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Q Suggest some policy measures that an Economic union should adopt in terms of immigration and employment within the

union. 1. Policy measures which governments put in place need to take into account both short-term and long-term economic and demographic factors. The tightening of immigration controls, which has been happening across several countries of destination across the European Union, may seem politically attractive in the short term, but it is also important to keep in mind the likely long-term demand for migrant workers in Europe. If Europe is to become a more competitive economy and to respond adequately to demographic change, it is likely that migration will need to increase further in the future. 2. The skill levels of native and migrant populations and the labour market sector in which they are employed varies across EU Member States. Monitoring and assessment of the current crisis by national governments, the EU and employers should not only consider the impact of the crisis on short-term employment/unemployment, but also the need for job growth and skills matching in the long term. 3. Employers do not stop hiring during times of crisis; skills shortages continue to exist in both highand low-skilled sectors. Restrictions on admissions, limitations on quotas, and other control measures should be balanced with flexible legal migration channels for employment in needed occupations and sectors. Therefore, it is essential that employers and national governments work together to ensure policy coherence with regard to the admission and mobility of migrant workers. In addition, policy co-ordination at the EU-level and reinforced co-operation with countries of origin would contribute to successfully integrating migration considerations into economic and employment policies across the EU as suggested by the Europe 2020 strategy and the Stockholm Programme. 4. Labour mobility is a part and a consequence of globalization and of the global economy. Therefore, migrant worker mobility should be factored into economic recovery at the national and European Union level, including any reforms to the financial system or future stimulus packages. Policies which exclude migrants from vital recovery mechanisms only risk their further exclusion from the labour market. Moreover, the human capital of existing and potential migrants could play a crucial role on the path towards economic recovery and raising the competitiveness of the European economy by filling labour shortages and contributing necessary skills. 5. It is essential that not only are migrant integration policies and programmes politically recognized as important and maintained at the local and national level during an economic crisis, but also that they continue to be developed and provided with adequate funding by governments and the EU in order to alleviate the increased threat of exclusion and to ensure the ability of migrants to contribute to recovery. 6. Furthermore, migrants should be given access and encouraged to participate in labour market policy measures open to nationals in the country of destination. In countries where such access is granted, there is often no data available on migrant participation in these initiatives that could shed light on the extent of outreach of such measures and help further remove barriers for migrant access. In this regard, the EU Member States should further strengthen their policy evaluation

methodologies to allow for analysis of the participation of vulnerable groups in various labour market measures. 7. Policies which allow unemployed migrants to reside legally in the country of destination while seeking alternative employment, as have been put in place by several EU Member States, can help to counter issues of visa overstay and irregularity, by allowing migrants to seek regular employment legally. 8. Access to social safety nets needs to be ensured as the level of vulnerability of migrants can also be impacted by their access to social protection and benefits, in particular recently arrived migrants or certain categories of migrants who may not be eligible for welfare and/or other social benefits. Lessons learned from past crises show that times of economic downturn can be an opportunity to widen social safety nets to include larger segments of the population. 9. However, as not all migrants can or will return during a crisis, policies should undertake to combat discrimination and xenophobia and raise awareness of how migrants contribute to enriching their countries of destination both economically and socially. Efforts to raise awareness of their contributions should be emphasized particularly during periods of crisis by all stakeholders, when backlash against migrant workers may be more prevalent. Combating discrimination in the labour market is crucial to foster integration of existing and potential migrants in the workforce and to avoid mismatch of skills and jobs.