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# MATHS Yr 12 Formulae Series and Sequences

1. Find the nth term of an AP: Tn = a + (n - 1)d 2. Sum of n terms of an AP: Sn = n (a + L) OR Sn = n [2a + (n 3. Find the nth term of a GP: Tn = arn-1 4. Sum of n terms of a GP: Sn = a (1 - rn) Sn = a - rL 1 r 1-r (If r <1) OR Sn = a (rn - 1) r 1 (If r !. "imitin# Sum: S= a 1 r (\$here %1 < r < 1) Sn = rL - a r-1 1) 1)d!

n n n

## " means (find the sum of)

*. +om,ound Interest: A = # (1 + r)n -. .ime Pa/ments (findin# the month0/ re,a/ment): Amoun\$ o%in& 'rom (re)ious mon\$* + +n\$eres\$ Mon\$*l, re(a,men\$

+n\$e&ra\$ion
1. Findin# the ,rimiti1e:

-.
2. .he ,rimiti1e of (a2 3 4) n:

d. = .n+1 + / n+1

-(a. + 0)
3. .he definite inte#ra0:
0

## d. = (a. + 0)n+1 + / a(n + 1)

-'(.) d. = [ F(.) !
a a

= F(0)

F(a)

4. .he area 4ounded 4/ the 5ur1e / 6 f(2)7 the 28a2is and the 0ines 2 6 a and 2 6 4.
0

A=
a

-'(.) d.

## !. Area 4et\$een t\$o 5ur1es

0

A=
a

-'(.)

&(.) d.

&. .he area 4ounded 4/ the 5ur1e / 6 f(2)7 the /8a2is and the 0ines
n n n n n

2 6 a and 2 6 4.
,=0

A=

-. d,
,=a

## *. .ra,e9oida0 ru0e: (A,,ro2imation method) Area 1 0 - a [ '(a) + '(0) ! 2

1 * [ 'irs\$ 'unc\$ion + las\$ 'unc\$ion + 2(sum o' remainin& 'unc\$ion )alues) ! 2

## -. Sim,son:s Ru0e: (A,,ro2imation method) Area 1 0 ;. <o0umes of Re1o0ution:

=hen rotated around 28a2is: 0

## a [ '(a) +2 '(a + 0) + '(0) ! 3 2

4=5
a =hen rotated around /8a2is: 0

> ,6 d. > .6 d,

4=5
a

## 1?. <o0umes of Rotation: Rotatin# area 4et\$een 2 5ur1es:

=hen rotated around 28a2is: 0

4=5
a =hen rotated around /8a2is: 0

4=5
a

## 7.(onen\$ial and Lo&ari\$*ms

1. @eri1ati1e of / 6 e2 , = e. d, = e. d. 2. .he 5hain ru0e (fun5tion of a fun5tion) d, = d, 8 du d. du d. 3. @eri1ati1e of / 6 ef(2) , = e'(.) d, = '9(.) e'(.) d. 4. Inte#ration of A2,onentia0s > ea.+0 d. = ea.+0 + / a In ,arti5u0ar7 > e2 d2 6 e2 3 + !. Further Inte#ration > '9(.) e'(.) d. = e'(.) + / &. "o# Forms , = a. lo&a , = . ( y > 0)

2 2 2 f f f a a 2 2 f f 2

-.

d.

;.

## .he @eri1ati1e of / 6 0o#e f(2) , = lo&e '(.) d, = '9(.) d. '(.)

1?. SCet5hin# 0o# 5ur1es -:, ins(ec\$ion - :, calculus 11. Inte#ration of 1 and f:(2) 2 f(2)

> 1 d. = lo&e. + /
.

## > '9(.) d. = lo&e '(.) + /

'(.) 12. Dsefu0 Resu0ts lo&a a = 1 lo&e 1 = ; elo&e a = a 13. @eri1ati1e of / 6 a 2 , = a. , = lo&ea X a .
0 2 2 2

14. Inte#ration of / 6 a 2

> a. = 1
ln a

X a. + /

2 2 2

Tri& Func\$ion
1. Radians 1 < rad = 1=;> +han#e to rad: .> 8 < 1=;> +han#e to de#rees: < 8 rad 1=; 2. "en#th of an ar5 l=r? 3. Area of se5tor A = r6 ? 4. Area of minor se#ment A = r6 (? sin?)

!. +osine ru0e (hand/ to find sides and an#0es of a trian#0e) a6 = 06 + c6 - 20c cos A cos A = 06 + c6 - a6 2 0c &. Gra,hs sin.@ , = Asinn. Am(li\$ude = A #eriod = 2 < n cos.@ , = Acosn. Am( = A #eriod = 2 < n \$an.@ , = A\$ann. Am( = A #eriod = < n

*. @ifferentiation of tri# fun5tion a) , = sin a. , = a cos a. 0) , = cos a. , = - a cos a. c) , = \$an a. ,= a sec6 a. -. Inte#ration of tri# fun5tion a) > cos . d.= sin . + / 4) > sin . d. = - cos . + / 5) > sec6 . d. = \$an . + / d) > sin a. d.= -1 cos a. + / a e) > cos a. d.= 1 sin a. + / a f) > sec6 a. d. = 1 \$an a. + / a S\$ric\$l, e.\$ension %orA@ ;. +om,ound an#0e resu0ts sin (A+:) = sinAcos: + cosAsin: sin (A-:) = sinAcos: cosAsin: cos (A+:) = cosAcos: sinAsin: cos (A-:) = cosAcos: + sinAsin: \$an (A+:) = \$anA + \$an: 1 \$anA\$an: \$an (A-:) = \$anA \$an: 1 + \$anA\$an: 1?. @ou40e an#0e resu0ts sin2A = 2sinAcosA cos2A = cos6A sin6A

\$an6A

a

+/

a

+/

a

+/

- sin6. d. = -1

## - cos6. d. = -cos2. + 1 d. - sinm.cos. d. =

13.An#0es 4et\$een t\$o 0ines \$anB = m1 m2 1+ m1m2

sinm+1. + / m+ 1

CD:: An#0e 4et\$een t\$o 5ur1es is defined as the an#0e 4et\$een the tan#ents to the 5ur1es of that ,oint.

## 14..he t resu0ts sin? = 2\$ 1 + \$6 cos? = 1 - \$6 1 + \$6 \$an? = 2\$ 1 - \$6

m m

1!. Dsin# su4sidiar/ an#0e to so01e tri# eFuation asinG 3 45osG 6 + Asin (? + B) Er Acos (? + B)

+n)erse Func\$ions
1. Findin# the in1erse eD&D '(.) = 2. Fomain = -2G -1 G ; G 1 G 2 Han&e = -2G -2G ;G 2G 2 '-1(.) = . (s%a( . and , )aluesG maAe , \$*e su0Iec\$) Fomain = -2G -2G ;G 2G 2 (domain and ran&e are Han&e = -2G -1 G ; G 1 G 2 in\$erc*an&ed 'or in)erse) 2. Pro,erties of the fun5tion and its in1erse a) '-1['(.)! = ' ['-1(.)! = . 0) Fomain and ran&e are in\$erc*an&ed 'or \$*e 'unc\$ion and i\$s in)erse c) A 'unc\$ion *as an in)erse i' a *oriJon\$al line in\$ersec\$s \$*e &ra(* a\$ one (oin\$ onl,G ie@ KFor e)er, )alue o' . \$*ere is one )alue o' ,G and 'or e)er, )alue o' , \$*ere is onl, one )alue o' .L T*ere is a one \$o one corres(ondence 0e\$%een \$*e . and , )aluesM 3. .he #ra,h of the in1erse fun5tion a) Same scales are used 0) Nra(* o' 'unc\$ion re'lec\$s in)erse a0ou\$ \$*e line ,=. c) +' 'unc\$ion and in)erse in\$ersec\$G \$*e, do so on line ,=. d) mid(oin\$ o' a (oin\$ and i\$s in)erse lies on line ,=. 4. S,e5ia0 resu0t d, 8 d. = 1 d. d,
8 8 8

## !. In1erse sine fun5tion / 6 sin-12

<

2 81 8< 2 Fomain= -1 O . O 1 Han&e= 8< O , O < 2 2 Func\$ion is al%a,s increasin& Edd 'unc\$ion K, is an an&le %i\$* a sine o' .M &. In1erse 5osine fun5tion: / 6 5os-12
< <

2 81 Fomain= -1O.O1 Han&e= ;O,O< Al%a,s decreasin& Cei\$*er odd nor e)en 1

8 8

## *. In1erse tan#ent fun5tion: / 6 tan-1.

<

8< 2 Fomain = all . Han&e = 8< P , P < 2 2 Al%a,s increasin& Edd 'unc\$ion -. @ifferentiation of in1erse tri# fun5tions: o , = sin-1'(.) ,9 = 1 Q[1-['(.)!6
o , = cos-1'(.)

,9 = -1 Q[1-['(.)!6
o , = \$an-1'(.)

- d.
Q(a6-.6)

- d.
a6+.6
8 8 8 8 8 8 8

## For 5ir50e #eometr/ formu0ae7 see se,arate 4ooC0etH

#ol,nomials
1. A polynomial is an algebraic expression with many terms. 2. .he ,o0/nomia0 P(2) #(.)= #o + #1. + #2.6 +LDD #n-1.n-1 + #n.n 3. S,e5ia0 ,o0/nomia0s: Monic@ +oeffi5ient of 0eadin# term is 1 /ons\$an\$@ Po0/nomia0 of de#ree ? Linear: Po0/nomia0 of de#ree 1 Ruadra\$ic: Po0/nomia0 of de#ree 2 /u0ic: Po0/nomia0 of de#ree 3 Sero #ol,nomial: Po0/nomia0 \$ith a00 5oeffi5ients eFua0 to ? 4. .he Ieros and Roots T*e Jeros o' a (ol,nomial #(.) are \$*e solu\$ions \$o #(.) = ; !. Gra,hin# the ,o0/nomia0 Findin& \$*e Jeros *el( \$o sAe\$c* \$*e &ra(*G es(eciall, i' , = #(.) can 0e %ri\$\$en as a (roduc\$ o' linear 'ac\$ors &. .he Ieros of a Po0/nomia0 (i) T*e Ruadra\$ic (ol,nomial@ ax +bx + c is a quadra\$ic (ol,nomial T*e solu\$ions are \$*e Jeros
o o o T;G roo\$s realUdi''eren\$V (ara0ola in\$ersec\$s .-a.is a\$ 2 (oin\$s = ;G roo\$s realUequalV (ara0ola in\$ersec\$s .-a.is a\$ 1 (oin\$ P ;G no real roo\$s

(ii) T*e Neneral (ol,nomial@ P(x)= Po + P1x + P2x +.. Pn-1xn-1 + Pnxn #(.) = ; can *a)e as man, as n dis\$inc\$ roo\$s *. @i1ision of ,o0/nomia0s #(.) = A(.) D R(.) + H(.)
#ol,nomial Fi)isor Ruo\$ien\$ Hemainder

## [Where degree R(x) degree A(x)! Wse lon& di)isionX

n n n n

-. .he Fa5tor .heorem: (.-a) is a 'ac\$or o' \$*e #ol,nomial #(.) i' #(a) = ;
H+CT@ Y*en 'ac\$orisin& looA a\$ \$*e 'ac\$ors o' \$*e cons\$an\$ \$ermV To 'ind 'ac\$ors o' a #ol,nomialG %e usuall, 'ind a 'ac\$or 0, \$rial and error and \$*en use lon& di)ision \$o 'ind an, o\$*ersD

;. Re0ationshi, 4et\$een roots and 5oeffi5ient: Ruadra\$ic (ol,nomial@ ax +bx + c = 0 Hoo\$s are BG Z B + Z = -0 a BZ = c a /u0ic@ ax + bx +cx + d = 0 Hoo\$s are BG ZG [ B + Z + [ = -0 a BZ + Z[ + B[ = c a BZ[ = -d a

## Ruar\$ic@ ax4 + bx + cx +dx + e = 0 Hoo\$s are BG ZG [G \ B + Z + [ + \ = -0 a BZ + Z[ + B[ + B\ + Z\ + [\ = c a BZ[ + Z\[ + B\[ = -d a BZ[\ = e a

1?. Dsefu0 resu0ts: B6 + Z6 = B6 + Z6 + [6 = B6 + Z6 + [6 + \6 = (B + Z)6 - 2 BZ (B + Z + [)6 - 2(BZ + Z[ + B[) (B + Z + [ + \)6 - 2(BZ + Z[ + B[ + B\ + Z\ + [\)

## +' a1 and a2 are Jeros o' #(.)G \$*en

(. - a1)(. - a2) is a 'ac\$or o' #(.)

## +' #(.) *as n dis\$inc\$ JerosG \$*en \$*e (ol,nomial

can 0e e.(ressed as #(.) = #n(. - a1)(. - a2) (. a])L(. - an)

+' #(.) *as de&ree nG \$*en i\$ canno\$ *a)e more \$*an n Jeros
12. Astimatin# the roots: (i) Ja01in# the Inter1a0 Kethod

## Le\$ \$*e roo\$ 0e cD -1 a((ro.ima\$ion \$o .=c is a+0 2

s\$

+' '(a+0) P ; 2 \$*en roo\$ lies 0e\$%een . = a+0 and .=0 2 -2nd a((ro.ima\$ion %ill 0e \$*e mid(oin\$ o' . = a+0 and .=0 2 e\$cX (ii) 'e\$ton:s Kethod of A,,ro2imation +' .=a is \$*e roo\$ \$o '(.)G and a1 is a &i)en close a((ro.ima\$ion a2 (2nd a((ro.ima\$ion) = a1 '(a1) '(a1) e\$cX 13. Dnfa1oura40e a,,ro2imations for 'e\$ton:s Kethod: /*oosin& an a((ro.ima\$ion on %ron& side o' roo\$ +' a roo\$ is a (oin\$ o' in'lec\$ion A((ro.ima\$ion is a\$ or near a s\$a\$ionar, (oin\$

Ma\$*ema\$ical +nduc\$ion
1. @efinition: Ma\$*ema\$ical induc\$ion is a (rocess used \$o (ro)e cer\$ain s\$a\$emen\$s or resul\$sD 2. Pro5ess of mathemati5a0 indu5tion S\$e( 1@ S*o% resul\$ is \$rue 'or n = 1 S\$e( 2@ Assume resul\$ is \$rue 'or n = A S\$e( ]@ S*o% resul\$ is \$rue 'or n = A + 1 S\$e( 2@ KSince the result is true or n = 1! then ro" ste# \$ the result %ill be true or n = 1+1=2! n= 2+1=\$ and so on! or all #ositi&e inte'ral &alues o nDM 3. Pro1in# resu0ts of series H+CT@ SA+1 = SA + TA+1 4. Pro1in# di1isi4i0it/ eD&D #ro)e ]2n 1 is di)isi0le 0, = Wse s\$e(sG and 'or n = A assume@ ]2A 1 =M = [Y*ere M is a %*ole num0erD! !. Pro1in# ineFua0ities eD&D #ro)e ^n _ 1 + 2n Wse s\$e(sG \$*en 'or s\$e( ]G \$o s*o% ^A+1 _ 1+ 2(A+1)@ ^A+1 = ^D ^A ^A+1 _ ^ (1+2A) ^A+1 _ 2;A +^ ^A+1 _ 1+ 2(A+1) + 13A T*ere'oreG ^A+1 _ 1+ 2(A+1) &. Kis5. A2am,0es eD& #ro)e 2 8 1X + ^ 8 2X + 1; 8 ]X +DDD (n6 + 1)nX = n(n+1)X Wse s\$e(sG \$*en 'rom s\$e( ] s*o% \$*a\$ SA+1 = SA + TA+1 ieD (A+1)(A+2)X = A(A+1)X + (A6+2A+2) (A+1)X
CET7@ nX means 'ac\$orial n@ nX = n (n-1)(n-2)(n-]) e\$cX

2 2

## Me\$*ods o' +n\$e&ra\$ion

1. Inte#ration 4/ Su4stitution: +' u = '(.) \$*en du = '(.) d. and du = '(.) d. eD&D Sol)e e^. + 2 d. usin& su0s\$i\$u\$ion u = ^.+2 = eu du ^ =1 eu du ^ =1 e^. + 2 + / ^ 2. Su4stitution \$ith definite inte#ra0s /*an&e \$*e limi\$s o' \$*e ne% )aria0le To e)alua\$eG \$*ere is no need \$o re)er\$ \$o \$*e KoldM )aria0le

u 6 !2 3 2 du 6 ! d2 d2 6 du !

! u u !

## #arame\$ric 7qua\$ions o' \$*e #ara0ola

1. Re5a00: AFuation of ,ara4o0a \$ith fo5us at S (?7a) and eFuation of dire5tri2 / 6 8a .6 = 2a, [/ar\$esian 7qua\$ion! 2. 2E 6 4a/ 5an a0so 4e re,resented 4/ t\$o ,arametri5 eFuations: . = 2a\$ , = a\$6 %*ere t is a \$*ird )aria0le called a (arame\$er and &radien\$ a\$ \$*is (oin\$ = t 3. AFuation of 5hord Loinin# P (2a,7 a,E) and M (2aF7 aFE) ,-,1 = m(.-.1) \$here m 6 a,E 8 aFE 2a, % 2aF 6,3F 2 7qn@ / 8 a,E 6 , 3 F (2 % 2a,) 2 ((+q). -2, -2a(q = ; 4. Fo5a0 5hord: (;Ga) sa\$is'ies equa\$ion o' c*ord (q = -1 !. AFuation of tan#ent and norma0 to 2E 6 4a/ at a ,oint P (2a,7 a,E) .6 = 2a, , = .6 2a , = . 2a , = 1 8 2a( 2a =( TACN7CT 7qn@ , - a(6 = ((. - 2a() ( ) #x +a# = 0 CEHMAL 7qn@ , - a(6 = -1 (. - 2a() ( (, + . -2a( a(` = ;

&. .he +hord of +onta5t PM (,ts P7 M of 5onta5t of the 2 tan#ents dra\$n from . N2?7/?O to the ,ara4o0a 2E 6 4a/) . .; = 2a (, + ,;)
CET7@ . (2?7/?) is an e2terna0 ,t to 2E 6 4a/ if 2?E 4a/?

*. Other he0,fu0 formu0ae: PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Fis\$ance@ (.16 - .26) + (,16 - ,26) Mid(oin\$@ .1 + .2G ,1 + ,2 2 2 Nradien\$@ ,1 - ,2 .1 - .2 -. "o5us Pro40ems: Wse all 'ormulae and su0s\$i\$u\$ion in\$o /ar\$esian equa\$ions \$o 'ind locusD Al%a,s descri0e \$*e locusD

## Ha\$es o' /*an&e

1. 2 Dnit (2 1aria40es): a Ha\$e o' c*an&e re'ers \$o *o% one quan\$i\$, c*an&es in rela\$ion \$o \$*e o\$*erD iDeD Ha\$e o' c*an&e o' a quan\$i\$,G RG is &i)en 0,@ dR d\$ To 'ind \$*e ini\$ial quan\$i\$,G +CT7NHAT7 To 'ind \$*e ra\$e o' c*an&eG F+FF7H7CT+AT7 2. A2tension (more than 2 1aria40es): Wse \$*e c*ain ruleG iDeD dR = dR 8 d. d\$ d. d\$
[You ma, need \$o use i\$ \$%ice some\$imes!

3. AreaQ<o0ume AFuations: /,linder@ 4 6 rEh SA 6 2 r h /one: 4 6 R rEh S(*ere: 4 6 4 rS 3 SA 6 4 rE 4. A2,onentia0 Gro\$th and @e5a/: Y*en dR = AR (\$*e ra\$e o' c*an&e is direc\$l, (ro(or\$ional \$o quan\$i\$,) d\$ T*e solu\$ion \$o \$*is equa\$ion is@ R = AeA\$
A and C are 5onstants (C 6 rate 5onstant) t 6 time

!. Further A2,onentia0 Gro\$th and @e5a/: +n ideal si\$ua\$ionsG C = AeA\$ +n (rac\$ical si\$ua\$ionsG a more realis\$ic model is@ C = # + AeA\$ V C and P are %*ic* is a solu\$ion \$o 5onstants. dC = A (C #) V =here C<?7 'TP d\$ V =here C ?7 'TW &. Kotion in a strai#ht 0ine: Fis(lacemen\$ (s or .)@ Position of the ,arti50e from ? 4eloci\$, (4 or .) @ Rate of 5han#e of dis,0a5ement (deri1ati1e) If ,arti50e is tra1e00in# T it is ,ositi1e If ,arti50e is tra1e00in# U it is ne#ati1e
If ,arti50e is stationar/Qat rest7 1e0o5it/ is 9ero.

Accelera\$ion (a or .)@ 4rin#s a4out a 5han#e in 1e0o5it/ (se5ond deri1ati1e of s7 first deri1ati1e of <) If a is ,ositi1e7 ,arti50e is a55e0eratin# T If a is ne#ati1e7 ,arti50e is a55e0eratin# U
If a 6 ? ,arti50e is mo1in# at a 5onstantQuniform 1e0o5it/ If de5e0eratin#7 ,arti50e is mo1in# in o,,osite dire5tion If a55e0eratin#7 ,arti50e is mo1in# in same dire5tion

*. Dsin# ,rimiti1es .= > 4 d\$ 4 = > a d\$ -. @istan5e tra1e00ed Fis\$ance = area under a )eloci\$, \$ime cur)e ;. A55e0eration as a fun5tion of @is,0a5ement or <e0o5it/ (stri5t0/ e2tension): a = 4 d4 d. a= d ( 46) d.

C C

1?.Sim,0e Jarmoni5 Kotion: T*e (ar\$icle mo)es 0acA%ards and 'or%ards alon& a s\$rai&*\$ line a0ou\$ a cen\$ral (osi\$ion (sa,G \$*e ori&in) eD&D mass on a s(rin&G (endulum PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP0PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ? a 6 8 nE2
Y*ere n is a cons\$an\$

## 11. Further SJK eFuations: 46 = n6 (a6- .6) . = a cos n\$ 12.'otes on SJK:

Am,0itude 6 a Period 6 2 Z n

8a X 2 X a
Starts at 26a7 mo1es \$ith in5reasin# s,eed to\$ards ?7 mo1es to 268a \$ith de5reasin# s,eed7 sto,s then re1erses dire5tion

Ka2 dis,0a5ement: 26a Ka2 s,eed: 26? Ka2 a55e0eration: 26a "east a55e0eration: 26?
13. +entre of motion not at 2 6 ?: a = -n6 (. 14.ProLe5ti0e Kotion: / < h
VOA 6 ran#e V.ime taCen for ,roLe5ti0e to rea5h A is 5a00ed time o" "light V h is the #reatest hei#ht. At h7 / 6 ? V Y 6 the an#0e ,roLe5ted

/)

Kotion in 2 dire5tion and / dire5tion 5onsidered se,arate0/ .=; , = -& (&ra)i\$,) a\$ \$=;G 4 , .= 4cosb , = 4sinb .herefore these shou0d 4e

## in5or,orated and deri1ed into eFns

1!. ProLe5ti0e motion from a hei#ht: A\$ \$ = ;G .= ; ,=* (=here h 6 5onstant hei#ht7 e.#. 4ui0din#) 1&. ProLe5ti0e motion \$here ,roLe5ti0e is thro\$n hori9onta00/ .=4 ,=;

## T*e :inomial T*eorem

1. Pas5a0:s .rian#0e: +an 4e used to determine the 5oeffi5ients of 2 in the e2,ansion of (1 3 2)n.

2. (1 3 2)n has (n 3 1) terms 3. A2,ansion of (a 3 2)n: Same coe''icien\$s as (1 + .)n (n +1) \$erms #o%er o' a decreases 0, oneG %*ile (o%er o' . increases 0, one For e)er, \$ermG \$*e sum o' \$*e (o%ers o' a and . is n

e.#. (a 3 2)4 6 [a(1 3 2Qa)\ 4 a4 (1 3 2Qa) 4 a4 3 4aS2 3&aE2E 3 4a2S 324 4. @eterminin# the term inde,endent of 2 (ie7 2?): a) 7.(and 0inomials 0) Mul\$i(l, \$erms \$*a\$ &i)es inde(enden\$ \$erm
n n n n 4 4 4 4 4 4 ?

## !. n+r is the 5oeffi5ient of 2n in the e2,ansion of (1 3 2)n. Formu0a: nX rX (n - r)X

CET7@ /an also 0e %ri\$\$en in si&ma no\$a\$ionD

n n

## *. Kore notation: (a + .)n@ TA+1 = n/A an A . A

CET7@ To 'ind \$erm inde(enden\$ o' .G le\$ sum o' (o%ers equal JeroG \$*en sol)e 'or AX

-. Greatest 5oeffi5ient:

TA+1 TA

T1

;. Re0ations 4et\$een 5oeffi5ients: eD&D :, com(arin& coe''icien\$s o' (1 + .)3 and (1 + .)` (1 + .)`G 'ind coe''icien\$ o' .6 in (1 + .)3@

## 1?. Pro1in# resu0ts:

n n n n n n n n n n n & &

Man, o' \$*ese resul\$s can 0e (ro)ed 0, 'irs\$ %ri\$in& (1 + .)n = n/o + n/1 . + n/2 .6 +LDD n/n .n and \$*enL a) su0s\$i\$u\$in& . = 1 or . = -1 \$o 0o\$* sides EH 0) di''eren\$ia\$in& or in\$e&ra\$in& 0o\$* sides and \$*en su0s\$i\$u\$in& . = 1 or . = -1D 11. +ountin# .e5hniFues: +' one e)en\$ can *a((en in ( di''eren\$ %a,s and a'\$er \$*isG ano\$*er e)en\$ can *a((en in q di''eren\$ %a,sG \$*en \$*e \$%o successi)e e)en\$s can *a((en in (q %a,sD +' re(e\$i\$ion is no\$ allo%edG \$*e num0er o' %a,s is usuall, nX (n 'ac\$orial %a,s) 12. Permutations: #ermu\$a\$ions re'er \$o \$*e num0er o' arran&emen\$s \$*a\$ is (ossi0le %*en order is im(or\$an\$ n #r is usedG %*en n is \$*e \$o\$al num0er and r is \$*e num0er Kcoun\$ed a\$ a \$imeM n#r 'ormula@ nX (n - r)X 13. Arran#in# n items \$ith r re,etitions: +' n i\$ems mus\$ 0e arran&ed %*ere sa,G \$*ree i\$ems are re(ea\$edG (G q and r \$imesG \$*en \$*e num0er o' arran&emen\$s (ossi0le %ill 0e@ nX (X qX rX 14. +om4inations: Arran&emen\$s o' i\$ems %*ere order is no\$ im(or\$an\$ n #r rX 1!.+ountin# .e5hniFues and Pro4a4i0it/:
n n n n n n n n n

Wse n/r or n#rG de(endin& on \$*e ques\$ionG and di)ide 0, \$o\$al %a,s i\$ can *a((enD 1&. Binomia0 Pro4a4i0it/: Eccasions %*ere Ius\$ \$%o (ossi0le ou\$comes e.is\$ 'rom an e)en\$G eD&D \$ossin& a coin or diceD For n \$rialsG
CoD o' \$rials

## (( + q)n = n/oqn (; + n/1 qn-1 (1 +LDD n/r qn-r (r +LDD n/n q; (n

Failure Success # ( no success) # (1 success) # (r successes) # (n successes)

T*e (ro0a0ili\$, \$*a\$ an e)en\$ %ill occur e.ac\$l, r \$imes in n inde(enden\$ \$rials is &i)en 0,
n

/r qn-r (r

1*. Arran#ements a4out a 5ir50e or rin#: T*e num0er o' arran&emen\$s o' n i\$ems around a circleUrin& is (n 1)X CET7@ For 0eads or Ae,sG clocA%ise or an\$i-clocA%iseG arran&emen\$s are \$*e same so arran&emen\$s o' n i\$ems %ill 0e x (n 1)X

## Neneral Solu\$ions \$o Tri& 7qua\$ions

n n n n n ? n n 1 n n n ? n n n

1. tan Y \$an b = a b = n + \$an-1a 2. 5os Y cos b = a b = 2n + cos-1a 3. sin Y sin b = a b = n + (-1)n sin-1a
CET7@ Solu\$ions can 0e 'ound 0, ei\$*er addin& or su0\$rac\$in& 2

4. Im,ortant Resu0ts:
\$an-1(-.) = - \$an-1. cos-1(-.) = - cos-1.

sin-1(-.) = - sin-1.

8 8 n 8 8 8 8 8 8 8