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Capacity Matrix for Scientific Method Grade (7-1)


AIM 7-1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of technological design and scientific in uiry! including process s"ills! mathematical thin"ing! controlled in#estigati#e design and analysis! and pro$lem sol#ing in#estigati#e design and analysis! and pro$lem sol#ing% CAPA CITY CAPACITY BREAKDOWN Heard of it Know it Can u e it Can tea!" it Te#t Referen!e C"a%ter ( $e!tion *

E#%erimentPart of anMet"od$te% of $!ientifi!

&'()* +enerate ,ue tion t"at !an -e an wered t"rou." !ientifi! in/e ti.ation) &'()0 E#%1ain t"e im%ortan!e t"at re%eated tria1 and a we11'!"o en am%1e i2e "a/e wit" re.ard to t"e /a1idit3 of a !ontro11ed !ientifi! in/e ti.ation) &'()4 Criti,ue a !on!1u ion drawn from a !ientifi! in/e ti.ation
&'()5 E#%1ain t"e rea on for te tin.

C"a%ter ( $e!tion *

C"a%ter ( $e!tion * $u%%1ementa1 Materia1

one inde%endent /aria-1e at a time in a !ontro11ed !ientifi! in/e ti.ation) &'()6 E#%1ain t"e re1ation "i% -etween inde%endent and de%endent /aria-1e in a !ontro11ed !ientifi! in/e ti.ation t"rou." t"e u e of a%%ro%riate .ra%" 7 ta-1e 7 and !"art )
&'()( 8 e a%%ro%riate too1 and in trument 9in!1udin. a mi!ro !o%e: safely and accurately w"en !ondu!tin. a !ontro11ed !ientifi! in/e ti.ation &'()& 8 e a%%ro%riate afet3 %ro!edure w"en !ondu!tin. in/e ti.ation )

$u%%1ementa1 Materia1

C"a%ter ( $e!tion (

&'()* +enerate ,ue tion t"at !an -e an wered t"rou." !ientifi! in/e ti.ation) Previous/Future knowledge: In 3rd grade (3-1.3), students generated questions such as what if? or how? about objects, organis s, and e!ents in the en!iron ent and use those questions to conduct a si "#e scientific in!estigation. In $th grade ($-1.1), students identified questions suitab#e for generating a h%"othesis. In &th grade (&-1.'), students wi## generate questions for further stud% on the basis of "rior in!estigations. It is essential for students to (now that on#% testab#e questions (which are used to test one inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e) can be answered through a scientific in!estigation and data co##ection. )he question shou#d inc#ude the re#ationshi" between the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) and de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e. *or e+a "#e, the fo##owing are e+a "#es of testab#e questions: ,ow does the a ount of e+ercise affect heart rate and breathing rate?

$!ientifi! Met"od

$afet3

((;(<;*<(5

Pa.e ( of (*

o )he inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e is the a ount of e+ercise (nu ber of re"etitions, a ount of weights, duration of e+ercise). o )he de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e, in!o#!ing two bod% s%ste s interacting, are heart rate and breathing rate. ,ow does the a ount of c#a% in soi# affect "er eabi#it% of water? o )he inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e is a ount of c#a% in the soi#. o )he de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e is the rate of "er eabi#it% of water. -oes the a ount of ba(ing soda added to !inegar affect the a ount of gas "roduced? o )he inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e is a ount of ba(ing soda. o )he de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e is a ount of gas "roduced. It is also essential for students to (now that a "rediction about the re#ationshi" between !ariab#es is for ed fro the testab#e question. )his "rediction is ca##ed a hypothesis. .## contro##ed in!estigations shou#d ha!e a h%"othesis. . h%"othesis can be stated "ositi!e#% or negati!e#%. *or e+a "#e, o )he #onger the duration of e+ercise, the faster the heart and breathing rate. ("ositi!e state ent) o )he ore c#a% in the soi#, the #ower the rate of "er eabi#it% of water. (negati!e state ent) o )he ore ba(ing soda added to the !inegar, the greater the a ount of gas "roduced in the reaction. ("ositi!e state ent) . h%"othesis can a#so be stated as a cause-and-effect (If/then,/) state ent. *or e+a "#e, If there is ore c#a% in the soi#, then the rate of "er eabi#it% wi## increase. )he e+"eri ent is conducted to su""ort or not su""ort a h%"othesis. If the h%"othesis is not su""orted in the e+"eri ent, it can sti## be used to he#" ru#e out so e other ideas. It is not essential for students to generate questions based on "rior in!estigations, de!e#o" a "rob#e state ent instead of a question for an in!estigation, or understand a nu## h%"othesis. Assessment Guidelines: )he objecti!e of this indicator is to generate questions that can be answered through scientific in!estigations0 therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to construct questions that can be tested and answered b% conducting scientific in!estigations. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to identify the e+"eri enta# !ariab#es in the question0 exemplify questions that can be tested through scientific in!estigations0 exemplify h%"otheses a""ro"riate to a gi!en question0 or compare the h%"othesis to the question in an in!estigation. 7-1%& 'xplain the importance that repeated trials and a well-chosen sample si(e ha#e with regard to the #alidity of a controlled scientific in#estigation% Previous/Future knowledge: In 1st grade (1-1.3), students carried out si "#e scientific in!estigations when gi!en c#ear directions. In 1nd grade (1-1.1), students carried out $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e * of (*

si "#e scientific in!estigations to answer questions about fa i#iar objects and e!ents. In 3rd grade (3-1.2), students e+"#ained wh% si i#ar in!estigations ight "roduce different resu#ts. In 'th grade ('-1.3), students su ari3ed the characteristics of a si "#e scientific in!estigation that re"resent a fair test (inc#uding a question that identifies the "rob#e , a "rediction that indicates a "ossib#e outco e, a "rocess that tests one ani"u#ated !ariab#e at a ti e, and resu#ts that are co unicated and e+"#ained). In &th grade, students wi## recogni3e the i "ortance of a s%ste atic "rocess for safe#% and accurate#% conducting in!estigations (&-1.1) and wi## e+"#ain the i "ortance of and require ents for re"#ication of scientific in!estigations (&-1.$). It is essential for students to (now that for an in!estigation to be scientifica##% !a#id, re"#ication within the "rocedures is i "ortant to !erif% the resu#ts and "roduce !a#id conc#usions. 4cientists want to re"ort true resu#ts0 therefore, the% conduct re"eated tria#s so that "atterns or trends in the data can be deter ined. )he ore data that is co##ected through re"#ication, the ore re#iab#e the resu#ts. 5ithout re"#ication, errors in "rocedures or data co##ection a% not be detected. 5hi#e gathering data during an e+"eri ent: -ata needs to be gathered ore than one ti e under the sa e conditions and with the sa e easure ent too#s. 6e"etition ensures that the e+"eri ent is valid and that the data is re#iab#e. o 7a#idit% indicates how c#ose the in!estigation is to being accurate and de"endab#e. o .s a resu#t of !a#idit%, other in!estigations re"eated the sa e wa% shou#d "roduce si i#ar resu#ts. 5hen "ossib#e, easure ents shou#d be ta(en se!era# ti es, and then the resu#ts a!eraged. 8ach set of re"eated data is ca##ed a trial. .n in!estigation a% in!o#!e a sample, or a "ortion of the tota# nu ber, as a t%"e of esti ation. )he sa "#e is used to ta(e a re"resentati!e "ortion of the objects or "o"u#ation for research. . "oor#% chosen sa "#e si3e can be unre"resentati!e of the who#e. 9arefu# obser!ations ade fro a "ro"er sa "#e si3e or ani"u#ating !ariab#es within that sa "#e si3e resu#t in infor ation and conc#usions that ight a""#% to the who#e "o"u#ation. If an in!estigation is designed with too few tria#s or with an i "ro"er (too s a##) sa "#e si3e, e+"eri enta# data and the resu#ts wi## ha!e in!a#id foundations. 6easons wh% a re"eated in!estigation cou#d "roduce different resu#ts a% be: )he setu" of the ateria#s was not fo##owed "ro"er#%. 4i i#ar "rocedures were not fo##owed in the e+act sa e wa%. .""ro"riate too#s were not chosen to co "#ete the in!estigation. )oo#s were not used "ro"er#%. :easure ents were not ta(en accurate#%. -ifferent obser!ations were co##ected. :ista(es were ade when recording data such as nu bers written incorrect#%. Assessment Guidelines: $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e 5 of (*

)he objecti!e of this indicator is to explain the i "ortance that re"eated tria#s and we##chosen sa "#e si3es ha!e with regard to the !a#idit% of a contro##ed scientific in!estigation0 therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to construct a causeand-effect ode# showing the i "ortance of re"eated tria#s and we##-chosen sa "#e si3es to ensure !a#idit%. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to summarize reasons wh% the resu#ts of an in!estigation a% "roduce different resu#ts0 recall the i "ortance of a we##-chosen sa "#e si3e0 identify conditions necessar% to co##ect !a#id data0 or exemplify !a#id in!estigations. 7-1.6 Criti ue a !on!lusion drawn from a s!ientifi! investigation. Previous/Future knowledge: In 1nd grade (1-1.'), students inferred e+"#anations regarding scientific obser!ations and e+"eriences. In 3rd grade (3-1.;), students inferred eaning fro data co unicated in gra"hs, tab#es, and diagra s. In $th grade, students e!a#uated resu#ts of an in!estigation to for u#ate a !a#id conc#usion based on e!idence and co unicated the findings of the e!a#uation in ora# or written for ($-1.;) and a#so "#anned and conducted contro##ed scientific in!estigations, ani"u#ating one !ariab#e at a ti e ($-1.3). In ;th grade (;-1.'), students used a techno#ogica# design "rocess to "#an and "roduce a so#ution to a "rob#e or a "roduct (inc#uding identif%ing a "rob#e , designing a so#ution or a "roduct, i "#e enting the design, and e!a#uating the so#ution or the "roduct). In &th grade (&-1.3), students wi## construct e+"#anations and conc#usions fro inter"retations of data obtained during a contro##ed scientific in!estigation. It is essential for students to (now that once the resu#ts of an in!estigation are co##ected and recorded in a""ro"riate gra"hs, tab#es or charts, the data shou#d be ana#%3ed to figure out what the data eans. )he resu#ts of the in!estigation are then co "ared to the h%"othesis. . valid conclusion can then be written and shou#d inc#ude: )he re#ationshi" between the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e and de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#es based on the recorded data, and 5hether the h%"othesis was su""orted or not su""orted. Inferences are so eti es needed to he#" for a !a#id conc#usion. .n inference is an e+"#anation of the data that is based on facts, but not necessari#% direct obser!ation. )he conc#usion is then co unicated to a##ow others to e!a#uate and understand the in!estigation. Assessment Guidelines: )he objecti!e of this indicator is to critique a conc#usion drawn fro a scientific in!estigation0 therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to deter ine whether a conc#usion is a""ro"riate for a gi!en scientific in!estigation. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to summarize the ste"s in a contro##ed scientific in!estigation0 compare a conc#usion to the a""ro"riate in!estigation0 compare a conc#usion to a gi!en h%"othesis0 or select an a""ro"riate conc#usion for a gi!en in!estigation.

7-1." #$%lain t&e reasons for testing one inde%endent varia'le at a time in a !ontrolled s!ientifi! investigation. Previous/Future knowledge: In 3rd grade (3-1.2), students e+"#ained wh% si i#ar in!estigations ight "roduce different resu#ts. In 'th grade ('-1.3), students su ari3ed $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e 0 of (*

'''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Te t o/er $!ientifi! Met"od '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

the characteristics of a si "#e scientific in!estigation that re"resent a fair test (inc#uding a question that identifies the "rob#e , a "rediction that indicates a "ossib#e outco e, a "rocess that tests one ani"u#ated !ariab#e at a ti e, and resu#ts that are co unicated and e+"#ained). In $th grade, students identified inde"endent ( ani"u#ated), de"endent (res"onding), and contro##ed !ariab#es in an e+"eri ent ($1.1) and "#anned and conducted contro##ed scientific in!estigations, ani"u#ating one !ariab#e at a ti e ($-1.3). In & grade, students wi## recogni3e the i "ortance of a s%ste atic "rocess for safe#% and accurate#% conducting in!estigations (&-1.1) and wi## e+"#ain the i "ortance of and require ents for re"#ication of scientific in!estigations (&1.$).
th

It is essential for students to (now that a controlled scientific investigation deter ines the effect of an inde"endent !ariab#e in an e+"eri ent, when a## other !ariab#es are contro##ed. 8!er% contro##ed scientific in!estigation "ro!ides infor ation. )his infor ation is ca##ed data. -ata inc#udes both scientific obser!ations and inferences. . scientific observation is gained b% carefu##% identif%ing and describing "ro"erties using the fi!e senses or scientific too#s and can be c#assified as quantitative or qualitative. o <uantitati!e obser!ations are obser!ations that use nu bers (a ounts) or easure ents (inc#uding the unit #abe#) or obser!ations that a(e re#ati!e co "arisons, such as ore than, a##, #ess than, few, or none. o <ua#itati!e obser!ations are obser!ations that are ade using on#% the senses and refer to s"ecific "ro"erties. .n inference is an e+"#anation or inter"retation of an obser!ation based on "rior e+"eriences or su""orted b% obser!ations ade in the in!estigation. )he% are not fina# e+"#anations of the obser!ation. )here a% be se!era# #ogica# inferences for a gi!en obser!ation. )here is no wa% to be sure which inference best e+"#ains the obser!ation without further in!estigation. In order to design a controlled scientific investigation so e or a## of the fo##owing ste"s shou#d be inc#uded: Identif% a testab#e question (tests one !ariab#e) that can be in!estigated 6esearch infor ation about the to"ic 4tate the h%"othesis as a "redicted answer to the question, what a% be the "ossib#e outco e of the in!estigation -esign an e+"eri ent to test the h%"othesis, contro##ing a## !ariab#es e+ce"t the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e o =#an for inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) and de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#es with re"eated tria#s o =#an for factors that shou#d be he#d constant (contro##ed !ariab#es) and>or "#an for a contro# setu" o ?ist the ateria#s needed to conduct the e+"eri ent o ?ist the "rocedures to be fo##owed o =#an for recording, organi3ing and ana#%3ing data 9onduct the e+"eri ent and record data (obser!ations) in tab#es, gra"hs, or charts $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e 6 of (*

.na#%3e the data in the tab#es, gra"hs, or charts to figure out what the data eans (describe the re#ationshi" between the !ariab#es) 9o "are the resu#ts to the h%"othesis and write a conc#usion state ent that wi## su""ort or not su""ort the h%"othesis based on the recorded data 9o unicate the resu#ts to others It is also essential for students to (now that if there is on#% one inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e, then there is on#% one factor that can affect the resu#ts of an e+"eri ent. @efore beginning an in!estigation, a## "otentia# factors that cou#d affect the resu#ts shou#d be #isted. *ro this #ist, the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e shou#d be deter ined whi#e "#anning to contro# a## other !ariab#es. Ance the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e is identified, then a## other factors that a% inf#uence the e+"eri ent need to be contro##ed. 5hen ore than one !ariab#e is a##owed to affect the de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#es or the outco e of the in!estigation, then a fair test is not conducted. 5hen ore than one factor at a ti e is changed, reasonab#e conc#usions cannot be ade. . contro##ed !ariab#e is (e"t constant so that it does not affect the outco e of the e+"eri ent. 4o e e+"eri ents a% ha!e a contro# set-u" (or grou") so that the e+"eri enta# resu#ts can be co "ared to the contro# resu#ts. o )he contro# set-u" (or grou") is treated #i(e the e+"eri enta# grou" e+ce"t the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e is not a""#ied. It is not essential for students to e!a#uate an in!estigation as to how it was "#anned and conducted. It is also essential for students to (now that science is the "rocess of #earning about the natura# wor#d b% as(ing questions and tr%ing to find the answers to those questions. )echno#og% a""#ies scientific (now#edge in order to de!e#o" a so#ution to a "rob#e or create a "roduct to he#" eet hu an needs. )echno#og% is usua##% de!e#o"ed because there is a need or a "rob#e that needs to be so#!ed. 4te"s in the techno#ogica# design "rocess inc#ude: Identifying a problem or need o 6esearch and gather infor ation on what is a#read% (nown about the "rob#e or need Designing a solution or a product o Benerate ideas on "ossib#e so#utions or "roducts o 8!a#uate the factors that wi## #i it or restrict the so#ution or "roduct design o -eter ine the trade-offs of the so#utions or "roducts (what ust be gi!en u" in order to create the so#ution or "roduct) Implementing the design o @ui#d and test the so#ution or "roduct o Identif% an% "rob#e s with the so#ution or "roduct $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e 4 of (*

o If necessar%, redesign the so#ution or "roduct to e#i inate an% "rob#e s in the design Evaluating the solution or the product o -eter ine if the so#ution or "roduct so#!ed the "rob#e o Identif% the "ros and cons of the so#ution or "roduct )he ste"s of the design can be co unicated using descri"tions, ode#s, and drawings. . scientific model is an idea that a##ows us to create e+"#anations of how the so ething a% wor(. :ode#s can be "h%sica# or enta#. It is not essential for students to co "are the "rocesses of a contro##ed scientific in!estigation and the techno#ogica# design "rocess or e!a#uate a techno#ogica# design or "roduct on the basis of designated criteria (inc#uding cost, ti e, and ateria#s). Assessment Guidelines: )he objecti!e of this indicator is to explain the reasons for testing one inde"endent !ariab#e at a ti e in a contro##ed scientific in!estigation0 therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to construct a cause-and-effect ode# of wh% on#% one inde"endent !ariab#e shou#d be tested. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to identify reasons for contro##ing !ariab#es in an in!estigation0 identify the !ariab#es in an in!estigation0 recognize an in!estigation that tests on#% one inde"endent !ariab#e0 compare the contro# set-u" to the e+"eri enta# design0 summarize the ste"s of a contro##ed scientific in!estigation0 exemplify techno#og%0 match a s"ecific so#ution or "roduct to a s"ecific need or "rob#e 0 or summarize the ste"s in the techno#ogica# design "rocess. 7-1.( #$%lain t&e relations&i%s 'etween inde%endent and de%endent varia'les in a !ontrolled s!ientifi! investigation t&roug& t&e use of a%%ro%riate gra%&s) ta'les) and !&arts. Previous/Future knowledge: In 'th grade, students recogni3ed the correct "#ace ent of !ariab#es on a #ine gra"h ('-1.$) and constructed and inter"reted diagra s, tab#es, and gra"hs ade fro recorded easure ents and obser!ations ('-1.;). In $th grade ($1.$), students constructed a #ine gra"h fro recorded data with correct "#ace ent of inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) and de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#es. In &th grade (&-1.3), students wi## construct e+"#anations and conc#usions fro inter"retations of data obtained during a contro##ed scientific in!estigation. It is essential for students to (now that the re#ationshi" between the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e and the de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#es can be inter"reted through the use of a""ro"riate gra"hs, tab#es, and charts. Bra"hs con!ert data sets into an organi3ation for that is often better understood than written narrati!es or co#u ns of nu bers. o Bra"hs contain a tit#e, incre ents, and #abe#ed a+es. o )he hori3onta# and !ertica# a+es of the gra"hs identif% the !ariab#es. )he hori3onta# a+is identifies the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e. )he !ertica# a+is identifies the de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e. $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e & of (*

*or each inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e nu ber there is a corres"onding de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e nu ber. -ifferent gra"hs are used to re"resent different t%"es of data. o @ar gra"hs organi3e descri"ti!e data that co es fro research questions as(ing about !ariab#es that wi## be counted and are often used to co "are the quantities of different qua#itati!e factors. o ?ine gra"hs dis"#a% continuous data that co es fro questions that as( about !ariab#es that in!estigated o!er ti e. o ?ine gra"hs show how quantitati!e data changes o!er ti e or re#ationshi"s between ani"u#ated (changing) !ariab#e and res"onding (resu#ting) !ariab#e. -ata tab#es and charts a##ow data that inc#ude nu bers and easure ents to be dis"#a%ed in an organi3ed fashion. o . data tab#e shou#d be "#anned before the in!estigation starts. o )he inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) !ariab#e is #isted in the co#u n on the #eft side. o )he de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e is #isted in the co#u n(s) on the right side. o If qua#itati!e data is to be gathered, inc#ude enough s"ace to write the obser!ations. )he re#ationshi" between the inde"endent ( ani"u#ated) and de"endent (res"onding) !ariab#e can be inter"reted using the "resented gra"h, tab#e, or chart. *or e+a "#e, o An a #ine gra"h, if the s#o"e of the #ine is "ositi!e, then the re#ationshi" between the !ariab#es is a#so "ositi!e. o An a bar gra"h, if the height of the bar is #ower than the others, the quantit% is #ess. CA)8 )A )8.9,86: . ne onic de!ice that can be used to teach the a""ro"riate #ocations of the !ariab#es on a gra"h is -6D :IE. -6D re"resents -e"endent-6es"onding-D-a+is. :IE re"resents :ani"u#ated-Inde"endent-E-a+is. It is not essential for students to use statistica# ana#%sis to e+"#ain the resu#ts of an in!estigation or the re#ationshi" between !ariab#es. Assessment Guidelines: )he objecti!e of this indicator is to explain the re#ationshi" between inde"endent and de"endent !ariab#es in a contro##ed scientific in!estigation through the use of a""ro"riate gra"hs, tab#es, and charts0 therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to construct a cause-and-effect ode# of the re#ationshi" between !ariab#es. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to identify the correct "#ace ent of !ariab#es on gra"hs0 recognize a""ro"riate incre ents for a gra"h of recorded data0 compare data to an a""ro"riate gra"h0 exemplify a""ro"riate gra"hs fro recorded data0 compare gra"hs, tab#es, or charts with recorded data0 or interpret the re#ationshi" between the !ariab#es as "resented on a gra"h, tab#e, or chart.

Glossary
$!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e = of (*

Glossary
controlled scientific in#estigation dependent #aria$le fair test hypothesis independent #aria$le An e#%eriment in w"i!" t"e /aria-1e are mana.ed o t"at t"e re u1t of t"e e#%eriment wi11 -e re1ia-1e) T"e re %ondent or out!ome /aria-1e in an in/e ti.ation> t"e /aria-1e t"at t"e e#%erimenter "3%ot"e i2e wi11 -e affe!ted -3 mani%u1ation in t"e inde%endent /aria-1e) An e#%eriment in w"i!" on13 one /aria-1e i mani%u1ated) A %redi!tion -a ed on o- er/ation and inferen!e t"at ma3 -e te ted -3 one or more e#%eriment ) T"e mani%u1ated /aria-1e in an in/e ti.ation> t"e /aria-1e t"e e#%erimenter "3%ot"e i2e wi11 affe!t t"e de%endent /aria-1e) T"e de.ree to w"i!" an in trument !an -e read wit" !ertaint3 %1u one fina1 di.it7 w"i!" i un!ertain 9e timate:) A11 mea urement in !ien!e "ou1d -e re!orded to in!1ude a11 di.it in!1udin. t"e e timated di.it) On t"e metri! ru1er -e1ow7 t"e di tan!e -etween t"e mar?in. i <)( !m) In order to !orre!t13 re%re ent t"i mea urement7 to t"e %re!i ion of t"e in trument7 one mi."t write @)5& !m or @)5= !m 9or w"ate/er i Aud.ed to -e !1o e t:> t"u t"e <)<( !m %1a!e i un!ertain)

precision

ualitati#e uantitati#e simple in#estigation

A term t"at refer to t"e natureBt"e !"ara!teri ti! and attri-ute Bof a u- tan!e7 o-Ae!t7 or e/ent rat"er t"an t"e amount) A term t"at refer to mea urement or amount rat"er t"an to !"ara!teri ti! or attri-ute ) An e#%eriment wit" a in.1e inde%endent and de%endent /aria-1e)

'''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Te t o/er Part of an E#%eriment ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''


7-1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of technological design and scientific in uiry! including process s"ills! mathematical thin"ing! controlled in#estigati#e design and analysis! and pro$lem sol#ing in#estigati#e design and analysis! and pro$lem sol#ing% 7-1.1 *se a%%ro%riate tools and instruments +in!luding a mi!ros!o%e, safeland a!!uratel- w&en !ondu!ting a !ontrolled s!ientifi! investigation. $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e @ of (*

Previous/Future knowledge: In "re!ious grades, students used agnifiers and e%edro""ers (F-1.1), ru#ers (1-1.1), ther o eters, rain gauges, ba#ances, and easuring cu"s (1-1.1), bea(ers, eter ta"es and stic(s, force"s>twee3ers, tuning for(s, graduated c%#inders, and graduated s%ringes (3-1.$), a co "ass, an ane o eter, irrors, and a "ris ('-1.1), a ti ing de!ice and a 1G+ agnifier ($-1.'), and a s"ring sca#e, bea ba#ance, baro eter, and s#ing "s%chro eter (;-1.1) safe#%, accurate#%, and a""ro"riate#%. In future grades, students wi## use these too#s when a""ro"riate as we## as #earn new too#s to use when co##ecting scientific data. . co "#ete #ist of too#s can be found in .""endi+ . of the .cade ic 4tandards. It is essential for students to (now that different instru ents or too#s are needed to co##ect different (inds of data. . microscope is a too# that is used to agnif% the features of an object. . compound microscope has two or ore #enses. Ather "arts of a co "ound icrosco"e are: EyepieceHcontains the 1GE agnif%ing #ens Coarse adjustment knob/focusHfocuses the i age under #ow "ower ine adjustment knob/focusHfocuses the i age under high "ower !bjective lensesHtwo or three se"arate #enses that contain !ar%ing "owers of agnif%ing #enses "tage and stage clipsHsu""orts and ho#d the icrosco"e s#ide in "#ace whi#e !iewing DiaphragmHcontro#s the a ount of #ight a!ai#ab#e #ight sourceHa irror, e+terna# or interna# #ight source that shines #ight through the object being !iewed $rmHsu""orts the bod% tube which connects the e%e"iece to the set of objecti!e #enses %aseHsu""orts the icrosco"e It is essential for students to use the icrosco"e safe#% and accurate#%. 5hen #oo(ing through a icrosco"e, the #ighted area is the field of vie&. .djust the dia"hrag unti# an adequate a ount of #ight is a!ai#ab#e. o )o a(e the fie#d of !iew brighter, o"en the dia"hrag . o )o a(e the fie#d of !iew dar(er, c#ose the dia"hrag . )o !iew an object under the icrosco"e, first focus on the #owest "ower objecti!e #ens. )hen change to the highest "ower objecti!e #ens if necessar%. 5hen focusing the i age under #ow "ower objecti!e, use the coarse adjust ent (nob. Ise on#% the fine adjust ent (nob to shar"en the focus when using the high "ower objecti!e. )o ca#cu#ate the agnification of objects seen through a icrosco"e, u#ti"#% the agnification of the e%e"iece ti es the agnification of the objecti!e #ens being used. Abjects on the s#ide o!e in the o""osite direction when being !iewed through the e%e"iece (for e+a "#e, if the s#ide is o!ed to the #eft, the object being !iewed a""ears to o!e to the right). $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e (< of (*

It is essential for students to use care when hand#ing the icrosco"e. . icrosco"e shou#d be he#d and carried with one hand under the base and one hand on the ar . 4o e icrosco"es a% ha!e a irror as the #ight source. 9are shou#d be ta(en not to ai the irror direct#% at the 4un. It is also essential for students to use too#s fro "re!ious grade #e!e#s that are a""ro"riate to the content of this grade #e!e# such as e%edro""ers, agnifiers (hand #enses), ru#ers ( easuring to i##i eters), ther o eters ( easuring in J* and J9), bea(ers ( easuring to i##i#iters), force"s>twee3ers, graduated c%#inders ( easuring to i##i#iters), eter stic(s and eter ta"es ( easuring in eters, centi eters, or i##i eters), co "asses, ti ing de!ices ( easuring in inutes and seconds), 1GE agnifiers, or bea ba#ances ( easuring to centigra s) to gather data. It is not essential for students to use other t%"es of icrosco"es or (now how to "re"are a wet ount s#ide. )oo#s fro "re!ious grades that are not a""ro"riate to the content of this grade #e!e# are not essentia#0 howe!er, these ter s a% be used as distracters (incorrect answer o"tions) for assess ent, for e+a "#e rain gauge, easuring cu"s, graduated s%ringes, tuning for(s, ane o eters, "#ane irrors, "ris s, baro eters, s#ing "s%chro eters, and s"ring sca#es. 4tudents do not need to con!ert easure ents fro 8ng#ish to etric or etric to 8ng#ish. Assessment Guidelines: )he objecti!e of this indicator is to use too#s safe#%, accurate#%, and a""ro"riate#% when gathering data0 therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to a""#% correct "rocedures to the use of a icrosco"e and other too#s essentia# to the grade #e!e# that wou#d be needed to conduct a science in!estigation. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to identify a""ro"riate uses for a icrosco"e0 illustrate the a""ro"riate too# for an in!estigation using "ictures, diagra s, or words0 recall how to accurate#% deter ine the easure ent fro the too#0 or recognize wa%s to use science too#s safe#%, accurate#%, and a""ro"riate#%. 7-1.7 *se a%%ro%riate safet- %ro!edures w&en !ondu!ting investigations. It is essential for students to (now that care shou#d be ta(en when conducting a science in!estigation to a(e sure that e!er%one sta%s safe. 4afet% "rocedures to use when conducting si "#e science in!estigations ust be .#wa%s wear a""ro"riate safet% equi" ent such as gogg#es or an a"ron when conducting an in!estigation. @e carefu# with shar" objects and g#ass. An#% the teacher shou#d c#ean u" bro(en g#ass. -o not "ut an%thing in the outh un#ess instructed b% the teacher. *o##ow a## directions for co "#eting the science in!estigation. *o##ow "ro"er hand#ing of #i!e or "reser!ed organis s in the c#assroo . Fee" the wor("#ace neat. 9#ean u" when the in!estigation is co "#eted. =ractice a## of the safet% "rocedures associated with the acti!ities or in!estigations conducted. )e## the teacher about accidents or s"i##s right awa%. $!ientifi! Met"od ((;(<;*<(5 Pa.e (( of (*

Ise caution when wor(ing with che ica#s. Ise caution when wor(ing with heat sources and heated objects. 5ash hands after each acti!it%. It is essential for students to use too#s safe#% and accurate#%, inc#uding a when conducting in!estigations.

icrosco"e,

Assessment Guidelines: )he objecti!e of this indicator is to use a""ro"riate safet% "rocedures when conducting in!estigations. therefore, the "ri ar% focus of assess ent shou#d be to a""#% correct "rocedures that wou#d be needed to conduct a science in!estigation. ,owe!er, a""ro"riate assess ents shou#d a#so require students to identify safet% "rocedures that are needed whi#e conducting an in!estigation0 or recognize when safet% "rocedures are being used.

'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Te t o/er $afet3 '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

$!ientifi! Met"od

((;(<;*<(5

Pa.e (* of (*