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Titration is the slow addition of one solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known volume of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is often indicated by a color change. The solution called the titrant must satisfy the necessary requirements to be a primary or secondary standard. In a broad sense, titration is a technique to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. For acid base titrations, a pH indicator or pH meter is used in order to determine whether neutralization has been reached and titration is complete. The information obtained from the process of titration can then be inserted into the equation, MiVi=MfVf, to determine the concentration of the unknown solution. Mi and Mf are the initial and final molarities, and Vi and Vf are the initial and final volumes. Elements of Titration 1. The standard solution is the solution of known concentration. An accurately measured amount of standard solution is added during titration to the solution of unkown concentration until the equivalence or endpoint is reached. The equivalence point is when the reactants are done reacting. The solution of unknown concentration is otherwise known as the analyte. During titration the titrant is added to the analyte in order to achieve the equivalence point and determine the concentration of the analyte. The equivalence point is the ideal point for the completion of titration. In order to obtain accurate results the equivalence point must be attained precisely and accurately. The solution of known concentration, or titrant, must be added to the solution of unknown concentration, or analyte, very slowly in order to obtain a good result. At the equivalence point the correct amount of standard solution must be added to fully react with the unknown concentration. The end point of a titration indicates once the equivalence point has been reached. It is indicated by some form of indicator which varies depending on what type of titration being done. For example, if a color indicator is used, the solution will change color when the titration is at its end point.




For example, when a color indicator is being used:

To clear confusion, the endpoint and equivalence point are not necessarily equal, but they do represent the same idea. An endpoint is indicated by some form of indicator at the end of a titration. An equivalence point is when the moles of a standard solution (titrant) equal the moles of a solution of unknown concentration (analyte).

Acid - Base Indicators

Acid - Base indicators (also known as pH indicators) are substances which change colour with pH. They are usually weak acids or bases, which when dissolved in water dissociate slightly and form ions. Consider an indicator which is a weak acid, with the formula HIn. At equilibrium, the following equilibrium equation is established with its conjugate base:

The acid and its conjugate base have different colours. At low pH values the concentration of H 3O+ is high and so the equilibrium position lies to the left. The equilibrium solution has the colour A. At high pH values, the concentration of H 3O+ is low - the equilibrium position thus lies to the right and the equilibrium solution has colour B. Phenolphthalein is an example of an indicator which establishes this type of equilibrium in aqueous solution: Phenolphthalein is a colourless, weak acid which dissociates in water forming pink anions. Under acidic conditions, the equilibrium is to the left,and the concentration of the anions is too low for the pink colour to be observed. However, under alkaline conditions, the equilibrium is to the right, and the concentration of the anion becomes sufficient for the pink colour to be observed. colourless (Acid) pink (Base) We can apply equilibrium law to indicator equilibria - in general for a weak

acid indicator: Kln is known as the indicator dissociation constant. The colour of the indicator turns from colour A to colour B or vice versa at its turning point. At this point: So from equation: The pH of the solution at its turning point is called the p Kln and is the pH at which half of the indicator is in its acid form and the other half in the form of its conjugate base. Indicator Range At a low pH, a weak acid indicator is almost entirely in the HIn form, the colour of which predominates. As the pH increases - the intensity of the colour of HIn decreases and the equilibrium is pushed to the right. Therefore the intensity of the colour of In- increases. An indicator is most effective if the colour change is distinct and over a low pH range. For most indicators the range is within 1 of the pKln value. A Universal Indicator is a mixture of indicators which give a gradual change in colour over a wide pH range - the pH of a solution can be approximately identified when a few drops of universal indicator are mixed with the solution. Indicators are used in titration solutions to signal the completion of the acid-base reaction.


Colour Acid red red yellow yellow yellow yellow yellow colourless Base yellow yellow blue red blue red blue pink


pH range 1.2 - 2.8 3.2 - 4.4 3.8 - 5.4 4.8 - 6.0 6.0 - 7.6 6.8 - 8.4 8.0 - 9.6 8.2 10.0

Thymol Blue - 1st change Methyl Orange Bromocresol Green Methyl Red Bromothymol Blue Phenol Red Thymol Blue - 2nd change Phenolphthalein

1.5 3.7 4.7 5.1 7.0 7.9 8.9 9.4

Interactions of Acid and Base

Strong Acid & Weak Base For example, ammonia (NH3) is a weak base that has its own type of reaction. When it reacts with a strong acid, the H+ from the acid is transferred to the ammonia to form the NH 4+ ion. The rest of the strong acid acts only as a spectator ion and can be cancelled out. A solution of ammonia is mixed with a solution of nitric acid.

Weak Acid & Weak Base For example, ammonia reacts with a weak acid instead of a strong acid is that the acid does not dissociate. The acid is left combined and is not written as ions.

A solution of ammonia is added to a solution of hydrofluoric acid.

Solutions of ammonia and carbonic acid are mixed.

Weak Acid & Strong Base Weak acids dissociate only slightly in water, and therefore should be left combined and not written as its ions. When weak acids react with strong bases, the H+ from the weak acid is transferred to the OH- from the strong base to form water and a salt. The salt formed, however, will most likely be soluble, and should be written as its respective ions. Remember also, to cancel out any spectator ions. A solution of hydrofluoric acid is added to sodium hydroxide

Strong Acid & Strong Base Strong acids and strong bases always react in the same format since the dissociate nearly 100% in water. Solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are mixed the reaction occurs as follows:

According to the solubility rules, these compounds in aqueous solution dissociate to form their ions. Ions which are found on both sides of the reaction (spectator ions) can be cancelled out because they are unchanged by the reaction.

The final answer for all strong acid-strong base reactions is: Common Strong Acids Formula Name hydroiodic acid HI hydrobromic acid HBr hydrochloric acid HCl perchloric acid HClO4 sulfuric acid H2SO4 thiocyanic acid HSCN nitric acid HNO3 chromic acid H2CrO4 Source: se%20Interactions.pdf Common Strong Bases Formula Name NaOH sodium hydroxide LiOH lithium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide RbOH rubidium hydroxide Sr(OH)2 strontium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide