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MATHS Yr 12 Formulae Series and Sequences

1. Find the nth term of an AP: Tn = a + (n - 1)d 2. Sum of n terms of an AP: Sn = n (a + L) OR Sn = n [2a + (n 3. Find the nth term of a GP: Tn = arn-1 4. Sum of n terms of a GP: Sn = a (1 - rn) Sn = a - rL 1 r 1-r (If r <1) OR Sn = a (rn - 1) r 1 (If r !. "imitin# Sum: S= a 1 r ($here %1 < r < 1) Sn = rL - a r-1 1) 1)d!

n n n

&. Si#ma 'otation:

" means (find the sum of)


*. +om,ound Interest: A = # (1 + r)n -. .ime Pa/ments (findin# the month0/ re,a/ment): Amoun$ o%in& 'rom (re)ious mon$* + +n$eres$ Mon$*l, re(a,men$

+n$e&ra$ion
1. Findin# the ,rimiti1e:

-.
2. .he ,rimiti1e of (a2 3 4) n:

d. = .n+1 + / n+1

-(a. + 0)
3. .he definite inte#ra0:
0

d. = (a. + 0)n+1 + / a(n + 1)

-'(.) d. = [ F(.) !
a a

= F(0)

F(a)

4. .he area 4ounded 4/ the 5ur1e / 6 f(2)7 the 28a2is and the 0ines 2 6 a and 2 6 4.
0

A=
a

-'(.) d.

!. Area 4et$een t$o 5ur1es


0

A=
a

-'(.)

&(.) d.

&. .he area 4ounded 4/ the 5ur1e / 6 f(2)7 the /8a2is and the 0ines
n n n n n

2 6 a and 2 6 4.
,=0

A=

-. d,
,=a

*. .ra,e9oida0 ru0e: (A,,ro2imation method) Area 1 0 - a [ '(a) + '(0) ! 2


1 * [ 'irs$ 'unc$ion + las$ 'unc$ion + 2(sum o' remainin& 'unc$ion )alues) ! 2

-. Sim,son:s Ru0e: (A,,ro2imation method) Area 1 0 ;. <o0umes of Re1o0ution:


=hen rotated around 28a2is: 0

a [ '(a) +2 '(a + 0) + '(0) ! 3 2

4=5
a =hen rotated around /8a2is: 0

> ,6 d. > .6 d,

4=5
a

1?. <o0umes of Rotation: Rotatin# area 4et$een 2 5ur1es:


=hen rotated around 28a2is: 0

4=5
a =hen rotated around /8a2is: 0

- '(.)6 - &(.) 6 d. > f.6 - &.6 d,

4=5
a

(outside % inside 5ur1e)

7.(onen$ial and Lo&ari$*ms


1. @eri1ati1e of / 6 e2 , = e. d, = e. d. 2. .he 5hain ru0e (fun5tion of a fun5tion) d, = d, 8 du d. du d. 3. @eri1ati1e of / 6 ef(2) , = e'(.) d, = '9(.) e'(.) d. 4. Inte#ration of A2,onentia0s > ea.+0 d. = ea.+0 + / a In ,arti5u0ar7 > e2 d2 6 e2 3 + !. Further Inte#ration > '9(.) e'(.) d. = e'(.) + / &. "o# Forms , = a. lo&a , = . ( y > 0)

2 2 2 f f f a a 2 2 f f 2

*. +han#e of Base .heorem lo&0 a = lo&. a lo&. 0


-.

.he @eri1ati1e of / 6 0o#e 2 , = lo&e . d, = 1 d. . An Important Result: d. = 1 d, d,


d.

;.

.he @eri1ati1e of / 6 0o#e f(2) , = lo&e '(.) d, = '9(.) d. '(.)

1?. SCet5hin# 0o# 5ur1es -:, ins(ec$ion - :, calculus 11. Inte#ration of 1 and f:(2) 2 f(2)

> 1 d. = lo&e. + /
.

> '9(.) d. = lo&e '(.) + /


'(.) 12. Dsefu0 Resu0ts lo&a a = 1 lo&e 1 = ; elo&e a = a 13. @eri1ati1e of / 6 a 2 , = a. , = lo&ea X a .
0 2 2 2

14. Inte#ration of / 6 a 2

> a. = 1
ln a

X a. + /

2 2 2

Tri& Func$ion
1. Radians 1 < rad = 1=;> +han#e to rad: .> 8 < 1=;> +han#e to de#rees: < 8 rad 1=; 2. "en#th of an ar5 l=r? 3. Area of se5tor A = r6 ? 4. Area of minor se#ment A = r6 (? sin?)

!. +osine ru0e (hand/ to find sides and an#0es of a trian#0e) a6 = 06 + c6 - 20c cos A cos A = 06 + c6 - a6 2 0c &. Gra,hs sin.@ , = Asinn. Am(li$ude = A #eriod = 2 < n cos.@ , = Acosn. Am( = A #eriod = 2 < n $an.@ , = A$ann. Am( = A #eriod = < n

*. @ifferentiation of tri# fun5tion a) , = sin a. , = a cos a. 0) , = cos a. , = - a cos a. c) , = $an a. ,= a sec6 a. -. Inte#ration of tri# fun5tion a) > cos . d.= sin . + / 4) > sin . d. = - cos . + / 5) > sec6 . d. = $an . + / d) > sin a. d.= -1 cos a. + / a e) > cos a. d.= 1 sin a. + / a f) > sec6 a. d. = 1 $an a. + / a S$ric$l, e.$ension %orA@ ;. +om,ound an#0e resu0ts sin (A+:) = sinAcos: + cosAsin: sin (A-:) = sinAcos: cosAsin: cos (A+:) = cosAcos: sinAsin: cos (A-:) = cosAcos: + sinAsin: $an (A+:) = $anA + $an: 1 $anA$an: $an (A-:) = $anA $an: 1 + $anA$an: 1?. @ou40e an#0e resu0ts sin2A = 2sinAcosA cos2A = cos6A sin6A

= 2cos6A 1 =1 2sin6A $an2A = 2$anA

1 11.Inte#ration of tri# fun5tions

$an6A

-sin (a. + 0) d. = -cos (a. + 0)


a

+/

-cos (a. + 0) d. = sin (a. + 0)


a

+/

-sec6 (a. + 0) d. = $an (a. + 0)


a

+/

12. Inte#ration of sinE2 or 5osE2

- sin6. d. = -1

cos2. d. = ( . sin2.) + / 2 = (sin2. + .) + / 2

- cos6. d. = -cos2. + 1 d. - sinm.cos. d. =


13.An#0es 4et$een t$o 0ines $anB = m1 m2 1+ m1m2

sinm+1. + / m+ 1

CD:: An#0e 4et$een t$o 5ur1es is defined as the an#0e 4et$een the tan#ents to the 5ur1es of that ,oint.

14..he t resu0ts sin? = 2$ 1 + $6 cos? = 1 - $6 1 + $6 $an? = 2$ 1 - $6


m m

1!. Dsin# su4sidiar/ an#0e to so01e tri# eFuation asinG 3 45osG 6 + Asin (? + B) Er Acos (? + B)

+n)erse Func$ions
1. Findin# the in1erse eD&D '(.) = 2. Fomain = -2G -1 G ; G 1 G 2 Han&e = -2G -2G ;G 2G 2 '-1(.) = . (s%a( . and , )aluesG maAe , $*e su0Iec$) Fomain = -2G -2G ;G 2G 2 (domain and ran&e are Han&e = -2G -1 G ; G 1 G 2 in$erc*an&ed 'or in)erse) 2. Pro,erties of the fun5tion and its in1erse a) '-1['(.)! = ' ['-1(.)! = . 0) Fomain and ran&e are in$erc*an&ed 'or $*e 'unc$ion and i$s in)erse c) A 'unc$ion *as an in)erse i' a *oriJon$al line in$ersec$s $*e &ra(* a$ one (oin$ onl,G ie@ KFor e)er, )alue o' . $*ere is one )alue o' ,G and 'or e)er, )alue o' , $*ere is onl, one )alue o' .L T*ere is a one $o one corres(ondence 0e$%een $*e . and , )aluesM 3. .he #ra,h of the in1erse fun5tion a) Same scales are used 0) Nra(* o' 'unc$ion re'lec$s in)erse a0ou$ $*e line ,=. c) +' 'unc$ion and in)erse in$ersec$G $*e, do so on line ,=. d) mid(oin$ o' a (oin$ and i$s in)erse lies on line ,=. 4. S,e5ia0 resu0t d, 8 d. = 1 d. d,
8 8 8

!. In1erse sine fun5tion / 6 sin-12


<

2 81 8< 2 Fomain= -1 O . O 1 Han&e= 8< O , O < 2 2 Func$ion is al%a,s increasin& Edd 'unc$ion K, is an an&le %i$* a sine o' .M &. In1erse 5osine fun5tion: / 6 5os-12
< <

2 81 Fomain= -1O.O1 Han&e= ;O,O< Al%a,s decreasin& Cei$*er odd nor e)en 1

8 8

*. In1erse tan#ent fun5tion: / 6 tan-1.

<

8< 2 Fomain = all . Han&e = 8< P , P < 2 2 Al%a,s increasin& Edd 'unc$ion -. @ifferentiation of in1erse tri# fun5tions: o , = sin-1'(.) ,9 = 1 Q[1-['(.)!6
o , = cos-1'(.)

,9 = -1 Q[1-['(.)!6
o , = $an-1'(.)

,9= 1 1 + ['(.)!6 ;. Inte#ration of in1erse fun5tions:

- d.
Q(a6-.6)

= sin-1 . + / a -1 6 -cos . + / a = 1$an-1 . a a +/

- d.
a6+.6
8 8 8 8 8 8 8

For 5ir50e #eometr/ formu0ae7 see se,arate 4ooC0etH

#ol,nomials
1. A polynomial is an algebraic expression with many terms. 2. .he ,o0/nomia0 P(2) #(.)= #o + #1. + #2.6 +LDD #n-1.n-1 + #n.n 3. S,e5ia0 ,o0/nomia0s: Monic@ +oeffi5ient of 0eadin# term is 1 /ons$an$@ Po0/nomia0 of de#ree ? Linear: Po0/nomia0 of de#ree 1 Ruadra$ic: Po0/nomia0 of de#ree 2 /u0ic: Po0/nomia0 of de#ree 3 Sero #ol,nomial: Po0/nomia0 $ith a00 5oeffi5ients eFua0 to ? 4. .he Ieros and Roots T*e Jeros o' a (ol,nomial #(.) are $*e solu$ions $o #(.) = ; !. Gra,hin# the ,o0/nomia0 Findin& $*e Jeros *el( $o sAe$c* $*e &ra(*G es(eciall, i' , = #(.) can 0e %ri$$en as a (roduc$ o' linear 'ac$ors &. .he Ieros of a Po0/nomia0 (i) T*e Ruadra$ic (ol,nomial@ ax +bx + c is a quadra$ic (ol,nomial T*e solu$ions are $*e Jeros
o o o T;G roo$s realUdi''eren$V (ara0ola in$ersec$s .-a.is a$ 2 (oin$s = ;G roo$s realUequalV (ara0ola in$ersec$s .-a.is a$ 1 (oin$ P ;G no real roo$s

(ii) T*e Neneral (ol,nomial@ P(x)= Po + P1x + P2x +.. Pn-1xn-1 + Pnxn #(.) = ; can *a)e as man, as n dis$inc$ roo$s *. @i1ision of ,o0/nomia0s #(.) = A(.) D R(.) + H(.)
#ol,nomial Fi)isor Ruo$ien$ Hemainder

[Where degree R(x) degree A(x)! Wse lon& di)isionX


n n n n

-. .he Fa5tor .heorem: (.-a) is a 'ac$or o' $*e #ol,nomial #(.) i' #(a) = ;
H+CT@ Y*en 'ac$orisin& looA a$ $*e 'ac$ors o' $*e cons$an$ $ermV To 'ind 'ac$ors o' a #ol,nomialG %e usuall, 'ind a 'ac$or 0, $rial and error and $*en use lon& di)ision $o 'ind an, o$*ersD

;. Re0ationshi, 4et$een roots and 5oeffi5ient: Ruadra$ic (ol,nomial@ ax +bx + c = 0 Hoo$s are BG Z B + Z = -0 a BZ = c a /u0ic@ ax + bx +cx + d = 0 Hoo$s are BG ZG [ B + Z + [ = -0 a BZ + Z[ + B[ = c a BZ[ = -d a

Ruar$ic@ ax4 + bx + cx +dx + e = 0 Hoo$s are BG ZG [G \ B + Z + [ + \ = -0 a BZ + Z[ + B[ + B\ + Z\ + [\ = c a BZ[ + Z\[ + B\[ = -d a BZ[\ = e a

1?. Dsefu0 resu0ts: B6 + Z6 = B6 + Z6 + [6 = B6 + Z6 + [6 + \6 = (B + Z)6 - 2 BZ (B + Z + [)6 - 2(BZ + Z[ + B[) (B + Z + [ + \)6 - 2(BZ + Z[ + B[ + B\ + Z\ + [\)

11. @edu5tions from the Fa5tor .heorem:

+' a1 and a2 are Jeros o' #(.)G $*en


(. - a1)(. - a2) is a 'ac$or o' #(.)

+' #(.) *as n dis$inc$ JerosG $*en $*e (ol,nomial


can 0e e.(ressed as #(.) = #n(. - a1)(. - a2) (. a])L(. - an)

+' #(.) *as de&ree nG $*en i$ canno$ *a)e more $*an n Jeros
12. Astimatin# the roots: (i) Ja01in# the Inter1a0 Kethod

Le$ $*e roo$ 0e cD -1 a((ro.ima$ion $o .=c is a+0 2


s$

+' '(a+0) P ; 2 $*en roo$ lies 0e$%een . = a+0 and .=0 2 -2nd a((ro.ima$ion %ill 0e $*e mid(oin$ o' . = a+0 and .=0 2 e$cX (ii) 'e$ton:s Kethod of A,,ro2imation +' .=a is $*e roo$ $o '(.)G and a1 is a &i)en close a((ro.ima$ion a2 (2nd a((ro.ima$ion) = a1 '(a1) '(a1) e$cX 13. Dnfa1oura40e a,,ro2imations for 'e$ton:s Kethod: /*oosin& an a((ro.ima$ion on %ron& side o' roo$ +' a roo$ is a (oin$ o' in'lec$ion A((ro.ima$ion is a$ or near a s$a$ionar, (oin$

Ma$*ema$ical +nduc$ion
1. @efinition: Ma$*ema$ical induc$ion is a (rocess used $o (ro)e cer$ain s$a$emen$s or resul$sD 2. Pro5ess of mathemati5a0 indu5tion S$e( 1@ S*o% resul$ is $rue 'or n = 1 S$e( 2@ Assume resul$ is $rue 'or n = A S$e( ]@ S*o% resul$ is $rue 'or n = A + 1 S$e( 2@ KSince the result is true or n = 1! then ro" ste# $ the result %ill be true or n = 1+1=2! n= 2+1=$ and so on! or all #ositi&e inte'ral &alues o nDM 3. Pro1in# resu0ts of series H+CT@ SA+1 = SA + TA+1 4. Pro1in# di1isi4i0it/ eD&D #ro)e ]2n 1 is di)isi0le 0, = Wse s$e(sG and 'or n = A assume@ ]2A 1 =M = [Y*ere M is a %*ole num0erD! !. Pro1in# ineFua0ities eD&D #ro)e ^n _ 1 + 2n Wse s$e(sG $*en 'or s$e( ]G $o s*o% ^A+1 _ 1+ 2(A+1)@ ^A+1 = ^D ^A ^A+1 _ ^ (1+2A) ^A+1 _ 2;A +^ ^A+1 _ 1+ 2(A+1) + 13A T*ere'oreG ^A+1 _ 1+ 2(A+1) &. Kis5. A2am,0es eD& #ro)e 2 8 1X + ^ 8 2X + 1; 8 ]X +DDD (n6 + 1)nX = n(n+1)X Wse s$e(sG $*en 'rom s$e( ] s*o% $*a$ SA+1 = SA + TA+1 ieD (A+1)(A+2)X = A(A+1)X + (A6+2A+2) (A+1)X
CET7@ nX means 'ac$orial n@ nX = n (n-1)(n-2)(n-]) e$cX

2 2

Me$*ods o' +n$e&ra$ion


1. Inte#ration 4/ Su4stitution: +' u = '(.) $*en du = '(.) d. and du = '(.) d. eD&D Sol)e e^. + 2 d. usin& su0s$i$u$ion u = ^.+2 = eu du ^ =1 eu du ^ =1 e^. + 2 + / ^ 2. Su4stitution $ith definite inte#ra0s /*an&e $*e limi$s o' $*e ne% )aria0le To e)alua$eG $*ere is no need $o re)er$ $o $*e KoldM )aria0le

u 6 !2 3 2 du 6 ! d2 d2 6 du !

! u u !

#arame$ric 7qua$ions o' $*e #ara0ola


1. Re5a00: AFuation of ,ara4o0a $ith fo5us at S (?7a) and eFuation of dire5tri2 / 6 8a .6 = 2a, [/ar$esian 7qua$ion! 2. 2E 6 4a/ 5an a0so 4e re,resented 4/ t$o ,arametri5 eFuations: . = 2a$ , = a$6 %*ere t is a $*ird )aria0le called a (arame$er and &radien$ a$ $*is (oin$ = t 3. AFuation of 5hord Loinin# P (2a,7 a,E) and M (2aF7 aFE) ,-,1 = m(.-.1) $here m 6 a,E 8 aFE 2a, % 2aF 6,3F 2 7qn@ / 8 a,E 6 , 3 F (2 % 2a,) 2 ((+q). -2, -2a(q = ; 4. Fo5a0 5hord: (;Ga) sa$is'ies equa$ion o' c*ord (q = -1 !. AFuation of tan#ent and norma0 to 2E 6 4a/ at a ,oint P (2a,7 a,E) .6 = 2a, , = .6 2a , = . 2a , = 1 8 2a( 2a =( TACN7CT 7qn@ , - a(6 = ((. - 2a() ( ) #x +a# = 0 CEHMAL 7qn@ , - a(6 = -1 (. - 2a() ( (, + . -2a( a(` = ;

&. .he +hord of +onta5t PM (,ts P7 M of 5onta5t of the 2 tan#ents dra$n from . N2?7/?O to the ,ara4o0a 2E 6 4a/) . .; = 2a (, + ,;)
CET7@ . (2?7/?) is an e2terna0 ,t to 2E 6 4a/ if 2?E 4a/?

*. Other he0,fu0 formu0ae: PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Fis$ance@ (.16 - .26) + (,16 - ,26) Mid(oin$@ .1 + .2G ,1 + ,2 2 2 Nradien$@ ,1 - ,2 .1 - .2 -. "o5us Pro40ems: Wse all 'ormulae and su0s$i$u$ion in$o /ar$esian equa$ions $o 'ind locusD Al%a,s descri0e $*e locusD

Ha$es o' /*an&e


1. 2 Dnit (2 1aria40es): a Ha$e o' c*an&e re'ers $o *o% one quan$i$, c*an&es in rela$ion $o $*e o$*erD iDeD Ha$e o' c*an&e o' a quan$i$,G RG is &i)en 0,@ dR d$ To 'ind $*e ini$ial quan$i$,G +CT7NHAT7 To 'ind $*e ra$e o' c*an&eG F+FF7H7CT+AT7 2. A2tension (more than 2 1aria40es): Wse $*e c*ain ruleG iDeD dR = dR 8 d. d$ d. d$
[You ma, need $o use i$ $%ice some$imes!

3. AreaQ<o0ume AFuations: /,linder@ 4 6 rEh SA 6 2 r h /one: 4 6 R rEh S(*ere: 4 6 4 rS 3 SA 6 4 rE 4. A2,onentia0 Gro$th and @e5a/: Y*en dR = AR ($*e ra$e o' c*an&e is direc$l, (ro(or$ional $o quan$i$,) d$ T*e solu$ion $o $*is equa$ion is@ R = AeA$
A and C are 5onstants (C 6 rate 5onstant) t 6 time

!. Further A2,onentia0 Gro$th and @e5a/: +n ideal si$ua$ionsG C = AeA$ +n (rac$ical si$ua$ionsG a more realis$ic model is@ C = # + AeA$ V C and P are %*ic* is a solu$ion $o 5onstants. dC = A (C #) V =here C<?7 'TP d$ V =here C ?7 'TW &. Kotion in a strai#ht 0ine: Fis(lacemen$ (s or .)@ Position of the ,arti50e from ? 4eloci$, (4 or .) @ Rate of 5han#e of dis,0a5ement (deri1ati1e) If ,arti50e is tra1e00in# T it is ,ositi1e If ,arti50e is tra1e00in# U it is ne#ati1e
If ,arti50e is stationar/Qat rest7 1e0o5it/ is 9ero.

Accelera$ion (a or .)@ 4rin#s a4out a 5han#e in 1e0o5it/ (se5ond deri1ati1e of s7 first deri1ati1e of <) If a is ,ositi1e7 ,arti50e is a55e0eratin# T If a is ne#ati1e7 ,arti50e is a55e0eratin# U
If a 6 ? ,arti50e is mo1in# at a 5onstantQuniform 1e0o5it/ If de5e0eratin#7 ,arti50e is mo1in# in o,,osite dire5tion If a55e0eratin#7 ,arti50e is mo1in# in same dire5tion

*. Dsin# ,rimiti1es .= > 4 d$ 4 = > a d$ -. @istan5e tra1e00ed Fis$ance = area under a )eloci$, $ime cur)e ;. A55e0eration as a fun5tion of @is,0a5ement or <e0o5it/ (stri5t0/ e2tension): a = 4 d4 d. a= d ( 46) d.

C C

1?.Sim,0e Jarmoni5 Kotion: T*e (ar$icle mo)es 0acA%ards and 'or%ards alon& a s$rai&*$ line a0ou$ a cen$ral (osi$ion (sa,G $*e ori&in) eD&D mass on a s(rin&G (endulum PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP0PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ? a 6 8 nE2
Y*ere n is a cons$an$

11. Further SJK eFuations: 46 = n6 (a6- .6) . = a cos n$ 12.'otes on SJK:


Am,0itude 6 a Period 6 2 Z n

8a X 2 X a
Starts at 26a7 mo1es $ith in5reasin# s,eed to$ards ?7 mo1es to 268a $ith de5reasin# s,eed7 sto,s then re1erses dire5tion

Ka2 dis,0a5ement: 26a Ka2 s,eed: 26? Ka2 a55e0eration: 26a "east a55e0eration: 26?
13. +entre of motion not at 2 6 ?: a = -n6 (. 14.ProLe5ti0e Kotion: / < h
VOA 6 ran#e V.ime taCen for ,roLe5ti0e to rea5h A is 5a00ed time o" "light V h is the #reatest hei#ht. At h7 / 6 ? V Y 6 the an#0e ,roLe5ted

/)

Kotion in 2 dire5tion and / dire5tion 5onsidered se,arate0/ .=; , = -& (&ra)i$,) a$ $=;G 4 , .= 4cosb , = 4sinb .herefore these shou0d 4e

in5or,orated and deri1ed into eFns

1!. ProLe5ti0e motion from a hei#ht: A$ $ = ;G .= ; ,=* (=here h 6 5onstant hei#ht7 e.#. 4ui0din#) 1&. ProLe5ti0e motion $here ,roLe5ti0e is thro$n hori9onta00/ .=4 ,=;

T*e :inomial T*eorem


1. Pas5a0:s .rian#0e: +an 4e used to determine the 5oeffi5ients of 2 in the e2,ansion of (1 3 2)n.

2. (1 3 2)n has (n 3 1) terms 3. A2,ansion of (a 3 2)n: Same coe''icien$s as (1 + .)n (n +1) $erms #o%er o' a decreases 0, oneG %*ile (o%er o' . increases 0, one For e)er, $ermG $*e sum o' $*e (o%ers o' a and . is n

e.#. (a 3 2)4 6 [a(1 3 2Qa)\ 4 a4 (1 3 2Qa) 4 a4 3 4aS2 3&aE2E 3 4a2S 324 4. @eterminin# the term inde,endent of 2 (ie7 2?): a) 7.(and 0inomials 0) Mul$i(l, $erms $*a$ &i)es inde(enden$ $erm
n n n n 4 4 4 4 4 4 ?

!. n+r is the 5oeffi5ient of 2n in the e2,ansion of (1 3 2)n. Formu0a: nX rX (n - r)X


CET7@ /an also 0e %ri$$en in si&ma no$a$ionD

&. Other im,ortant resu0ts: /o = 1 /n = 1 n /1 = n n /r = n/n-r



n n

*. Kore notation: (a + .)n@ TA+1 = n/A an A . A


CET7@ To 'ind $erm inde(enden$ o' .G le$ sum o' (o%ers equal JeroG $*en sol)e 'or AX

-. Greatest 5oeffi5ient:

TA+1 TA

T1

;. Re0ations 4et$een 5oeffi5ients: eD&D :, com(arin& coe''icien$s o' (1 + .)3 and (1 + .)` (1 + .)`G 'ind coe''icien$ o' .6 in (1 + .)3@

1?. Pro1in# resu0ts:


n n n n n n n n n n n & &

Man, o' $*ese resul$s can 0e (ro)ed 0, 'irs$ %ri$in& (1 + .)n = n/o + n/1 . + n/2 .6 +LDD n/n .n and $*enL a) su0s$i$u$in& . = 1 or . = -1 $o 0o$* sides EH 0) di''eren$ia$in& or in$e&ra$in& 0o$* sides and $*en su0s$i$u$in& . = 1 or . = -1D 11. +ountin# .e5hniFues: +' one e)en$ can *a((en in ( di''eren$ %a,s and a'$er $*isG ano$*er e)en$ can *a((en in q di''eren$ %a,sG $*en $*e $%o successi)e e)en$s can *a((en in (q %a,sD +' re(e$i$ion is no$ allo%edG $*e num0er o' %a,s is usuall, nX (n 'ac$orial %a,s) 12. Permutations: #ermu$a$ions re'er $o $*e num0er o' arran&emen$s $*a$ is (ossi0le %*en order is im(or$an$ n #r is usedG %*en n is $*e $o$al num0er and r is $*e num0er Kcoun$ed a$ a $imeM n#r 'ormula@ nX (n - r)X 13. Arran#in# n items $ith r re,etitions: +' n i$ems mus$ 0e arran&ed %*ere sa,G $*ree i$ems are re(ea$edG (G q and r $imesG $*en $*e num0er o' arran&emen$s (ossi0le %ill 0e@ nX (X qX rX 14. +om4inations: Arran&emen$s o' i$ems %*ere order is no$ im(or$an$ n #r rX 1!.+ountin# .e5hniFues and Pro4a4i0it/:
n n n n n n n n n

Wse n/r or n#rG de(endin& on $*e ques$ionG and di)ide 0, $o$al %a,s i$ can *a((enD 1&. Binomia0 Pro4a4i0it/: Eccasions %*ere Ius$ $%o (ossi0le ou$comes e.is$ 'rom an e)en$G eD&D $ossin& a coin or diceD For n $rialsG
CoD o' $rials

(( + q)n = n/oqn (; + n/1 qn-1 (1 +LDD n/r qn-r (r +LDD n/n q; (n


Failure Success # ( no success) # (1 success) # (r successes) # (n successes)

T*e (ro0a0ili$, $*a$ an e)en$ %ill occur e.ac$l, r $imes in n inde(enden$ $rials is &i)en 0,
n

/r qn-r (r

1*. Arran#ements a4out a 5ir50e or rin#: T*e num0er o' arran&emen$s o' n i$ems around a circleUrin& is (n 1)X CET7@ For 0eads or Ae,sG clocA%ise or an$i-clocA%iseG arran&emen$s are $*e same so arran&emen$s o' n i$ems %ill 0e x (n 1)X

Neneral Solu$ions $o Tri& 7qua$ions


n n n n n ? n n 1 n n n ? n n n

1. tan Y $an b = a b = n + $an-1a 2. 5os Y cos b = a b = 2n + cos-1a 3. sin Y sin b = a b = n + (-1)n sin-1a
CET7@ Solu$ions can 0e 'ound 0, ei$*er addin& or su0$rac$in& 2

4. Im,ortant Resu0ts:
$an-1(-.) = - $an-1. cos-1(-.) = - cos-1.

sin-1(-.) = - sin-1.

8 8 n 8 8 8 8 8 8 8