Sie sind auf Seite 1von 152

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Torque
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below), is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis,[1] fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm[2] connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:
Relationship between force F , torque , linear momentum p, and angular momentum L in a system which has rotation constrained in one plane only (forces and moments due to gravity and friction not considered).

where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), F is the force vector, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque, see below.

Contents
1 Terminology 2 History 3 Definition and relation to angular momentum 3.1 Proof of the equivalence of definitions 4 Units 5 Special cases and other facts 5.1 Moment arm formula 5.2 Static equilibrium 5.3 Net force versus torque 6 Machine torque 7 Relationship between torque, power, and energy 7.1 Conversion to other units 7.2 Derivation 8 Principle of moments 9 Torque multiplier 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

1 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Terminology
See also: Couple (mechanics) This article follows US physics terminology by using the word torque. In the UK and in US mechanical engineering,[3] this is called moment of force[4] shortened usually to moment. In US mechanical engineering, the term torque means 'the resultant moment of a Couple',[5] and (unlike in US physics), the terms torque and moment are not interchangeable. Torque is defined mathematically as the rate of change of angular momentum of an object. The definition of torque states that one or both of the angular velocity or the moment of inertia of an object are changing. And moment is the general term used for the tendency of one or more applied forces to rotate an object about an axis, but not necessarily to change the angular momentum of the object (the concept which in physics is called torque).[5] For example, a rotational force applied to a shaft causing acceleration, such as a drill bit accelerating from rest, the resulting moment is called a torque. By contrast, a lateral force on a beam produces a moment (called a bending moment), but since the angular momentum of the beam is not changing, this bending moment is not called a torque. Similarly with any force couple on an object that has no change to its angular momentum, such moment is also not called a torque. This article follows the US physics terminology by calling all moments by the term torque, whether or not they cause the angular momentum of an object to change.

History
The concept of torque, also called moment or couple, originated with the studies of Archimedes on levers. The rotational analogues of force, mass, and acceleration are torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, respectively.

Definition and relation to angular momentum


A force applied at a right angle to a lever multiplied by its distance from the lever's fulcrum (the length of the lever arm) is its torque. A force of three newtons applied two metres from the fulcrum, for example, exerts the same torque as a force of one newton applied six metres from the fulcrum. The direction of the torque can be determined by using the right hand grip rule: if the fingers of the right hand are curled from the direction of the lever arm to the direction of the force, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque.[6] More generally, the torque on a particle (which has the position r in some reference frame) can be defined as the cross product:
A particle is located at position r relative to its axis of rotation. When a force F is applied to the particle, only the perpendicular component F produces a torque. This torque = r F has magnitude = |r| |F | = |r||F |sin and is directed outward from the page.

where r is the particle's position vector relative to the fulcrum, and F is the force acting on the particle. The magnitude of the torque is given by

where r is the distance from the axis of rotation to the particle, F is the magnitude of the force applied, and is the angle between the position and force vectors. Alternatively,

where F is the amount of force directed perpendicularly to the position of the particle. Any force directed parallel to the particle's position vector does not produce a torque.[7] It follows from the properties of the cross product that the torque vector is perpendicular to both the position and force vectors. It points along the axis of the rotation that this torque would initiate, starting from rest, and its direction is determined by the right-hand rule.[7] The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation determines the rate of change of the body's angular momentum,

2 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

where L is the angular momentum vector and t is time. If multiple torques are acting on the body, it is instead the net torque which determines the rate of change of the angular momentum:

For rotation about a fixed axis,

where I is the moment of inertia and is the angular velocity. It follows that

where is the angular acceleration of the body, measured in rad/s2. This equation has the limitation that the torque equation is to be only written about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass for any type of motion - either motion is pure translation, pure rotation or mixed motion. I = Moment of inertia about point about which torque is written (either about instantaneous axis of rotation or center of mass only). If body is in translatory equilibrium then the torque equation is same about all points in the plane of motion.

Proof of the equivalence of definitions


The definition of angular momentum for a single particle is:

where "" indicates the vector cross product, p is the particle's linear momentum, and r is the displacement vector from the origin (the origin is assumed to be a fixed location anywhere in space). The time-derivative of this is:

This result can easily be proven by splitting the vectors into components and applying the product rule. Now using the definition of force (whether or not mass is constant) and the definition of velocity

The cross product of momentum

with its associated velocity

is zero by definition, so the second term vanishes.

By definition, torque = r F. Therefore torque on a particle is equal to the first derivative of its angular momentum with respect to time. If multiple forces are applied, Newton's second law instead reads Fnet = ma, and it follows that

This is a general proof.

Units
Torque has dimensions of force times distance. Official SI literature suggests using the unit newton metre (Nm) or the unit joule per radian.[8] The unit newton metre is properly denoted Nm or N m.[9] This avoids ambiguity with mN, millinewtons. The SI unit for energy or work is the joule. It is dimensionally equivalent to a force of one newton acting over a distance of one metre, but it is not used for torque. Energy and torque are entirely different concepts, so the practice of using different unit names (i.e.,

3 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

reserving newton metres for torque and using only joules for energy) helps avoid mistakes and misunderstandings.[8] The dimensional equivalence of these units, of course, is not simply a coincidence: A torque of 1 Nm applied through a full revolution will require an energy of exactly 2 joules. Mathematically,

where E is the energy, is magnitude of the torque, and is the angle moved (in radians). This equation motivates the alternate unit name joules per radian.[8] In Imperial units, "pound-force-feet" (lbft), "foot-pounds-force", "inch-pounds-force", "ounce-force-inches" (ozin) are used, and other non-SI units of torque includes "metre-kilograms-force". For all these units, the word "force" is often left out,[10] for example abbreviating "pound-force-foot" to simply "pound-foot" (in this case, it would be implicit that the "pound" is pound-force and not pound-mass). This is an example of the confusion caused by the use of traditional units that may be avoided with SI units because of the careful distinction in SI between force (in newtons) and mass (in kilograms). Sometimes one may see torque given units that do not dimensionally make sense. For example: gram centimetre. In these units, "gram" should be understood as the force given by the weight of 1 gram at the surface of the earth, i.e., 0.009 806 65 N. The surface of the earth is understood to have a standard acceleration of gravity (9.806 65 m/s2).

Special cases and other facts


Moment arm formula
A very useful special case, often given as the definition of torque in fields other than physics, is as follows:

The construction of the "moment arm" is shown in the figure to the right, along with the vectors r and F mentioned above. The problem with this definition is that it does not give the direction of the torque but only the magnitude, and hence it is difficult to use in three-dimensional cases. If the force is perpendicular to the displacement vector r, the moment arm will be equal to the distance to the centre, and torque will be a maximum for the given force. The equation for the magnitude of a torque, arising from a perpendicular force:

Moment arm diagram

For example, if a person places a force of 10 N at the terminal end of a spanner (wrench) which is 0.5 m long (or a force of 10 N exactly 0.5 m from the twist point of a spanner of any length), the torque will be 5 N-m assuming that the person moves the spanner by applying force in the plane of movement of and perpendicular to the spanner.

Static equilibrium
For an object to be in static equilibrium, not only must the sum of the forces be zero, but also the sum of the torques (moments) about any point. For a two-dimensional situation with horizontal and vertical forces, the sum of the forces requirement is two equations: H = 0 and V = 0, and the torque a third equation: = 0. That is, to solve statically determinate equilibrium problems in two-dimensions, we use three equations.

Net force versus torque


When the net force on the system is zero, the torque measured from any point in space is the same. For example, the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field is the same regardless of your point of reference. If the net force is not zero, and is the torque measured from , then the torque measured from is ...

Machine torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine: the power output of an engine is expressed

The torque caused by the two opposing forces F g and F g causes a change in the angular momentum L in the direction of that torque. This causes the top to precess.

4 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds (typically from around 1,0006,000 rpm for a small car). The varying torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer, and shown as a torque curve. Modern turbocharged engines are able to produce a totally flat torque curve (constant torque) across a wide rev range, due to computer control of the turbocharger wastegate. Steam engines and electric motors tend to produce maximum torque close to zero rpm, with the torque diminishing as rotational speed rises (due to increasing friction and other constraints). Reciprocating steam engines can start heavy loads from zero RPM without a clutch.

Relationship between torque, power, and energy


If a force is allowed to act through a distance, it is doing mechanical work. Similarly, if torque is allowed to act through a rotational distance, it is doing work. Mathematically, for rotation about a fixed axis through the center of mass,

Torque curve of a motorcycle ("BMW K 1200 R 2005"). The horizontal axis is the speed (in rpm) that the crankshaft is turning, and the vertical axis is the torque (in Newton metres) that the engine is capable of providing at that speed.

where W is work, is torque, and 1 and 2 represent (respectively) the initial and final angular positions of the body.[11] It follows from the work-energy theorem that W also represents the change in the rotational kinetic energy Er of the body, given by

where I is the moment of inertia of the body and is its angular speed.[11] Power is the work per unit time, given by

where P is power, is torque, is the angular velocity, and represents the scalar product. Mathematically, the equation may be rearranged to compute torque for a given power output. Note that the power injected by the torque depends only on the instantaneous angular speed not on whether the angular speed increases, decreases, or remains constant while the torque is being applied (this is equivalent to the linear case where the power injected by a force depends only on the instantaneous speed not on the resulting acceleration, if any). In practice, this relationship can be observed in power stations which are connected to a large electrical power grid. In such an arrangement, the generator's angular speed is fixed by the grid's frequency, and the power output of the plant is determined by the torque applied to the generator's axis of rotation. Consistent units must be used. For metric SI units power is watts, torque is newton metres and angular speed is radians per second (not rpm and not revolutions per second). Also, the unit newton metre is dimensionally equivalent to the joule, which is the unit of energy. However, in the case of torque, the unit is assigned to a vector, whereas for energy, it is assigned to a scalar.

Conversion to other units


A conversion factor may be necessary when using different units of power, torque, or angular speed. For example, if rotational speed (revolutions per time) is used in place of angular speed (radians per time), we multiply by a factor of 2 radians per revolution. In the following formulas, P is power, is torque and is rotational speed.

Adding units:

5 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

Dividing on the left by 60 seconds per minute gives us the following.

where rotational speed is in revolutions per minute (rpm). Some people (e.g. American automotive engineers) use horsepower (imperial mechanical) for power, foot-pounds (lbfft) for torque and rpm for rotational speed. This results in the formula changing to:

The constant below (in foot pounds per minute) changes with the definition of the horsepower; for example, using metric horsepower, it becomes approximately 32,550. Use of other units (e.g. BTU per hour for power) would require a different custom conversion factor.

Derivation
For a rotating object, the linear distance covered at the circumference of rotation is the product of the radius with the angle covered. That is: linear distance = radius angular distance. And by definition, linear distance = linear speed time = radius angular speed time. By the definition of torque: torque = force radius. We can rearrange this to determine force = torque radius. These two values can be substituted into the definition of power:

The radius r and time t have dropped out of the equation. However, angular speed must be in radians, by the assumed direct relationship between linear speed and angular speed at the beginning of the derivation. If the rotational speed is measured in revolutions per unit of time, the linear speed and distance are increased proportionately by 2 in the above derivation to give:

If torque is in newton metres and rotational speed in revolutions per second, the above equation gives power in newton metres per second or watts. If Imperial units are used, and if torque is in pounds-force feet and rotational speed in revolutions per minute, the above equation gives power in foot pounds-force per minute. The horsepower form of the equation is then derived by applying the conversion factor 33,000 ftlbf/min per horsepower:

because

Principle of moments
The Principle of Moments, also known as Varignon's theorem (not to be confused with the geometrical theorem of the same name) states that the sum of torques due to several forces applied to a single point is equal to the torque due to the sum (resultant) of the forces. Mathematically, this follows from:

Torque multiplier
Main article: Torque multiplier

6 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Torque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torque

A torque multiplier is a gear box with reduction ratios greater than 1. The given torque at the input gets multiplied as per the reduction ratio and transmitted to the output, thereby achieving greater torque, but with reduced rotational speed.

See also
Conversion of units Mechanical equilibrium Rigid body dynamics Statics Torque converter Torque limiter Torque screwdriver Torque tester Torque wrench Torsion (mechanics)

References
1. ^ Serway, R. A. and Jewett, Jr. J. W. (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th Ed. Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. 2. ^ Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0809-4. 3. ^ Physics for Engineering by Hendricks, Subramony, and Van Blerk, Chinappi page 148, Web link (http://books.google.com /books?id=8Kp-UwV4o0gC&pg=PA148) 4. ^ SI brochure 5. ^ a b Dynamics, Theory and Applications by T.R. Kane and D.A. Levinson, 1985, pp. 9099: Free download (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/638) 6. ^ "Right Hand Rule for Torque" (http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/tord.html). Retrieved 2007-09-08. 7. ^ a b Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (1970). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 18485. 8. ^ a b c From the official SI website (http://www.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter2/2-2/2-2-2.html): "...For example, the quantity torque may be thought of as the cross product of force and distance, suggesting the unit newton metre, or it may be thought of as energy per angle, suggesting the unit joule per radian." 9. ^ "SI brochure Ed. 8, Section 5.1" (http://www1.bipm.org/en/si /si_brochure/chapter5/5-1.html). Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 10. ^ See, for example: "CNC Cookbook: Dictionary: N-Code to PWM" (http://www.cnccookbook.com /MTCNCDictNtoPWM.htm). Retrieved 2008-12-17. 11. ^ a b Kleppner, Daniel; Kolenkow, Robert (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. McGraw-Hill. pp. 26768.

External links
Power and Torque Explained (http://www.epi-eng.com/ET-PwrTrq.htm) A clear explanation of the relationship between Power and Torque, and how they relate to engine performance. "Horsepower and Torque" (http://craig.backfire.ca/pages/autos/horsepower) An article showing how power, torque, and gearing affect a vehicle's performance. "Torque vs. Horsepower: Yet Another Argument" (http://kevinthenerd.googlepages.com/torque_vs_hp.html) An automotive perspective a discussion of torque and angular momentum in an online textbook (http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/2cl/ch05 /ch05.html) Torque and Angular Momentum in Circular Motion (http://www.physnet.org/modules/pdf_modules/m34.pdf) on Project PHYSNET (http://www.physnet.org). An interactive simulation of torque (http://www.phy.hk/wiki/englishhtm/Torque.htm) Torque Unit Converter (http://www.lorenz-messtechnik.de/english/company/torque_unit_calculation.php) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torque&oldid=575440604" Categories: Concepts in physics Engine technology Physical quantities Rotation Force Torque This page was last modified on 2 October 2013 at 14:16. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

7 of 7

10/12/2013 7:31 PM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Electric generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electric current to flow through an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air, or any other source of mechanical energy. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. The reverse conversion of electrical energy U.S. NRC image of a modern steam turbine generator into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable generators.

Contents
1 History 2 Electromagnetic generators 2.1 Dynamo 2.2 Alternator 2.3 Induction generator 2.4 MHD generator 2.5 Other rotating electromagnetic generators 2.6 Homopolar generator 2.7 Excitation 3 Electrostatic generator 3.1 Wimshurst machine 3.2 Van de Graaff generator 4 Terminology 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Vehicle-mounted generators 7 Engine-generator 8 Human powered electrical generators 9 Linear electric generator 10 Tachogenerator 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early Ganz Generator in Zwevegem, West Flanders, Belgium

Early 20th century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station

1 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

History
Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were used. They operated on electrostatic principles. Such generators generated very high voltage and low current. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates, and disks that carried charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: Electrostatic induction The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines that produced very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings, and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. In 1827, Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors, now called the Jedlik's dynamo. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. It was also the discovery of the principle of self-excitation.[1] In the years of 18311832, Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. It produced a small DC voltage. This design was inefficient, due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counterflow limited the power output to the pickup wires, and induced waste heating of the copper disc. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.

Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher, more useful voltages. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns, generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. The dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical rotation into direct current through the use of a commutator.

Faraday disk, the first electric generator. The horseshoe-shaped magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D). When the disk was turned, this induced an electric current radially outward from the center toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit, and back into the center of the disk through the axle.

2 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field coils. Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the rotary converter. Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.[2] The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886.[3] Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz).[4] After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.[5] Later alternators were designed for varying alternating-current frequencies between sixteen and about one hundred hertz, for use with arc lighting, incandescent lighting and electric motors.[6]

Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts, or 2,170 watts, when spinning at 1400 RPM.

Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution. Before the adoption of AC, very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. AC has come to dominate due to the ability of AC to be easily transformed to and from very high voltages to permit low losses over large distances.

Electromagnetic generators
Dynamo
Main article: Dynamo A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation, for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state) is effective and usually economic.

3 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Alternator
Main article: Alternator Without a commutator, a dynamo becomes an alternator, which is a synchronous singly fed generator. Alternators produce alternating current with a frequency that is based on the rotational speed of the rotor and the number of magnetic poles. Automotive alternators produce a varying frequency that changes with "Dynamo Electric Machine" (end view, engine speed, which is then converted by a rectifier to DC. By partly section, U.S. Patent 284,110 comparison, alternators used to feed an electric power grid are generally (http://www.google.com/patents operated at a speed very close to a specific frequency, for the benefit of /US284110)) AC devices that regulate their speed and performance based on grid frequency. Some devices such as incandescent lamps and ballastoperated fluorescent lamps do not require a constant frequency, but synchronous motors such as in electric wall clocks do require a constant grid frequency. When attached to a larger electric grid with other alternators, an alternator will dynamically interact with the frequency already present on the grid, and operate at a speed that matches the grid frequency. If no driving power is applied, the alternator will continue to spin at a constant speed anyway, driven as a synchronous motor by the grid frequency. It is usually necessary for an alternator to be accelerated up to the correct speed and phase alignment before connecting to the grid, as any mismatch in frequency will cause the alternator to act as a synchronous motor, and suddenly leap to the correct phase alignment as it absorbs a large inrush current from the grid, which may damage the rotor and other equipment. Typical alternators use a rotating field winding excited with direct current, and a stationary (stator) winding that produces alternating current. Since the rotor field only requires a tiny fraction of the power generated by the machine, the brushes for the field contact can be relatively small. In the case of a brushless exciter, no brushes are used at all and the rotor shaft carries rectifiers to excite the main field winding.

Induction generator
Main article: induction generator An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. To operate an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

MHD generator
Main article: MHD generator A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic

4 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25 MW demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time.[7] MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined cycle gas turbines.

Other rotating electromagnetic generators


Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly fed generator, the doubly fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator, do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings that establish a constant magnetic field, and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control, a feature which, by itself, offers cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.

Homopolar generator
Main article: Homopolar generator A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder), the electrical polarity depending on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage.[8] They are unusual in that they can produce tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator

Excitation
Main article: Excitation (magnetic) An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets requires a current to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. If the field coils are not powered, the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy, while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. Smaller generators are sometimes self-excited, which means the field coils are powered by the current produced by the generator itself. The field coils are connected in series or parallel with the armature winding. When the generator first starts to turn, the small amount of remanent magnetism present in the iron core provides a
5 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

magnetic field to get it started, generating a small current in the armature. This flows through the field coils, creating a larger magnetic field which generates a larger armature current. This "bootstrap" process continues until the magnetic field in the core levels off due to saturation and the generator reaches a steady state power output. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a A small early 1900s 75 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator, severe widespread power outage where with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. islanding of power stations has occurred, the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators, in order to restore customer power service.[9]

Electrostatic generator
Main article: electrostatic generator An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces static electricity , or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon, without a theory to explain its behavior and often confused with magnetism. By the end of the 17th Century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity. Electrostatic generators operate by using manual (or other) power to transform mechanical work into electric energy. Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite signs rendered to two conductors, using only electric forces, and work by using moving plates, drums, or belts to carry electric charge to a high potential electrode. The charge is generated by one of two methods: either the triboelectric effect (friction) or electrostatic induction.

Wimshurst machine
Main article: Wimshurst machine The Wimshurst influence machine is an electrostatic generator, a A Van de Graaff generator, for class machine for generating high voltages developed between 1880 and 1883 room demonstrations by British inventor James Wimshurst (18321903). It has a distinctive appearance with two large contra-rotating discs mounted in a vertical plane, two crossed bars with metallic brushes, and a spark gap formed by two metal spheres.

6 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Van de Graaff generator


Main article: Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. The Van de Graaff generator can be thought of as a constant-current source connected in parallel with a capacitor and a very large electrical resistance, so it can produce a visible electrical discharge to a nearby grounding surface which can potentially cause a "spark" depending on the voltage.

Suppose that the conditions are as in the figure, with the segment A1 positive and the segment B1 negative. Now, as A1 moves to the left and B1 to the right, their potentials will rise on account of the work done in separating them against attraction. When A1 and neighboring sectors comes opposite the segment B2 of the B plate, which is now in contact with the brush Y, they will cause a displacement of electricity along the conductor between Y and Y1 bringing a negative charge, larger than the positive charge in A1 alone, on Y and sending a positive charge to the segment touching Y1. As A1 moves on, it passes near the brush Z and is partially discharged into the external circuit. It then passes on until, on touching the brush X, has a new charge, this time negative, driven into it by induction from B2 and neighboring sectors. As the machine turns, the process causes exponential increases in the voltages on all positions, until sparking occurs limiting the increase.

Wimshurst machine with two Leyden jars.

Terminology
The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. Mechanical: Rotor: The rotating part of an electrical machine Stator: The stationary part of an electrical machine Electrical:

Armature: The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo the armature windings generate the electric current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. Field: The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator.

Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit, AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor, using slip rings. Direct current machines (dynamos) require a commutator on the rotating shaft to convert the alternating current produced by the armature to direct current,
7 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine.

Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. The generator's and parameters can be determined by measuring the winding resistance (corrected to operating temperature), and measuring the open-circuit and loaded voltage for a defined current load.

Vehicle-mounted generators
Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators load. with electromechanical regulators. These have now been replaced by G = generator alternators with built-in rectifier circuits, which are less costly and lighter VG=generator open-circuit voltage for equivalent output. Moreover, the power output of a DC generator is RG=generator internal resistance proportional to rotational speed, whereas the power output of an VL=generator on-load voltage alternator is independent of rotational speed. As a result, the charging RL=load resistance output of an alternator at engine idle speed can be much greater than that of a DC generator. Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. Rated output will typically be in the range 50-100 A at 12 V, depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Some cars now have electrically powered steering assistance and air conditioning, which places a high load on the electrical system. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[10] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets, since they can be made smaller and lighter than other types. See also hybrid vehicle. A magneto, like a dynamo, uses permanent magnets but generates alternating current like an alternator. Because of the limited field strength of permanent magnets, magneto generators are not used for high-power production applications, but have had specialist uses, particularly in lighthouses as they are simple and reliable. This reliability is part of why they are still used as ignition magnetos in aviation piston engines. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. Called a bottle dynamo these tend to be 0.5 ampere, permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V. Being powered by the rider, efficiency is at a premium, so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision. The maximum efficiency is around 80% for the best of these generators60% is more typicaldue in part to the rolling friction at the tiregenerator interface, imperfect alignment, the small size of the generator, and bearing losses. Cheaper designs tend to be less efficient. Due to the use of permanent magnets, efficiency falls at high speeds because the magnetic field strength cannot be controlled in any way. Hub dynamos remedy many of these flaws since they are internal to the bicycle hub and do not require an interface between the generator and tire. The increasing use of LED lights, more efficient than incandescent bulbs, reduces the power needed for cycle lighting. Sailing boats may use a water- or wind-powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. A small propeller, wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Still smaller generators are used in micropower applications.
8 of 11

Equivalent circuit of generator and

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Engine-generator
Main article: Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used. And there are even hybrid diesel-gas units, called dual-fuel units. Many different versions of enginegenerators are available - ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. The primary advantage of engine-generators is the ability to independently supply electricity, allowing the units to serve as backup power solutions.[11]

Human powered electrical generators


Main article: Self-powered equipment A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance, in field radio station equipment). Human powered direct current generators are commercially available, and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts. Typically operated by means of pedal power, a converted bicycle trainer, or a foot pump, such generators can be practically used to charge batteries, and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator, but at a power of 200 W, a typical healthy human will reach complete exhaustion and fail to produce any more power after approximately 1.3 hours.[13] Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements, see clockwork radio. During the mid 20th century, pedal powered radios were used throughout the Australian outback, to provide schooling (School of the Air), medical and other needs in remote stations and towns.

The Caterpillar 3512C Genset is an example of the engine-generator package. This unit produces 1225 kilowatts of electric power.

Protesters at Occupy Wall Street using bicycles connected to a motor and one-way diode to charge batteries for their electronics[12]

Linear electric generator


Main article: Linear alternator In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in wave power schemes.

Tachogenerator
A tachogenerator is an electromechanical device which produce an output voltage proportional to its shaft speed. It can be employed as an analogue speed indicator, velocity feedback device or a signal integrator. Two
9 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

commonly used tachogenerators are DC and AC tachogenerators. Tachogenerators are frequently used to power tachometers to measure the speeds of electric motors, engines, and the equipment they power. Generators generate voltage roughly proportional to shaft speed. With precise construction and design, generators can be built to produce very precise voltages for certain ranges of shaft speeds.

See also
Diesel generator Electric motor Faraday's law of induction Goodness factor Hybrid vehicle Induction motor Mechanical generator Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Solar cell Superconducting electric machine Thermogenerator Tidal generator Tidal power Turbine hall Wave power Wind turbine

References
1. ^ Augustus Heller (2 April 1896), "Anianus Jedlik" (http://books.google.com /books?id=nWojdmTmch0C&pg=PA516& dq=jedlik+dynamo+1827&lr=&as_brr=3&ei), Nature (Norman Lockyer) 53 (1379): 516, Bibcode:1896Natur..53..516H (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1896Natur..53..516H), doi:10.1038/053516a0 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1038%2F053516a0) 2. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 7 3. ^ Blalock, Thomas J., "Alternating Current Electrification, 1886 (http://www.ieee.org /organizations/history_center/stanley.html)". IEEE History Center, IEEE Milestone. (ed. first practical demonstration of a dc generator - ac transformer system.) 4. ^ US 447921 (http://worldwide.espacenet.com /textdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=US447921), Tesla, Nikola, "Alternating Electric Current Generator". 5. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 17 6. ^ Thompson, Sylvanus P., Dynamo-Electric Machinery. pp. 16 7. ^ Langdon Crane, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator: More Energy from Less Fuel, Issue Brief Number IB74057, Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, 1981, retrieved from Digital.library.unt.edu (http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink /meta-crs-8402:1) 18 July 2008 ^ Losty, H.H.W & Lewis, D.L. (1973) Homopolar Machines. Philosophical Transactions for the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 275 (1248), 69-75 ^ SpecSizer: Generator Set Sizing (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zduGlpGZrkk& feature=related) ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813 ^ "Hurricane Preparedness: Protection Provided by Power Generators | Power On with Mark Lum" (http://www.wpowerproducts.com/blog/2011 /05/hurricane-preparedness-protection-providedby-power-generators/). Wpowerproducts.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-24. ^ With Generators Gone, Wall Street Protesters Try Bicycle Power (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com /2011/10/30/with-generators-gone-wall-streetprotesters-try-bicycle-power/), Colin Moynihan, New York Times, 30 October 2011; accessed 2 November 2011 ^ "Program: hpv (updated 6/22/11)" (http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/programming /hpv/hpv.html). Ohio.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-24.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12.

13.

External links

10 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM

Electric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

Simple generator (http://amasci.com/amateur/coilgen.html) Demonstration of an electrical generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/224) Short video of a simple generator (http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/309) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_generator&oldid=573154033" Categories: Electrical generators English inventions This page was last modified on 11 October 2013 at 10:07. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

11 of 11

10/15/2013 2:12 AM