loaded on Plan page 2, the system can compute fuel remaining at the destination by doing what ifs with the ground speed (GS) and fuel flow fields. A manual GS or FLOW may be entered at any time. If the REM @ field is colored yellow the fuel remaining @ the destination is less than the reserve fuel amount that was programmed on Plan page 1. Before leaving the page change the MAN entries back to AUTO by placing the cursor over the field, pressing BACK and ENTER.

Plan Page 5 This page allows you to change the DATE or GMT in case it was incorrect on the initialization page and it was overlooked. The Take-off, Landing and total Flight Time are found here. The times are input automatically through the Air/Ground switch on the landing gear.

Plan Page 6 The aircraft weight, payload and fuel on board are entered here. When the inputs are complete the system will compute and keep track of the fuel used and the gross weight. The entries are made in the same manner as the the fuel entries on Plan page 1.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

TEST GATE MODULE 4

PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS

Page 1 of 2

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on. Initialize the system position to Denver and display the Stored flight plan list page. Select the KDEN to KASE flight plan and complete the system initialization.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. Pressing the ON key turns the system on. Key in KDEN in the IDENT field and press ENTER until the Stored flight plan list appears. Place the cursor over the flight plan number associated with KDEN - KASE and ENTER. Cursor over SELECT, ENTER. Press the NAV key then ENTER, ENTER. 2. Press the PLAN key once. Place the cursor over the REMAINING field. Key in 15000, ENTER, key in 4000, ENTER, ENTER and the Hours field is filled with time to reserve. Press PRV, Plan Pg. 6 is displayed. Cursor over BOW field, keyin 74000, ENTER, key-in 6000, ENTER, ENTER. Gross Wt. field is filled with total weight. Press FPL key once, FPL page 1 is displayed. 3. Press the FAST key. Click and drag the power levers to the full forward position. LS-5R to place the cursor over the option field. Press BACK 4 times to cycle through the options. When ALT? is displayed press ENTER. When altitude constraints are available they will be displayed in right-hand column of the screen. 4. Press the NAV key twice. LS-5L the cursor over the CDI scaling field. Press BACK until TRMNL is displayed then ENTER. LS-5L again, press BACK then ENTER. The CDI scaling is returned to the AUTO mode. To enter a left 5 mi. Selected Crosstrack (SXTK), LS-5R the cursor over the SXTK field. Key-in L500, ENTER. To cancel, LS-5R the cursor over the SXTK field, press BACK then ENTER. The offset is cancelled and the airplane banks to intercept the original track. 5. Try pressing VNAV then the NAV key to get to Navigation Pg.1. LS-2R the cursor over the ETA field and press BACK then ENTER. To change it back, LS-2R the cursor over the ALT field, press BACK then ENTER. ETA will now be displayed.

2. Go to Plan page 1 and enter fuel data. You have 15000 lbs. remaining and you need 4000 lbs. of reserve. Go to Plan Pg. 6. Complete the weight entries. BOW 74,000 lbs. Payload 6000, FOB use what is displayed from previous entry. Go to Active FPL Pg. 1.

3. Mini Exercise - Press the FAST key to take the SIM out of FAST mode. Set Take-off power to get Sim flying. When the Sim reaches 20000 ft. reduce the power to idle. Press LS-5R. View all of the options in this field then select ALT.

4. Mini Excercise - Go to Navigation Pg. 2. Change the CDI scaling to TRMNL. Change it back to the AUTO mode. Now enter the parameters to fly a parallel track 5 miles left of course in the SXTK field. After the entry CLOSE the FMS screen to view the ADI banking to intercept the 5 mi. offset. Note the XTK field is increasing to 5 mi. Cancel the SXTK.

5. Mini Excercise - Go to Navigation Pg.1. Change the ETA value in the TO field to ALT. Change it back to ETA.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

TEST GATE MODULE 4

PAGE HIGHLIGHTS - FPL, NAV, PLAN SECTIONS

Page 1 of 2

PILOT ACTION 6. While on Navigation Pg. 1 do a direct TO OSH. A flight plan discontinuity is created. Verify this by looking at the Active FPL Pg.1. To remove the fence press the D (Direct) key, cursor over DBL then press ENTER. You have crossed the fence and normal leg changes will occur. 7. Check RAIM availability at the destination airport 15 minutes prior to your current ETA. Return the ETA to real time.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 6. To do a Direct TO OSH LS-2L the cursor is over the waypoint in the TO field. Key-in OSH then press ENTER, ENTER. Press the FPL key to view the fence.

7. Press the PLAN key twice to display the Trip Plan page. LS-5R the cursor over the ETA field. Key-in a time that is 15 minutes earlier than time that is displayed then ENTER. To return to real time LS-5R the cursor over the ETA field, press BACK then ENTER.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 5 SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURES Page 1 of 3

Direct To Function:

The primary function is to establish a direct course from the aircrafts present position to any waypoint. When the Direct key is pressed the Direct page appears with the cursor over the current TO waypoint. The Line Select keys are used to place the cursor over the desired waypoint . When the Enter Key is pressed the system will provide steering information direct to that waypoint and Nav page 1 will be displayed.

If a waypoint is added to the current route on this page, it will also be added to the Active flight plan. Extra ENTER key presses are required to verify the inputs when a waypoint is added here.

The Direct To function is also used to manually sequence to waypoints that are beyond flight plan discontinuities or fences. Simply Line Select the cursor over the fence to the desired waypoint and press ENTER. All of the waypoints that were behind the fence will be permanently erased and the system will provide steering information direct to that waypoint. Anytime a flight plan is modified the Direct page should be reviewed to verify waypoint sequencing and flight plan continuity.

This page has a couple of unique features. When the airplane has sequenced past waypoints on the Active flight plan they are no longer visible. Those same will be visible on this page. The last page of this section contains the 9 closest airports to the aircrafts present position. This feature can be used in emergencies or for just figuring out where you are.

If the system is in FMS Heading or FMS Intercept Mode and the Direct To function is activated the system will cancel the Heading Mode and provide steering to the Direct TO waypoint.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 5 SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURES Page 2 of 3

HOLD

Holding:

When the cursor is over a waypoint and the Hold key is pressed, holding pattern information for the current TO is displayed. Holding pattern data can be entered in accordance with the holding clearance. The Inbound course, Turn direction, Leg time, Leg distance and Exit mode can be entered. The holding data defaults to certain standard holding criteria to eliminate key pushes. Normally the only entry required is the inbound course. The letters HP will be displayed next to any waypoint that has a holding pattern associated with it.

To change Turn direction and Exit mode, place the cursor over the field press BACK then ENTER. The remaining fields require a numeric entry.

About the only field that really needs explanation is the Exit Mode. If AUTO is selected, the next time the TO waypoint is passed the system will automatically sequence to the following waypoint in the flight plan. If MANUAL is selected, the system will hold indefinitely. The Exit mode can be manipulated on NAV page 1 while the airplane is holding.

When the Hold key is pressed and no cursor is on the page the POSITION FIX page appears. This page is used to update the systems position to some known point or usually, to the GPS position when GPS accuracy is assured.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 5 SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURES Page 3 of 3

HDG

Heading Mode:

The system must have a valid ground speed to perform properly in the Heading Mode. If you feel comfortable with the simulator you may want to do a system initialization using any flight plan and fly it even before you get to the test gate.

The FMS Heading Mode is provided to eliminate the need to switch back and forth between Flight Director heading mode and the FMS to steer the airplane. In some cases its easier to switch but once you become comfortable with the FMS Heading Mode you will enjoy having it.

There are two modes available. The Heading Select and the Heading Intercept Mode. To use the Heading Select mode simply press the HDG key, key-in the desired heading, then press ENTER twice. The Nav page will appear with line 4 showing HDG SELECT and the heading you selected. The Heading Mode can be canceled using the Direct To function or by returning to the Heading page, placing the cursor over the Heading Mode field, pressing BACK then ENTER.

The Heading Intercept Mode works in a similar manner. Press the HDG key, key in the heading, press ENTER. With the cursor over the Heading Mode field, press BACK to display INTERCEPT? then ENTER. The cursor moves to the TO field. Press ENTER or select the TO waypoint. Press ENTER, the cursor moves to the DTK field. Accept that course and press ENTER. Press ENTER once more to load the intercept data and return to NAV page 1.

If a new course is selected Pseudo Vortac will be displayed on NAV page 1 after the final ENTER. If a new TO waypoint is keyed-in and it is not part of the Active flight plan a flight plan discontinuity will occur. The BACK key may be used to cycle through waypoints of the Active flight plan while the cursor is over the To field.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

TEST GATE MODULE 5

SPECIAL FUNCTIONS and PROCEDURES

Page 1 of 1

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on. Initialize the system position to Denver and display the Stored flight plan list page. Select the KDEN to KASE flight plan and complete the system initialization.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. Pressing the ON key turns the system on. Key in KDEN in the IDENT field and press ENTER until the Stored flight plan list appears. Place the cursor over the flight plan number associated with KDEN - KASE and ENTER. Cursor over SELECT, ENTER. Press the NAV key then ENTER, ENTER. 2. Press the FAST key. Click and drag the power levers to the full forward position.

2. Press the FAST key to take the Sim out of FAST mode. Set Take-off power to get Sim flying. When the Sim reaches 20000 ft. reduce the power to idle. 3. Create a standard holding pattern at the TO waypoint on Navigation Pg. 1.

3. Press the NAV key if required. Press the HOLD key then ENTER, ENTER, ENTER. HP will replace the TO prompt indicating a holding pattern is programmed. 4. Press the Direct key twice. The DIR Closest ARP page appears with the cursor over the first airport identifier on the list. Press ENTER, the airplane proceeds to the selected airport and Navigation Pg. 1 is displayed. Press the Direct key then place the cursor over the destination airport identifier. Press ENTER. The system is taking you to the original destination airport. 5. Press the HDG key. Key-in 270, ENTER, ENTER. The airplane will turn to that heading and Navigation Pg. 1 is displayed showing that you are in HDG SELECT mode. The remote FMS HDG annunciator will be illuminated.

4. Do a Direct TO the first airport identifier on the DIR CLOSEST ARP list. Now go Direct to the original destination airport.

5. Place the system in FMS Heading mode then cancel it by going Direct TO the destination airport.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 6 ADVISORY VNAV Page 1 of 1

VNAV

VNAV OPERATION:

VNAV is advisory only. This means the FMS does not output any pitch steering commands so it cannot be coupled to the vertical axis of the Flight Director Autopilot. The FMS will output information relative to vertical guidance and drive an analog vertical deviation (Vert Dev) needle on the HSI. This Vert Dev needle looks an awful lot like the ILS glide slope needle.

To keep it simple there, are three things you want to know about VNAV. One, is how to go vertically direct on a glide path or Path Descent to an altitude at a waypoint. Two, is how to program in advance, a glide path or Path Descent to an altitude at a waypoint. Three, why is the VNAV invalid.

VNAV Invalid There is no altitude constraint on the flight plan. - Press VNAV twice. Place the cursor over any line of blue dashes and Enter an altitude constraint (1000 for example). No CRUISE ALT has been programmed on the DATA page. - Place the cursor over the DATA prompt on VNAV Pg. 1. Press ENTER. Key-in an altitude (use 20,000) then ENTER, ENTER, ENTER. The crosstrack error is greater than 12.5nm. - Do a Direct TO any waypoint on the flight plan. VNAV should now be displaying some valid mode.

Vertical Direct This is the most used feature of VNAV. It is relatively easy to do and to understand. To do a Vertical Direct the airplane altitude must be above the constraint altitude. Simply press the D key. If necessary place the cursor over the desired waypoint then press VNAV. Key-in the altitude if required then ENTER, ENTER. The page will change to VNAV page 1, the Vert Dev scale will be displayed on the HSI and the Vert DEV variation is displayed on the FMS. On the ground Vertical Direct is unavailable.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 6 ADVISORY VNAV Page 1 of 1

VNAV OPERATION - continued:

Pre-programming a Path Descent to a waypoint In order for a Path Descent to be programmed, a flight path angle (FPA) must be programmed on the VNAV waypoint page and the constraint altitude must be below the airplane altitude. When a Vertical Direct is executed the FPA is automatically loaded at the time the ENTER key is pressed and the display changes to VNAV page 1. When an FPA is programmed at a waypoint a G will be displayed adjacent to the altitude constraint.

The easiest way to pre-program a Path Descent to a waypoint is to press the VNAV key until the desired waypoint is displayed on the VNAV flight plan waypoints page. Place the cursor over the appropriate identifier then press ENTER. The VNAV Waypoint page will appear with the cursor in the ALT field. Key-in the altitude, press ENTER. The cursor moves to the Offset field. If the clearance is to cross prior to, or beyond the fix the offset is entered here. Use the + key for beyond offsets then key in the distance. For prior to offsets, only the distance entry is required. The system defaults to -.

Under normal conditions, when the cursor is over the Offset field, the next time the ENTER key is pressed the cursor moves to the FPA field. Because the airplane altitude is below the altitude constraint the line select key must be pressed to place the cursor over the FPA field. Press ENTER and the Path Descent to the waypoint is programmed.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

TEST GATE MODULE 6

ADVISORY VNAV

Page 1 of 1

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on. Initialize the system position to Denver and display the Stored flight plan list page. Select the KDEN to KASE flight plan and complete the system initialization.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. Pressing the ON key turns the system on. Key in KDEN in the IDENT field and press ENTER until the Stored flight plan list appears. Place the cursor over the flight plan number associated with KDEN - KASE and ENTER. Cursor over SELECT, ENTER. Press the NAV key then ENTER, ENTER. 2. Press the FAST key. Click and drag the power levers to the full forward position.

2. Press the FAST key to take the Sim out of FAST mode. Set Takeoff power to get Sim flying. When the Sim reaches 20000 ft. reduce the power to idle. 3. Do a Vertical Direct (not a Lateral) to the next waypoint past the current TO waypoint on the flight plan. Cross that waypoint at and maintain 9000.

3. Press the Direct key, place the cursor over the appropriate waypoint then press VNAV. Key in 9000, ENTER, ENTER. If the Direct FPA is greater than 6.0 degrees the system will not go into Path Descent. If the FPA is less than 6.0 press ENTER one more time. The page will change to VNAV Pg. 1 and the VERT DEV field will start at 0 then increase because you are not descending.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 7 ACARS/AFIS OPERATIONS Page 1 of 2

General Information:

ACARS/AFIS (Airborne Flight Information System) provides integrated flight planning and performance interfaces to the GNS-XL/XLS. ACARS/AFIS interfaces with ARINC, SITA, AVICOM and Air Canada VHF networks and the Inmarsat satellite network to provide the communication link between the aircraft and the Global Data Center (GDC).

ACARS/AFIS consists of the following components: The Global Data Center, which is a computer facility that processes the data The Data Transfer Unit (DTU) is 3.5 Floppy drive aboard the aircraft. Data from disks that are inserted into the DTU can be read by and transferred to the FMS The Data Management Unit (DMU) is the on board computer that communicates and processes the information between the FMS and the GDC

ACARS/AFIS Operations: The simulator has limited AFIS capability but may be used for familiarization.

The system is very easy to use because everything is menu driven. The first AFIS page has 8 menu items. To select a menu item, LS the cursor over the desired menu item number and press the ENTER key. Key in the appropriate information then press ENTER. To transmit the information to the GDC cursor over the Transmit Request prompt at the bottom of the screen then press ENTER.

When the message is received DATA CENTER AK will be displayed on the System Messages page. When the response is received the MSG light will illuminate and a message relating to the request will be displayed on the System Messages page. Return to the AFIS Menu page, cursor over the appropriate item then press ENTER. For terminal weather cursor over the airport ID then ENTER. Read the weather on the screen. To page through the weather press the NXT or PRV key.
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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 7 ACARS/AFIS OPERATIONS Page 2 of 2

ACARS/AFIS Operations - continued

If a flight plan has been run through the GDC it will have a Recall number. Select menu item 5 then enter the recall number in the FPL - # field then Transmit Request.

When sending an AFIS MSG, enter the name of the party that the message is going to and press ENTER. Enter who the message is from (the airplane flight or N number) then press ENTER. Enter the FAX, PC or Phone number in the # field then press enter. Key-in the message as desired. If an error is made while keying in the message the PRV and NXT keys will move the cursor left of right. The ENTER or LS-2L will move the cursor down. LS-1L will move the cursor up. The BACK key will delete individual letters in the message.

The system has Pre-Departure Clearance capability. Simply key-in PDC then the airport ID then Transmit Request. To obtain ATIS at airports that are digital ATIS capable, key-in ATIS then the airport ID then Transmit Request.

Pre Programmed Messages may also be used when the same or similar messages are repeatedly sent. See Section 7 of the Operators Manual for further details.

Item 8 on the AFIS Menu is for selecting operating modes. Pressing the BACK key while the cursor is over a specific field will turn a function on or off once the ENTER key is pressed. The Back key may also be used to select AUTO, OFF or ON for a selected VHF network once the ENTER key is pressed.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 8 ABNORMAL INDICATIONS, CAUSE, EFFECT and RESPONSE Page 1 of 5

General Information:

Most abnormal indications associated with the FMS will cause the FMS MSG Light to illuminate. The associated message will be displayed on either the System or Sensor Messages page. Press the MSG key once to view the System Messages page or twice to view the Sensor Messages page.

Following is a list of abnormal indications, the cause, the effect and the response to the indications: TAS FAIL Message CAUSE - True Airspeed input to the FMS no longer exists. EFFECT - Wind direction and speed are not displayed. RESPONSE - Check that the Air Data Computer (ADC) circuit breaker (CB) is in. Reset one time if applicable.

ALT FAIL Message CAUSE - Altitude input to the FMS no longer exists. EFFECT - VNAV is Invalid. No VNAV information will be available. GPS altitude aiding is not available. RAIM will not be available if only 4 satellites are in view. Erroneous DME slant range corrections may be provided to the VPU. RESPONSE - Check that the ADC CB is in. Monitor the VPU for possible position errors. Be aware that Non-precision approach capability may be limited.

POSITION WARN>1.7NM Message CAUSE - The FMS position may not meet the Terminal area accuracy requirements. EFFECT - This is an advisory message only. RESPONSE - Use an alternate navigation source in the Terminal area.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 8 ABNORMAL INDICATIONS, CAUSE, EFFECT and RESPONSE Page 2 of 5

General Information - continued

NO RAIM Message CAUSE - Currently the GPS has insufficient satellites with adequate geometry to provide integrity monitoring. EFFECT - The FMS will switch to using all available sensors for position keeping. If NO RAIM occurs at a point greater than 2 miles from the FAF, APPROACH WARN will appear on the System Messages page and the NAV flag on the HSI will be in view.. RESPONSE - Use other means to fly non-precision approaches. If NO RAIM occurs while on the final approach course at a point greater than 2 miles from the FAF a missed approach must be executed. To pull the NAV flag on the HSI and continue using the FMS for guidance it will be necessary to press the MSG key then CANCEL the Approach using the ENTER key. If other means of navigation are available to continue the approach then a missed approach procedure is not necessary.

NO RAIM @ DEST CAUSE - The system is predicting that RAIM will not be available at the destination based on the current ground speed and ETA. EFFECT - FMS/GPS approach capability may not be available at the destination. RESPONSE - Plan on using some other means to execute a nonprecision approach. Use Plan Pg. 2 to compute when RAIM will be available. Adjust the ground speed accordingly to arrive at the destination when RAIM is available.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 8 ABNORMAL INDICATIONS, CAUSE, EFFECT and RESPONSE Page 3 of 5

General Information - continued

ACCURACY WARN Message CAUSE - RAIM has detected a range or timing error from a satellite that caused a horizontal position error. The position error has exceeded the warning threshold for the current phase of flight. EFFECT - If on a GPS non-precision approach at a point greater than 2 miles from the FAF but less than 30 miles from the airport, an APPROACH WARN message will appear and the NAV flag will be in view on the HSI. RESPONSE - If the FMS is DR use other means to navigate. Use other means to fly non-precision approaches. If APPROACH WARN occurs at a point greater than 2 miles from the FAF but less than 30 miles from the airport, a missed approach must be executed. To pull the NAV flag on the HSI and continue using the FMS for guidance it will be necessary to press the MSG key then CANCEL the Approach using the ENTER key. If other means of navigation are available to continue the approach a missed approach procedure may not necessary.

APPROACH WARN Message CAUSE - A Non-precision approach has been programmed in the Active flight plan, the airplane is at a point greater than 2 miles from the FAF but less than 30 miles form the airport and either the GPS is in DR or RAIM is not available. EFFECT - The NAV flag will be in view on the HSI . RESPONSE - If the FMS is DR use other means to navigate. Use other means to fly non-precision approaches. If APPROACH WARN occurs at a point greater than 2 miles from the FAF but less than 30 miles from the airport, a missed approach must be executed. To pull the NAV flag on the HSI and continue using the FMS for guidance it will be necessary to press the MSG key then CANCEL the Approach using the ENTER key. If other means of navigation are available to continue the approach a missed approach procedure may not necessary.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 8 ABNORMAL INDICATIONS, CAUSE, EFFECT and RESPONSE Page 4 of 5

General Information - continued

GPS DR Message CAUSE - The GPS has insufficient satellites to navigate. EFFECT - If available the system reverts to other sensors for position information. If GPS is the sole navigation sensor, the system will be in DR (Dead Reckoning) using TAS and Heading inputs to navigate. The NAV flag on the HSI will be visible. GPS Non-precision approach capability is unavailable. RESPONSE - Use other means to fly non-precision approaches. If GPS DR occurs during a GPS approach, execute the appropriate missed approach procedure using some other navigation source or the TAS/Heading inputs from the FMS.

GPS LINK FAIL Message CAUSE - Data exchange between the GPS and the CDU has failed. EFFECT - No information associated with the GPS is available. If GPS is the only sensor the FMS will be in DR. Response - Use other means to navigate. No other action is required.

SENSOR MISCOMPARE Message CAUSE - A sensors position differs from the FMS position by more than an allowable amount. EFFECT - A sensor malfunction exists and the FMS position may be in error. Response - Identify the bad sensor by checking for a poor Quality Factor, a bad HDOP or compare the sensor position to a known ground reference point. Deselect the bad sensor.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
MODULE 8 ABNORMAL INDICATIONS, CAUSE, EFFECT and RESPONSE Page 5 of 5

General Information - continued

GPS Stays in Acquisition Mode CAUSE - The GPS has experienced a momentary loss of power or low voltage. EFFECT - The screen blanks momentarily but the display returns to the same screen. The GPS goes to DR and remains in DR. RESPONSE - Turn the FMS off by pressing and holding the ON key. Turn the system on again. Go to NAV Pg. 4 and view the GPS Subsection to check on the GPSs progress. If the GPS does not return to NAV within 3 or 4 minutes turn the system off then on again. Use other means to navigate until the GPS returns.

Power Interruption Greater than 7 Seconds CAUSE - Loss of 28 volts to the system. EFFECT - The screen blanks until power is restored. When the display returns the system will go through Self Test the initialization page will appear. The Active flight plan is lost and all sensors will restart. Response - Re-initialize the system. Reload the Active flight plan. Once GPS returns the FMS position can be updated quickly using the position update procedure outlined in the Operators Manual. Update to the GPS position.

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

NORMAL PROCEDURES
FINAL EXAM Page 1 of 1

The Flight Plan:

The flight plan will be from Orange County California (KSNA) to Prescott Arizona (KPRC) via the MUSEL 5 Departure, TRM Transition, PKE, VOR Approach RW11 D259J Transition at KPRC. The SID and Approach plates for this flight plan are located in the back of the workbook.

You will receive clearances at points along the route to go Direct to a waypoint, fly a Heading to Intercept a course, program a holding pattern and fly to an Offset waypoint. There will also be a clearance to cross a waypoint at an altitude. At the end of the flight plan you will execute a missed approach at the MAP using the FMS Heading Mode and the Direct TO functions back to the missed approach holding waypoint at DRK. Finally, you will program the RNAV RW21 at KPRC and establish the airplane on course Direct To PUROO intersection. Once the airplane is established on course you are finished.

There will be quite a bit of simulator manipulation required. You will click on and close the FMS, the HSI, Altitude Preselector and the Mode Controller Panel (MCP) displays. You will also be setting the preselected altitude and arming VNAV. You will want to click to enlarge and close between the FMS and the HSI to help with your situational awareness.

The FAST key may be used to speed up the flight on some of the longer legs. Make sure you give yourself plenty of time to perform the different functions. If you get behind use the PAUSE button or the Direct To function to go back to the previous waypoint and try again.

The simulator, like all simulators, is much harder to use than the airplane. If you can do it here the airplane will be easy. HERE WE GO. GOOD LUCK!

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

FINAL EXAM

Page 1 of 2

PILOT ACTION 1. Turn the system on. Initialize the system position to KSNA and display the Stored flight plan list page. Bring up the NEXT FPL available in the list. and build the flight plan described in Module 7. Complete the system initialization. Close FMS. Click on the FAST key to turn FAST off. Click on HSI. Click on HSI button once to bring up the map mode. Click on RNG up to scale map at 20nm. Close HSI. Click on FMS. Key-in fuel and weight in the Plan section. 20,000 Remaining, 3000 Reserve, BOW 74,000, payload 6000. Close FMS. Click on HSI. Set Take-off power. After 1 minute reduce power to fly at about 190 kts. 2. After MUSEL fly Heading 030. Click on HSI. After 2 minutes Cleared Direct TRM. Hold West of TRM 234 radial, left turns 10 mile legs. Once the hold data is entered use FAST until 10nm from TRM. Close FMS, Click on HSI. 3. Before the end of the first time around the hold do an AUTO Exit from the Hold on NAV pg. 1 and proceed to the TRM 050 Radial at 30nm, then to PKE as filed. CLOSE FMS, Click on HSI. 4. Cross PKE at and maintain 16,000. Program a 3.0 FPA to cross PKE at 16,000. Leave the FMS page display on VNAV pg. 1. At TRM set the Preselector to 16,000. Click on the MCP and Arm VNAV after setting the Preselector. Click on HSI. 5. 20 miles from D259J you get a clearance to descend now to cross Dilly at 9000. Set the preselector to 9000 and Arm VNAV on the MCP. Use the Direct VNAV function to make this crossing restriction. Once the VNAV is programmed go to NAV pg. 1 and note the display. Close FMS and click on HSI then decrease RNG for a better view of the ARC. Prior to DILLY, set the preselector to 5100. Click on HSI to view the approach.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 1. The system turns on. KSNA is keyed-in the IDENT field. The NEXT FPL available procedure is used to bring up an empty, working Stored flight plan. Key-in KSNA ENTER, ENTER. LS-4L cursor to Depart, ENTER. LS-4L cursor to TRM, ENTER, Select prompt, ENTER. Key-in PKE, ENTER, ENTER. Key-in KPRC, ENTER, ENTER. LS-5L cursor to Approach, ENTER. RW11, ENTER. D259J, ENTER. Select prompt, ENTER. LS-5R cursor Select prompt, ENTER. NAV key to Nav page 1. ENTER, ENTER, ENTER. PLAN key and LS-2R data and ENTER all three fields. PRV key and LS-3R data and ENTER. Click and drag power levers to full power 2. Click on FMS. HDG key, key-in 30, ENTER, ENTER. Direct key, LS-4L cursor over TRM, ENTER. LS-2L cursor TRM on NAV pg. 1. Hold key. Key-in 054,ENTER. LS-3R cursor RIGHT, BACK key, ENTER. LS-4R cursor LEG DIS. Key-in 100, ENTER, ENTER. 3. For AUTO exit, LS-1R cursor MANUAL, BACK, ENTER. LS-2L cursor PKE. Key-in TRM , ENTER. Key-in 50, ENTER, 300, ENTER, ENTER. TRM is followed by PKE in the flight plan. 4. VNAV key twice. LS-2L cursor PKE, ENTER. Key-in 160, ENTER, ENTER, 3.0 ENTER, ENTER. Verify G to the right of 16,000 indicating a glide path is programmed.

5, After the preselector and MCP are set Direct key LS-2R, VNAV, ENTER. The direct FPA has been programmed, the system is in Path Descent mode and Vert Dev is displayed on the HSI.

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FINAL EXAM

Page 2 of 2

PILOT ACTION 6. At 11PRCB, execute the missed approach procedure. Set go-around power and the Preselector to 9000, MCP to Climb mode then Climbing left turn back to DRK and Hold. Climb maintain 9000. Use the Heading Mode to start the left turn then the Direct TO function. Click on HSI. 7. After entering the Hold click on FMS. Select the RNAV RW21 approach at KPRC. When the approach has been entered successfully and the airplane is proceding on course you will have completed the Final Exam.

SYSTEM RESPONSE 6. Preselector set 9000. Click on FMS. HDG key, key-in L300, ENTER, ENTER. After established in the turn, press Direct, then ENTER, ENTER then hold at DRK.

7. FPL key,LS-5L twice, ENTER. LS-1R, LS-2R twice, LS-1R. LS-3L cursor, ENTER. Select prompt ENTER. When inbound to DRK, Direct To key, LS-2R cursor DRK, ENTER. Thats it!

CONGRATULATIONS!!!

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GNS-XLS TRAINING PROGRAM

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Before beginning make sure that AFIS/ACARS is turned off (red dot not showing) on the SETUP screen of the simulator. Once the system is initialized, all actions will begin from NAVIGATION Pg. 1. Read each instruction carefully then perform the required task. The number of key presses required to accomplish each task is the same as the number of blank keys shown after each instruction. Fill in the empty keys with the appropriate key label in the order the key presses must occur. Pressing the same key more than once may be required and counts as another key press. In this case, fill in the next blank key with the same label.

Turn the system on. Key-in KSNA in the IDENT field. Complete the position initialization. Use the PRV or NXT to cycle through the Flight Plan List until you find the KSNA to KPRC flight plan. (This flight plan should be in the flight plan list from previous workbook exercises. If it isnt in the flight plan list, refer to the Final Exam in the workbook for the flight plan then load that flight plan in the system. Line Select the cursor over the KSNA to KPRC flight plan number press ENTER, then cursor over the SELECT prompt and ENTER. Press the NAV key then ENTER, ENTER. On the simulator the FR field on the FMS should be displaying KSNA. The TO field should be displaying MUSEL.

INSTRUCTION 1 - Add a Holding Pattern (HP) that will have a Direct Entry, at the current TO waypoint on the Navigation Pg. 1 2 3 4

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 2 - Using the Direct TO function, go Direct To the current TO waypoint and cancel the HP at the TO waypoint.

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 3 - Insert an Offset waypoint between TRM and PKE. Designate the Offset Waypoint as the PKE 285 degree Radial at 22 NM.

FPL

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12

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 3 - CONTINUED

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Go to NAV Pg. 1

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 4 - Change the Approach at KPRC from the VOR RW11 to the RNAV RW21.

LS-1R

LS-1R

10 Go to NAV Pg. 1

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 5 - Check the simulator SETUP and make sure that the A/P is selected Auto On so that the airplane will take-off and climb. Push the power levers forward for take-off. Once HEMET is the TO waypoint, you receive a clearance to fly a 20 degree heading to intercept the TRM 280 Radial, TRM, flight planned route. Accomplish an FMS Heading Intercept to comply with this clearance. Change the MAN leg change mode back to AUTO after completing the Heading Intercept. You may go to FAST Mode until 20 miles from TRM then go back to normal and proceed to the next instruction. 1 2 3 4

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 6 - 15 miles West of TRM you receive a clearance to descend now to cross 20 miles East of TRM at 14,000 FT. Accomplish a Vertical Direct To TRM+20 at 14,000 FT. Use only 3 digits when entering the altitude.

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Return to NAV Pg. 1

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 7 - Change the time in the TO field on NAV Pg. 1 to ALT.

Instruction 8 - After passing TRM you receive a clearance to proceed after PKE, via V135 EED, flight planned route. Add EED to the flight plan via the Airway.

FPL

GNS-XL/XLS FINAL EXAM


Instruction 8 - CONTINUED

THE END