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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism

Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

Historical Barnes, Nancy J. Striking a Balance: Women and Images of Women in Early Chinese Buddhism. In Women, Religion, and Social Change, eds. Yvonne Y. Haddad and Ellison B. Findley. Albany: State University of New York, 1985. Barua, Rabindra Bijay. The Theravada Sangha. Dacca: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1978. Biyagama Nunnery Second Anniversary Meeting. The Buddhist, August 1938, 74. Biyagama Upasika Aramaya. The Buddhist, September 1940, 74. Bloss, Lowell W. Attitudes toward Women and the Feminine in Early Buddhism. In Buddhism, Sexuality and Gender. Edited by Edited by Jos Ignacio Cabezn. Albany: State University of New York, 1992, pp. 3-36. The Celebration of the Sanghamitta Festival. The Buddhist 9 (December 1916): 4. Chakrabarty, Haripada. Asceticism in Ancient India in Brahmanical Buddhist Jaina and Ajibika Societies from the Earliest Times to the Period of Sankaracarya. Punthi Pustak, 1993. Chamberlayne, John. The Development of Kuan Yin: Chinese Goddess of Mercy. Numen 9 (January 1962): 45-52. Chappell, David W., ed. Monasticism East and West. Buddhist Christian Studies 12 (1992): 123-58. Church, Cornelia Dimmitt. Temptress, Housewife, Nun: Womens Role in Early Buddhism. Anima 2 (1975): 53-58. Cogan, Gina. Precepts at Enshoji: The Rules of a Seventeenth-Century Japanese Amadera. In Bridging Worlds: Buddhist Womens Voices Across Generations. Edited by Karma Lekshe Tsomo. Taipei: Yuan Chuan Press, 2004, pp. 237-40. Conze, Edward. The Iconography of Prajnaparamita. In Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies: Selected Essays of Edward Conze, 243-60. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1968. de Souza, Canavarro. Order of the Sanghamitta Buddhist Sisterhood. Colombo: Clifton Press, 1899. Dear Sisters. The Buddhist, 11 March 1916, 5.

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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism


Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

Devaraja, Lorna. Buddhist Women in India and Pre-Colonial Sri Lanka. In Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations. Edited by Karma Lekshe Tsomo. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999. Devaraja, Lorna S. Position of Women in Buddhism from a Historical Perspective. Wheel Publication 280. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1981. Devaraja, Lorna S.. The Position of Women in Buddhism with Special Reference to Pre-Colonial Sri Lanka. In Third Sri Lanka Conference (Netherlands, April 2-5, 1991). Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit, 1991, pp. 1-18. Dutt, Nalinaksha. Early Monastic Buddhism. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Book Agency, 1960. Dutt, Sukumar. Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1962. Dutt, Sukumar. Early Buddhist Monachism. New Delhi: Manoharlal Publishers, 1984. Dutt, Sukumar. Early Buddhist Monachism: 600 B.C.-100 B.C. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, 1924. The Education of Buddhist Girls. The Buddhist, 11 March 1916, 4. The Education of Buddhist Girls. The Buddhist, 18 November 1916, 1. Falk, Nancy Auer. The Case of the Vanishing Nuns: The Fruits of Ambivalence in Ancient Buddhism. In Unspoken Worlds: Womens Religious Lives in Non-western Cultures, eds. Nancy Auer Falk and Rita Gross. New York: Harper and Row, 1980, pp. 206-24. Falk, Nancy Auer. An Image of Women in Old Buddhist Literature: The Daughters of Mara. In Women and Religion. Edited by Judith Plaskow and June Arnold. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1974, pp.105-12. Female Education. The Buddhist, July 10, 1891, 229. Fister, Patricia. Art by Buddhist Nuns: Treasures from the Imperial Convents of Japan. New York: Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies, 1988. Fister, Patricia, et al. Amamonzeki: A Hidden Heritage: Treasures of the Japanese Buddhist Convents. Tokyo: University Art Museum, 2009. Freese, Roseanne. Tracing the Roots of the Bhiksuni Tradition. In Bridging Worlds: Buddhist Womens Voices Across Generations. Edited by Karma Lekshe Tsomo. Taipei: Yuan Chuan Press, 2004, pp. 188-210.

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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism


Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

Grant, Beata. Eminent Nuns: Women Chan Masters of Seventeenth-century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008. Grant, Beata. Female Holder of the Lineage: Linji Chan Master Zhiyuan Xinggang (1597-1654). Late Imperial China 17:2 (1996) 51-76. Grant, Beata. The Red Cord Untied: Buddhist Nuns in 18th Century China. In Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations. Edited by Karma Lekshe Tsomo. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999. Grant, Beata. Through the Empty Gate: The Poetry of Buddhist Nuns in Late Imperial China. In Cultural Intersections in Later Chinese Buddhism. Edited by Marsha Weidner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001, pp. 87-113. Gunawardena, R. A. L. H. Subtile Silks of Ferreous Firmness: Buddhist Nuns in Ancient and Early Medieval Sri Lanka and Their Role in the Propagation of Buddhism. The Sri Lankan Journal of the Humanities 14:1 and 2 (1988): 1-59. Hamilton, Sue. From the Buddha to Buddhaghosa: Changing Attitudes Towards the Human Body in Theravada Buddhism. In Religious Reflections on the Human Body, ed. Jane Marie Law. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Harrison, Paul. Who Gets to Ride in the Great Vehicle: Self-Image and Identity Among the Followers of the Early Mahayana. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10, no. 1 (1987): 67-89. Hecker, Hellmuth. Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha. Lives of the Disciples series. Wheel Publication 292/293. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1982. Hirakawa, Akira. The History of Buddhist Nuns in Japan. Buddhist Christian Studies 12 (1992): 147-58. History of the Womens Educational Society (Sri Lanka). The Buddhist, 2 February 1894, 25. Holt, John C. The Beginnings of Buddhist Discipline: Notes on an Early Buddhist Theory of Action. In Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World. Edited by Charles Fu and Sandra A. Wawrytko. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1994, pp. 53-66. Horner, I. B. Women Under Primitive Buddhism: Laywomen and Almswomen. London, G. Routledge & Sons, 1930; reprint Asia Book Corp. of America, 1990. Hsieh, Ding-hwa. Buddhist Nuns in Sung China (960-1279). Journal of Sung-Yuan Studies 30

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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism


Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

(2000): 63-97. Hsieh, Ding-hwa. Images of Women in Chan Buddhist Literature of the Sung Period. In Buddhism in the Sung. Edited by Peter N. Gregory and Daniel A. Getz, Jr. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, pp. 148-87. Huong, Thich Nu Gioi. Buddhist Women and Discipline: An Historical Perspective. In Out of the Shadows: Socially Engaged Buddhist Women in the Global Community. Edited by Karma Lekshe Tsomo. Delhi: SriSatguru Publications, 2006, pp. 160-63. Katukele Buddhist Girls School. The Buddhist, October 6, 1917. Katsuura, Noriko (trans. Virginia Skord Waters). Tonsure Forms for Nuns: Classification of Nuns According to Hairstyle. Engendering Faith: Women and Buddhism in Premodern Japan. Edited by Barbara Ruch. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center, 2002, pp. 109-29. Khantipalo, Bhikkhu. Banner of the Arahants: Buddhist Monks and Nuns from the Buddhas Time Till Now. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1979. Ku, Cheng-Mei. The Mahisasakas View of Women. Unpublished paper, 1986. Lang, Karen Christina. Images of Women in Early Buddhism and Christian Gnosticism. Buddhist Christian Studies 2 (1982): 95-105. Law, Bimala Churn. Lay Women in Early Buddhism. In The Sardhasatabdi Commemoration Volume. Edited by G. C. Jhala and N. A. Gore. Bombay: The Asiatic Society of Bombay, 1959, pp. 121-41. Ling, Trevor. Women in Early Japanese Zen. Middle Way 50:4 (February 1976). Naylor, B. Christina. Buddhas or Bitches? Nichirens Attitude to Women. Religious Traditions 11 (1988): 63-76. Nietupski, Paul Kocot. The History and Development of Buddhist Monasticism. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1993. Ogoshi Aiko. Women and Sexism in Japanese Buddhism: A Reexamination of Shinrans View of Women. Japan Christian Review 59 (1993): 19-25. Olivelle, Patrick. The Origin and the Early Development of Buddhist Monachism. Colombo: M. D. Gunasena & Company, 1974. The Openning of a Buddhist Upasika Aramaya at Kandy by H. E. Lady Blake. Weekly Times of

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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism


Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

Ceylon, 4 July 1907. Paul, Diana. Portraits of the Feminine: Buddhist and Confucian Historical Perspectives.In Studies in the History of Buddhism. Edited by A. Narain. 1980, pp. 209-21. Pilgrimage of Renunciation, Family in Yellow Robes. The Buddhist Chronicle (August 1938) 73. Prasad, Nand Kishore. Studies in Buddhist and Jaina monachism. Prakrit Jaina Institute Research Publication Series 9. Vaishali: Research Institute of Prakrit, Jainology & Ahimsa, 1972. Pruthi, Raj, and Bela R. Sharma. Buddhism, Jainism and Women. South Asia Books, 1995. Ray, Reginald A. Accomplished Women in Tantric Buddhism of Medieval India and Tibet. In Unspoken Worlds: Womens Religious Lives. Edited by Nancy Falk. 1980, pp. 227-42. Ray, Reginald A. Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values & Orientations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Residence for Buddhist Nuns at Anuradhapura. The Buddhist, March 24, 1917. Rodd, Laurel Rasplica. Nichirens Teachings to Women. Selected Papers in Asian Studies 5 (1979). Sanghamitta. The Buddhist, June 1932. Sanghamitta Day Celebrations. The Buddhist Chronicle, January 6, 1924. The Sanghamitta Girls School. The Buddhist, June 22, 1894. The Sanghamitta School. The Buddhist, April 21, 1893. The Sanghamitta School. The Buddhist, February 2, 1894. Schopen, Gregory. On Monks, Nuns and Vulgar Practices: The Introduction of the Image Cult into Indian Buddhism. Artibus Asiae 49 (1988): 153. Schuster, Nancy. Striking a Balance: Women and Images of Women in Early Chinese Buddhism. In Women, Religion, and Social Change. Edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Ellison Banks Findly. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985, pp. 87-112. Schuster, Nancy. Yoga Master Dharmamitra and Clerical Misogyny in Fifth Century Buddhism. The Tibet Journal 9:4 (1984): 33-46.

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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism


Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

Sharma, Arvind. How and Why Did the Women in Ancient India Become Buddhist Nuns? Sociological Analysis 38 (Fall 1977): 239-51. Shaw, Miranda. Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism in India. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1992. Shaw, Miranda. Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994. Shearer, Catherine. A Buddhist Pilgrimage in Burma. The Maha Bodhi and the United Buddhist World 17:3 (March 1909): 47-50. Shiraishi, Ryokai. Asceticism in Buddhism and Brahmanism. Institute of Buddhist Studies, 1996. Silber, Ilana Friedrich. Opting Out in Theravada Buddhism and Medieval Christianity: A Comparative Study of Monasticism as Alternative Structure. Religion 15 (July 1985): 251-77. Silber, Ilana Friedrich. Virtuosity, Charisma, and Social Order: A Comparative Sociological Study of Monasticism in Theravada Buddhism and Medieval Catholicism. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Silmatha, Panadure Vajira. The Enlightened Nuns of the Buddha Era. Colombo: National Book Development Council of Sri Lanka, 1994. Sinberg, Susan Amy. Tara and the Tara-Mula-Kalpa: The Tara Cults Formative Period in India. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1995. Skilling, Peter. A Note on the History of the Bhikkhuni-Sangha (I): Nuns at the Time of the Buddha. W.F.B. Review 31:2-3 (April-September 1994): 47-55. Skilling, Peter. A Note on the History of the Bhikkhuni-sangha (II): The Order of Nuns after the Parinirvana. W.F.B. Review 30-31:4-1 (October-December & January-March 1993-1994): 29-49. Smillie, Julia. A Study of Non-egalitarianism Found in Early Indian, Early Mahayana, And Vajrayana Buddhism. M.A. thesis, California State University, 1996. Sponberg, Alan. Attitudes Toward Women and the Feminine in Early Buddhism. In Buddhism, Sexuality, and Gender. Edited by Jos Ignacio Cabezn. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992, pp. 3-36. Templeman, David, translator. The Origin of Tara Tantra. Dharamsala, India: Library of Tibetan

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Bibliography on Women and Buddhism


Compiled by Kate Crosby, 2004. Revised by Karma Lekshe Tsomo, 2010 http://www.sakyadhita.org ktsomo@sandiego.edu

Works and Archives, 1981. Thomas, P. Indian Women Through the Ages. New York: Asia Publishing House, 1964. Tsai, Kathryn Ann. The Chinese Buddhist Monastic Order for Women: The First Two Centuries. In Women in China: Current Directions in Historical Scholarship. Edited by Richard W. Guisso and Stanley Johannesen. Youngstown, NY: Philo Press, 1981, pp. 1-20. Tsomo, Karma Lekshe. Translators Introduction to The History of Buddhist Nuns in Japan. Buddhist Christian Studies 12 (1992): 143-6. Voyce, M. B. The Legal Authority of the Buddha Over the Buddhist Order of Monks. Journal of Law and Religion 1:2 (1983): 307-23. Wawrytko, Sandra A. Sexism in the Early Sangha: Its Social Basis and Philosophical Dis-solution. In Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World. Edited by Charles Fu and Sandra A. Wawrytko. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1994, pp. 277-96. White, E. M. Woman in World History: Her Place in the Great Religions. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1924. Wickramagamage, Chandra. Chinas Bhikkhunis Through the Ages. In The Young Buddhist 1985, 181-2. Singapore: Singapore Buddha-Yana Association, 1985. Willis, Janice D. Nuns and Benefactresses: The Role of Women in the Development of Buddhism. In Women, Religion, and Social Change, ed. Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Ellison Banks Findly. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1985, pp. 59-85. Wilson, Elizabeth. The Female Body as a Source of Horror and Insight in Post-Ashokan Indian Buddhism. In Religious Reflections on the Human Body. Edited by J. Law. 1995, pp. 76-99. The Womens Educational Society and the Sanghamitta Girls School. The Buddhist 22 December 1893, 388-90. Womens Issue. Down By the Riverside (Buddhist Peace Fellowship). 1985/Winter 1986. The Work of Women. The Buddhist, 1889. Young, Serinity. Gendered Politics in Ancient Indian Asceticism. Union Seminary Quarterly Review 48: 3-4 (1994): 73-92.

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