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Banks

Banks are institutions specialized in grant and provision of credit. The bank is characterized as the establishment that creates the credit, and deals in all kinds of money, either in lending and borrowing. The bank deals in money through exchanging money with the promise to pay money later, the task of the bank is to grant promises to pay money in the future D)%E0"#1 C6%7089# AB/" =&'() =>?@ < !"# :470;1 .6%7089# 34,51 2 ) *, -../0) $%&'() *+ "! # H) P#)T# PJ%!5 PQR S) P%7"# *, < !"# D)%E0;1 .M#30N9#1 M#3NO# *, L# 'CJK "# F#>G H47I *, D!K0&7"# *, P%7"# H,U" JV"# 2 ) + < !"# -7Y) CAW9 XN1 *, H,U"%@ UV1 Zommercial banks are those creating deposits while the central bank is the one that issues banknotes, and determines the size of the money supply as a whole, through its supervision of commercial banks and credit JU`;1 C-;UK "# _#[1T# [U.; S) + ]:^37"# < !"# 6G S4W *, H8#J"# AB/5 *0"# <B5 *+ -;[%\0"# "! # 6%7089#1 -;[%\0"# f[%.7"# cBV =,#3de PQR S) CDb^ JK "# S) M13E7"# a\W hThe emergence of banks "! # [Yg Banks have passed through many stages since its inception %Y8%j>e k ) iUV DW#37@ $3) UK" Zommercial -;[%\0"# "! # hbanks lre defined as deposits banks or institutions that deal in credit or debt. The commercial banks collect debt of others and give promises to pay on demand or after a shortmterm basis 6;J H7\@ nK5 -;[%\0"# "! # .6;U"# 1G 6%7089# *, D)%E05 *0"# $%&'(7"# 1G "! # H8#J1 %Y>?@ f3E5 i34.N iU7" <"r UE@ 1G qBp"# U V H,U"%@ JV"# L%pVe1 S;3Ro# Zommercial banks represent the traditional part of the banking system, which means the banking system as a term. These banks operate in the money market and its operations are characterized by the nature of shortmterm credit. st does not accept deposits of individuals only, but they also created
*, D7E5 "! # vk+ .2Bp.7^ *,3.7"# n%u "# =>G * E; %7) C*,3.7"# n%u "# S) L:I Dt75 -;U4BK0"# -;[%\0"# "! # %YKB/@ nK5 %x;G D@ CwK, J#3,T# S) H8#J"# D!K5 9 %Y>G .DIT# 34.N 6%7089# -E4!p" %K,1 %Y5%4B7V a&051 P%7"# _'

These banks like the rest of other monetary institutions are economic proyects work in order to achieve maximum profit or return as possible. zhere banks provide these credit services to its customers depositorsm lendersm and you get in hreturn for payments from those customers. There are two types S) [UN c.NG A4K`5 DIG S) D7E5 -;J%.0N# H;[%j) UE5 {3RT# -;UK "# $%&'(7"# -4K@ Dt) "! # vk+ D.`51 CS4~3K7"# S4VJ7"# %Y8Q7E" -4>%7089# $%)U/"# vk+ a;UK0@ "! # nK5 }4W .U8#E"# 1G |%@[T# :6%V >% + .LQ7E"# L9(+ S) $%V,U) *BV <"r D@%K) *, trading in credit or debt 6%7089# 1G 6;U"# *, i3I%07"# create 6%7089# ABR* credit

The functions of commercial hbanks

-;[%\0"# "! # 8%g1

hZreation of credit or cash deposits m h6%7089# ABR m Zommercial banks create money deposits or credit creation which is the bank money and which become very widespread in modern societies. Bank money is the entries recorded at private books at banks. The banks deal with customers and depositors via checks through which they withdraw the amounts they want from their deposits. The banks do not retain all liuid as cash deposits. The

bank has been able to create large amounts of money written represent several times higher than has available reserves *, i3j0 ) X`!G *0"#1 < !"# P#)G UE; ]k"# 6%7089# ABR 1G P%7"# H8#J1 AB/@ -;[%\0"# "! # nK5 LQ7E"# H) D)%E05 "! # ."! # *, -%/"# q0b"# *, XB\' $QRU) + < !"# P#)G .-t;U`"# $%E70\7"# 0`5 9 "! # .aYE8#J1 S) %Y>1U;3; "%!) {G q`' a0; %Y"QR S) *0"# $%b4j"# A;3 SV S4VJ7"#1 P%7"# S) i34!^ $%47^ ABR cBV #[J%N < !"# 6%^1 .-;UK "# H8#J"%^ D8#"&# Db@ hlcceptance of deposits m H8#J"# P!N m The functions of the commercial bank include acceptance of deposits. zhere their owners usually withdraw from them upon submitting checks to the bank, .therefore the commercial banks are called banks of deposited cheues C< !B" $%b4j"# a;UK5 U V %Y ) q`&"%@ %Y@%`G nK; %) iJ%V }4W .H8#J"# P!N ][%\0"# < !"# 8%g1 S) ."! # *, -VJ7"# $%b4j"# -;[%\0"# "! # c7&5 <"k" hrant of credit m 6%7089# 2 ) m This function means that the commercial bank provides cashm whether paper money or bank moneym to citizens, whether they are businessmen, proyects or clients for a shortmterm not to exceed one year where the bank helps them to continue to carry out their different business and activities despite the lack of .cash liuid #>%^ L# 'CS4 #7B" P%7"# < @ 1G -4N["# JK "# L# 'UK "# 34,5 ][%\0"# < !"# -4g1 6G * E; #k+ -B# )cBV < !"# a+UV%&; a S)1 %Y4, DIT# i34.N - &"# 1%\05 9 LQ7V 1G H;[%j) 1G P%7VG P%I[ .]UK "# D8%&"# JI1 nUV S) a3"# cBV -pj>T#1 P%7VT# B0/) cBV FQp~9# hiscount commercial paper m -;[%\0"# _#[1T# a.R m Tradersm or business ownersm attempt to sell their goods under payment of a part of it and the rest is paid at intervals specified under letters of exchange with determined date of payment. zhere the trader of these billsm submits them to the bank after endorsement in favor of the bank and the bank becomes the beneficiary. The bank will pay the value of such bill to its owner after deducting a small amount as interest earned by the bank against the payment of the value .of bills of exchange to its owner prior to the due time qI7@ iJU`) -4 ) $#30, cBV *N%!"#1 = ) #L:I H,J D@%K) aYE8%x@ H4@ P%7VT# %`G 1G [%\0"# P1%`; .U40&7"# 2!.; < !"# a S)1 < !B" 345#"# vk+ 3I%0"# nUK; }4W .H,U"# ;[%5 U;U`5 H) f3."# $%@%pR 345#, -74N H,J D@%K) < !B" U8# ^i34 -47^ a.R UE@ %Y!W%." i[5%"# -74N H,U@ nK; v[1U@ ]k"#1 A`0&7"# XN"# D!N %Y!W%." f3."# home other functions of commercial banks m st is noted that banks in different countries have a limited activity confined to hthe following three functions h-4"%0"# Qt"# 8%g"# cBV 3.0K; J1U`) %j> aY;U" -B0/7"# P1U"# *, "! # 6G c"e i[%dO# [U\5 am acceptance of deposits H8#J"# P!NmG bm peration of bank resources < !"# J[# )D4j5m cm -4,3.7"# PT# S) -"KE) -"4' cBV -u,%`7"#m aintain the reasonable liuidity of bank asset hsn addition to these three main functions, there are some traditional services h-;U4BK0"# $%)U/"# E@ % + CQt"# -4&483"# 8%g"# vk+ c"e -,%~O%@1 am commercial bank collection of dues of its customers and pay their debts to the beneficiaries, whether inside or outside the country JQ!"# [%R 1G DR#J L# 'CS;U40&7B" aY>;J H,J1 =8Q7V $%K`0&) H7\@ ][%\0"# < !"# nK;mG bm Zommercial bank collects the savings of its clients and invested them in the purchase of bonds or in any other form, by a specialized department at bank PQR S) C3R Dbd ]G *, 1G $#U &"# L#3d *, %+37t0&;1 =8Q7V $#3RU) H7\@ ][%\0"# < !"# nK;m < !"# *, -../0) i[#Je

cm ent safes to its clients in order to save their money, golden yewelry or private documents of mayor importance for which they fear of theft if kept at their homes -47+T# $#r -%/"# A8%"# 1G -4!+k"# $#3+\7"#1 CaY"#)G r%K>e DIG S) =8Q7E" S8#:/"# [%\0'#m =": ) *, %Y@ 0W# #re %Y0N3' *j/; S7" {3!b"# dm the bank issuing letters of guarantee in favor of its clients, where it undertakes the payment of certain sums to whom these letters are issued, if the customer does not pay their obligations towards these people vk+ [#U# -"%W *, - 4E) "%!) H,J c"0; }4W C=8Q7V 2"%." 6%7~ $%@%pR [#U@ < !"# nK;mJ % "# L9(Y" =5%)#:0"# H,U; 9 D47E"# 6%^ #re C $%@%p/"# em eplace the banks foreign currency with the national currency or vice versa for the benefit of its customers =8Q7V 2"%." bE"# 1G -4 "# -B7E"%@ < !"# *, -4! IT# -B7E"# P#U!0'#mv fm the banks dealing in securities of all kinds, both for the benefit of its clients or its own interest %Y0`B.7" 1G %Y8Q7V 2"%." L# 'C%YV#>G H47\@ -4"%7"# _#[1T# *, "! # D)%E05m1 hThe forms and methods of banking services -4,3.7"# $%)U/"# q4"%'G1 P%bdG : hZredit card visa card This service is one of the latest and most popular banking services introduced by the commercial banks, and also the most widely identified due to its dependence on credit granted by the bank to its customer #[%j0># 3t^T# %x;G1 C-;[%\0"# "! # *, -4!Ed %+3t^G1 -4,3.7"# $%)U/"# UWG ]UW# *+ -)U/"# vk+ =8Q7E" < !"# D!N S) | 77"# 6%7089# cBV %+J%70V# U;U`0" #3u>
The system is summed up in bank issuance of an approved credit card, whereby the client can use in commercial shops, and obtain services instead of cash There are deadlines set for each cardm often six months or a yearm renewable by the bank C-;[%\0"# $Q`7"# *, %Y)#U/0'# D47EB" Sb7; }4W CiU70E7"# 6%7089# $%N%p!" < !"# [#Ue *BV n%u "# #k+ nK; -N%p!"# U;U\5 a0; 3YdG -0' D^ UE@ iJU`) -48%Y> U4V# )% + .UK "# S) 9U@ $%)U/"# cBV P.`"#1

hTrust service
This service is also a newly deployed service delivered by the commercial banks in developed countries. st is decision making by bank on behalf of the client regarding management of funds deposited by the bank as a trust i[#J@ ABE0; %74, D47E"# SV -@%4> [#3K"# r%/5%@ < !"# nK; }4W .-)UK07"# P1U"# *, =t;UW -)U/"# vk+ -Kt"# $3,#5 #re C"! # D!N S) P#)T# hZonservation of securities and revenue collection zhen the bank performs this function, it yust works on providing the secure place for keeping the securities of its clients away from the risk of theft, loss, damage and fire. The bank also performs the trust service in the event that the customer left to his bank the freedom to choose the proper price and the right time to acuire securities or to dispose them SV #U4E@ =8Q7E" -4"%7"# _#[1T# `" S) 6%b) 34,5 cBV wK, D7E5 %Y>G1 C-7Y7"# vk+ k4 0@ < !"# nK; -;3W < !B" D47E"# |%5G P%W *, -Kt"# -)UR %x;G < !"# [%7; .[% "#1 i[%&/"#1 [3x"#1 -N3&"# 3pR %Y ) B/0B" 1G -4"%7"# _#[1T# cBV P.`B" q'% 7"# XN"#1 3E&"# [%40R# hepayments on behalf of others am repayment of house rent P: 7"# [%\;# J#U'mG bm epayment of telephone bill 5%Y"# i[5%, J#U'm

cm epayment of water and electricity consumption


bills

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dm epayment of car license em epayments of commercial shops installments

hZollection on behalf of others

This service is based on the agreement between the bank and governmental and nonmgovernmental organizations, where collection is carried out on their behalf. The advantages of this service includeh reduction in the cost of collection on these bodies to the greatest extent possible, high collection percentage and decrease in the percentage of uncollected papers, in addition to providing means of convenience to the dealers due to the spread of bank branches in all countries, and the low cost of collection by the bank .aY V -@%4> H7\"# a0; }4W C-4)b`"# 341 -4)b`"# $%7u 7"#1 < !"# S4@ _%59# *BV -78%N -)U/"# vk+ -!& "# M%/>#1 CSb7) UW c.N?" $%4Y"# vk+ cBV H7\"# -Bb5 M%/># h*B; %) -)U/"# vk+ %;#:) S)1 *, "! # F13, [%j0>%" #3u> S4B)%E07B" -W#3"# D!' 34,5 c"e -,%~O%@ C-B.`7"# 34 _#[1?B" -;7"# < !"# D!N S) H7\"# -Bb5 M%/>#1 CP1U"# H47I

Zentral bank
historical overview
The central bank is the body which holds the responsibilities of issuance of money .ensure the safety of the banking system and oversees the credit policy in the state

cBV f3j;1 *,3.7"# n%u "# -)Q' 6%7x" JK "# [#Ue $%4"1(&) c"05 *0"# -4Y"# + ]:^37"# < !"# .-"1U"# *, -4>%7089# -'%4&"# hThe nature of central banks
The central bank differs from the commercial one, where we find that the commercial bank is focused on achieving the maximum profit possible but that is only a secondary obyective for the central bank, while the central bank focuses on drawing the monetary and banking policy of the state, controls issuance of money that are commensurate with the needs of the market and control over its uantity, and coordinates between commercial banks where it receives deposits and grant loans

Sb"1 Sb7) 2@[ c.NG A4K`5 cBV :^3; ][%\0"# < !"# 6G U\> }4W C ][%\0"# SV B0/; ]:^37"# < !"# -4,3.7"#1 -;UK "# -'%4&"# H~1 cBV :^3; ]:^37"# < !"# 6G S4W *, C]:^37"# < !B" %;>% %,U+ UE; <"r A& ;1 C=047^ cBV i3p4&"#1 _"&# $%I%40W# H) q'% 05 *0"# P#)T# [#Ue -4B7V *BV3p4&;1 C-"1UB" M13K"# 2 7;1 H8#J"# cKB0; }4W -;[%\0"# "! # S4@ The central bank does not practice the works carried out by the commercial bank including accepting deposits, lending individuals, granting credit or .discount of financial and commercial bills to them M#3N#1 H8#J"# P!N <"r *, %7@ -;[%\0"# "! # %Y@ nK5 *0"# P%7VT# -'[%77@ ]:^37"# < !"# nK; 9 .aY" -;[%\0"#1 -4"%7"# $#U &"# a.R 1G 6%7089# 2 ) C J#3,T# The central bank shall practice the banking operations belonging to the government and public legal persons and credit operations with banks in accordance with the provisions of law for year . st shall refrain from .conducting these operations to any entity other than the mentioned bodies $%4B7V1 -)%E"# -;[%!0V9# %/dT#1 -)b`B" -E@%0"# -4,3.7"# $%4B7E"# -"1#:7@ ]:^37"# < !"# nK; 6%4^ ]G c"e $%4B7E"# vk+ %&>e SV H 07; UN1 . - &" 6>%K"# n%bW?" %K,1 "! # H) 6%7089# .i[^k7"# $%4Y"# S) 3R hThe functions of the central bank =8%g1 hBank of circulation m The monopoly of the central bank of the issuance process is due to several important reasons, including standardization of money type in the state where the issuer is only one entity and thus facilitates its circulation amongst individuals, give more confidence in them instead of conflict amongst more than one bank in the circulation process, which violates this trust if the circulation 4

entities varied. sf there is a specialized entity in charge of monetary circulation achieves more profit to the state -"1U"# *, -B7E"# F >U4W5 <"r *, %7@ C-)%+ %!'G iUV *"# HI3; [#UO# -4B7E" ]:^37"# < !"# [%b0W# *, -Kt"# S) U;:7"# L%pVe1 CJ#3,T# S4@ %Y"1#U5 DY&; *"%0"%@1 UW#"# 6%4b"%^ U4W"# [U.7"# UE5 *0"# $%YI XB0R# #re -Kt"# vk+ %Y0># a0;1 CP1#U0"# -4B7V *, < @ S) 3t^G S4@ F#3."# S) 9U@ aY'> S) U;:) A4K`5 *"# ]J(; ]UK "# H;0"# =4B7V SV -"1(&) -../0) $%>%4^ % + 6%^ #re .P1#U0"# -"1UB" |%@[T# hBank of government m
The government has allocated a bank to carry out the monetary circulation and that bank does not perform the functions of the commercial bank, where it does not engage in any commercial activity with individuals, in addition it is under full control by the government in respect of its management, setting the plans of monetary and credit policy of the state. or this, it is called the bank of government

[%7; 9 C][%\0"# < !"# 8%g1 k4 0@ < !"# aK; a" #r#1 ]UK "# P1#U0"# k4 0" "! # UWG -)b`"# X..R C%Y5[#J@ ABE0; %74, -)b`"# S) -)%0"# i3p4&"# X`5 =E~1 *"# -,%~O%@ CJ#3,T# H) ][%\5 %j> ]G -)b`"# < @ c7&; C#kY" .-"1UB" -4>%7089#1 -;UK "# -'%4&B" wpR H~11 The government retains its deposits at such bank, and practices its financial .activity through it, where revenues are deposited and expenses are paid from it The central bank is the main source of government credit, it works as the financial consultant to the government, in addition it status to the government is as commercial banks to individuals $#J#3;O# F#U;e a0; }4W C<"r PQR S) *"%7"# %Y%j> [%751 C < !"# {U" %YE8#J @-)b`"# 0`5 [%j0&7"# %Y @D7E5 %Y>G1 C*)b`"# 6%708Q" *&483"# [U.7"# + ]:^37"# < !"# .%Y ) H,U51 $%K "#1 J#3," -;[%\0"# "! # *, %7^ -)b`"# :^3) %Y>G c"e -,%~O%@ C-)b`B" *"%7"# The central banks has placed its expertise in financial and monetary affairs at the disposal of the government, implement the other works, such as exchange control, reuested by the government, provides the state with the necessary foreign exchange C{3RG P%7VG k4 51 C-)b`"# f3.5 X`5 -;UK "#1 -4"%7"# 61(j"# *, %Y53!R -;:^37"# "! # $37t0'# *! IT# ][%\0"# PJ%!0"# -4B7V -"1UB" 3,51 C-)b`"# S) qBp@ Cf3."# -4B7V -!N#3) Dt) hBankers bank m The central bank acts as the bank for the rest of banks in the state, while the commercial banks deal with individuals in accepting deposits, granting them credit, and discount banks bills. The central bank does the same works with the rest of the banks in the state, whether commercial or specialized where it supports commercial banks in crises and maintains cash reserves of these banks and oversees the compensation machinery between them P!N *, J#3,T# H) D)%E05 -;[%\0"# "! # 6G S4W *, C-"1U"# *, "! # < @ [1U@ ]:^37"# < !"# nK; *, "! # -4K@ H) L*j"# > D7E; 9 ]:^37"# < !"# .< !B" a./"# 345#,1 CaY" 6%7089# 2 )1 H8#J"# $%4%40W9# cBV ,%`;1 $%)T# *, -;[%\0"# "! # aVU; =>G }4W -../0) 1G -;[%\5 X>%^ L# 'C-"1U"# %7Y 4@ ;E0"# $%4" cBV f3j;1 "! # vkY" -;UK "# The central bank has some key competencies and processes that correlate it with hthe other commercial banks, the most important of them are h*+ %Y7+G1 C{3RT# -;[%\0"# "! # H) w!535 *0"# -4&483"# $%4B7E"#1 $%%.0R9# E@ ]:^37"# < !B" lending to commercial banks -;[%\0"# "! # M#3Ne keep a certain percentage ! B" -;UK "# iU[T# S) - 4E) -!&> cBV -%`"# of the banks cash balances overseeing the clearing operations -%K7"# $%4B7V cBV f#3dO# hZredit control m The credit control function is deemed one of the most important functions of the .central bank and the most serious one at the moment .S+#3"# XN"# *, i[pR 3t^T#1 ]:^37"# < !"# 8%g1 a+G ]UW# *>%7089# ab`0"# -4g1 3!0E; The impacts resulting from the increase of the means of payment in the community on the purchasing power of money and the economic activity, that is, the more the amount of money, the lower purchasing power and prices increased and vice versa, that if the amount of money decreased, prices falls and the purchasing power of money increases

=>G * E5 C]J%.0N9# %j "#1 JK B" -48#3j"# iK"# cBV H70\7"# *, H,U"# D8%'1 iJ%; SV -\5% "# [%o%, .24` bE"#1 C[%E'T# F%5[9 <"r1 -48#3j"# iK"# Xx/># C JK "# -47^ $J# #r# ze find that the process of credit control and its administration is one of the most important functions of the central bank, as it affects the increase and .decrease of prices in the country and affects the prosperity status to the state iJ%; cBV 3(5 %Y>G %7^ C]:^37"# < !"# 8%g1 a+G ]UW# *+ %Y5[#Je1 6%7089# -!N#3) -4B7V 6G U\> .-"1UB" [%+J# -"%W cBV 3(5 *"%0"%@1 -"1U"# *, [%E'G M%/>#1