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s
t w
d c1
y
2
y
d c1
2
b fc

Figure 77 Yield line pattern: H--shaped column with 2 bolts

Considering the symmetry about the column web the derivation of the internal work and external work is carried out only considering half the plate area:

W i = Ôm p

1 4 b fc1

y

2

2d h +

fc1 2y

2

b

= Ôm p 2b fc1 2d h

y

+ fc1

4y

b

(174)

where:

W

e = 2N b fc1

b

*

s

(175)

b fc1 = b fc t w

y

and s are defined in Fig.77

Equating the internal and external work the expression of the design axial tension load per bolt N b is obtained as follows:

*

N

b = b fc1

*

2s

2b fc1 2d h + 4y

y

b

fc1 Ôm p

(176)

The value of y which minimises N b (or equivalentlythat

maximises the required

differentiating equation (176) for y.

*

Ôm p )

+

4

b

fc1

is

= 0

determined

(177)

(178)

dN

dy

*

b

= 2b fc1 2d h

y 2

Solving equation (177) for y yields:

y =

b

fc1

b fc1 d h

2

The presence of the flanges requires the value of y to be always less or equal to d c 2 and therefore y is re--defined as follows:

y = mind 2 c1 ,

b

fc1

b fc1 d h

2

(179)

The design axial tension capacity of the base plate ÔN t is then obtained re--arranging equation (176) as follows:

ÔN t = 2b fc1 2b fc1 d h + 4y 2 0.9f yi t 2

2

i

4sy

(180)

where:

y = as calculated from equation (179)

or equivalently the minimum plate thickness required

for a certain design tension load N

*

t :

t i

0.9f yi 2b fc1 2b fc1 d h + 4y 2

4syN

*

t

2

(181)

In this model the reduction in plate capacity due to the presence of a bolt hole alongthe yieldline perpendicular to the web has been included. Further reductions due to other yield lines intersecting bolt holes have not been considered as they are very unlikely to occur and a more detailed analysis should be carried out in such situation. The critical yield line pattern is a function of the value

of y calculated from equation (179). To ensure that none

of the oblique yield lines intersects the bolt hole, as assumed in the model derived, the following simplified condition needs to be satisfied:

y > l 2

where:

l 1 = d h

2

1

d

2

h

4s 2

l 2 =

l 1 l 3

s

d

2

h

4

l 2

1

(182)

and the notation is defined in Fig. 78.

Web

l
3
s
diameter of hole = d h
l
1
l
2
2
d h ∕4 − l 2
Edge of plate
1

Figure 78 Yield line layout near the bolt hole

Substituting a nil value for the diameter of the bolt hole

d h in equations (179) and (181) would lead to the determination of plate thicknesses t i similar to those obtained with Murray Model.