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Australia and the World:

Australian citizenship and identity: Citizenship and Unity Civic definition of Citizenship, on terms of civic responsibilities and duties rather than based on ethnicity. (broader sense) Australian constitution was more concerned with power of governments than rights and obligations of citizens. There was no definition of citizenship in the constitution, nor protection for human rights. Citizenship Council: Thought to overcome worries by focusing on core values all could share irrespective of diversity. Such as commitment to the land, rule of law and equality under the law, principles of tolerance and fairness, to acceptance of cultural diversity, well-being of Australians, and the unique status of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders Argued the way to achieve social cohesion was via the engagement and negotiation of difference, and as in the statement on racial tolerance, the recognition of rights Citizenship has been argued to be the common bond within Australia. (Kevin Rudd believes it binds us together, Julia Gillard believes it doesnt) Multiculturalism may differentiate us but we all share the same responsibilities attached to Australian Citizenship. However, has not always been a common bond, for example: Women have had the same legal status as men but not the same rights as they were perceived as the weaker sex. Historical aspects of gender still remain and influence society today. White feminists expressed their demands within a rhetoric of citizenship (voting) They saw equality in political and economic, moral standards, bodily inviolability, and protection of married womens nationality Gained to vote in 1902 under the Commonwealth Franchise Act Aboriginals were excluded from the census, their lives were controlled and they did not have rights. Recognition of native title in the Mabo and Wik decisions of 1992 and 1996 has been the most fundamental challenge to Australias legal system because it displaces the basis of settle sovereignty over Aborigines Should they wish to be free of state control, they could apply for exemption from the Act Exemption required total rejection of their Aboriginality (allegiance to kith, kin and culture) 1967 referendum: Non-Aboriginal Australians voted to remove two discriminatory clauses from the constitution: Were to be counted in the census and the Commonwealth was given the power to make laws on their behalf. Nowadays, what binds us together is: That ethnicity and culture are no longer the basis as there is no Australian Race. Loyalty to a set of civic values. Rule and Equality of the law. Representative democracy. Acceptance, tolerance and fairness. Our Identity: ANZAC Day, beach, bush, Melbourne Cup, Cricket, Sport, Hot

Westminster System Westminster System: System of government where the government is formed by a majority of members of an elected parliament and is responsible to that parliament. Instead of: Absolute monarchy (now defunct) Presidential system, where the executive is separate from the legislature e.g. USA

Mixed system e.g. France Key features of the Westminster System in Australia: Bicameral: two houses of parliament upper (the Senate) and lower (House of Representatives). Separation of Powers: judiciary, armed forces and public service are (theoretically) separate from the government. Figurehead as head of state. Dominance of two political parties. Parliament legislature makes the nations laws and also controls the budget. The executive arm of government is the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Magna Carta (1215): Document accepted by King John of England contains a series of laws establishing rights of English barons and major landowners limiting the authority of the king No large increases in taxations without the consent of parliament, no person to be imprisoned without a trial Medieval Government: Feudal monarchs couldnt rely on their nobles, so they needed to raise taxes and make laws Parliaments were used to do this Existence of a common law, administered by travelling judges appointed by the king Citizen participation military duty, jurors etc 16th Century Parliament: Power grew under Henry VIII, as parliament decided monarch and the two worked together. (16th century) 17th Century Parliament: English Glorious Revolution, 1688 affirms Parliaments supremacy by overthrowing Charles son James II, and appointing a new monarch Spread of Westminster, there was no written English constitution. The Rights of Englishmen to justice (fair and impartial) and representation (parliament make and levy laws). American Revolution (1776): Wanted The Rights of Englishmen Due to contradictions between colonial representative government and imperial power Early NSW governments were autocrats. Emergence of Councils to advise governors from1823 in NSW NSW Legislative Council has 24 elected members (out of 36) from 1842 End of transportation of convicts from 1840 and the creation of a free society Colonial responsible government in Australia 1856-1900 British governors replaced by elected premiers as heads of government. No political parties until the late 1880s Reasons for Federation (with Westminster System) Strengthening of defence capabilities due to invasion fears by European powers. Harmonisation of each jurisdictions immigration restrictions. Emerging nationalism due to improved transport and communications and increase in native born Australians. Federation was not a great national movement and was not a popular cause. Politicians were always more enthusiastic than the people. NSW, with free trade policies, was not very enthusiastic about Federation. NSW premier Henry Parkes started the movement in Tenterfield in 1889

9 July 1900: Australian Constitution signed into law by Queen Victoria Federation achieved January 1901.(not freedom, strengthened Australias role in the British Empire) 1931: Statute of Westminster 1942: Australia ratifies Statute of Westminster 1986: Right to appeal to the Privy Council abolished Westminster system of government is a central inheritance from Britain and a legacy of being a British Colony Australias distinctive features that distinguish our political system from Britain: Elected upper house, white un iversal suffrage from 1901 and compulsory voting Aboriginals: Turning point for Aboriginals in that it extinguished a promised path to citizenship (Patricia Grimshaw) At Federation they were written out of the nation altogether and denied to vote unlike women in 1902 under the Commonwealth Franchise Act Constitution said they were not to be included in the national census Citizens without rights Subject to constant surveillance and policing, were held captive by the state State-initiated protection and later welfare laws controlled their residence, marriage partners, work and pay, movement, mode of living, family relations, even death Not until 1950s that they could benefit from the full range of social rights

Before the British: Aboriginal Australia and Asia: Prehistory: Prehistory: before events were actually recorded. Navigated Trade with places such as china (200 years before the British) Spoke several different languages which represented their isolation from each tribe Despite being a young nation, Australia has had a long history. Macassans from Sulawesi 1667-1907 came to Raffles Bay in the North for trepan (sea slug) which the Chinese believed to be an aphrodisiac. They interacted with the Aborigines. Evidence of this includes: Archaeological artefacts (Aboriginal painting of a Macassan prau) and their influence on Aboriginal language (balanda: White man) Flinders expedition: He discovered indicators of foreigners being present in the North: Chinese-style palm leaf hats Discovered every year the Chinese took the Australian cost for trepan (sea slug) which is on the cost of Marege.

Settlers, Convicts and Aborigines: Aboriginals in early Australia: All people born in Australia, including Aborigines became British subjects from the moment the Crown assumed sovereignty in 1788. Aboriginals were effectively written out of the Federation all together. Quest for equal citizenship was the dominate Aboriginal struggle in the 20th Century. Aboriginals were citizens without rights. Not until the late 1950s were the Aboriginals able to benefit from the full range of social rights. 1967 Referendum: Marker of Aboriginal Citizenship: Counted them in census. Commonwealth could make laws on their behalf. Protectionism: Was a popular ideology at the time: Ranked races on a hierarchy.

Aboriginals were seen as primitive, their lives were then controlled and regulated. Seemed as a backyard race who were doomed to extinction.

Assimilation: Aboriginals were forced to adopt and learn white culture in hopes to socialise them into white Australians. (Stolen Generation) Integration into a white family, as were seen to have a better up bringing To develop sameness and homogeneity Migrants were expected to leave their old cultures and allegiances behind and absorb the Australian way of life Reasons for settlement: A dumping ground for convicts. Trade opportunities in the region, particularly flax and hemp. The potential for whaling in the Pacific. Strategic and political advantage.

Penal Colony and Early Settlement: From 1901 to 1948: No Australian Citizenship Australians were British Subjects from the moment the Crown assumed sovereignty in 1788 Being British Subjects was seen necessary for Australias defences against potential threats within and without Travelled on British Passports From 1948 to 1984: Australians were both Australian and British The Australian settler colony had foreign power that sent its own subjects to live there. Settler colonies must dispossess indigenous populations (and will usually exploit them as well). For example, Terra Nullius or the doctrine that native people who did not cultivate land did not own it. Settler societies once were British, but nowadays have their own nationalities. 20th Century: Principal source of unity was social exclusion.

Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948: Concerned with the naturalisation of non-British migrants, mostly refugees and others from war-torn Europe Subjects/Citizens VS Preferential treatment Aliens (enemy) During WW1 Demand assimilation

Seen as dangerous Immigration assisted or otherwise has played a crucial part in peopling Australia. Dual citizenship until April 2002, Australian citizens were prevented from holding dual nationality, automatically forfeiting their citizen status upon naturalisation in another country Colony: Has foreign rulers, no need to be settled by the ruling power Settler colony: Ruled by foreign power that sends its own subjects/citizens to live in the colony Dispossession: Colonies would exploit indigenous populations however not necessarily dispossess them Settler colonies must dispossess indigenous populations (usually will exploit them) Terra Nullius: People who didnt cultivate land did not own it

Non-British Europeans

White Australia: White Australia Policy was dominating from 1901 to 1970s, arising with Federation. Pauline Hansen: Advocate for white policy as didnt like multicultural raciest

Former Liberal Party candidate Howard never spoke up about the issue but got lower people to get rid of her

Australia, War and the British Empire: Arrival in 1788 Convicts up until 1867 SA only colony founded solely on labour from free settlers rather than convicts

Empire Loyalty: No Australian citizenship until 1949:Australians were British subjects Australian support in British wars till the end of Empire: Sudan 1885 South Africa 1899-1902 Boxer Rebellion, China 1900 Malayan Emergency (1955-1960, military commitment s till) Confrontation with Indonesia in North Borneo over establishment of Malaysia, 1962-66 Economy and the Empire: Imperial Tariff Preference from 1907 Ottawa Agreement 1932 Trade agreements Trade Diversion Policy of 1936 (Offended both US and Japan)

World War I: (1914-1918) Following the war there was a heightened consideration of the Aborigines place in the nations future due to concern of a rise of a mixed-race population 67,000 dead 23 women died Over 60,000 men were killed Were involved because the British, most Australians at the time wouldve seen themselves as British at the time Largely voluntary World War II (1939-1945) Almost a million Australians were killed in the AIF Over 30,000 Australian servicemen were taken prisoner Pacific War Impact The US, Japan and China became increasingly important as our only real effective allies or serious potential enemies due to our location Fall of Singapore (15th February 1942) remains the most important date for Australian foreign policy and development of Australian identity Malayan Emergency 1948-1960 Malaya becomes British protectorate 39 Australian servicemen killed Partly a Cold War issue Conflict between communist guerrillas and British Commonwealth forces Were seeking to overthrow the British colonial administration in Malaya

Australia and the Cold War in Asia: Cold War: 1945-1991 after WWII

Rivalry between the US and USSR however not physical. The Soviet Union determination to dominate Eastern Europe which Stalin thought Churchill and Roosevelt accepted at Yalta (1945) Victory of the Chinese Communist Party, October 1949 Soviet Union and America distrusted each other despite being allies during WWII Fear of communist attack Russias fear of Americans atomic bomb Russias dislike of capitalism

SEATO: Treaty with Southeast Asia Treaty. 1954 To block further communist gains in Southeast Asia The Domino Theory of communism spreading to our shores Domino Theory: all countries would fall to communism Flaws: Rested on assumptions, imagined communist in Vietnam were puppets of China and Soviet Union Protect national interest in national shores before it comes to Australia The fall of South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia to communist regimes in 1975 didnt provoke a domino crisis

Vietnam War: Australia wanted to lock USA into the region, to escalate its involvement in the Vietnam War 1949 Indonesia received independence and wanted back there territories such as West Guinea but the Dutch wanted to keep Guinea for a bit longer which Australia also wanted. Australia was scared that this dispute would clash and go across the border. America backed off for their economic interest as they were afraid if they took aside Indonesia would nationalise there oil companies. War 1: Struggle for Vietnamese independence from France Australias policy in Vietnam closely followed the lead of the US War 2: Australian troops were recruited through conscription based on a birthday ballot This caused political issues in Australia from 1966-1972 ASEAN from 1976 an alternative to SEATO, but without the Western powers. ANZUS Security treaty between Australia, New Zealand and US Not guaranteed protection as they would all consult each other to see if necessary (From article III of the ANZUS Treaty) Signed in 1951 Made for protection For preparations against Japan

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Each country would have to come to the defence of the others in the event of attack Is what ANZUS attempted to be

Australia and Globalisation: Globalisation is the closer integration of countries and people of the world, brought about by enormous reductions in the cost of transport and communication which breaks down barriers to allow the flow of goods, services and knowledge, killing off the meaning of distance. (Joseph Steiglitz, 2002)

Cultural/social: Cultures becoming more alike. Increased movement of people migration and tourism

Growth of international subcultures Spread of disease and plagues New ways of living Homogenisation of fashion and taste Internet as an open global phenomenon Americanisation, Mcdonalisaition Loss of cultures, identities and languages Heterogeneity: Clash of civilisations, multiple identities

Economic: Economically rely on other nations as they impact on Australias economy, also opens economic possibilities. Freer trade and even level of playing field Closer linking of all worlds economies Growing international specialisation and division of labour Growth of global markets in finance Opportunity to buy and sell in any country Political States are less able to control the social, economic and cultural processes within their territory. Liberal economic norms = Liberalisation, free or freer trade, privatisation, deregulation UN, European Union have growing influence Drivers of globalisation: Improvements in transport and communication Internationalisation of economic activities Political liberalisation Travel/transport times e.g. Sydney to Brisbane by sailing two weeks in 1835 in 2005 85 minutes by plane Calling centres in South Asia Hardware factories in China Pros and Cons: Political: + Weakens power of authoritarian governments. Unwanted external influences difficult to control Economic: + Jobs, capital, more choices. Exploitative benefits uneven Cultural: + Offers exposure to other culture. Risks cultural imperialism For: Lowered tariffs as a result exports have soared, wages in export sectors have increased around 25%, manufacturing has doubled its share of Australias exports over past 20 years Against: Australian mining and forestry companies are involved in extracting wealth from countries such as Papua New Guinea, Iran, put farmers out of work from commodity exports, Australian Government has failed to include environmental and labour protection clauses in WTO agreements Why did the Australian Government become more attentive to Asian region during late 1960-1970s? US started to withdraw troops from Asia 1969 as well as UK For our security system Australia thought we should strengthen ties with them and stop seeing them as threats but become friends Development at economies of Asian neighbours were doing well and if we strengthened ties it would be good for us Security with other nations. What happens around the world becomes everyones concern: widespread media. Improvement in communication, transportation and technology.

Multilateral initiatives:

Security Cooperation: ANZUS, Fire power defence, arrangement, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Proliferation Security Initiative Regional Institutions including: APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) International Institutions including: UN,WTO, IMF (International Monetary Fund) Aims of Paul Keatings Asian engagement project? Transformation as our neighbours historically werent our strongest connections Should liberalise of trade, to open up trade, tariffs Transformation: View ourselves more independent and cut ties with Royal family, come republic, change our flag Australia and the USA: ANZUS Treaty September 1951 Cold War Australia needs America, or at least feels it does. Australia has only a fraction of US military strength. America has always been vastly more important to Australia than vice versa, although Australia can be very USEFUL to the US, militarily and diplomatically. Australia will continue to seek a strong alliance with the US, even if that means politically unpopular decisions. Only by seeming so loyal can Australia win and keep Americas attention. It works, and works well, even if at times Australians feel it a bit humiliating. The benefit for Australia is the feeling (and possibly the reality, but make your own judgements) of enhanced security.

Consider the historical background to Australias relations with America: Colonial Contacts to 1900 American vessels first foreign ship to trade at Sydney in 1970s Migration between the two during Gold Rushes, 1850 Political relations and great white fleet, 1908 Australian hospitality was generous in the extreme Australian and US motives for the visit: We wanted security, US wanted influence, Deakin used the US fleet to put pressure on Britain to get Australias own navy It was a triumph of Teddy Roosevelts expansionary US policy Vice Admiral Creswell believed, The existence of Australia will depend on the goodwill of America Meaning in event of war between America and Britain WWI: W.M. Hughes and Woodrow Wilson were in constant conflict at Paris, 1919 over American idealism and Hughes savage realism. US entered World War I 3 years after it began, in 1917, to Australian disgust WWII: Over a million US servicemen and women served in Australia in WWII, including two future Presidents. WWII Economic relations to here: Note: there was NO formal alliance between Australia and the US during World War II The Trade Diversion Policy, May 1936, aimed to encourage trade within the British Empire by imposing quotas and bans on imports from elsewhere Worked against the US (bad trading partner) and Japan (good trading partner) In general, despite cultural similarities and growing US cultural influence (eg Hollywood) US-Australian relations were hostile in the inter-war period Both produce raw materials and both were industrialising. This conflict is still real.

WWII Economic relations since here: In the post-war period, although Australia and the US have had a close political relationship, they remained economic rivals, especially in farm exports such as meat and grains Australia has always imported far more from the US than it exports to the US, mostly industrial products. Free Trade Agreement of 2004, which opened both countries to each others products without tariffs But export quotas remain on Australian farm exports to the US. Its a good deal for both countries manufacturers, but a bad deal for Australian farmers. Under the agreement the US has become the second biggest importer into Australia in 2010 with 11.25% of imports (after China with 17.94%). However, the US is only Australias fifth biggest export market taking just 4.95% of exports in 2010 (betwe en India on 7.51% and the UK on 4.95%). Economic relations since 1920s Power Australia needs America, or at least feels it does. Australia has only a fraction of US military strength. America has always been vastly more important to Australia than vice versa, although Australia can be very USEFUL to the US, militarily and diplomatically. Australia will continue to seek a strong alliance with the US, even if that means politically unpopular decisions (like Vietnam, Howards decision to invade Iraq, or staying the course in Afghanistan). Only by seeming so loyal can Australia win and keep Americas attention. It works, and works well, even if at times Australians feel it a bit humiliating. The benefit for Australia is the feeling (and possibly the reality, but make your own judgements) of enhanced security. Hugh White believes Australia has to achieve an equidistance, shouldnt side closely with both countries, Shearer doesnt share this view, he thinks we should choose and that we did long ago and should get closer to US for growing threat of China, spread of specific military weapons and power David Walton: We should stand up for our view, if not we will compromise our nation state De-facto integration: Combination into a trade. Our armed forces are losing its independence and coming one with the US Army If something bad happens US will cut off everything and hardware, benefits, freeze things punishment will suffer

Security in Post-War World: Australia wanted the US to keep the Manus Island base in New Guinea in 1946, but the US was happy with Guam, Okinawa US-Australian Differences over the Communist threat to 1949 Australia was more relaxed Patterns of alliance in the ANZUS era: 1. During Cold War, 1951-1990. 2. Since 1991 ANZUS during Cold War 1951-1990 The US always pursued its own interests even if these were not in Australias. eg. The US supported Indonesias annexation of Dutch New Guinea through the 1960s, which Australia then opposed. 1950s: main US concerns were in Europe, Australia largely irrelevant 1960s: main US concerns in Asia so Australia was very relevant: Australia was the second biggest US arms customer in the 1960s (after West Germany) 1970s: the era of dtente: Australia less relevant ANZUS since 1991 1990s: the Middle East becomes the main focus of US policy, so Australia again very relevant. Australias role in supporting US policy in the Middle East from 1990 has been similar to its role supporting Britain in the same region from 1885 to 1941. Hence commitments to Gulf War 1990, Occupation of Afghanistan from 2002, Invasion of Iraq 2003. Howard invoked ANZUS in September 2001 against the Taliban following attacks on NYC (reverse of expected). Pro-US policy was closely identified with PM John Howard (1996-2007) but Labor always follows similar policies.

Australia has largest non-NATO contingent in Afghanistan. Obama reorienting US emphasis from the Middle East to East Asia, making Australia even more important, hence 2000 US marines stationed in Darwin and possible US aircraft carrier fleet base in WA. Effectiveness for us: Training facilities, more taxes, less money on military (saving money), US is more powerful then the next five combined

Australia and Japan: Japanese have a high opinion of Australia, is one of the most trusted nations and popular tourism. We have the highest ratio per capita of students studying Japanese language in the world, common fondness for surfing Common interests: Nuclear disarmament, improving relations with China, ensuring continuing US commitment to East Asia, positive engagement with Southeast Asia (Indonesia), stabilising the South Pacific through aid programs, stabilising Afghanistan

Economic: 450,000 Australian jobs are directly tied to the trade relationship Japan is now Australias second largest export market. (In 2008 China replaced Japan as our No 1 overall trading partner and as No 1 export market in 2011.) Free Trade agreement Political relationship: US alliance and global agenda (Iraq and Afghanistan). Australian Troops provided armed security for unarmed Japanese sappers in Iraq Japans first post-1945 military deployment Promotion of free trade and shared desire to ensure stable political and economic development. Support for rule of law, democracy and human rights. Australias role in the British Commonwealth Occupation Force 12,000 men Support for a new trade and economic agreements and closer contracts on security and defence issues Basic Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation: NARA (Nippon-Australia Relationship Agreement, June 1976) Designed to formalise, stabilise and broaden the relationship. Power: Tatsuo Kawai First Minister to Australia March 1941 August 1942 Security: Shares a military treaty with Australia. Enhanced security ties Trilateral security talks (with the United States since 2003) Joint Declaration on Security Co-operation between Australia and Japan (April 2007) First post-war security agreement Japan has signed with another country apart from the United States. Consider the historical background to Australias relations with Japan: Early contact was influenced by mid-nineteenth century attitudes and values: Japan was a closed feudal society opened by American and European powers in the 1850s. Australia did not exist several colonies that were part of the British Empire. April 1831 was the earliest contact Sydney based whaling ship Lady Rowena under the command of Captain Bourn Russell sought refuge in Hamanaka Bay Hokkaido. Russell took a local inhabitant hostage and instructed him to write a letter to the Japanese Emperor demanding that Japan be open for commercial trade. Alexander Marks (trader) - visited Yokohama in 1859 - Learned Japanese and promoted trade between Australia and Asia (particularly Japan)

- 1889 became first Japanese Consul in Victoria and devoted next 13 years to improving bilateral relations. Rikinosuke Sakagawa (acrobat) arrived in Queensland in 1877. He married and gained residence status and able to purchase land. Remained in Queensland for rest of his life. Managed circuses that traveled around the state. Broome, WA and Thursday Island, QLD. Most early arrivals were men willing to work long hours as labourers on a one- or two-year contract. By 1900 there 4000 Japanese involved in the pearl diving industry as divers. - Willing to do as many as 50 dives per day.

Over the last few decades what events and issues/tensions have rocked the relationship? Restrictions on entry to Australia from1901 Ensured the gradual removal of most Japanese by the early 1900s. exception made for pearl divers (remained in Broome until middle of World War II and then interned) 1904 agreement between Australia and Japan allowed Japanese with passports (then anybody official) to travel to and live in Australia e.g. Merchants, journalists, students. Immigration and principle that Japanese should be treated as equal to Europeans was the outstanding issue. Hughes was virulently opposed to a racial equality clause in the League of Nations Charter at Paris in 1919, to Japanese disgust. Unease about Japan growing military strength in 1920s Tension despite: Anglo- Japan Security Treaty of 1902 and the fact that Japan was an ally during World War I. By 1935 Japan was Australias number 2 trading partner in wool and wheat. Issues on Whaling. Japan put forward two proposals: They wanted to hunt whales and rare ones who are in danger + To vote anonymously (people hide their votes) Lupe hole if conducted for research you can continue to catch whales Whaling is a part of their tradition Not wanting free trade as they have a strong rice and beefindustry Changing relations: First Phase: Post war: From enemy to partner: 1945 - 57 Relations based on US interests (trade initially to support Japan and ensure no threat of turning Communist) By 1952, trade becomes important 1954 Menzies Man to Man speech - Australians to forget their war-time hostility towards Japan. Example of person to person contacts a student living with Sydney Mayor Harry Jensen in 1962 First Phase: Post war: Allied Occupation: 1945 - 51 Australias role in the British Commonwealth Occupation Force 12,000 men Australia was the only country with significant soldiers occupying Japan apart from the US Australian occupation of Hiroshima Australians on the Allied Council for Japan McMahon Ball Head of Commonwealth Allied Forces in Japan Sir William Webb Judge on war crimes tribunal First Phase: Post war: Trade and Cold War: Trade resumed in 1947 and by 1955 Japan was Australias 2nd largest customer San Francisco Peace Treaty 1951 ended Occupation: Australia accepts a 'soft peace treaty' in return for ANZUS Treaty Korean War (1950-53) and rise of Cold War tensions changed Australian attitudes towards threats in the region. Japan no longer a potential enemy. Reciprocal visits by Japanese Prime Minister Kishi (wartime Commerce Minister) and Prime Minister Robert Menzies in 1957 marked the beginning of close relations. Second Phase: 1957-1989:

Australian sponsorship of Japan onto UN Security Council 1957 The 1957 Australia-Japan Agreement on Commerce - Cornerstone of strong trade relationship. Japan replaced UK as Australias largest trade partner in 1965 Basic Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation: NARA (Nippon-Australia Relationship Agreement, June 1976) 1. Designed to formalise, stabilise and broaden the relationship. 2. Gave Japanese same residence privileges as Britons and US citizens first Asian country.

Third phase: Return to normality Death of Emperor Hirohito (7 January 1989) removed last wartime link End of Cold War (new environment with the main emphasis on China) Australia and Japan led the UN intervention in Cambodia in 1989-90 Australia ran the UN military administration, Japan the civil administration Prime Ministerial efforts: Prime Ministers Hawke and Keating placed a special emphasis on relations with Japan. Fourth Phase: 9/11 and intense bilateral activity: Security emphasis in dialogue since 2001 under Howard (though effort was made to sign off on a Free Trade Agreement). 9/11 and Bali bombing 2002 have forged a new bilateral security relationship September 19, 2003 a Memorandum of Defence Exchange Joint Declaration on Security Co-operation (April 2007)

Australia and China: Hugh White believes we will have to negotiate our relationship with China and we have no quite got used to that idea Vast hordes would come to Australia causing anxieties and intimidation of numbers. Racial and economic threat, but not a military threat. 1949- China becomes communist, now seen as a military/ ideological threat. Domino Theory arises. Economy of China begins to grow, opportunities arise. Differences in foreign policy, Australia for liberal for China?

Consider the historical background to Australias relations with China: Gold Rush: Seen as a demographic threat that could overwhelm Australia. 1742 Chinese arrived between 1848-1851. Discovery of gold accelerated immigration. In exchange for passage money, the majority worked on the goldfields until their debt was paid off. Most of the sojourners eventually returned to China. NSW: 61,245 arrived between 1856-1889; 31,850 departed in same period. Victoria: 40,721 arrived between 1852-1889; 36,049 departed in same period. By 1861, the Chinese (predominantly male) represented 3.3 per cent of the Australian population. Percentage dropped to 1.7% in 1871 and 1881; 1.1% in 1891. Fears generated by: Australias isolation from other Western countries. Limited British presence (military bases) in Pacific region. Australias proximity to over-populated Asia. Economic competition of migrants from Asia. Attraction of Australias land and resources. Fear during 1949-1972: From 1950 to 1972 Australian foreign policy was dominated by fear of communist China. China was isolated and the language of its leader, Mao Zedong, was very anti-Western, intensifying fears.

Why has there been such a dramatic shift in those relations? China was politically unimportant until the 1930s, when it unified under Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi). China became an important ally during WWII and emerged as a Permanent Member of the UN Security Council.

During cold war tensions died down as China was admitted to the UN and Taiwan thrown out in 1971 In December 1972 the new Australian Labor government recognised Beijing. One-China policy recognising notional Chinese sovereignty over Taiwan received bipartisan support in Australia. Because of strengthening ties: Maturing relationship during the Hawke-Keating years (1983-1996) and beyond. Closer cooperation in economic, commercial, agricultural, educational and other fields. Government-to-government links continue to grow (participation in G20, APEC; trade missions; ministerial visits). Largely economic and commercial links; not a political, military or strategic partnership. Gulf Witham started to abolish the White Australian Policy

Over the last few decades what events and issues/tensions have rocked the relationship? Anti -Chinese riots: Turon (1853), Meroo (1854) , Rocky River (1856), Tambaroora (1858), Lambing Flat, Kiandra and Nundle (1860-61), Tingha tin fields (1870) Anti-Chinese restriction act: To restrict the influx of Chinese into N.S.W. were passed in 1881 and 1887. In 1898 another restrictive law was passed, which was aimed at excluding all non-Europeans. Similar legislation was enacted in other Australian colonies. The Federal Immigration Restriction Act 1901 preserved the policy of a White Australia. Communists since 1949 a one party dictatorship Two Chinas one in Beijing and Taipei has been made problem with relations The unresolved issue of Taiwan: As China sees themselves as a separate state Australia no longer recognises Taipei as the legitimate government of China, but supports the status quo. Human rights. China is not democratic, although it is a far more open society than ever before. The 1989 Tiananmen Incident showed China was willing to use force against dissidents. 50,000 Chinese migrants came to Australia as a result. The suppression of Falun Gong from 1999 and human rights in Tibet became significant concerns. (19th Century-end of WWII) White Australian Policy: To keep them out Demographic threat: Dear of china going to take over our population (more of them then us) Viewed them as suspicion Racial Threat: Viewed them as yellow people complexion, skin Saw them in the middle of the hierarchy between the Europeans and the Blacks/Aboriginals (Inferior and superior races) Economic Threat: Seen to be able to take over America soon (End of WWII-Late 1960s-1970s) Late 1940s changed perception and ties as the turn into communism Ideological and military threat to Australia The Domino Theory (Early 1970s-Present) Differences of foreign policy Human rights issue e.g. Tiananmen square crackdown 1989 Realise Chinese dont like the freedom we have in the West Economic relations: From 1981 China was open to foreign investment, Economic relations central to bilateral relations. China became Australias largest trading partner in May 2007. Australian mineral resources are as essential to Chinas economic growth in the 2000s as they were to Japans from the 1960s. In 2001 China joined the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In 2003 China signed a trade treaty with Australia (The Trade and Economic Framework or TEF). In 2005 China agreed to work towards a Free Trade Agreement; negotiations ongoing. Present it is seen that its in our interests to create closer ties for commercial opportunities

Australia and Indonesia: Australia did fear a communist Indonesia. Independence: In Australia a pro-Indonesia campaign is launched by the trade unions and sympathisers. Australia plays a key role in securing the settlement. Federated Republic of the United States of Indonesia emerges in 1949; later replaced by the unitary Republic of Indonesia (1950). Tensions: Australia and Indonesia had friction over several issues: West Papua, regional rebellions the Malaysia dispute. (Confrontation)

Consider the historical background to Australias relations with China: Since Indonesian independence in 1945, Australias relationship with Indonesia has often been difficult. Great differences between the two countries, including vastly differing societies, geopolitical realities and differing historical experiences. Fears generated by: Australia believes any serious threat to Australia would come from or through the Indonesian archipelago The rise of a communist Indonesia Sukarnos pan-Indonesian vision to include the entire Malay world

Why has there been such a dramatic shift in those relations? A key strategic factor is Indonesias crucial geographical location, between Australia and continental S.E. Asia. President Sukarno (1945-1966) and President Suharto (1966-1998) shaped political events in Indonesia for more than 50 years, influencing the relationship with Australia in the process. Dutch attempts to assume control over their former colony were widely criticised. The brutality of the second police action (war in reality) in 1948 drove Australia to support Indonesian independence. Australia plays a key role in securing the settlement whereby the Netherlands finally agrees to transfer sovereignty to Indonesia. Australia and India sponsor Indonesias admission to the UN in 1950. INTERFET (International Force in East Timor) organised under Australian leadership in September 1999 to restore order. In addition to sending 5,500 troops, Australia persuades four ASEAN countries to be involved: Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. Effectively Australia invaded Indonesia, but also solved a problem for Indonesia with ASEAN and US support. Over the last few decades what events and issues/tensions have rocked the relationship? Australia and Indonesia had friction over several issues: West Papua, regional rebellions the Malaysia dispute (Confrontation) Australia supported Dutch claim over West Papua, but the US and UK support Indonesia. In 1963, Indonesia takes over. Indonesia rejected creation of Malaysia and announces Konfrontasi in February1963. Australian and Indonesian troops exchange fire & inflict casualties in Borneo in 1964-5. Issue settled in Bangkok in August 1966, after Sukarno deposed in March 1966. Schapelle Corby East Timor issue (1975-1990): Indonesias invasion of East Timor in 1975 was a disaster: unnecessarily violent (little winning of hearts and minds) and followed by 15 years of guerilla resistance by the Timorese. The Indonesians keenest on incorporation of East Timor were Catholics East Timor is the only majority Catholic province Indonesia has ever had. L.B. Australia recgonised Indonesias takeover (de facto recognition in 1978 and de jure in 1979). The Timor Gap Treaty signed in 1989 for joint exploitation of oil and natural gas was a very good deal for Australia and its

reward from Indonesia. East Timor issue (1990-1999): Australian government would have preferred East Timor to remain part of Indonesia if only the Indonesians could have won the East Timorese over, but rebellion was constant. Falintil (the East Timorese guerilla movement) was defeated in 1990 with the capture of its leader Gusmo. Keating and Suhartos close personal relations culminate in the Indonesia Australia security treaty of December 1995. John Howard uninterested and the treaty abrogated by Indonesia in September 1999. Suharto resigned in May 1998 following the economic collapse of 1997

Economic relations: Late 1960s Australia played a major role helping Indonesia to re-schedule debts; trade relations and aid initiatives increase. Caused rapid economic growth and political stability But for other Australians, Indonesia is our most important regional friend; it is our bridge to Asia and a place of business opportunities and a regular tourist destination. Strengthening ties: Since 2000 bilateral relations based on: Increasingly shared democratic and economic values; Development of political, security, commercial, cultural and people-to-people links.

The 12 October 2002 Bali bombing was a shared tragedy for both countries (out of 202 dead, 88 were Australians and 38 Indonesians) and has promoted closer cultural and emotional links. Lombok Treaty (2006) promotes bilateral cooperation and exchanges on security, which the Jakarta and Bali bombings (2002-5) showed were matters of common concern.