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Daniel Kirubaraj dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc
9/20/2013 S.Jagan Sathiya Seelan

1.0Introduction: The liturgy of Church of South India in itself is very unique and appreciable one just like the unification process of Church of South India. The liturgy and worship pattern of Church of India has its roots deeply embedded in the historic worship pattern of three distinct churches namely the South India United Church, the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is notable to know that these three churches came together to form Church of South India on September, 1947.If we can look at the formation of Church of South India, this memorable event is usually been termed as a miracle and I would say that the formation of the liturgy of the Church of south India is a greater miracle than that, because the liturgy has to balance all the three churches theological implications and their respective reverence to God. Having termed it as a great miracle let us now see how the liturgy of Church of South India came in to being and what its salient features are. 2.0Historical Background: Christian worship is a corporate and a united response to God, in and through Jesus Christ, by humans who have come together to experience Gods glory. Thus the Church ofSouth India understood that the deeper, richer experience of God can be achieved only through a corporate worship so that it will be a living experience for its congregation. Therefore, the Synod of the Church of south India instructed its liturgy committee which was formed in 1948 during the first Synod, to form the liturgy of Holy Communion service and a liturgy for the service of Confirmation or admission, by including the inherited liturgical traditions of the world wide church, as well as the liturgical traditions of all constituent churches in the union. The liturgy committee was fortunate to have scholars in the liturgical field such as Rev.Leslie Brown (later Bishop of Uganda), Revds J.R. Macphail (Convener) H.K.Moulton, T.S.Garrett, G.S. Azariah, E.L.Anantarao, E.Tychicus and Canon Thomas Sitther1.
1

The Church of South India Book of Common Worship.( Chennai: a Church of South

India Publication, 2006.)

The first liturgy for the Lords Supper was first used on 8th January, 19502, during a synod session on Sunday, which marked the beginning of a new, vibrant liturgical tradition in India. Thus from 1950 to 1962, the Synod approved for experimental use in the Churches of South India the following orders of worship: An order for the Lords Supper or the Holy Eucharist in 1950. It was revised twice in 1954 and later in 1962. An order of Service for the reception of baptized persons in to the full fellowship of the Church, commonly called Confirmation. It was revised in 1950 and later in 1960. Bible readings, collects, prefaces in 1954 and also included additional readings and collects in 1956. The Lectionary, the Propers for Sundays and special days, seasons and occasions were added during 1962. An order for Holy Baptism in 1950 and it was revised later in 1960. Order of such as would enter into or renew their covenant with God in 1956 which was later called as the Covenant Service in 1962. The Ordinal was included in 1958 and later revised in 1962. Daily Bible readings were included in 1954 and it was revised in 1960. An order for morning and evening prayer, and a service of worship in 1958. Therefore, the Orders of Morning and evening worship was included in 1962. The Marriage service was included in 1960 and it was later revised in 1962. The Burial Service was included in 1960 and revised in 1962. A short order of Lords Supper in 1962. These orders were approved by the Executive committee of the Synod, in September 1961 and was sanctioned to be used in all the Churches of South India in January 1962 and was published as the Book of Common Worship in 1963 and it became as the Church of South India worship manual. In 1972, there was an attempt to revise the order for the Lords Supper by using contemporary idioms. Therefore, in October 1985, the Executive Committee of the Synod approved the revised order of Lords Supper, in

Ibid

which the revision was made to express the understanding of Worship in a more Indian way than the other traditional Christian worship patterns.3 2.0.1Revised Version: During 1994, the Synod requested the Liturgy Committee to make necessary revisions in the liturgy as per the requests from the Congregation and Clergies. Therefore, the Liturgy committee started its work by 2000 and finished it by 2004.4 The liturgies that are revised and some of the orders which are newly included in the liturgy are as follows: The order of the Lords Supper was revised and approved by the committee on November 2001. The new short order for the Lords Supper was approved by the committee on October 2003. The new second and third order of worship was approved by the committee on May 2003 The new fourth order of worship was approved by the committee on October 2003. The Order of the Holy Baptism for Adults and the Order for the Holy Baptism of Infants were approved by the committee on May 2003 The Order for the Confirmation was approved by the committee also on May 2003 The Order for the Holy Matrimony was approved by the committee on November 2001 The Order for the Burial which underwent major revision was also approved by the committee on November 2001 The Order for the Ordination of Deacons, Deaconesses, Presbyters and the Order for the Consecration of Bishop were approved by the committee on May 2003.

3 4

ibid Ibid

The order for the Covenant Service was approved by the committee on May 2003. The Common Liturgy of the Eucharist for the CHURCH OF SOUTH INDIA, the Church of North India and Mar Thoma Churches which was prepared as new one by the communion of Churches in India was accepted and approved by the committee on May 2003. The Executive committee of the Synod, which met on 21st-22nd October 2003 accepted the drafts and placed it before the Synod for final authorization. The 29th session of Synod which met on January 2004 in Bangalore approved the order of worship for general use by the congregations and the clergies in the Church of South India. Thus after several revisions, the liturgy committee met in Kottyam, on 28th September 2005, approved the final form and format of the Church of South India book of Common Worship.5 3.0Role of Music: Most of the Christians who are not part of Church of South India have an assumption, that Music is not given much importance in Church of South India worship. But it is not so. Especially in the Thirunelveli Diocese , Tutucorin - Nazreth Diocese, Kanyakumari Diocese most part of the Liturgy are sung. During the service, before the reading of Old Testament and Epistle portion as per the lectionary Psalm 95 is sung by the whole congregation. Further before the reading of the Gospel Psalm 100 is sung during normal Sunday worships. If its an Eucharist service then Pslam 95 is omitted before the first two lectionary portions and Hymns 177 is sung i.e. before the Gospel is being read. Further, once when the Lords Supper ends, hymn 194 is sung i.e . More over the Lords Prayer is also usually song, which is found in keerthanai book, song number 335 i.e. . 6
5

ibid

, (Tutucorin: Anjukam Press, 2002.)

Moreover, the Trisagion is also sung in the beginning of the Eucharist worship in with . Immediately after this Ten Commandments are recited both by the Congregation and the Clergy which followed by a prayer requesting Gods grace to follow the Ten Commandments which is usually sung in with . The institution of the Lords Supper starts with a prayer remembering, the death and sacrifice of Jesus Christ which is sung in with . This is followed by words of institution which is then followed by a thanksgiving for Gods grace which is sung in with .Before receiving the Holy Communion, the tax collector prayer for grace is being sung in with . After receiving the Holy Communion, praise is given to God through a prayer which is sung in in . Further, throughout the service, many prayers are sung in , , , etc for various purposes. Thus it is very evident, that music plays a very important role in the worship of Church of South India.7 4.0Cultural Impact: The Church of South India liturgy is greatly influenced by the Indian cultural context. Though it also has a great amount of influence from the Syrian Church, it has been modified such that it neutralizes the Gospel in India with that of the Eastern Church influence. As, P.O. Ninan quotes, The Church of South India has tried to taken into account, the cultural milieu of South India and produce forms of worship which while treasuring the Churchs universal legacy of

ibid

worship, would nevertheless be expressive of Indias own religious genius and relevant to the needs of her people8 Some of the indigenous practices that are included in the liturgy of Church of South India are, The use of brass pot ( Chembu) for offertory, especially in villages. The posture if kneeling The periods of silence in worship. Anjali Hasta posture. (Folded hands gesture at the time of kiss os peace). This is none other than the Indian way of Namaskaram. The saffron vestments of the Bishops. The use of Indigenous music such as lyrics, bhakans,sloaks, etc in worship as well as musical instruments. The seven steps that are included in the wedding ceremony including tieing Mangalasutra for the bride by the bridegroom. Many tribal and dalit practices are also being included. Thus to a great amount, the Church of South India has tried and trying to incorporate various indigenous practices which will be helpful for the congregation to experience God in a more personal and also at a community level. 5.0Importance of Holy Communion: The Holy Communion is given great importance in Church of South India tradition and worship. Only if a person receives Holy Communion after attending the confirmation classes, he/ she gets a full membership in Church of South India. The role of Holy Communion in a persons life starts from his/ her baptism and continues till the persons death. That is because, in the baptism when a baby or adult is brought to be baptized, the elders or parents are asked a question whether they would persuade him/her to partake in Holy Communion. Further, during sick times of a person the Pastor has all the right to administer the Holy Communion to him/her. Thus it
8

K.M.George. Church of South India Life in Union (1947-1997).( Delhi: Cambridge Press, 1999.) pg. no 205.

plays a vital role in the life of an individual especially in Church of South India. Moreover, it is also not so easy to take part in Holy Communion because every individual who is willing to take part in it, must attend confirmation classes for six months consisting of 28 classes, in which he/she should be taught regarding the meaning and significance of Confirmation, education in Christian Faith, in prayer and worship and in the duties and privileges of communicant membership of the Church. Only after these, the person is eligible to receive blessing from Bishop and then to take part in Communion. Further, the Church of South India liturgy itself has separate order of Worship for the Holy Communion service in its Book for Common Worship. This service is basically divided in to four parts. They are, 1. The Preparation: The worship starts with an opening hymn, lyric or bhajan during the singing of which, a procession takes place. In this procession usually a Cross is carried by the Sexton or a Choir leader. Sometimes it is also accompanied by carrying the Bible to the Lords Table. This followed by the Collect for purity, then the Lighting the lamp which is then followed by the Gloria in Excelsis. This is then followed by the Trisagion, then the Litany of the Lamb and then the Ten Commandments or our Lords summary of the law and Prophets. This is further followed by an invitation for Confession which is then accompanied by a short silence. Then comes the confession, followed by the Gracious Word of God, short silence, the Absolution, the Peace and finally the collect of the day.9 2. The Ministry of the Word of God: This part includes Greeting or Salutation, which is followed by the Prayer for Illumination. Then it is followed by the Lectionary portions for the day

South India Book of Common Worship.( Chennai: a Church of South India Publication, 2006)
The Church of

which is accompanied by the Sermon and the Creed. It is then followed by the Intercessory Collects and the First Benediction.10 3. The Breaking Of the Bread: This section includes Offertory and Offertory Prayer. This is followed by the Greetings, then the sursum cords, the Preface, the Sanctus, and the Benedictus qui venit. The comes the Eucharistic Prayer which further has three parts. They are, The Words of Institution and the First response. The Anamnesis and the Second Response. The Epiclesis followed by the Lords Prayer and the Prayer of Humble Access.11 4. `The Sharing: This section includes the Fraction followed by the Agnus Dei and the Communion. Then comes the Words of Administration followed by thanksgiving Collect and the Response and finally the Benediction.12 Thus it is now very evident, how much importance we give to Holy Communion In Churches both in a personal and spiritual level. Thereby helping the person to prepare oneself for receiving Holy Communion through which one comes to know the gods greatest love for oneself and the community as a whole.

6.0Biblical References: The Church of South India liturgy is totally built upon Biblical Verses. From Invitation to Benediction the Church of South India liturgy is completely filled with Biblical Verses. Thus there biblical references in the Liturgy of Church of South India in its every worship order. They are,

10 11

Ibid ibid 12 ibid

a) The Lords Supper: During the Lords Supper after the Litany of the Lamb, usually the Ten Commandments or our Lords summary of the Law and Prophets are said. For this we can find Biblical reference in Exodus Chapter 20 (Ten Commandments) and Mark 12 and Matthew 22 (Our Lords Summary). After the confession, in the Gracious word of God, the following verses are said: Isaiah 1:18, Jeremiah 31:33-34, Isaiah 40:31, Matthew 11:28, John3:16, I Timothy 1:15, I John 2:1-2. Before the breaking of bread, the following three verses are said, as a process of preparation. They are, Psalms 133:1, I corrinthians 10:17, Psalms 27:6. b) The Morning and Evening Worship: During the Praise in the beginning of the Morning Sunday Worship, the following verses are said :John 4:24, Romans 1:7, Psalm 118:24, II John 3, Revelation 22:17 and Psalm 145:18 If it is an evening worship, the following Verses are said for Praise to God. They are, Psalm 113:3, I John 1:5,7. During Advent season the following verses are said for Praising God. They are, Philippians 4:4-6, Luke 12:37, Isaiah 56:1, I Timothy 1:15, Isaiah 40:10. Malachi 3:1 and Isaiah 52:7. During Christmas day the following verses are said as praise to God: Luke2:14, Luke 2:10-11, Isaiah 9:6. On New Years Eve, the following verses are said:Jude 24-25 and Hebrews 13:8 On New Years Day the following verses are said: Revelation 1:4 -5, Psalm 46:1,2. Isaiah 40:31. During Epiphany the following verses are said as praise to God: Isaiah 60:1, Malachi 1:11. During the Lent season the following verses are said : Joel 2:3, Mark 8:34, I Peter 2:24, Isaiah 53:4,5, I John 2:2, I Peter 2:21.

On Palm Sunday the following verses are said Zechariah 9:9, Matthew 21:9, Isaiah 62:11. On Good Friday the following verses are said : Mark 10:45, Revelation 5:12 On Easter the following verses are said : I Peter 1:3,4, I Corinthians 15:5457, Revelation 1:17,18 On Ascension the following verses are said : Hebrews 4:14,16 and Colossians 3:1 On Pentecost, the following Verses are said : Galatians 4:6, John 16:13, Romans 5:5 On Trinity Sunday the following verses are said : Romans 11:33,36 and Isaiah 6:3. During the Harvest Festival in a church, the following verses are said as praise to God: Psalm 24:1, Psalm 100:4, Psalm 96:8,9,11,12. During an Anniversary the following verses are said : Psalm 116:12-14, Psalm 103:1,2 and Psalm 96:1,2. During All Saints day the following verse is said as praises to god : Revelation 19:6,7 . During any Saint day Hebrews 12:1,2 , on national day Psalm 67:4, on the CHURCH OF SOUTH INDIAday John 17:22,23 and in times of trouble Psalm 46:1 are said as praises to God respectively. Before the Confession the following verses are said: I John 1:8-9, Luke 15:18-19, Mark 1:15 and Hebrews 4:15. Before the Lectionary portions for the day are read Psalm 95 is sung or Psalm 100 is sung After the Old testament Portion is read, The Song of Zechariah is sung which is found in Luke 1:68-79 or the Song or Virgin Mary is sung which is found in Luke 1:46-55. After the Second lesson is read The song of simeon is sung which is found in Luke 2:29-32.

During the Prayers after the Sermaon The Lords Prayer is also said which is found in Matthew 6: 9-13. Finally for benediction the following verses are used: II Corrinthians 13:13, Numbers 6:24, Ephesians 3:20-21. c) The Third Order of Worship: During the beginning of the service, the praise is attributed to God through the following verses : Psalm 100:4-5, Psalm 95:6-7, Psalm 24:3-4, Daniel 9;9-10, Psalm51:17, Matthew 11:28, Luke 15:18, Psalm 19:14 in an alternative way these verses are read by the Clergy and the Congregation. If not Habakkuk 2:20, Psalm 96:6, Psalm 5:7, Psalm 27:1, Psalm 103:10-11, Psalm 116:12-13, Psalm 19:14 is read alternatively in such a way that first line of every verse is said by the Clergy and the second line of these verses are said as response by the laity. The confession is initiated by reading Psalm 103:8-13. Immediately after confession all join in reading Psalm 51:1-4, 10, 12 for seeking Gods divine grace. The Benediction is given using the following verses: II Corinthians 13:13, Hebrews 13:20-21, I Peter 5:10-11, I Thessalonians 5:23, d) Order for Holy Baptism and Confirmation: In the Exhortation section of the Adult/ Infant Baptism the following verses are said : Matthew 28:18-20, Mark 10 :13-16 (only for Infant Baptism)John3:3,5, Acts 2:38, Romans 6:3-4,Galatians 3:27-28, I Peter 2:9, Ephesians 4:4-6. After the Baptism is over and when the person wears the white dress and carries a candle in to the church Matthew 5:16 is said by the Clergy. When a new born Child is brought to the Church for thanks giving then the Clergy and congregation say the following Psalm responsively : Psalm 145:1-8. For Confirmation Services, the service opens with a prayer which is followed by Psalm 24:3-5. The lectionary Portions for Confirmation Service are,

From Old Testament: Ezekiel 36:26-28 or Jeremiah 31:31-34 The Epistle Reading: Romans 8:12-17 or Galatians 5:22-25 Gospel Reading: John 14:15-17. e) Order of Worship for Marriage and Burial In the Invocation of a Marriage service the following verses are said : I John 4:16, Philippians 4:4 ,5, Psalm 37:4, Psalm 106:1, Psalm 118:24, Psalm 127:1. In the Exhortation section the following verses are said: Mark 10:6-9 and when the thali is being tied Psalm 128 is sung. The Benediction for a Marriage service is usually an Aaronic Blessing which is found in Numbers 6:24. During a death, when the deceased is kept at home, the following verses are said: Romans 15:13, Psalm 46:1, Psalm 18:2, II Corinthians 1:3-4. Any one out of the following three Psalms can be sung :Psalm 90,23,130 When the deceased is brought to the Church ad if it is an adult, the following verses can be said, upon the arrival of the deceased before the starting up of the service: II Corinthians 1:3,4, Psalm 16:11, Psalm 30:5, John 11:25,26, 14:19, 5:25, 14:27, Revelation 14:13. But if the deceased is a Child, then the following verses can be said: Isaiah 40:11, Psalm 103:13, Matthew 18:4,10, Job 1:21, Revelation 7:17, Psalm 23:1-2. If the deceased is a youngster, then the following verses can be said : I Peter 1:34,Revelation 1:17-18, John 11:25-26, Matthew 5:4, Isaiah 66:13,Psalm 103:14-16, Romans 8:38-39, Romans 14:8-9, John 10:4. If the deceased is died in an accident or if it is a sudden death, the following verses can be said: Isaiah 40:6-7, Psalm 90:1-2, 4-6, 90:12, Isaiah 40:29-31, 11, Romans 8:38-39, 14:8-9. If the deceased is a suicide victim, then following verses can be said: Psalm 130:1-4, 103:8-10,90:1112, Matthew 11:28. When the deceased is being taken to the grave, the following verses are said : I Peter 1:3-4, I Corinthians 15:20-22, Revelation 1:7-8, Psalm 23:4.

The final blessing may said from one among these three verses: Philippians 4:7, Hebrews 13:20-21, I Thessalonioans 5:23. f) Holy Communion For the Communion of Chrches in India: `During the call to worship, the following verses may be said: Psalm 95:67, 100:4-5, 105:1-3. During Confession Isaiah 1:16-17 is said, to prepare the congregation for confessing their sins. At the time of Reconciliation and Peace John 15:12-13 is said. Thus the above list clearly gives the biblical references both old and new testament, which are used in the Church of South India Book of Common Worship. 13 7.0Uniqueness: The Church of South India liturgy and Worship in itself a unique one. That is because it is built on a very strong foundation of the unification of churches. Therefore it is theologically and also spiritually a very sound one. Therefore, let us now look in to the salient features of the Book of Common Worship, which are unique to worship of Church of South India. a) Language: The language, which is used in the Book of Common Worship, is very simple and that the same time maintains the Dignity and reverence to God. Inclusive Language also has been used the Book of Common Worship. All the Biblical quotations that are used in the Service, which is found in the Book of Common Worship, are taken from the New Revised Standard Edition. Thus the language used in the Book of Common Worship works as an instrument, in bridging the gap between Peoples experience with their faith formulations and liturgical traditions. b) Participation and Freedom: The Liturgy is designed such that the congregation will take part in the service in a very active way. It is designed in such a way that, most of the prayers and intercession in the Book of Common Worship will be lead by the clergy,
13

ibid

which will be followed by a response from the Congregation. More over the Congregation and the Clergy are given freedom in choosing the type of Prayer and Intercession they want. This is done by providing them with alternative prayers under each topic in the Book of Common Worship. Further, throughout the Book of Common Worship, directions are given to clergy that it is not mandatory to follow only the written prayers in it. Therefore both the Congregation and Clergy are free to recite prayers with their own words, there by contextualizing the service and meeting the needs of Congregation. The rubrics were also given flexibility at some points to enable the congregation and Clergy to be innovative according to local context. c) Ecumenical and Contextual: The present Book of Common Worship has incorporated, the spiritual traditions and heritages of various congregations, by which it helps the people to be more ecumenical and also at the same time to stand for Church of South India motto That they all may be one. Further, the Liturgy also challenges the congregations, with prayers that call for more authentic reverence in worship by bringing in contextual and contemporary issues and concerns such as violence, oppression, marginalization, globalization, ecology, justice, peace and integrity of creation. 8.0Similarities: As previously stated, the Church of South India was born out of the unification of three different churches, namely, the South India United Church, the Methodists and the Anglicans. Moreover, the Book of Common Worship was also designed in such a way that it gives much emphasis to the ecumenical union and ministry of the Church. Therefore, the liturgy of the Church of South India has many similarities with the other Church denominations and also hails from a very deep historical root which goes back to early church. Some of the similarities that we find are, a) The Structure of the Order of the Lords Supper: The structure of the Order of the Lords Supper can be traced back to Early Christian worship around A.D.400 especially with that of the Roman

Liturgy which took shape around A.D.100. The Roman liturgy had a great influence of the Liturgy of St. Mark, therefore the liturgy of CHURCH OF SOUTH INDIAcan be traced back to the Apostolic Church as well. Though the whole structure is not replicated but the important elements and the style of the structure of the Lords Supper can be found in the Roman Liturgy. Some of the key elements that are borrowed are, Singing of Psalms after the Lectionary portions, the collect of the day,the intercession and dismissal for the non communicants in the Liturgy of the Catechumens and the Words of Institution, the thanksgiving collect etc. Thus to a great extent the Roman liturgy has found its place in the Church of South India liturgy.14 b) Traditional Elements: The Book of Common Worship has included traditional elements in the liturgy of Church of South India, which has very deep historical roots. They are, Carrying the Bible to the Lords Table during the beginning of the Holy Communion service is taken from the Eastern Orthodox Church which is practiced from A.D.300, and the procession is usually known as the little entrance. The Gloria in Excelsis, is taken from the Clementine liturgy, which was a work from the late fourth century. The trisagion, is taken from the early Apostolic Church and which is also found in Isaiah 6:3.

14

Wooton, Canon R.W.F. Christian Worship of God. Chennai: The Christian Literature Society, 1966.

The Sursum Corda is adopted from the Church of Rome which followed the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus, during the third and fourth century. The usage of Anamnesis, Words of Institution and Epiclesis were also derived from the same Church of Rome. The usage of Lords Prayer was incorporated because of its significance attached to it from the Early Christianity.15 Thus it is very clear, the church of south indiastood for its motto, in making its liturgy by borrowing liturgical elements from various churches, which are deeply rooted in the history of Christian worship. 9.0Role of Clergy: The clergy has a very prominent role to play in Church of South India, just like all the other Churches. Without the Clergy it is impossible to conduct any Sacramental service in Church of South India. Even the administrative head for any Church in Church of South India is a Clergy. The Clergy has to play a very important role in a service like, reading the Gospel (now practiced only among village congregations), Lighting the Lamp, saying the Prayer for Absolution, Prayer for Illumination, Offertory Prayer, Great Thanksgiving, the Sursum Corda, the Benedictus qui venit, the Words of Institution, the Anamnesis, the Epiclesis, the Breaking of Bread, the Agnus Dei, the Words of Administration and the Benediction. Thus it is very evident that the Clergy forms the backbone of Church of South India worship and service 10.0Role of Laity: The laity too has a prominent role to play in the worship of Church of South India. As already stated, the liturgy of Church of South India is designed in such a way that the laity would take part in it in a active way. For this, in liturgy we can find various responses that are to be said by the laity, only by which the service becomes a wholistic and meaningful one. Even in the Words of Institution and Words of Administration prominent place is given to the laity, in which they have to respond to the Clergys call. Moreover, the laity also has all the rights to incorporate their own contextual prayers during special days/services such as women, children, and youth

15

ibid

service. In the recent years, the laity is encouraged to conduct Praise and Worship by themselves in most of the Churches of Church of South India. Further, the laities are allowed to meet as groups called prayer cells in which the clergy will also participate, but with a free form of worship. Therefore, if the Clergy forms the back bone, the Laity forms as the heart of Church of South India worship. 11.0Theological Significance: Tog a great extent we can see the presence of Theological Significance throughout the Liturgy of Church of South India in a very explicit manner, The simple and best example for that is the usage of Inclusive Language in worship service. Further, the Anamnesis said, so that the Congregation will remember the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ on the cross. Moreover for Confession, the words of Grace are taken directly from the Biblical passage which has a great amount of theological insights and explains the Grace of God to the People. Even in the Beginning of the Service verses are quoted directly from the bible, which helps the congregation to know the true meaning of worship and for what purpose they are worshipping God. Moreover throughout the liturgy prayers are made on behalf of the entire community, which emphasis oneness among the congregation members in worshipping God and also help them to worship God as united people in Christ. Thus the liturgy of Church of South India is richly endowed with theological values. 12.0Challenges from Non Liturgical Churches: The Non Liturgical Churches pose a great threat to Church of South India by their mode of worship, especially by their use of modern musical instruments. With these musical

instruments they claim to invocate the presence of Holy Spirit among their midst and their by totally neglecting the works of Holy Spirit in Church of South India. Moreover, since they dont have any liturgy to follow, people think that their prayers come from the bottom of their heart and here in Church of South India, the prayers are just recited without understanding the theological significance of each and every prayer. Their free forms of worship allow people to worship and experience God in the way they want. Thus it meets the individual spiritual needs of a person. But here in Church of South India, the importance is given to both Individual and Communitarian spiritual need of the people, which the Congregation sometimes doesnt

understand and at the same time clergys also dont properly communicate it to their congregation. Further, they dont follow lectionaries neither the Church authorized doctrinal principles for interpreting the scripture. Therefore, their preaching and worship dont follow any systematic order where as in Church of South India we have to follow some rules laid down by the respective diocese and synod in our worship service, which sometimes is seen as boring/meaningless one by the congregation. 13.0My Suggestions: I am already satisfied and happy with the Liturgy and worship service that we have in Church of South India. But at the same time there is always scope for improvement. Therefore, some ideas that I would lay down for improving my Church of South India liturgy are, Free worship must be allotted to be practiced at least once in a month. Proper space must be given to people to express the gifts of Holy Spirit, which they have received. The congregation must given proper training regarding the richness of the Church of South India liturgy in both historically and theologically. Just as in the early church, the cup must be restored to the laity. We can introduce the practice of con-celebration, in which several priests celebrate mass together with their respective congregation. If possible, the time duration of praise and worship should be increased, and the standard of Church of South India with reference to the usage of modern technologies, which includes, Music, Networking and Telecasting etc. also need to be improved. 14.0Conclusion: Thus in this paper I have briefly dealt with the Liturgy of Church of South India. In this paper I have also tried my level best to bring to lime light the theological and historical significance of the Liturgy of Church of South India. Thus it is very clear that the Church of South India liturgy has a very strong traditional background and need to be appreciated for its special emphasis on ecumenical view. Therefore, the liturgy of Church of South India has to be

considered as a treasure, which is given to Gods people, by God and it is our duty to take it to the next generation without contaminating its beauty and reverence. 15.0Bibliography: K.M.George. Church of South India Life in Union (1947-1997). Delhi: Cambridge Press, 1999. The Church of South India Book of Common Worship. Chennai: a Church of South India Publication, 2006. , Tutucorin: Anjukam Press, 2002. Wooton, Canon R.W.F. Christian Worship of God. Chennai: The Christian Literature Society, 1966.