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A Cascading Waterfall of Nectar by Thinley Norbu Review by: Francis V. Tiso Buddhist-Christian Studies, Vol. 28 (2008), pp.

191-199 Published by: University of Hawai'i Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 04/11/2013 17:46
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BOOK REVIEWS attacksbecame standardfarein both traditions' Anothermismissionalportfolios. the publicationof polemical tractsand monographs, sion methodology, was also Christian but the ofthe the realized a power methodology, Buddhists initially quickly tracts written own. and books of their wordand began to publishanti-Christian It is unfortunate thatneither nor Buddhistsseemedto learnfromthe Christians other's is It not because such werenot represented religious best of each traditions. in nineteenth-century Sri Lanka. Harris,in fact,citesmen and women representing both. But it is safeto say thatthe legacyof thesereciprocal and twennineteenthnegative and has createdin Sri missionefforts tieth-century has been almosttotally Lanka todaya veryuneasyrelationship betweenthe two sides. One could hope that one resultof this exceptionally well-donebook would be an honest look at what and takingstepsto restore has wrought our common history a goodwilltowardone to thebestin bothtraditions another thanwhatcurrently thatwould be morefaithful endures. C. Muck Terry Theological Seminary Asbury


A CASCADING WATERFALL OF NECTAR. By Thinley Norbu.Boston: Shambhala,2006. 312 pp. clearabout theworkunderreview before It is important to makea numberof things proceedingto a discussionof the partsof the book thatbear directly on Buddhistplace, the readershould know the identity Christianrelations.In the first of the author, clearwho the authoris, there ThinleyNorbu. In orderto make absolutely to the book by His Holiness PenorRinpoche (head are no less than fourforewords of the Nyingmapaschool of Tibetan Buddhism),Kathog RigdzinPema Wangchen Nyingmapalama), Alak Zenkar Rinpoche (anotherpromiRinpoche (a prominent Nyingmapa nentNyingmapalama), and Tulku Thondup Rinpoche (a well-known lama who has authoredseveralvaluable volumes on Vajrayana Buddhism). Thinley Norbu is the son of the late head of the Nyingmapaschool, H. H. Dudjom regarded ThinleyNorbu is a veryhighly lama witha wide Rinpoche;like his father, and in the widerworld following of disciplesboth in theTibetan exile community of Buddhistpractitioners. The purposeofthisbook is to providea workcommunity Ngondro, on the Dudjom Tersar a well-known ing commentary set of preliminary revealer" by Dudjom Lingpa (1835-1904), a "treasure (terpracticespromulgated ton) in EasternTibet. This particular formof what are termedthe "extraordinary practices" in the Vajrayanahas been transmitted to a largenumberof preliminary decades. It has become so widespread that in recent Nyingmapaschool practitioners to be givenout to interand practices it is not unusualforphotocopiesof theprayers withoutany particular initiation have or otherformality. ested individuals I myself
28 (2008). byUniversity ofHawai'iPress. Studies Allrights Buddhist-Christian reserved.

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fromhighly received respected practice the texta numberof times,both as a formal Tibetan teachersand in this veryinformal among way frommy personalfriends of set to monastics. the diffusion thisparticular wide Nyingmapa Perhapsin response of Vajrayanapractices, wishesto clarify the authorof thiscommentary the unique revealedby the terton Dudjom Lingpa and widelytaughtby features of the system Rinpoche father, (1904-1988). I would have to say that his own revered Dudjom the partsof the book thatcommenton thepractices on (thereis also a commentary tantric and shouldbe of great a related visualization) wellwritten arevery inspiration in thistradition. the arduouspathof practice to thosewho have undertaken an occasionfordiscussing On theotherhand,theauthormakesthecommentary to the relationship otherconcernsrelated of Buddhismto otherreligions, to empirihe continuesin a of thetext, cal science,and to themodernworld.In theseportions polemicalvein going back to his verytroubling from Flowers book Welcoming Across ofBuddhism, pubthe CleansedThreshold ofHope: An Answer to thePope'sCriticism lishedin 1997.' It is quite clearto careful readers of Pope JohnPaul II's book Crossing the Threshold ofHope (New York, 1994) thattherewas no intention in thatbook word"on any particular subject,much less to make forthe Pope to giveout a "final infallible pronouncements on "faith and morals."Rather, the book is to be takenas the sincerereflections of the Pope on a numberof subjectsthatcome up in both the reflecting of essays Churchand theworld.As such,JohnPaul II's book is a collection VittorioMessori,whose outspoken with the Italianjournalist a seriesof interviews politicaland religious views are well known.The chapteron the Buddha caused a because thevocabulary circles employed in interreligious greatdeal of consternation seemedto implya verynegative assessment it is of Buddhismas a religion. However, critically also clearfromcertain in thatchapterthatthe Pope is thinking comments on salvation, a topic fundamental about Buddhistteachings to any Christiantheologicalengagement withotherworldreligions. unfortunately reflects The factthattheterminology used bythePope is imprecise world. about Buddhismin the secularand Christian the stateof generalknowledge the Pope arrives As a directconsequenceof thatlack of accurateknowledge, at an area of legitimate concern:the spread of Buddhistideas in partsof the world in has not existeduntilquite recently. whichBuddhismas an integral system It cultural would seem thatan appropriate would have been responseto the Pope's comments desireon the partof Buddhistleadersto ensurethatnon-Buddhist leaders a strong it would have been Buddhism.Moreover, have an accurateknowledgeof authentic appropriate to have come together to assesshonscholars forBuddhistand Christian of Buddhistteachings in non-Buddhist estlythe impacton and reception cultures throughout the world.2I thinkthat distinguished spiritualteachersof both tradiagreedthatany religion uprootedfrom context tionswould have readily its cultural and spiritually problematic tends to spreadin a fragmentary way in othercultural It should therefore thata Christianleadermightlook out settings. be unsurprising (and I use that recently plantedin "Western" countries on the Buddhistinstitutions in a veryimprecise and express to myown annoyance, way) withsome dismay, term, forconcernedBuddhistleaders to thateffect. himself It would also be unsurprising

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BOOK REVIEWS to observethe same phenomenonand to make vigorousefforts to ensurethat the drift from Buddhismpracticedin otherculturalsettings away not what is essential traditions intomoderntimes.A recent to theseveral of Buddhismthathave survived WhatMakes You book thattakes up this concernis Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse's Buddhist? taken Not a (Shambhala2007). ThinleyNorbu himself has up thistopicin in the fall 1998 issue of Tricycle, in whichhe very his highly controversial interview assailed the misunderstanding of the role of the Guru among Western forthrightly Buddhistpractitioners. It would seem thatthesocial construction behavioris as much a chalof religious teachings are based lengeto Buddhists as it is to Christians, simply because religious on the convictionthatthe ultimategoal of religious lifedepends on engaging with the mutablecharacteristics practicesand beliefsthattranscend of human societies. to realhuman beingsit is alwaysnecessary to make And yet,to teachthe traditions use of historically conditioned mutable, because it is essentially language.Modernity, deconstructed, and reasserted to be constructed, in endlesspermutaallowingitself will alwaysbe, to some degree,in conflict tionsand combinations, withany perenIt would therefore nialistphilosophy or revealedreligion. seem prudentforreligious leadersto come together timeto timefora "reality from check"on whattheirteachdialogue, ingsare sayingto the modernworld.Believers also need to assess,through thoseaberrations thatmay be emerging among disciplesbecause of misunderstandculturaland religious systems ings thatarisewhen dramatically different encounter one another. Back in the 1970s, ChogyamTrungpaRinpochewas willingto raisethis issue in his much-appreciated Through in which book Cutting Materialism, Spiritual disciplesabout the temptation to practiceBuddhismas a colleche warnedWestern tionofexoticbehaviors thatone would mold to fit one'sown ego-driven needs.At its best, ThinleyNorbu'sbook (i.e., Cascade)attempts to providethatkindof correction and discernment, would havebeen morepersuasive had theybeen betbut his efforts terinformed dialogue. through interreligious Unfortunately, in the processof providing a criticalassessment of the views of liberties in contrast otherreligions to Buddhism,ThinleyNorbu takeseven greater thanthePope did in Crossing withtheactualteachings theThreshold ofotherreligions ofHope. He goes so faras to assertthatwhat Buddhisttextshave alwayssaid about otherreligions "eternalism" (thattheyareall essentially thatassert teachings based on and a variety of erroneous notionsof "deity")is sufficient forthe sake of argument, necessary to various examine actually thatit is not have to religions in detailwhatthe sayabout theirown beliefs. to his own Pope JohnPaul II, in Crossing theThreshold ofHope, made reference withHis Holiness theDalai Lama and withtheThai Buddhistpatriarch, meetings at leastimplying thatsome kindof actual dialogicalprocesshad some place in theway he formulated ThinleyNorbu insteadmakesit quite clear his opinionson Buddhism. thathe has a positionon what the correct view of thingsactuallyis, the nondualist thatthereis no realneed fordialogueor studyat position.For thisreason,he asserts teacher view runsinto theproblemof asserting all.3Of course,every of a nondualist the view thatone is asserting no metaphysical positionat all, but T. Norbu insists


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BOOK REVIEWS to theEnglishlanguageand not to his own style thattheproblemis one intrinsic of correct the "Sometimes language too is awkward, in English very exposition: making stateor immasincein Englishthere areno terms objectless spiritual fora subjectless, and it is very hardforthoseusingproperEnglishto understand terial opennesslight, withotherVajrayanateachers I havehad conversations themeaning"(pp. xxii-xxiii). thesame complaints. My claimhas been thattheobstaclesinherwho havepresented entin an Englishlanguagepresentation in at leasttwo of Buddhismcan be overcome terms-clearlydefined-since ways:one way is to make use of the classicalSanskrit theseare based on Indo-Europeanrootscommon to the originalBuddhistsources and to the roots of the Englishlanguage,allowingsuch termsto finda home in English;theotherwayis to accepttheEnglishlanguageas a uniquelyflexible instruand to employtranslators know the richdiversity mentfortranslation who actually inherent in thetranslation has been thefact to English.One ofthelimitations process that,sincetheEnlightenment, theEnglishlanguagehas been employed as an instrua promotion worldview. for of scientific However, medievalEnglishproved ment the of of capable perfectly expressing stateof awareness experiences the contemplative the (late as classic Unknowing century). works Cloud of In fact, in such fourteenth veryclose to a in medievalEnglishmeantsomething thevery word "contemplation" of reference; it is onlyin frame statebeyondsubjectand object,granted in a theistic of the languagethatthe ordinary meaningof "to contemsubsequentdevelopment Medieval Catholic mystics plate" means to "thinkabout something." wroteextenexperience, sively, in severallanguages,on the topic of mystical union with God, loss of the self,egolessness, unknowing, statesbeyond subject radical detachment, and object,and so forth. To ignoreall thismaterial and thento complainabout the of the Englishlanguageis a failure use of an excellent lack of utility to make skillful What T. Norbu needs is better Englishtranslators means of communication. and a betteracquaintancewith the spiritual heritage of Christianity and Westernliterary Greater traditions. skillin usingthe Englishlanguagewould have been particularly in thediscussion ideas" (pp. 136-137) whichin thatpartof helpful of "metaphysical "New Age" notionsof spirituality rather T. Norbu'sbook refer to superficial than a understanding as thestudyof ontology. of metaphysics morerigorous some of the disedifying taskof examining Now one has the sorry remarks about theistic that of Buddhism. T. Norbu usesto makehis case forthesuperiority religions How anyone could put such matters and how Shambhala Publishing in writing, could have stoopedto thislevel,is a cause ofgreat concernforanyonewho genuinely cares about the obstaclesto interreligious caused by misinformation. For relations example: "Those who hold the eternalist view believethatpleasingthe gods leads to happinessformankind,while displeasing the gods leads to suffering" (pp. 4-5). of the bibliLackinga background in the extensive treatment of thismisperception cal traditions, the authordevelopshis critiqueinto a full-scale denial of thevalidity of all forms of theism.However,he embracesthe identicalstructure of rewardand punishment in his discussion he does not even ofkarmic retribution (p. 45f.). In fact, of dzogchen roleto karmain the engagewiththosescholars who denysuch a central verysystem ofwhichT. Norbu is a lineageholder.4

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BOOK REVIEWS While it may be truethatsome notionsof propitiating deitieshave existedand may even persist among some theists, it would seem even to the averageChristian relationship withtheBlessedTrinity would be not only thatsome sortofpropitiatory also also erroneous Muslimsand Jews raiseobjectionsto T. but would blasphemous. that A footnote of theirbeliefs. on page 7 confirms Norbu'sdescentinto caricatures the authoris not speakingabout archaicreligions, but rather is referring specifically gods such as the creator Allah in Islam and deva to "eternalist God of Christianity, in thisway at [sic] in Hinduism." In orthodoxChristianity, deityis not understood we specifically all. In fact, negatethe notionof a monad-deity whose transcendence to relationship and creativedynamism, is a barrier and deny that the Trinitarian Moreover, to be propitiated. the goal Godhead of orthodoxChristianity is a "deity" Christianity ofcontemplative practice in Easternand Western is forthebaptizedsoul themystery to discover thisis themost itself fully alive within of the BlessedTrinity; centraland sublimegiftof baptismalgrace!As a gift, it cannot be earned;one can what the Christiandoes in only respondto it with faithand love,which is exactly neighbor. service prayer, and liturgy, contemplative of the When we come to the discussionof deityyoga (p. 58), it is clear that tantric models and absoluterelativism, albeitwithintheperspective practice, of "emptiness" its own ritualism fromHindu traditions. In of deitiesinherited on the propitiation bodyofdiscussion fact, in Buddhismseemsto havenothing whatsoever to thisentire withwhichBuddhists had little or no contactuntil(perhaps) do withthosereligions exclusively the twelfth and refers to Buddhistassessments of the deitiesof century, religion. Brahmanical Fromthispoint of view,the kind of deitythatis addressedin who is Vajrayanapracticeand polemic is hardlymore complexthan a Vedic deity, after an ascendedhero-figure all merely adornedwithmeritderivedfromsacrificial action (the root concept of "karma").Not only does the authorfail to notice the betweenVedic deitiesand the beliefsof the Abrahamicreligions(not to difference to be mentionmoreevolvedHindu teachings), he does not considerthis"noticing" a worthwhile a virtually pursuit.In so doing,he constructs impenetrable to barrier much less a dialogue,betweenBuddhismand the Abrahamic a fruitful encounter, religions. a bit ferociously on page 62, wheretheauthorasserts This is made explicit withthose that, "one mustno longerbefriend or associate once one has takenRefuge, who hold views thatare not in accord with Buddhistviews."Worse yet,especially (manyofwhom make use of theDudjom Tersar foradvocatesof "dual practice" pracin the holy Dharma, whichis the sourceof all tices): "Once havinggone forrefuge benefit one should no longerhold the perverted and happinesswithoutexception, harmful religions doctrines" thatpromote viewsofmistaken (p. 62). This putsat risk of Buddhist-Christian dialogue thewhole projectof thisjournaland thecommunity thatit serves. to takenoteofdiffering viewsamongother Since fortheauthorit is not necessary believers, religious of "difference" irrelevant; such assertions are entirely thefactthat such an attitudeis a perfect of the dogmaticattitudethat otherBuddhists mirror at work is a deeplyproblematic in Christianity criticize tellsus thatthere perspective Norbu's "There many different eternalist in theinterreligious ofT. book. are portions


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BOOK REVIEWS including recognize gods, onegodandthegodsofreligions thegodsofreligions that gods, havemany each butitis unnecessary that to nameeachonehere orto describe andshastras consider It is taught eternalists oftheir . . . that doctrines. in thesutras godsto be absolute. it is unnecessary to try From a Buddhist to decide their view, godsis absolute, eternalists which since isactually whatever is absolute ofthese think phenomena to time andplaceand is totally unceraccording appearing justbeings' words, has decided all other tain"(p. 10). In other sinceone religion that religions to engage it is notnecessary reflection in serious havethesameerroneous view, on religions, and it is notnecessary to engage other dialogue. Rather, in authentic it is sooner areled to thetask that whoarein error those ofBuddhists to ensure orlater truth. embracing ofthe"exclua Buddhist version theabsolute T. Norbuis clearly perspective traditions: onlyone religion sivist" notedin someofthetheistic is true allhuman andembrace thefalse arefalse; therefore must reject beings andtheothers goalofa human in order thehighest life. The author to attain doesgo on thetrue whenhe admits that more position other to expound a somewhat irenic at religions perspective-over leasthavesomekindof spiritual against materialists and "nihilawakening lead to a spiritual ists"-and mayeventually thatshouldlead persons (pp. 11-12, 127),undoubtedly that he is aware Buddhism is the toward because this the that found of traditional Vasubandhu. teaching canbe in Abhidharmakosa bepossible length Itwould theauthor's unremitting hostiltogoon atgreat tocite to comparative theology, deceptive and empirical religion, teachers, ity comparative science. ofthepolemical However, therealproblem at theheart itwouldseemthat modernity parts with concern that ofthebooklieswith is in conflict the theauthor's many practitioners areinclined truths Because Buddhist of Buddhism. to essential ofmodernity, accept theauthority ofempirical science, andparticularly T. Norbuis persuaded risk to thepractice that there is a grave ofauthentic Buddhism. Strangely twostrategies bothofwhich enough, tendencies, to opposethese T. Norbuadopts byteachers theistic dislikes. areemployed in thevery traditions thathe so greatly tactic is thewell-known therelativizers" One ofthem The of"relativizing (p. 133f.). perspecis outright fundamentalism, as a religious I wouldunderstand other which empirical dataand religious makes datato be unequally tive that true(thereligious is,knowable in being ontologically butepistemologically superior) equal,that truths ofconception, he insists Forexample, in hisdiscussion thesameway. oftheprocess factors atconception; heattacks there areother, thescientific that immaterial present ad absurdem viewofconception and egg)in thestyle (unionofsperm ofa reductio (pp. 35-36), butin so doinghe misses thekeyfeature ofall conflicts ofthiskind. howdoesoneknow On theonehand, First, hehastheproblem the ofepistemology. features point andother ofconception theBuddhist nonmaterial from lawsofkarma response being: havebeenperceived (The traditional ofview? Thesetruths bythe Ones.)Andsecond, howmight one present suchlawsto those whose Enlightened more entirely forms butwho on ever observation, refined method relies ofempirical (The traditional for methods nonempirical haveno means employing ofknowing? thepractice Through answer being: As in arising from skillful ofcompassion.) means thereligious tradition thecaseofother thetruths are from fundamentalists, inherited

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as embodying that truths be overturned taken can never an enduring setofabsolute dataprecisely are"known" byempirical thereligious to because truths or modified This is therootproblem of fundamentalbe at leastequally empirical. ofall forms notion ofan "absolute ism,eventhough as distinguished theBuddhist from truth" attempts Unfortunately, solve T. Norbuusesthis a "relative truth" to theproblem. unskillfully. approach Basically, is "absolute it hasto be grounded in a higher ifthere sphere of truth," objectivity than anyempirical Ifitisnotso grounded, then datum. tothelevel itfalls is true ornotdepending on whether relative ofa comparable ornotitcan truth that collapses In sucha perspective, absolute be falsified byempirical truth evidence.5 into methods relative religious beliefs. prove truth, and scientific can either or disprove he so eagerly among WhatNorbuis trying "eternalism" to avoidis thevery decries truth, theists: religious religious epistemologically including Buddhist that speaking, toways ofknowtruth, that process bya revelatory is necessarily is disclosed superior This scientific since ingconnected method. isparticularly significant toempirical the commentary to teach text, existence abouta "revealed" sacred thevery is attempting ina higher ofwhich requires andtherefore that inrevelation reality belief belief comskillful liberative methods on confused In other passionately human beings. bestows for a theist in themost convicitis difficult to notice profound words, to fail theism whotells ifnotin theprotestations ofauthor ofthecommentary us ofthetext, tions Buddhism talks aboutviews, in several "Eventhough because that places Buddhism to anyextreme, ofview, hasimmeasurable is no certain point never falls there which unmistakably dogmatic meaning" (p. 17) while at thesametime making statements suchas "One mustthink humanbeing's thatthebenefit of obtaining a precious rebirth is immeasurable, justas Buddha said"(p. 39). is to be found in theclearest Perhaps exposition ofa fundamentalist perspective ofthe"Accumulation ofMerit through (pp. 124Mandala theexposition Offerings" 144),which is a veritable theincursion ofscientific against into treatise worldviews ofBuddhist practice practitioners. theminds The mandala entails offering themental as Mount great visualization oftheuniverse byfour Merusurrounded andeight lesser usually mixed ofgrain while a mandala island-continents semimaking offering, with ritual practices stones; this oftheNgondro is oneoftheessential precious (preliminary practices). these area skillful ofreminding thereader that visualizations means Instead to expand we are designed andcompassion, capacity emptiness themind's to realize toldemphatically that "[w]hoever is Buddhist must cosmology" believe in Buddhist is meant thatthecosmology one is to believe (p. 124), bywhich oftheAbhithat texts areabsolutely tantric dharma texts suchas theKdalacakra and ofcosmological Because theauthor a serene distinction between empirical notto make true. chooses found dataand theinformation entire in philosophical and ritual texts, section this Western practitioners. couldlead to a great among deal ofconsternation Buddhist to thenotion oftheraft may whatever happened that One wonders (skillful means) oncethat on thefarther be left hasbeenattained. (enlightenment) shore shore theidea anyfollower of a mystical spiritual Of course pathwouldunderstand the appearances by the perceptible, Buddha that"until spiritual become revealed

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BOOK REVIEWS in them whatis imperceptible one has to believe withfaith, and then can become perception, (p. 125); theproblem is thatevenon thelevelofpurified perceptible" is inherently through differthekindofknowing spiritual that practice one attains exactly empirical Just entfrom as thesubtle bodydoesnotcorrespond knowledge. cosmos so too themystical correspond to theanatomical body, doesnotnecessarily concosmos. to theempirical No one shouldbe troubled by this.Indeed,many that scientific should empirical, temporary mystics havebeenpersuaded knowledge In fact, thevery notbe treated obstacle. likesomekindofspiritual capacity ofthe knowledge of thematerial verifiable cosmos humanmindto riseto an evermore spiritual ofthe canbe,to a spiritually alert person, oftheimmense capacities a hint mind-a conviction fully de Chardin developed by and later explored byTeilhard Itisworth that theextremely negative Bernard about remarks other Lonergan. noting of byan appreciation religions ofthebookarehere parts moderated world in other that ordinary recognize there reality that beyond thefact "allreligions is something blesscannot to pray aretaught that be seenbyeveryone, and receive and followers in whatthey ingsthrough maynotyetbe ableto see"(p. 127). It would believing iftheperspective ofthese helpful and thelanguage pageshad been havebeenmore employed earlier in thebook. Thegreat disappointment which when itself isso excellent itconfines book, ofthis to spiritual sections to practice is itsfailure within theVajrayana, in thepolemical insomecases with other be dialogical itsopponents, with Vajrayina even Buddhists. of within a particular Whenever tradition attempts to describe thebeliefs a teacher ofmisrepresentation. being there consulting without those described, others is a risk misrepresentations many serious havebeencorrected Thisbookcontains that should byediting. through havebeencorrected Thereare dialogue longbefore should they many dialogue and thestudy purposes to interreligious ofworldreligions, one of wouldcertainly in authority which be to enablepersons informed to be accurately plunge aboutthebeliefs ofpolemics. before they intotherisky of others terrain I forone wouldhopethatthedisedifying Norbu's ofThinley bookdo not portions becomean obstacle I hope thatsomekindof dialogue dialogue. to interreligious points isalways raises. better A goodargument from the might arise very neuralgic he as as we indifference, phurba at than long home! leaveour V.Tiso Francis United Conference ofCatholic Bishops States

makes a numberof misleading 1. The publisherof the book ( statements Catholic Churchteaching.Crossing in promoting thisbook as a responseto official teaching. ofHopewas neverintendedas an official the Threshold 2. A Buddhist-Christian colloquium was sponsoredby theVaticanand by Fo Kuang Shan monastery in Taiwan; see Pro Dialogo 90, no. 3 (1995); the official of this "Final Statement" colloquium merits in Buddhist-Christian dialogue. of anyoneinterested theattention

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BOOK REVIEWS arenoted position in this in n. 11,p. 8. 3. The inherent contradictions vision claimthat dzogchen 4. I am thinking ofDavid Germano's ofcosis a gnosis-driven mology, than a karma-driven rather cosmology. God or 'divinity' 5. Raimon Panikkar can assert: "Thustheterm doesnotonlydesignate thegodsas substantial beings, butcan also be employed as a generic term thatindicates all energies, ideas, emanate powers, and thelikethat is aboveor those forces, from that a reality no. 13,collana EMI, 2007], world" beyond thehuman "Parole di Fede"[Bologna: (Divinita, Seenin this outas way, stands p. 21; mytranslation from T. Norbu's theItalian). "nontheism" oftheism. another form


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