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ENGINEERING SOFTWARE
Pressure Vessel
Design and AnalVsis
Seminar Notes
Revised 6/2001
Table of Contents
Table ofContents
Chapter 1: II/trodl/ctioll to the Semil/a/' & the Sofhl'are
Purpose of the Seminar 1
Structure of the Seminar 1
Seminar Da)' I /
Semillar Da)' 2 2
Seminar Da)' 3 2
Overall Notes 2
About the Software 2
CodeCalc: The PVElite Component Anal)'sis Pmgram 2
Features 2
SUlJlmalY ojApplications 3
Chapter 2: Ol'erl'iew ofthe ASME Code
History of the Code 1
Organization of the Code 2
Scope and Limitations of the Code 3
Allowable Tensile Stress per the Code 4
Internal pressure 011 shells and heads 5
C)'lindCl's 5
Spheres, Elliptical Heads, Torispherieal Heads 7
Important Terms for analyzing cylinders and heads 8
Geometry for Pressure Vessel Heads 8
Elliptical Heads 8
Hemispherical Heads 9
Geometry for Pressure Vessel Heads 10
Torispherical Heads /0
Press lire Vessel Design am/ Af1al)'sis
Chapter 3: Usil/g the Program-The 1I1ail/ Mel/II
File Menu 1
New 2
Open 2
Save 2
Save As 3
Prillt 3
Prilll Prel';ew 3
Prilll Setup J
Exit 3
Previous FOlll' Files 3
Edit Menu 4
Title Page 4
Project Data 4
Insert New Item 4
Delete Current Item 4
Se/ecl All 4
Dese/ecl All 4
Analyze Menu 5
Browse 5
Analyze Selected Items 5
Analyze Current Componenl 5
SlImmll1Y 5
Choose Analysis Type 5
Output Menu 6
Tools Menu 7
Configuratioll Options 7
Comput3tion Control Tab 7
Miscellaneous Options 9
Set Unit 9
Make UI/il File 10
Calculator IJ
Edit/Add Materials Dialog JJ
Diagnostics Menu 13
CRC Check /3
Build Version Check J3
DLL Versio/1 Check 13
ii Pressure Vessel Design find Analysis
View Menu 14
ESL Menu 15
Phone Updmc J5
GClIemle Fax Codes J5
ReceiJ'c lind Enler Fax Codes /5
View ESL In/ormation J5
Help Menu 16
Camel/IS J6
Tip ofIhe Da)' 16
Illfo 16
Chapter 4: Example Problem l-A Simple Dl'lIm
Problem 1
Specifications
Brittle Fracture - Minimum Design Metal Temperature 10
External Pressure on shells aud heads 21
Stiffening 27
What do )'011 need to kllow 10 analyze cylinders alld heads for external
pressure? 28
External Pressure OUU1 28
Diameter 28
Actual (or assumed) Thickness 29
Design Length for the Vessel or Vessel Segment 29
Width and Thickness of Reinforcing Rings 29
Nozzle Reinforcement and Failure Path Calculations 36
Hillside and Off-Angle Nozzle Angles 45
What do you need 10 know /0 pelform nozzle reinforcement calClllatiolls? 50
Required Thickness of Head or Shell and N07..z1e 50
Geometry ofNol.7.le and Shell 50
Diameter Limit, Thickness Limit 51
Is the Nozzle ill a Seam? 51
Details of Nozzle Welds 51
Largc Nozzle Considerations 51
Mallway or Access Opening 51
Press"re Vessel Design and Analysis iii
Chapter 5: Cones and Conical Sections
Guidelines for Cones I
Typical Geometry for a Simple Cone 2
What do yOll need (0 know to perform cone calculations? 5
Dimensions of/he COile am/the Cylinders at Either End 5
Dimensions o/Trallsifioll Klluckles arallY exist) 5
HalfApex Angle offhe COliC 5
Axial Forces 011 'he COile 5
Width alld 11/ickncss o.rCone Reinforcement 5
Chapter 6: Welt/ed Flat Heads
Guidelines for Welded Flal Heads 1
Whal do you need to know to analyze welded nat heads? 4
Af/achme,,' Dctails 4
Required lIlId AClllal Thickness o/Ihe Shelf 4
Large ami Small Dimensions for the Head 4
Chapter 7: Half-Pipe Jackets
Guidelines for Half-Pipe Jackets
Flange Design and Analysis 7
Gaskets 7
Gasket Materials and Gasket Factors 8
Other Gasket Types 12
Facing Sketches 12
Flange Types 13
Flange Behavior 16
Flange Stresses 20
Stress Analysis 20
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers 38
Large Central Openings 46
Chapter 8: Floating Heads ami Spherically Dished Covers
Types of Spherically Dished Covers 1
Description 1
Exmnple 2
iv Pressure Vessel Design find Analysis
Chapter 9: Heat Exchallger Tubesheets
TEMA Tubesheets 1
ASME Tubesheets 17
Chapter 10: Expallsioll Joillts
Flanged and Flued Expansion loints 1
r ~ s u r Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Component Design Problem 5
Metal Bellows Expansion Joints 16
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Cornponcllt Design Problem 19
Chapter 11: Stresses
Stresses in Shells due to Loads on Attachments
Discussion of Results 3
WRC107 Stress Calculations 3
Why are the Stresses al Edge of the Pad the Same as at the Edge of the NOlzle? 3
What arc the Allowable Stresses? 4
IYRe/O? Stress SUlIlmatiollS 5
ASME Section VIII Division2-Elaslic Analysis a/Nozzle 6
Stresses in Horizontal Pressure Vessels 20
Chapter 12: Tall Vertical Towers
Allowable Stresses on Tall Towers 1
Analyzing Tall Vertical Process Towers 2
Design Procedure 3
Wind Load Computations 3
Wind Pressl/re Complllation 4
Earthquake Load Computation 5
Skirt and BaseRing Design 11
Basering Thickness Calculations 11
Thickness of Basering llnder Tension 14
Thickness of Top Ring under Tension 14
Basering Design Selections 15
Calculation of Required Area for Each Bolt 15
Selection of tile Bolt Size 15
PreSSl/re Vessel Design and Analysis v
Selection of Preliminary l3asering Gcometly 15
Analysis of Preliminary Uasering Geometry 15
Sclection of Final Bascring Gcomctry 15
Analysis of Uasering Thickncsses 16
Skirt 11lickness Calculations /6
13asic Skirt Thickness 16
Stress in Ski'1 due to Gussets or Top Ring 16
Chapter 13: Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
Vessel Legs I
Support Lugs 3
Lining Lugs 4
Bibliogmphy
vi Pressure Vessel Design alltl Analysis
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction to the
Seminar & the Software
PURPOSE OF THE SEMINAR
Weleome to COADE's Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar. The purpose of this
course is to help you become comfortable with the guidelines for designing and analyzing
pressure vessels, and to make you more effective at your job by introducing you to com-
puterized design tools for pressure vessels-the CodeCale program and the PVElile pro-
gram.
The intent of this course is IlQ1 to have you memorize the exael rules of the ASME Code
for pressure vessel design. Instead, we want you to become morc familiar with the ASME
Code, be able to find what you need to know in it. "'nd above all be able to spot unrealistic
results or questionable designs, whether gcncrated by you, by a computer. or by some
other engineer. In a nutshell, we want to teach you what you need to know to successfully
apply the ASME Code to pressure vessel design and analysis.
STRUCTURE OF THE SEMINAR
Our approach to this goal will be to look at pressure vessels on a component by component
basis. In other words, we will study separately each of the many pressure vessel compo-
nents-sheils, heads, nozzles, flanges, tubesheets, etc. This approach is widely practiced
by engineers as they design or analyze pressure vessels. It also allows us to start with rela-
tively simple components and progress to more complicated ones. Most of the lecturcs in
the course will have the following fonnat:
Introduction to the theory of analysis for a particular component.
Detailed review of ASME Code rules associated with a particular component.
Design of the component using the CodeCale or PVElile programs.
Seminar Day 1
The first area to cover includes the history nnd structure of the ASME Code, calculation of
nllowable stresses using Code rules, and review of the scope of vessels covered by the
Code.
This section of the seminar also inCludes a discussion of the design of some of the most
basic components of pressure vessels: shells, heads, and nozzles. We will begin with rules
for internal pressure design of shells and heads, along with associated mles for weld effi-
ciency and brittle fracture. We will also learn how to use the o d e ~ l program, espe-
cially the SHELL program for internal pressllre analysis.
Introduction to the Seminar & the Software 1-1
Abollt the Software Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Semin<tr Notes
We will then stndy the mles for external pressnre design of shells and heads. If time per-
mits we will also study nozzle reinforcement and the design of Oal head and conical sec-
tions. This will complete our study of components typically associated with drums.
Seminar Day 2
On day two we will study components associated with heat \\le will extell-
sively study flanges and bolted flanged connections such as those in TEMA channel cov-
ers, ASM E blind flanges, and floating heads ofheat exchangers. We will look at
tubeshccts, including floaling, stationary, and fixed tubesheet designs, as well as metal
bellows expansion joints and flanged and nued expansion joints, commonly lIsed in heat
exchangers to absorb differential thermal stress.
Seminar Day 3
On day three we will focus on tall vertical pressure vessels and vessel supports. We will
review the loadings on tall vessels, such as wind and earthquake. We will also review the
design of vessel skirts and base rings, horizontal vessels on saddle supports, and legs or
support lugs which arc commonly used for smaller yessels and exchangers. We will also
study yessel-shell stresses that arc caused by loads on attachmcnts, including nozzles and
support lugs.
Overall Notes
This notebook is arranged to allow yOll to work step-by-step through the course, and to
work example problems of each type of calculatiou. Plenty of space has been left to take
additional notes.
We want to encourage you to ask questions and make comments during the course so that
we can cover the material you 1110st want to learn. A three day course is really 100 short to
fully explore both the theoretical and the practical aspects of the ASME Code, but we do
want to cover as much of these topics as possible. Your input will make this easier and
more effective.
ABOUT THE SOFTWARE
CodeCalc: The PVElile Component Analysis Program
The CodeCale program is a package of seyenleen applications for the design and analysis
of pressure vessels and heat exchangers. The purpose of the program is to provide the
mechanical engineer with easy 10 use, technically sound, well documented calculations
that will speed and simplify the task ofyessel design or re-rating.
Calculations in the CodeCalc program are based on the latest editions of national codes
such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, or industry standards such as the Zick
method of analysis for horizontal drums. The CocicCalc program offers exceptional case
of usc, which results in dramatic improvement in efficiency for both design and re-rating.
One expert estimates that the time he needs (0 rcrate an exchanger has been reduced from
eight hours to two hours.
Features
The following arc features of the CorieCalc/PVElile program:
1-2 Introduction to the Seminar & the Softwmc
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes Abollt the SoOwarc
Thc Windows cnvironmcnt provides cxtcnsive on-line help at a keystrokc, and man-
ages multiple analysis files so that thc USCI' CHn define a whole pressure vcssel in a sin-
gle file.
The USCI' Cfln define his own unit systcm, opening CodeCfllc 10 thc world of metric
and Sf calculations. Internally, however, calculations continuc to be in the English sys-
tcm of units, assuring continued compliance with ASME Code requirements.
The CodeC"le progmm has " complete m"teri"llibmry including over 2000 t"bles of
allowable stress versus temperature and 49 external pressure charts.
The CodcCalc program also includes a component library which contains diameter
and wall thickness for all standard pipc sizes, pressure vs. temperature charts for
ANSI B16.5 nanges, "nd section properties for AISC beam sections.
A sUlllmary capabi lity allows evaluation of all the components of a pressure vessel or
hcat exchanger. Design pressure, temperature, material, and Maximuill Allowable
Working Pressure are shown for each component.
Printed output from the CodcCalc program is exceptionally clear and complcte, with
user definable headings on each pagc. User comments and additions Illay bc inserted
at any point in the output. The ability to save any analysis to disk m<lkes it easy to
keep records and do revisions.
High quality documentation with complete operating instmctions, tlltorifll, and many
example problems makes the CodeC"1c program suitable for both beginners and
experts.
Summary of Applications
The following applie"tions are avail"ble in the CodeC"le Program:
SHELL-lntern"1 and external pressure design of vessels and exeh"ngers using the
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles. Components include cylinders, coni-
cal sections, elliptical heads, tori spherical heads, nat heads, and spheric"1 shells
and heads. This program calculates required thickncss and maximum allowable
intern<ll prcssure for thc given componcnt. It also calculates the minimum design
metal temperature per UCS-66, and evaluates stiffening rings for external pressure
design.
NOZZLE-Required w"1I thickness and reinforcement under internal pressure for
nozzles in shells and heads, using the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles
and including tables of outside diameter and wall thickness for all nominal pipe
diameters and schcdulcs. The program also calculates the strength of reinforce-
mcnt and evaluates failure paths for the nozzle.
CONICAL-lnternal and external pressure analysis of conical sections and stiffening
rings using the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles. Complete are" of
reinforcement and moment of inertia calculations for the cone under both internal
<lnd cxternal pressure are included.
HALFPIPE-Intcrnal pressure design for vessels with split pipc type j"eketing. The
program calculates the required thickness of the vessel wall as well as the required
thickness of the halfpipej"ekel. l3ased on ASME, Section VIII, Division I,
Appendix EE.
FLOHEAD-Jntern"1 "nd exten,"1 pressure "nalysis of bolted dished heads (/loating
heads) using the ASME Code, Scetion VIII, Division I mles. An "dditional e"leu-
Introduction to the Scminar & the Softwmc 1-3
About the Sofiwarc
1-4
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
lations technique allowed by the Code (Soehren's ealeulation) is also imple-
mented by this program.
FLANGE-Stress analysis and geometry selection for all types of flanges using Ihe
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles. This program bOlh designs and ana-
lyzes the following types of flanges:
Weld neck flanges and all integral flange types
Slip on flanges and all loose flange Iypes with hubs
Ring type flanges and all loose flange types without hubs
Blind flanges, both circular and n o n ~ i r l l i r
TEMA channel covers
Reverse geometry weld neck flanges
Flat faced flanges with full face gaskets
LGCENTER-Stress analysis for flat heads with a large, central circular opening
based on ASME, Section VIII, Division I, Appendix 14. The program calculates
the stresses at both the OD of the head and the location of the opening.
TUI3SHT-Analysis of aillypes of lubesheets using Ihe Seventh Edition of the Stan-
dards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufaelurers Association. The program takes
full account of the effects of tubesheets extended as flanges, and'for fixed
lubesheets also includes the effects of differentialthemlal expansion and the pres-
ence of an expansion joint.
ASMETUI3E-Analysis of several types of tubesheets using the mles from Appendix
AA of the ASME Code, Section VlIl, Division I. This appendix provides alter-
nate mles for tubesheet design, and may result in thinner tubesheets than the
TEMA program.
HORIZVES-Slress analysis of horizontal dmms on saddle supports using the
method of L.P. Ziek. Results include stresses at the saddles, the midpoint of the
vessel, and in Ihe heads. Stiffening rings used inlhe design of the vessel arc also
evaluated.
LEG&LUG-Analysis of vessel support legs, support lugs, and lifling lugs. This anal-
ysis is based on industry standard calculation techniques, and the resulting
stresses are compared to the AISC Handbook of Steel Construction or the ASME
Code. A full table of AlSC beams, channels and angles is included in the program.
PIPE&PAD-Required wall thickness and maximum allowable working pressure for
two pipes, and branch reinforcement rcquirements for the same two pipes consid-
ered as a branch and a header. I3ased on ANSI 1331.3 mles, this program includes
tables of outside diamcter and wall thickness for all nominal pipe diameters and
schedules.
WRC 107-Stresses in cylindrical or spherical shells due to loading on an attachment,
using the method of P.P. I3ijlaard as defined in Welding Research Council Bulletin
107.
I3ASERING-Thickness calculations and design for annular plate base rings, lop
rings, bolting, and gussets. Thesc calculations are performed using industry stan-
(!cud calculation techniques.
Introduction to the Seminar & the Sofiware
Pressure Vesscl Dcsign and Analysis - Seminar Notes About the Sofiware
THINJNT-Calculates stress in a metal bellows expansion joint of the type typically
used in piping and heat exchangers. The program does elastic stress analysis for
stresses due to internal pressure and opening or closing of the joint, and calculates
the cycle life of the joint based on the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I,
Appendix BB.
THICKJNT-Calculates stresses in a heat exchanger expansion joint fabricated from
relatively thick plate, also called flanged and filled expansion joints, using the
mles of the TEMA Seventh Edition, Paragraph RCB-8. The analysis is based on
the equivalent geometry used in "Expansion Joints for Heat Exchangers" by S.
Kopp and M. f. Sayre, with slight modifications.
RECTVES-Perfonns stress calculations and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
calculations for the rectangular, obround, and circular vessels described in the
ASM E Code, Section VIII, Division I, Appends 13. The calculations arc taken
from Sections 13-6 through 13-13.
SUMMARY-Description and evalnation of all the components ofa pressure vessel
or heat exchanger. Design pressure, temperature, material, actual thickness, and
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure are shown for each component.
Introduction to thc Scminar & thc Software t -5
About the Software
1-6
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Introduction to lhe Seminar & the Soflwarc
Pressure Vessel Design and AllCllysis - SeminClr Notes
Chapter 2: Overview
of the ASME Code
HISTORY OF THE CODE
The Boiler Codc has becn in existence for almost 90 years.
During the 1800's there wcre numerous catastrophic failures of prcssure vessels and boil-
ers, resulting in thousands of deaths.
Public and professional concern resulted in the release of the first mles for power boilers
in 1915.
The first pressure vessel Code was issued by the ASME in 1925.
In 1968 the Code was divided into two subsections:
Section VIII, Division 1 - Rules for Constmction of Pressure Vessels.
Section VIII, Division 2 - Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels.
The main differences between Division 1 and Division 2 are
Division 2 has higher allowable stresses in most cases - resulting in thinner vessels.
Division 2 also has more sophisticated design requirements, requiring more extensive
stress analysis than is used in Division J.
Division 2 frequcntly requires a fatigue analysis.
Division 2 frequently requires more extensive inspection and record keeping than
Division
In 1992, the Code moved the allowable stress tables and external prcssure charts for mate-
rials from Section VIII, Division 1 to Section II, Part D. This new publication contains all
of the material data from previous editions of Section Vlll, Division I, plus a few new ref-
erence tables from other sections.
Division 3, whieh is a new division intended fOf high prcssufe vessels, has been in prepa-
ration for sevcral years, and is now issued.
Section VIII, Division I is by far the most widely used of the two current divisions.
Almost all the pressure vessels constmeted in the U.S. are constmcted to Division 1.
In this course, unless specifically noted otherwise, "The Code
ll
is Section VIII, Division I.
ASME approves Code Case 2290 which increases Division I allowable stresses.
Overview orlhe ASME Code 2-1
Organization of the Code
ORGANIZATION OF THE CODE
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
2-2
The Code is divided into three Subseelions, pins Mandatory Appendices and NOl1Jnanda-
tory appendices
Thc three subsections cover
A - General Requiremcnts
B - Requirements Pertaining to Methods of Fabrication of Pressure Vessels
Part UW - Requirements for Pressure Vessels rabricated by Welding
Pari ur - Requirements for Pressure Vessels rabricaled by rorging
Part UB - Requiremenls for Pressure Vessels rabricated by Brazing.
C - Rcquircmcnts Pertaining to Classes of Materials
Part UCS - Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
Part UNr - Nonferrous Materials
Part UCI - Cast lron
Part UCL - Clad and Lined Vessels
Part UCD - Cast Ductile Iron
Part UHT - Heal trealed ferritie steels
ParI ULW - Layered Construclion
Part ULT - Materials with higher allowable stresses at low temperature
Mandatory appendices cover snbjects nol covered in the main body of the Code. The
requirements of these appendices are mandatory when the subject covered is appropriate
10 the eonslmction oflhe vessel.
Nonmandatory appendices provide information and suggest good practices relative to
prcssure vessel construction. They also scrve as a place where new design rules 3rc intro-
duced and tested before moving into the mandatory requirements.
Overview of the ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE CODE
Scope and Limitations of the Code
Section VIII, Division I applies to all pressurized containers, but with Ilumerous excep-
tions. Some of the exceptions listed in paragraph U-I include
Vessels within the scope of other sections (i.e. power boilers).
Fired process tubular heaters (furnaces)
Pressure containers that arc part ora machine (i.e. pumps)
Piping or piping components
Pressurized water storage up to 300 psi
Ileated water storage up to 210F
Vessels with design pressure 15 psi or less
Vessels with a maximum cross section dimension 6 in. or less
Vessels for Human Occupancy
Division I rules are applicable to vessels not exceeding 3000 psi design pressure. You can
usc Division I above 3000 psi, but special precautions to avoid fatigue and other additions
to the mles are recommended.
The scope of Division I includes the nozzles and attachments to the vessel.
Unfired steam boilers may be constmeted to Division 1 or Section I. Some classes, such
as evaporators or vessels in chemical plants fife required to meet Division I.
SOIIle small vessels are exempt from inspection:
Up to 5 cubic feet at 250 psi
Up to 1.5 cubic feet at 600 psi
ANY Vessel that meets ali the requirements of Division I may be stamped with a U stamp
even though exempted by one of the above limitations.
Overview of the ASME Code 2-3
Allowable Tensile Stress per the Code Pressure Vessel Design anu Analysis - Seminar Notes
ALLOWABLE TENSILE STRESS PER THE CODE
Division I mles arc based on a maximum principle stress failurc theory. While not very
accuratc, this thcory is simple to understand and apply.
By way of contrast, Division 2 is based on a maximum shear stress theory, which is more
accuratc. Somc other Codcs are based on the even more accurate theory of maximum dis-
tortion encrgy (Von mises stress).
The allowable tensile strcss for materials in Division I is the minimnm of the following
stresses:
1/3.5 ofthc specified minimum tensile strength at ambient temperature
1/3.5 of the tensile strength at the design temperature
2/3 of the specified minimum yield strength at ambient temperature
2/3 of the yield strength at the design temperature
100% of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 1% in 10,000 hours.
67% of the average stress to produce rupture in 100,000 hours.
80% of the minimum stress to produce rupture in 100,000 hours.
In 1999, the ASME changed the 1/4 to 1/3.5.
In the temperature range in which tensile strength or yield strength set the allowable
stresses, higher allowable stresses arc permitted for austenitic stainless steels and nickel-
alloy materials where greater defomlation is not objectionable. In this case the critcrion of
2/3 yield strength at temperature may bc increased to 90% of yield strength at temperature.
Bolting materials whose strength has been enhanced by heat treating or strain hardening
are limited to 1/5 of tensile and 1/4 of yield.
2-4 Overview orllle ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design <llld Analysis Seminar Notes Internal pressure on shells <Iud heads
INTERNAL PRESSURE ON SHELLS AND HEADS
Cylinders
Theoretical derivation of stress for thin walled cylinder:
Hoop Strcss: (circumferential)
Force PXD;XL
Areo = 2 X / X L
Force I'D; I'D;
-- - orl
Area 21 2S
Axial Stress: (longitudinal)
(
D)2
Force = P x n x -i
Area = n x D; X t
Force
Area
I'D;
or 1
4/
I'D;
4S
For thick-walled cylinders the theoretical stress is expressed by the Lame equations. The
formulation of the Lame equations is as follows, for internal pressure only. The maximum
stress at the ID surface is:
Hoop Rodial -I'
ASME has a slight variation on the first formula, making it fit fairly closely the rcsult of
thc sccond fommla:
PR
SE - 0.61'
The aD basis form of the samc equation is:
SE + 0041'
The ID and OD formulas do not yicld exactly thc same results: for relatively thick walled
cylinders, the effect can bc noticeable.
The following graph shows the relative accuracy of these three formulas. The Lame equa-
tion is exact for all geometries. Thc simple approximation becomes pretty bad for thick-
Overview of the ASME Code 2-5
Internal pressure 011 shells and heads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notcs
walled cylilHJers. The ASME equation is much closer to the exact solution than the simple
approximation.
2M
10"0
to
T
-
-

"'"
".....,
-

-
EO.ls"9l --
- --
-- EQ(8.1

-- EO.(s.l)
.10
1.0
,.5 2.0 2"S
3.0 35 4.0
2-6

"
figure '.6 Compori.on ol fom,vlai !of O<x>p Il'ml r. 0 cy!i,*kol Votl
The Joint Efficicncy in this (and all othcr) ASME Code formulas is a measure of the
inspeclion quality on Ihe weld seam. In general, weld seams that receive full radiography
have a joint efficicney of 1.0. Weld scams that receive spot radiography have a joint effi-
ciency of 0.85. Weld seams that receive no radiography have a joint efficiency of 0.7.
Seamless components have ajoint efficiency of 1.0.
In addition to the basic mles described above, the Code requires that no two seams in the
same vessel differ in joint efficiency by more than one category of radiography. For exam-
ple, ifcireumferential seams receive no radiography (E=0.7) then longitudinal scams have
a maximum E of 0.85, even if they receive full radiography. The practical outworking of
this is that circumferential seams, which are usually less highly stressed, may be spot
radiographed (E=0.85) while longitudinal seams arc fully radiographed. This provides the
sallle metal thickness at some savings in inspection costs.
Overview or the ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Splleres, Elliptical I-leads, Torispherical Heads
SPHERES, ELLIPTICAL HEADS, TORISPHERICAL HEADS
Cylinder
Elliptical Hcad
Spherical Head
Torispherical Head
In Basis
~ p(D12 + CAl
SE- 0.61'
~ p[K(D + CAl]
2S - 0.21'
(
DI2 + CA)
f ~ l' 2S-0.2P
f ~ p[M(L + CAl]
2SE-0.lp
00 Basis
l' (D/2)
SE + 0041'
f - 1'[ KD ]
2SE+2p(K-OI)
~ 1'( D/2 )
2SE+ 0.81'
1'[ ML ]
I ~ 2SE+ 0.785P(M - 02)
OD Basis
Pa ~ SE(f-ea)
[D/2-0A(I-ca)]
Cylinder
Elliptical
Spherical
Pa
Pa
Pa
In Basis
SE(I - ea)
[(D/2 + ea) + 0.6(1 - ea)]
2SE(I - ea)
[K(D + 2ea) + 0.2(1 - ea)]
SE(I-ea)
(DI2 + ea) + 0.2(1 - ea)]
Pa
Pa
2SE(I- cal
[KD-2(1 +ea)(K- 0.1)1
SE(I - ea)
[D12 - 0.8(1 - ea)]
Torispherical
Pa ~ SE(I-ea) Pa
[M(D + ea) + 0.1 (1- ea)]
SE(t-ea)
[(MD - (I - ea))(K- 0.2))
The fonnulas for elliptical and torispherical heads are general. The factors M and K are
semi-empirical adaptations of more complicated shell theories. K and M have the follow-
ing fommlas:
Where h ~ depth of head L ~ crown radius
r ~ knuckle radius
For the special case of a 2: I elliptical head, K ~
For the special case of a nanged & dished (6%) torispherieal head, M ~ 0.885 and the
inside crown radius equals thc outside diameter of the vcssel.
The shape of elliptical and torispherieal heads produces compressive stresses at the knuck-
les.
ror thin torispherical heads the eqliatiol1 in Division I is unconscrvativc-dimpling can
occur even in vesscls that meet the Code requircments. Division 2 contains a more compli-
cated equation that should be checked when the value of rlt is large.
Overview of the ASME Code 2-7
Important Terms for analyzing cylinders and heads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
IMPORTANT TERMS FOR ANALYZING CYLINDERS AND HEADS
ALLOWABLE STRESS-Sclect the allowable slrcss from the appropriatc Code table
at thc design temperature.
JOINT Erf'ICIENCY-Sclcct Ihejoinl cfficiency from lable UW-12
DIAMETER (INSIDE OR OUTSIDE)-ID formulas are found in paragraphs UG-27
and UG-32 00 formulas arc found in Appendix I
CORROSION ALLOWANCE-Subtractthc corrosion allowance from the actual
thickncss, and [liso increase the inside diamcter to account for corrosion.
ACTUAL THICKNESS ANDIOR DESIGN PRESSURE-You can calculate maxi-
mum allowable working pressure if you know the thickness of the component.
Otherwisc, use the design pressure to calculate the required componcnt thickness.
ASPECT RATIO f'OR ELLIPTICAL HEADS-This is typically 2:1, but may range
from I: I to 3: I
CROWN RADIUS AND KNUCKLE RADIUS FOR TORISPHER1CAL HEADS-
The ratio ofcTOwn radius to knuckle radius may not bc less than 1 nor grcater than
16.66
GEOMETRY FOR PRESSURE VESSEL HEADS
Elliptical Heads
Major ~ s (Head Diameter)
Minor Axis
(1/2) Head Diameler
2-8
(Aspect mtio =ratio of major nxis to minor axis, Iypically 2.0)
Overview oftbe ASME Code
Pressure Vcssel Design ;:md Analysis - Seminar Notes
Hemispherical Heads
Geomctry for Pressure Vessel lIeads
/
,I
!
I
I
I
Overview of the ASME Code
--------
/""""""--- ~ ........
/ "
"""
\.
\
\
\
- - HCild Di;nnctcr ~ ---,I
2-9
Geomelry ror Pressure Vesscilleads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
GEOMETRY FOR PRESSURE VESSEL HEADS
Torispherical Heads
-r------'"
I ...., ........ --........
I
I ). KNUCKLE
IIEAO DIAMETER _/ / \ RADIUS Ir)
I
/
I
I
_I
til
[$1
q I
"I
"'/
i!
",/
vi
I
I
/
I
I
!
I
The typical torispherieal head, also known as Flanged & Dished, has a crown radius equal
to the outside diameter of the cylinder, and a knuckle radius equal to six percent of the cyl-
inder diameter.
2-tO Overview or tile ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Chapter 3:
Using the Program-
The Main Menu
CodcCalc always starts with the Vessel Data Input Screen. Across the top of this screen is
a line of itcms that is called the Main Menu. The Main Menu controls the major fUllctiolls
of the program. \Ve will review the functions available in each of these menu items.
The items in the Main Menu - file, Edit, Analyze, Output, Tools, Diagnostics, View, ESL,
and Help - may be selected with a mouse click or by pressing the underlined character
while pressing the Ait key. for example, the Output processor may be selected by pressing
the Ait and 0 keys simultaneously.
First, we will begin by going over each of the Main Menu items.
FILE MENU
The File Menu controls the general operations of CodeCalc files. Options that are dis-
played in the menu with an ellipsis ( ... ) cause a file manage window to appear when
selected.
Figure 1--The File Menu
Using the Program- The Main Menu 3-1
File Menu
New
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Scminar Noles
Starts a new file.
[jo 1I4<. {1-,.,J 1""" ObT-rJir.. '/>e.. lI,t> .'
o c& "fa I + 9 ,( 1.< ri-&'ff .ftOEHD r= ($lUI H H(]) I:ll
nOlO SJo"f, .. dllo<o....


;,.;.......Ii!'.' ;OJ:", J
.
'I ,f".:-""..".",
-,P"",

h. .

:'I:rl.i:r).... "," J.;!!_... r: ----L....J
Open
Figure 2--File New
Save
3-2
Opens a previously created file. When the Open option is chosen, the user is prompted to
select an existing job file. Files ortype '.ee; will be displayed for selection.
?X
Figure 3--0pen Dialog
Saves the current file in its present condition.
Using the Program- Thc Main Menu
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Nolcs
Save As
file MCIIU
Saves a file that has not been previously namcd or saves the current file under another
namc.
fWi

I T...t.!hffi-CCI :=l Shls C(I
, t:JChed,lCcl

I


S .-e<D!>plI: ICOOU:ALCFlesl'.cci)
it
Figure 4--Save As Dialog
Print
Sends the current vcsscl graphic image directly to a postscript or laser jet printer.
Print Preview
Displays the page that will be sent to the printer (sec above).
Print Setup
Brings up the standard Windows printer setup screen,
Exit
Exits CodeCalc. A message window will appear to give the user a last opportunity to save
any modifications to the current job.
Previous Four Files
The File Menn also lists the last fOUf vessel inpullilcs accessed from your computer. Any
of these liles may be opened with a mouse click.
Using the Program- The Mnin Menu 3-3
Edit Menu
EDIT MENU
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
3-4
Once a filc is selectcd, the Edit Mcnu indicates the options available for ediling.
A3Irujll'.I."juOnli,Nj 1.i,.l.tmiif.!:1.it1,3i

{. l{lnbeo: I[IOOI
Oew'f.olT.nd.s.heaStc6:.'l:I: "'ISPH=rR"'iC.'''"l"''''''''''';'-
pooocoo
... ... ,": J1OO0C0J
Figure 5-- Tile Edit Menu
Title Page
Allows the user to enler report titles for this group of reporIs.
Project Data
Allows the user to enler up to 3 Ii tie lines, which appear at Ihe lop of each page of the
prillted reports.
Insert New Item
Inserts a new element after the current element.
Delete Current Item
Deletes the current clement.
Select All
Selects all of the items in the browse window.
Deselect All
Deselects all of the items in the browse window.
Using the Program- Thc M"in Mcnu
Pressure Vessel Design illHJ Analysis - Seminar NOles
ANALYZE MENU
Analyze Menu
The Analyze options cause the program to quit the input process and enter the analysis
process. CodeCalc will first save the current job to the input file with the same filename;
Ihcn il will process the analysis.
Browse
Allows the seleclion of certain components in Ihe input lile to be analyzed.
Analyze Selected Items
Performs calculations for selecled analysis Iypes. The calculations will be saved in a
binary file and will be ready for display or printing.
Analyze Current Component
Performs calculations for the current analysis type. The analysis program looks for appro-
priate data in the current analysis file and performs calculations, saving the results in a text
file. The results oflhc analysis will then be ready for display or printing.
Summary
Looks through all the data in the current analysis file and prepare a brief summary of cach
analysis.
Choose Analysis Type
Selects Ihe Iype of componenl you wish to work on.
Figure 5--Choose Analysis Type Menu
The analysis types chosen from this menu can also be selected from Ihe Analysis Tool Bar
by simply clicking on the icon.
Figure 7-- The Analysis Types Toolbar
Using the Program- The Main Menu )-5
Output MCllu
OUTPUT MENU
Pressurc Vessel Design and Analysis - Scminar Notes
3-6
The Output Menu allows the user to review the analysis results and print (hc graphics of
the vessel. The following option is available under Output:Review - allows the user to
review the analysis results of the clIrrcJ1tjob, if those results are available.
__f
Sedi:tl: ISPHRlCAlliEAO
Figure 8--Ti,e Output Menu
Using the The Main Menu
}-
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
TOOLS MENU
Tools Menu
The Tools Menu controls the utility processors as summarized here. Configuration - This
option allows the user to dcfine a variety of system variables for the program. The first
screen of the Configuration mcnu looks like this:
!
pic5lHljlf.lllliS1i0!!!ij4BH.'i'iMl. f1r1.i!'. 33.
1
.
,De .li. hWfli 1m i,SL
! 0 cHi Ie;J,' -f: 1- '(0:(9'1"L -',: ]-1Il1l3 ill
, 1 1 !
Of 3 .....
. ,
t I ILU/JJ"1iMD.o'l:

, }

Figure 9--Tile Tools Menu
Configuration Options
Computation Control Tab
The Computation Control Tab in thc Configuration dialog leis some specific program
computation control parameters be set. These controls Icl you set some options in some
programs that control the results of some computations.
Figure 1a--Configuration Options
Following is a description of the options:
Computc Increascd Nozzle Thickness? In many cases pressure vessels are designed
and built long before the piping system is attached to them, This means that the nozzle
loadings are unknown. lfthis field is checked, thcn your minimum nozzlc thickness (tm)
will be the maximum of
trn =(.134,trn for internal pressure) less than or equal Nps 18
Irn =(DD/ISO,trn for internal pressure) greater than Nps 18
By using such a requirement in addition 10 UG-45, the piping dcsigners will have some
additional metal to work with to satisfy thermal bending stresscs in systems these vessels
are designed for.
Using the The Main Menu 3-7
Tools Menu Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes
Note These fonnulae are not in the ASME Code. They are used in industry.
You can also specify the minimum wa)) thickness of the nozzle (Tm) in the Nozzle input.
If you do so, that will override this calculation.
Calculate F iu Flohead if the Pressure is Zero? In the design of noating heads, a
factor F is computed. The factor F is a direct function of the internal pressure. If the inter-
nal pressure is 0, then F is equal to 0. However, some interpret the Code to mean that F
should always be computed regardless of which case we arc analyzing. Typically, the case
in question is the flange bolt-up case. When the uni' is being bolted up, it has 110 internal
pressure. That is why the defanlt is not checked.
(fyou wish F to always be considered in the thickness cales, then check this box. This is
the conservative method of calculation.
Use P iustead ofMAWP for UG-99B? The Code paragraph UG-99(b) discusses the
subject of hydrostatic test pressure on vessels. The equation that wonld nonnally be used
is as follows:
Test Pressure = 1.3' MAWP StestfSdesign
The code in note 34 states that the MAWP may be assumed to be the same as the design
pressure when calculations arc not made to delcnnine the MAWP.
This will allow for lower test pressures. This directive should be used with caution.
Perform Area Calculatious for Small Nozzles? The Code paragraph UG-36 dis-
cusses the requirement of performing aTea placement calculations when srnall nozzles arc
involved. The Code States
Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require
reinforcement other than that inherent in the constmetion under the following con-
ditions:
3.5-in. finished opening in a shell or head .375 in. thick or less
2.375-in. finished opening in a shell or head greater than .375 in.
If your geometry meets this criteria and this box is nol checked, then no area of reinforce-
ment calculations will be perfonned.
Priut Water Volume jn Gallons? Normally the volumes computed by the program
arc in diameter units.
]fyou want to use US gallons instead of cubic diameter units, check this directive. Other-
wise, the program will use cubic units as the default value.
Use Calculated Value of M for Torispherical Heads in UG-45 bI? The Code in
paragraph UG-45 requires a calculation of the required head thickness at the location of
the nozzle. This may lead one to believe that the thickness Inay be computed per para-
graph UG-37. However a recent code interpretation states that the thickness should be
computed by the mles of paragraph UG-32 or by the rules in Appendix I.
Thus, this directive should always be checked.
The second screen of the Configuration Menu looks like this:
3-8 Using the Program- The Main Menu
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Tools Menu
Miscellaneous Options
The Miscellaneous Options of the Configuration MCllulets the user select some miscella-
Ileous directives. These directives control some printout style options and others.
?Ixl


Oda<.iUr.sfle Kr.;lllhll iJ1
"-
Figure 11--Miscellaneous Options
Following is a description of the options:
Report Content. This directive allows thc uscr to change the length of the printcd
reports. When the summary option is checked. the formulas and substitutions will not be
printed out. Thus, this option will generate less paper and more compact reports.
Whcn thc dctailcd option is chccked, the reports will be the normallcngth.
External Printont in Rows? There are two choices for thc style of printing extemal
pressure results: rows and columns. Printing the values by row tends to reduce the length
of the printouts. This is the default.
If you wish to print by column, do not check this directive.
Set Unit
This option allows the user to change the current job's units system. Once this option is
selected, a File Open dialog will appear and allow the user to select a new units file. Thcsc
Using the Progmm- The Main Menu 3-9
Tools Menu Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes
units files have the extension ,fil. English, Metric and SJ units are available in the system
subdirectory. After you select a units file, the following window will appear:
!
"SystemUnl' Ctml.v. utt.Unl . Coi'<rtl. . UlerlW
'lmtth' led "It _ J"'- 1n:7cuft, Ihled'!.. f
! foe pw>dt. 1 IJ. .WrdSpeed .. _' ... lt:"Mf it
- "11 In -.d "at;oWeO:;H _
Mil h .. .....1
it ......... """""" . r=-l} ...... .r;---:J1.1rl1
bthqn brJfql\. 'P"'7l;-IP'f _11'
,.;,., d<gtt,F rr::::;:-j ,"'..... 'ttl .' rr-lj-
(Preuue 'p$iQ ... VclnoO utt:i'doe.l' I }. ,lIn, 't
i .MocUn !-'sqn'" 1, Oi.YMer Wes ' flit..
bl./N-n, .
ImlkiJonOM . r:-l
1
.. b./cull
lr::=!Ci
"
Figure 12..Unil Window
If the units selection is acceptable, press the OK bullon; otherwise, press Cancel. When
OK is selected, the current units will be overlayed with the selected units.
Make Unit File
This option allows the creation of a cuslom units file. Simply pull down the appropriate
conversion constant or label and the corresponding unit or label will change accordingly.
If your conversion constant is not one ofthe choices, type in the label and constant for
your particular unit. (The program will continue to use English units internally).
Figure 13..Make Unit Dialog
This window presents a table of items, the internal units used for each item, a conversion
factor, and the user linits. The conversion factor is used to obtain the user units from the
internal units. The lip and down arrow keys can be used to move lhe selection to the
desired item. If a desired unit conversion is not available as a default program selection, it
can be entered manually by typing it in. Ensure that your conversion constants arc correct
and that your labels go with the constants. Once all units have been set, press OK to exit
310 Using the Program- The Main Menu
Pressure Vessel Design ;lnd Analysis - Seminar Notes Toob Menu
this screen and save the new units file. A safe place to save it would be in the system sub-
directory where Ihe supplied units files arc stored.
After you have saved the new units file, you will need to overlay the current units in your
job file with Ihe new units. This option is Ihe Set Unit option. After you sel your file with
the new units, all of the entered data will be converted into the new set of units immedi-
alely.
Calculator
This option allows the user to perform simple calculations and paste the results in the input
field in which the cursor resides. .
Figure 14--The Calculator Option
You can use the calculator to compute a number and transfer that number into CodeCalc
by using the Edil, Copy fealure. From the desired field, right click and choose the Paste
option. Before pasting, ensure that the field's current contents have been removed.
Import Nozzle Dala - Imports nozzle information from a PVElilc inpul file (.pvi) for
use in the WRC 107 Module.
Edit!Add Materials - This opliou allows the user to add materials 10 Ihe COADE
Material dalabase. The screen appears as follows:
Edit/Add Materials Dialog
To use this processor, fill in all of the values in all cells. If more than one material is to be
entered, usc the Next button to enter the new material. After all materials have been
Using the Program- The Main Menu 3-11
Tools Mellu
3-t2
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
entered, save the file with the Save button. Finally, press the Merge key to join the user-
defined material database with the supplied material database.
xl
Figure 15--Ma/erial Editor
Using the Program- The Main Menu

"
Pressurc Vessel Design ;lIId Analysis. Scminar Noles
DIAGNOSTICS MENU
The Diagnostics Menu helps to troubleshoot problem installations.
e'''''j...''iliji'.I:!liWj4f.!"l.!M\i fI"i,I,,_,!
Dillgnostics Menu
CRC Check
!
Shel HEAD
Figure 16--Diagnoslics Menu
)
Performs a cyelic redundancy check (CRC) on each of the supplied CodeCale files.
Build Version Check
Checks the revision level of the CodeCalc executablc files.
DLL Version Check
Checks to make sure thc CodcCale .DLL files are currcnl.
Note If the DLLs are not current, the program may behave in an unusual manner or may
not mn at all.
Using the Progralll- The Main Menu 3-13
View Menu
VIEW MENU
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes
The View Menu allows the user to specify the tool bars to be displayed.
.
. ,
Figure 17--The View Menu
The following options are available:
File Toolb.r
Figure 18--File Toolbar
Analysis Toolbar
Figure 19--Analysis Toolbar
Status Bar
)
3-14
-
Figure 20--8ta/us Bar (a/ the bottom of/he screen)
Using the Program- The Main Menu
;
;
Pressure Vessel Design lind Analysis - Seminar Notes
ESL MENU
E51 Menu
The ESL Menu provides utilities lhal interact with the Extenlal SoOw",e Lock (ESL).
e .. U1J ....\IlIju.':M,'lj.J.!1 1.!@4f.!li',.HI
y_ l:itb

1-'---.:....=-,'----.:....--'-----4l Fa:<


Figure 21--ESL Menu
Phone Update
Allows update authorization information or other ESL changes to be obtained over the
phone.
Generate Fax Codes
Provides the uscr with access codes for rcmote ESL updating. These access codes should
be sent to COADE for authorization codes.
Receive and Enter Fax Codes
Allows yOll to enter the remole authorization codes you receivcd from COADE. Each set
of four codes will make one change to the data stored on your ESL.
View ESL Information
Displays the data stored on the ESL.
Using the Program- The Main Menu 3-15
Ilclp Menu
HELP MENU
Pressure Vessel Design and Antilysis Seminar Noles
f'lB, 01 3 _ Sho!tuO'Hkadl

3-16
The Ilelp Menu displays on-line Help and infonnation on how to obtain technical support
for CodeCale.
II I
. tcir lY",*e QoJpA. IIX4 Y-1m1 1 .'
6 IiH/'f 1 + ... _" I A.-MUf.! pC
1 Ti?cJIt.eOillY_
.r
f!:l:nJ.axiECAl.C_

H=t:{urbtf: 11-00').) .............. oiI.
Figure 22--Help Menu
Contents
Starts the Help facility.
Tip of the Day
Provides tips for running CodeCale.
Info
Provides information on the best ways to contact COADE personnel for teclmical support,
and provides a link to COADE's website.
Using thc Progmm- Thc Main MCllu
Pressure Vcssel Design and Analysis - Scmin:lr NOlcs
Chapter 4:
Example Problem 1-
A Simple Drum
PROBLEM
The drawing on the following page shows a simple horizontal pressure vessel that we will
use for our first example problem. In this case the preliminary sizing of the vessel and its
attachments has been completed, and we are asked I) to select thicknesses for the pressure
components, nozzles, and reinforcemcnt, and 2) to check the vessel for stresses when it is
full of liquid.
SPECIFICATIONS
Design conditions, as shown on the drawing, arc 230 psig (1.586 N/1l1l11
2
) ii;ternal pressure
and fnll vacuum at 450F (232C). Materials arc carbon stecl, SA-516, 70, Nonnalized.
The vessel is subject to full radiography, and has a 1/8-in. (3.175 mm) corrosion allow-
ance.
The length of the vessel is 244 in. (6198 mm) between langent lines (the heads have a 2-in.
(51 mm) straight flange, making the weld-to-weld length of the vessel 240 in. (6096 mm)).
We will require the following programs in this analysis:
Internal pressure on shells and heads - SHELL program,
External pressure on shells and heads - SHELL program.
Nozzle thickness and reinforcement - NOZZLE program.
Follow these steps to complete this first example problem:
I. Analyze the cylindrical shell under internal pressure, and pick a design thickness for
it. Next analyze the 2: I elliptical head, using the same basic thickness.
2. Analyze the cylinder under full vacuum conditions. Also,. analyze the heads for exter-
nal pressure.
3. Analyze the nozzle reinforcement using the NOZZLE program. Select appropriate
reinforcing pads for each nozzle.
4. After the entire vessel has been analyzed using CodeCale, model the same vessel
under PYElite and review the results.
Example Problem 1- A Simple Dnllll 4-1
i
144.0'10
= F
~ J _____-----i 0
I _ .
REINFORCING
nn,..c:
ni
lU
~ ~
.......... II'o'I<.l'C
NOZZLE SCH!:DULE
OTY. SIZE AND SCHED. TYPE RTG.
120.0' RF 388:
,
..
..
MK. :l
N1
,
N ~
192"
230 PSIG & Full Vacuum
Design Temperature: 450 F
0101 hp Knockout Drum
~ ........
Pressure Vessel Design and Allalysis Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
D-101 Cylindrical Shell:
Specillcnlions
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Material
Joint Efficiency
Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness?
What thickness will you usc?
230 psi (1.586 N/nlln
2
)
450F (232C)
SA 516,70
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problcm 1- A Simplc Drum 4-3
Spcciliclllions Pressure Vt:sscl Design nnd Annlysis Scminllr Noles
COAoE Engineering Soft.ware
pVEl i t.e 4 . 00 Licensee: COADE I llC., l.oca 1 Hhj te Lock
PileName : Seminar ----- . --- ... --------------- . Page 2
Shell Analysis: 0101 CYLINDER Item: 1 9:51il Sep 21,2000
,
i
Input Echo, Component
"
Description: 0101 CYLINDER
Include Hydrostatic Ilead Components
flinimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Design Internal Pressure
l'empen\ture for Internal Pressure
I'laterial Specification (Normalized)
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency [or Shell Joint
230.00 psig
450.00
p
NO
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
D
1. 00
244.0000 in.
244.0000 in.
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.1250 in.
g
p
S
SA
T
CA
L
CYLLEN
[)
Length of Section
of Cylinder [or Volume Cales.
Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Design
Length
Inside
Type of Element: Cylindrical Shell
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUIIBER 1, Dese.: 0101 CYLINDER
ASHE Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*(D/2.. CA)/(S*E-0.6*P) per UG-27 (c) (1)
(230.00*(144.0000/2.. 0.1250))/(20000.00"1.000.6*230.00)
0.8352 in.
.>'
Nax. All. working Pressure at Given Thickness (HAI1P);
(S*E* (TCA) 1(D/2+CA) +0. 6* (TCA)) per UG-27 (c) (1)
(20000.00*1.00*(0.8750))/144.0000/2+0,1250)+0.6*0.8750)
240.88 psig
"laximum Allowable Pressure, New and cold Uo1l\PNC):
(SA*EIT)/(D/2.0.6*T) per UG27 (e) (1)
(20000.00*1.00*1.0000)/(144.0000/2tO.6*1.0000)
275.48 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(p* ((0/2tCA) to. 6" (T-CA)) 1 (E (TCA
(230.00'(144.0000/2+0.1250).0.6*(0.8750))/(1.00*(0 8750)
19096.57 pai
SUJoIlo1ARY OP INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
'lAWP
P
0.9602 in.
1.0000 in.
240.88 psig
2]0.00 psig
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( fleasurcd at High Point ):
4-4 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Speci ficilliol1s
eOADE Engineering Software
PVE) ite 4.00 Licensee: eOADE Inc., Local Lock
PileName Seminar ---------- --------------------------- page)
Shell Analysis: 0101 CYLINDER Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Hydro. per UG-99Ibl; 1.3 HAWP SalS 313.15 psig
Hydro. per UG- 991el ; 1.3 r1APNC 358.13
P
S1
9
Hin. fletal Temp. wlo impact per Pig. UeS-66 -30
p
IHn. fletal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per ues 66.1) -35 F
IHn. fletal Temp. wlo impact per UG-20 (f) -20
,-
WEIGHT and VOLUNE RESULTS, ORIGINI\L THICKNESS:
Volume of Shell Component VOLIlET 111149.8
\'/eight of Shell Component Wf1ET 31455.4 lb.
Inside Volume of Component VOLIO 3973788.0 in. "'3
I'/eight of I'latel- in Component ImAT 143497.9 lb.
lb.
in. 3
lb.
in .
97339.7
27547.1
3987598.0
14]996.6
CORRODED THICKNESS:
Corroded VOLNETCA
Corroded 1'111ETCA
Corroded VOLIDCA
Corroded HHATCA
AND VOLW1E RESULTS,
of Shell Component,
of Shell Component,
Volume of Component,
of l'later in Component,
I'/EIGHT
Volume
I'leight
Inside

The PV Elite Program, Ie) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum 4-5
zo;
;
"
Pressure Vesscl Design anti Analysis - Scminar Notes
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Specifications
D-101 Elliptical Hcad:
Starting from the cylinder analysis, design an elliptica' head for the dnnl1.
Notes:
Qnestions:
WhHt is the aspect ratio of the head?
What is the required thickness?
What thickness will you usc?
As the pressure increases, the required thickness increases:
Linearly Almost linearly As the square
DO NOT TURN THE I'AGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum 4-7
Specifications Pressure Vcssel Design and Analysis - Scminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElitc 01.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., i.ocal \'Ihite Lock
FileName: Seminar -----------------.- ... -.- .. ------------ Page 01
Shell Analysis: DIOI ELLIPTICAL ltem: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
"
j
Input Echo, Component 2, Description: 0101 ELLIPTICAl,
Design Internal Pressure
Temperat\lre for Internal Pressure
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
"laterial Specification (Normalized)
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Head Joint
Inside Diameter of Elliptical Head
f-linimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Aspect Ratio
i.ength of Straight Flange
p
S
SA
E
o
','
eA
AR
S1'RTFLG
230.00 psig
450.00 F
NO
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
0
1.00
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.1250 in.
2.0000
2.0000 in.
Type of Element: Elliptical Head
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUIIBER 2, Dese.: 0101 ELLIPTICAl.
Asr1E Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, 1\-99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P' (D.2
l
eAl lK)/ (2S'E-O.2'P) Appendix 1-4 (c)
(230.00' (144.000012'0.1250)1.00)/(220000.00'1.00-0.2'230.00)
0.B304 in.
All. l'lorking Pressure at Given Thickness (tIAWP):
(2SE (T-CA)) /(K' (Ot2'C/\) +0.2' (T-CA)) per Appendix 1-4 (c)
(2.20000.001.00(0.8750))/(1.00(144.0000+2'0.1250)+0.2'(0.8750))
242.34 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (It1\PNC):
(2SAET)/(K*O.0.2T) per Appendix 1-4 (c)
(220000.001.001.0000)/(1.00144.0000tO.21.0000)
277.39 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(P' (K (O.2
l
CA).0. 2' (T-CAl) ) / (2E (T-CAl)
(230.00*(1.00(144.0000t20.1250).0.2(0.8750)/(2*1.00-(0.8750
18981.57 psi
OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
I>1AWP
P
0.9554
1.0000
242.34
230.00
in.
in.
psig
psig
4-8 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Anillysis - Seminar Notes Specificiltions
COI\DE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local \'Illite Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 5
Shell Analysis: 0101 Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES
Hydro. per UG-991b); 1.3
Hydro. pel' UG-99(c); 1.3'
( t,leasured at
f1A11P , sals
f1APNC
High Point I,
315.04
360.61
psi9
psig
Nin. I-letal Temp. wlo impact per UCS-66
Nin. loIetal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
IUn. "'etal Temp. wlo impact per UG-20(f)
-30 F
-35 F
-20 F
\'IEIGllT and VOLUHE RESULTS, ORIGINAL
Volume of Shell Component
Weight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
Weight of \1atcr in Component
Inside vol. of 2.00 in. Straight
Total Volume for Head I Straight
THICKNESS:
VOLI1ET
Wt'lET
VOLID
\'11'11\1'
VOLSCA
VOLTOT
26074.9
7379.2
390864,4
14114.5
32572.0
423436.4
in.")
lb.
in.
t
')
lb.
in.")
in.")
WEIGHT /\NO VOLU11E RESULTS, CORRODED THICKNESS:
Volume of Shell Component, Corroded VOLI,lETCA
weight of Shell Component, CO)"roded I'.'NETCI\
Inside Volume of Component, Corroded VOLIDCA
\'Ieight of Water in Component, Corroded WNATCA
Inside Vol. of 2.00 in. Straight, Carr. VOLSCA
Total volume for Head Straight Corroded VOLTCA
22815.5
6456.8
392903.7
14188.2
32685,2
425588.9
in. ,*)
lb.
in. '*3
lb.
in." )
in.*')
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem 1- A Simple Dnlln 4-9
r i l l l ~ fracture - Minimulll Design f\'lclnl Temperalure Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Semillnr Noles
BRITTLE FRACTURE - MINIMUM DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE )
New niles in Ihe 1987 Addenda to the Code make il imperalive 10 uuderstand brittle frac-
ture and its relationship to material selection.
What is brill/efractllre? It is a sudden and ealastrophie growth of cracks in sleel.
How does brittle/roc/lire occllr? The stress at the tip ofa discontinuity in the stcel (crack,
inclusion, weld, cte.) reaches a critiefll valuc and the crack begins to propagatc. The total
energy ofpropagalion exceeds the energy absorbing capability of the sleel. The crack con-
tinues to grow at the speed of sound.
The requirements for brittle fracture are low toughness, high stress, and a discontinuity.
Carbon and Low Alloy sleels exhibillow toughness allow lemperalure. AI higher lemper-
atures the toughness improves dramatically.
Charpy impact tests arc one way to measure the fracture toughness of steels. Thc follow-
ing chart shows a typical variation of impact energy with tcmperature.
00. 1
~ .----.-------..---.-? I
~
l.\:IlEr sre
40 f--- .----... --------/-----.--.----.---.----
,;
W
w
::1)'---------..----.
u
I 20 1------.-.-...-/.----..---------.. --..-..-
101----. --../.-.--------------...--...- ..-- ..... -
00
fi)
40 20 o
TerpEi"Olu'e. De;roos F
-20
0
1 I aWEooor I
I I I I I
-40
Figure 1-- Typical Variation of Impacl Energy with Tempera/ure
As a function of the grain fineness of the steel, fracture toughness also increases dramati-
cally wilh reduced size of the plale.
i\SME has applied Ihesc general principles 10 the impact requiremenls of carbon sleels
using a Minimum Design Metal Tcmperature approach:
The Minimum Design Metal Tcmperature is the lowest design temperature at which a
given steel can be used to construct [\ pressure vessel without impact testing the steel.
Figure UCS-66 shows the variation of minimum design temperatUl'e with plate thick-
ness and material. Each of the four curves (A, B, C, D) correspond to several materi-
als.
,
t
4-10 Example Problelll 1- A Simple DnJlll
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Brillic FraclUre - Minimulll Design Mel;!1 TemperalUl'C
For a givclll1latcrial, lhe bnsic MDMT is a function only ofthickncss. Howevcf, the
MDMT can be rcduccd drnmatically by nOfmalizing or normalizing and tempering
many of the carbon stecl materials. (Toughness is rclated to grain size).
The MDMT can be red need if the slress in the malerial is lower than thc allowable
slress. (Remember, briltle fracture requires a certain energy leveL) Usc figure UCS-
66.1 to calculatc the reduction in Minimum Design Metal Tcmperatufe for a givcn
stress level. Most carboll steels lip to I in. are exempt from impact testing down to
-20F. When impact testing is needed, used UG-84 10 delermine the required energy
levels.
Hydrostatic tesling ofa pressure vessel is Ihe best available method for determining maxi-
mum tolerable defect size. If a thick pressure vesscl is hydrotested al a prcssure that is
50% greater than the design prcssure, the critical KI (fracturc toughncss) is
KIC=sF, whcrc F is a CHICk shape factor
Assuming an intemal circular naw of dimcnsion 3, the maximum KIC immedintely aftcr
successful hydrotesting is
KIC 1.5*Sm*(2*SQRT(a/pi
Maximum defect size x at the design prcssure is given by
1.5*Sm*(2*SQRT(a/pi)) = Sm*(2*SQRT(x/pi
or
x =2.25a
Hence, a crack that is discovcrcd after hydrotesting can grow 2.25 times its original size
before causing failure. This fact illustrates the importance of hydrotesting and is based on
a hydrostatic temperature that is the same as the lowest opcrating temperature of the ves-
sel.
EXllmplc Problcm 1- A Simple Dnnll 4-11
Brillic Fracture Minimum Design Metal Temperature Pressure Vessel Design and Allalysis - Seminar Notes
,
}
6
,
3 2 0.39<1
I
) !
I
! 1--- _
I ...... ~
I V . ~
I A/ __ _
I / ~
I / ----- f--
I / V cj.--
I / ~ ~
! V Vr- D b : : : ~
~ L .... __
~ I / /V V
i / V
r
J L ./
iV V
I /_
.r.
V
_- t= t--.... -- --
r- ;- '1
PK
"T' "q"IT
I
o
20
60
'0
'0
140
120
100
- '0
- 20
-65
-60
_ 60
:;
>!
..
~
E
~
C
~
g.
~
,
!
Nomlll.1 Thlckllo.IIl.
Illmll0d 10 .. Ill. for Woldod Consltuclton)
Gonenl Not,s and Nolos tollV'N on nell1 pago
FIG. UCS66 IMPACT TEST EXEMPTION CURVES [SEE NOTES (1) ANO (2ll [SEE UCS66(a))
Figure 2--1998 Section VIII, Division 1
.'
4-12 Example Problem I ~ A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Annlysis - Seminnr Noles I3rillle Fracture - Minimum Design Mewl TcmpcrallJrc
FIG. UCS-66 (CONT'OJ
GENERAL NOTES ON ASSIGNMENT or MATERIALS TO CURVES:
(a) Curve A applies to:
(1) all carbon and all low alloy steel plates, structural shapes, and bars not listed In Curves B, C, and 0 below;
(2) SA21b Grades WCB and WCC if normalized and tempered or water-quenched and tempered; SA217 Grade WCb if
normalized and tempered or waler-quenched and tempered.
(bl Curve 0 applies to:
(1) SA-21b Grade WCA if normalized and tenlpered or water quenched and tempered
511.216 Grades WCD and WCC for thicknesses not exceeding 2 In., If produced to fine grain practice and water-quenched
and tempered
511.-217 Grade WC9 if normalized and tempered
511.-205 Grades A and 0
511.-414 Grade A
SA-SIS Grade 60
511.-516 Grades b5 and 70 if not normalized
511.-612 If 1I0t normalized
SA-b62 Grade B if not normalized;
(Zl except fOr cast steels, alt materials of Curve A if produced to fine grain practice and nOrmalized which are not listed In
Curves C and 0 below;
(3l aU pipe, fittings, forglrl9s and tubing not listed fOr Curves C and 0 below;
(4) parts permitted under UG-ll shall be Included In Curve 8 even when fabricated from plate that otherwise would be assigned
to a different curve.
(c) Curve C
(1) SA182 Grades 21 and 22 If normalized and tempered
511.-302 Grades C and 0
511.-336 F21 and F22 if normalized and tempered
511.-307 Grades 21 and 22 if normalized and tempered
511.-516 Grades 55 and 60 if not nOrmalized
511.533 Grades Band C
SA-6b2 Grade A;
(2l all material of Curve B If produced to fine grain practice and normalized and not listed for Curve 0 below.
(d) Curve 0
511.203
511.-500 Grade 1
511.516 If normalized
511.524 Classes 1 and 2
511.-537 Classes 1, 2, and 3
SA-bl2 If normalized
SA-bb2 If nOrmalized
SA-nO Grade A
(e) For bolting and nuts, the following Impact lest exemption temperature shaH apply:
Bolting
Spec. No.
SA193
511.193
SA-193
511.193
SA-307
511.320
SA-325
511.354
SA354
511.449
51\-540
Grade
85
07 (2
1
/
2
In. dla. and under)
(Over 2
1
/
2
In. to 7 In., IncU
87M
016
o
L7, L7A, L7M, L43
1, 2
oe
00
023n4
Impact Test
Exemptlon Temperature, -F
-20
-55
-40
-55
-20
-20
Impact tested
-20
o
.20
-20
.10
GMeral Notes ilnd !loin conl/nue on ned ~
Figure 3--General notes on assignment of materials to cUlYes
EXntllplc Problcm 1- A Simplc Dnllll 4-13
Briltle fracture Minimulll Design Metal Temperature Pressure Vessel Design fmd Analysis - Seminar Notes
..
1001< I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
.g

cc

0.80
E
.1!
<l;
.2

;;
0.80,
u
c

E
0
z

Ul
<;
0.40 '
I
0.35

'"
.
.2 0.20 .
;;
cc
.,i
140 120 100 60 80
'F ISee UCS66(bjJ
0.00 CCC( r (o? ({(CCA c/(.. (v(( (r(//l (((r(( (4((/6
o 20 40
c
E'
AHcrnalive Ratio
Nomenclaturo (Note references to General Notes of Fig. UCS66.2.)
t
r
:< required thickness of the component under consideralion In the corroded
condition for ell applicable loadings IGeneral Note (21J. based on tho
applicable joint efficiency EIGeneral Note (311. in.
t
n
'" nominal thickness of the component under consideration before corrosion
allowance Is deducted. in.
corrosion allowance. in.
as defined in General Note (3).
S E* divided by the product ollhe maximum allowable stress value
from Table UCS23 times E. whore S is tho applied genoral
primary membrane tensile stress and Eand E are as definod in General
N01e(3).
FIG. UCS-66.1 REDUCTION IN MINIMUM DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE WITHOUT IMPACT TESTING
Figure 4--Reduction in Minimum Design Me/ai Tempera/ure
1
.'
4-14 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NOles Brillle fmClure - Minimum Design Melal Temperature
Stop 1
StOll 2
StOll 3
Stop 4
Stop 5
Stop 6
ESlablish nominallhicknt'lsscs (General Note (111 of welded par1s, nonwelded parts, and allachments
under consideration both before and after corrosion allowance is deducted (In and t
n
- c, respectively), and
other pertinent data applicable to tho nominal thicknesses such as:
All i1pplicable loadings (General Nolo (2)) and coincident minimum design melal
temperature (MDMTI
Materials of construction
E .. joint etriciency IGoneral Nolo (3)J
"
.. nominal noncorrodcd thickness IGeneral Note (1)1. in.
"
required thickness in corroded condition for all applicable loadings IGeneral Noto (2)1,
based on the applicable joint eU;ciency IGenaral NOle f311, in.
Applicable curve(s) 01 Fig, UCS66
c .. corrosion allowance, in.
l
Select MDMT from Fig, UCS66 (Genoral Note (4)1 ror each
nominal noncorrodod thickness lGeneral Note (5)).
r------ -'- ------,
'I Determine Ratio: t,P II
tn-c
I IGeneral Noles 13>, f6), (7), and (8)) J

I Using Ratio from Step 3 to cnler ordinate I
I of Fig. UCS-66.1, determine reduction in Slep I
I 2 MDMT IGenr.rel NolO (9)1. I

r------- -------,
I Delormine adjusted MOMT for governing :
I Ihickness under consideration. I

Repest for all governing thicknesses [General Note 1511 and
take warmestvaluo as the lowest allowable MOMT to be
marked on nameplate for Iho zono under consideration
{General Note 11011. Sec UG116.
See UG99 Ih) for coldest recommended met'll temperature
during hydrostatic testlGonoral Note (611.
Sec UG100(c) for coldost motal temperature permitted
during pneumatic tcstlGencral Notc 1611.
legend
I IRequirement
r----l Optional
, .
------
General Not6S foflow on noxt pago
FIG. UCS-66.2 DIAGRAM OF UCS-66 RULES FOR DETERMINING LOWEST MINIMUM DESIGN METAL
TEMPERATURE IMDMT) WITHOUT IMPACT TESTING
Figure 5Diagram of UGS-66 RlIles for Determining Lowest Minimllm
Design Me/al Tempera/lire (MDMT) Wi/holl/lmpac/ Testing
Example Problem 1- A Simple Dnml 4-15
Brittle Fracturc - Minimulll Design Mclal Tcmperallll"c Prcssme Vcsscl Dcsign and Analysis - Scminar Notes
"
i
Fig. UCS66.2 1998 SECfION VIU - DIVISION 1
FIG. UCS-66.2 (CONT'O)
GENERAL tWTES:
11) For pipe where a mill undertolerance Is allowed by the material specifIcation, the thickness after mill undertolerance has been deducted
shall Ix> taken as the noncorroded nominal thickness tit for determination of the MDt.n to be stamped on the nanwplate. LIkewise, for
formed heads, the minimum specified thickness after forming shall be used as I".
(2) loadings, Including those listed In UG22, which result in general primary membrane tensile stress at the o n l ~ n t MOMT.
()) E is the joint efficiency (Table UWl2) used In the calculation of t
f
; e has a value equal to Eexceplthat E" shall not be less than 0.60.
For castings, use quality 'ador or Joint efficiency EYAlichevtr governs design.
(4) The construction of Fig. UCS'66Is such that the MDMT so selected Is considered to occur coincidentally wilh an applied qeoeral primary
membrane tensile stress at the maximum allowable .stress value In tension from Table IA of Section II Part 0, Tabular values for Fig.
UCS-M are shown In Table UCS6b.
(5) See UCS-bMa)(I), (2), and 0) for definitions of governing thickness.
(6) If the basis for calculated test pressure Is greater than the design pressure (UG99(c) test], a Ratio based on the I, determined from the
basis for calculated test pressure and associated appropriate value of '" - c shall be used to determine the recommended coldest metal
temperature during hydrost.1tlc tut and the coldest metal temprrature permitled during the pneumatic test. See UGQ9(h) and UG-100{c).
(7) Alternath-ely, a Ratio of S' ~ divided by the produ<.t of the maximum allowable stress value in tension from Table IA of Section 11 Part
o times E may be used, where ~ is the applied qeneral primary membrane tensile stress and Eand e are as defined in General Note (31.
(8) For UCS-6b(b)(IHb) and (1)(2), a ratio of the maximum design pressure at the MOMT to the maKimum allowable pressure (MAP) at
the MOMT shall be used. The MAP 15 defined as the hignest permissible pressute as determined by the design formulas for a component
using the nominal thickness less cOrloslon allowance and the maKlmum allowable stress value from the Table lA of Section II, Part 0
at the MDMT. For ferrille Sleel flanges defined In UCS-6b(c), the flange rating at the warmer of the MOMT or 100"F may be used as
the MAP.
(9) For reductions In MOMT up to and Including 40"F, the reduction can be determined by; reduction in MDMT t= 11 - Ratlo)lOO"F.
no) Acolder MDMT may be obtained by selective use of impact tested materials as appropriate lo the llCed (see UG8tll. See also UCS-6B(c).
Figure 6..General Noles (or Fig. UGS-66.2
}
,
,
,
416 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ;md Analysis - Seminar Notes 13rillle fracllIrc - Minimum Design Metal Temperature
! I
0.39'1 In.
I
i
I
I
I
I
Minimum spe-cilied
I
ylald J1ranglh
I
65 ksi
r
,
/
! /' 55 ksi
I
,/"
/
I ./
60 ks,
I
/""
0 ~
45 ksl
! ./ ./
l:::::::
~
< 38 ksi
I
t.--- I
~
I
!
i
r
,
:
Fig. UG84.1
50
40
:!

30
l'
'0
1
"
,
"'
'0
:>
u
15
'0
o 1.0
1998 SECTION VIn - OJVISION 1
'_0 ;> 3.0
Mallimum Nomlnel Thickness of l ~ r l e l or Weld. In.
GENERAL NOTES:
Cal Inlarpolallon batwean yield stHlngths shown i, permlltod.
Cbl The minimuM Implcl enolgy for ono spacimon shall nol ba less lhan '1J3 of lhe average energy requlled fOI
th,oo spoclmans.
(cl Malarlals produced and IMpacl tested In accordanco with $A320. SA333. SA334. SA350, SA351, SA,nO
and SA165 do not havo 10 satisfy lhose onergy valuel. Thoy ara acceptable for use al minimum design motal
tomperalure not colder than lha lest temperatura when lho anergy values loqulred by tho applicablo
spflciflcatlon .ra sllllsliod,
ldl For matorlalJ having I spaclfied mInimum tllnsllo slrength of 95 ksl or more. soe UGa4IcU'llbl.
FlG_ UG-84_1 CHARPY V-NOTCH IMPACT TEST REQUIREMENTS fOR fULL SIZE SPECIMENS fOR CARBON
ANO LOW ALLOY STEELS, IIAVING A SPECIFIED MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH Of LESS TIIAN 95 ks;,
LISTED IN TABLE UCS-23
Figure 7--Charpy V-Notch Impact Test Requirements _
Example Problem 1- A Simple DnUll 4-17
;
f
.
,
.
.
,
'
"

C
o
3
<
"
C
V
.
;
;
-
v
.
:
r

0
0
c
-
o

"
v
.


I
c
.
.
>
>
<
r
.
-
5
.
:
;
:
'
A
;
;
-
:
;
:
;
.
0
<
r
.
2
g
3
z0;
;
v
.
Prcssure Vessel Dcsign and AUillysis - Scminar Noles nrillic Fracture - Minimulll Design Metal Temperature
Pressurc Vessel Design <lnd Analysis Scminar
Component Design Problcm
Minimum Design Met<ll Temperature
Determine the Minimum Design Metal temperature for the vessel in problem I:
MOMT of Cylinder -
MOMT of Ellipse -
What is Ihe MOMT if the sleel is nol normalized?
MOMT of Cylinder -
MOMT of Ellipse-
DO NOT TURN THE I'AGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
EXill1lplc Problem 1- A Simple Drum 4-t9
OrilLl!.: FrnClure - Minimulll Design Ivklal Temperature
Answers:
Pressure Vessel Dcsign "lid Analysis. Scminar Notes
4-20
I-ill. SI\-516,70, Ilormolized, MOMT =-30 F (-34 C) Curve 0
I-ill. SI\-516,70, lIollllormolized, MOMT = 30 F Curve 13
bllt per UG20, this COil be -20 F (-29 C)
Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Scminar Noles Extern;}1 Pressure on :,hdls and hcnds
EXTERNAL PRESSURE ON SHELLS AND HEADS
Pressure vessels under extern'll pressure buckle r'lther than deforming elastically or yield-
mg.
A cylinder deforms into lobed shapes as shown in Figure 9.
Buckling
0 0
CJ
Mode
, '
0
f \
, -
I I . ,
' ,
\ J
, , .
, -'
--'
.... , _ .. I --

k Number of lobes (k is the
I 2 3 4
number 01 lull sine waves eround
(he periphery)
Pc" Crilical prenure lhe elallic 0 3Et 8Et 15EI
buckling or (No elastic buckling
7 7 --;>
OCCUrl. only side'wile
dilpJacemenlof
undislorloo drciel
Fig. 8.2. Buckling or of Cylindriaal Rin.!: Under EXlernal PrCHU[C Showing Various Modes
Figure B--Buckling or Collapse of Cylindrical Ring
The buckling of a cylinder can be predicted based on the strain due to external pressure. A
given thickness, length, and diameter will buckle at a predictable strain.
With an appropriate factor of safety, the Code uses this strain to calculatc the allowable
stress under external pressure.
The Code calls the critical strain factor 'N and the allowable stress 'B'.
For heads or for allowable compressive stresses in shells, A is a function only of the thick-
ness and diameter.
The geometry chIlli in the Codc is derived from the theorctical buckling strain.
Above a certain length/diamcter ratio (typically 10), the result of the buckling calculation
is independent of the Icngth of the cylinder. Thus, decreasing the free length of a cylinder
docs not begin to increase the allowable pressure until the free rength is less than 10 times
the diameter.
Example Problem 1-- A Simple Dnnl1 4-21
External Pressure on shells and heads Pressure Vcssel Design alUl Analysis - Scminar Noles

-.

M
N
Il'

M
N
<
III a

0
"
u
, <
"

M
N

M
N

owoo-. N
N": ..: ..: ..:
"
0. II! C!
M M :;l

C! 0.

'l: 0. C!

0" I r 4

0" ,l
o
0" 1 f 5
y'r':
____ o
Do /t 6
V
1/
/

I-' I,
V
V
o I" 10
I--'
V
v
V-
00 1/ IS
I I I /
D: ,,'.,),
/
V
:/
V
"
D:/,',l
V / /
V
'"
"
"
f- D:"'. JO
L../
V
V V
"
I I I /
0/r.40
I- 0
9
11 -50
V V /
Oolf 60
l-
V / /
V
V

V V l.-
f
V
'"
V
V
0
0
1/ .100
V
V
V
",V V-
I/
00lt
o
l25

L-
1
f V
,&,
L.- V
V
/'
V-
i"
/ 1/


,:" 001 001 0
0
0
01

-
g

0
/7 .. maW9!O 0PISlno ... lll6u81
Figure gGeometric Chart for Factor A
422 Examplc Problcm J- A Simplc Drum
Pressure Vessel Dcsign and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Extern<ll Pressure on shells <ll1d hC<lds

"
C7>
m U

0'


-: -: .... q :1
N
):

<
<
::...t 1\ \
1\:,A--,\* \\* 1\* 1\* \\* \\* .:J

pO
ol
0/ 0' QO \\ * I
,
V 1/ '/
,
..- /
V '/ / / 1/ V 1/10'"

w-
7 1...-
./ ./ QO\\ ,4';
<
,
V V V /' V
V V
0' d'
.-
l...- v"" VVV /VV' V :M
0' <

<

,
...- V V 1\*/
,
V
V V o'-j-- 'd'
V
l...-
V ...- V l/ ...- ,
1/ 0'. ;p;
..- V
V
,
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V V / Y V
V
V
V
yl/v
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0
0
*
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<
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,
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,
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.-
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-
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-
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""...-
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.-
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z
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0:
w
Z
w
<!J
-
0/ 1 .. JalawgrO BPIslnO + 416u'll
Figure 10--Geometric ClJart for Components under External or Compressive Loadings
Since B is the stress associated with the strain A for a given material, the materials charts
in the external pressure section (ASME, 1992, Section II, Parl D, Subpart 3) are really
just stress strain diagrams for a given material, adjusted to reflect a specific factor of
safety against buckling.
The Code has also provided a tabular form for the charts in Subpart 3.
Example Problcm 1- A Simple Drum
4-23
External Pressure Ull shells aud heads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysi:, - Seminar Nute:,
The external pressure charts have a straight section which corresponds to the clastic por-
tion of the stress strain curve. Inlhis straight section, B is always equal to AE/2 where A is
lhc strain and E is Young's modulus for the material.
""


_,CY.Jl
""
OCO:u
""' .1.")
I,(m
1,1'"
w...
""00
11(;
&,(IoXl



,
3 456/111
"
3 4 5 6 18'
""
,,,crOll "
3 4 5 6 1 III
..",
GENERAL NOTE; See Tablo CS2101 tGbulil ... 31 Ullt,
J,,': J,!
1-
,
t!.Ou'
,
1 I
,
L--

.",
. ,
V-
I-- /
.. ,
--
.
V
-
.
.- -
-_. --

t=
f=
:e.- . -
-
1--
.
-
- 1- --/l!Jf- .
1-190 .. 10'
f' II/II
- l-
I" 110. 10( . .

-
t" n,,, 111
1
71///
rmi'"
- _.

IiSfVI
.
"""
FIG. CS-2 WART FOR DETERMINING SUEll TlUCI<NESS OF COMPONENTS UtlDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
WilEN CONSTRUCTED OF CARBON OR lOW AllOY STEELS (Specified Minimum Yield Strength :30,000 and
Over Except for Materials Within ThIs Rarlge Where Olher Specific Chnts Ate Referenced) AND TYPE 405 AtlD
TYPE 410 STAINLESS STEELS [Noll.' (1))
Figure 11 Typical Materials Chart for Factor B
New Name
CS-I
CS-2
CS-3
CS-4
CS-5
CS-6
Up untillhe 1992 edition of the Code, external pressure charts (and Ihe tabular form) were
in Appendix 5 of Section VllI, Division I, In 1992 these were moved to Part D of Seelion
II (Malerials). They are found in Subparl 3 of Part D. At the same time Ihe names of the
charts were changed. The following table shows the new names, the old names, and all
abbreviated title for each chart:
Table-Garboll Steel Materials
Old Name Title
UCS-28.1 Carbon and Low Alloy, Sy<30000
UCS-28.2 Carbon and Low Alloy, Sy>30000
UCS-28,3 Carbon and Low Alloy, Sy>38000.
UCS-28.4 SA-537
UCS-28.5 SA508, SA-533, SA-54 I
UCS-28.6 SA-562 or SA-620
New Name
HT-1
HT-2
Table...J4eat-TI'eated Materials
Old Name Title
UHT-28.1 SA-517 and SA-592 A, E, and f
UHT-28.2 SA-508 Cl. 4a, SA-543,13,C
New Name
Table-8lainless Steel (High Alloy) Materials
Old Name Title
424 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ,1Ild Analysis - Scminnr Notes External Pressure 011 shells ,11ld heads
HA-I
HA-2
IIA-3
HAA
HA-5
UIIA-28.1
UIIA-28.2
UHA-28.3
UHA-28.4
UIIA-28.5
Type 304
Type 3 16, 321, 347, 309, 310, 430B
Type 304L
Type 316L, 317L
Alloy S31500
New Name
Table-l'/{)n Ferrons Materials
Old Name Title
NFA-I
NFA-2
NFA-3
NFA-4
NFA-5
NFA-6
NFA-7
NFA-8
NFA-9
NFA-IO
NFA-II
NFA-12
NFA-13
NFA-14
NFC-I
NFC-2
NFC-3
NFC-4
NFC-5
NFC-6
NFN-I
NFN-2
NFN-3
NFN-4
NFN-5
NFN-6
NFN-7
NFN-8
NFN-9
NFN-IO
NFN-II
NFN-12
NFN-13
NFN-14
NFN-15
NFN-16
NFN-17
NFN-18
NFN-19
Example Problem 1- A Simple DnllTI
UNF-28.2
UNF-28.J
UNF-28.4
UNF-28.5
UNF-28.IJ
UNF-28.14
UNF-28.17
UNF-28.18
UNF-28.19
UNF-28.20
UNF-28.2J
UNF-28.JO
UNF-28.J I
UNF-28.J2
UNF-28.9
UNF-28.10
UNF-28.11
UNF-28.12
UNF-28.4J
UNF-28.48
UNF-28.1
UNF-28.6
UNF-28.7
UNF-28.8
UNF-28.15
UNF-28.24
UNF-28.25
UNF-28.27
UNF-28.29
UNF-28.JJ
UNF-28.34
UNF-28.J6
UNF-28.J7
UNF-28.J8
UNF-28.J9
UNF-28.40
UNF-28.44
UNF-28.45
UNF-28.46
ALJ003,0 and HI 12
ALJ003, HJ4
ALJ004, 0 and H112
ALJ004, 1134
AL5154,0 and H112
C61400 (Aluminum Bronze)
ALl060,0
AL5052,0 and HI 12
AL5086, 0 and H112
AL5456,0
AL5083, 0 and H112
AL6061, T6, T65 I, T65 10 and T6511
AL6061, T4, T451, T4510 and T4511
AL5454, 0 and H J12
Annealed Copper
Copper-Silicon A and C
Annealed 90-10 Copper Nickel
Annealed 70-30 Copper Nickel
Welded Copper Iron Alloy Tube
SB-75 and SB-Ill Copper Tube
Low Carbon Niekcl
Ni
Ni Cu Alloy
Annealed Ni Cr Fe
Ni Mo Alloy B
Ni Mo Cr Fe
Ni Mo Cr Fe Cu
Ni Fe Cr Alloy 800 .
Ni Fe Cr Alloy 800H
Ni Moly Chrome Alloy NI0276
Ni Cr Fe Mo Cu Alloys G and G-2
Cr Ni Fe Mo Cu Co, SB-462, 463, etc.
Ni Fe Cr Si Alloy 330
Ni Cr Mo Grade C-4
Ni Mo Alloy X
Ni Mo Alloy B-2
Ni Cr Mo Co N06625 (Alloy 625)
Ni Mo Cr Fe Cn (Grade G-3)
Ni Mo Cr Pe Cu (Grade G-3, >3/4)
4-25
E.\lt:rnal Pressure 011 shells alld hcruls Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis St:lllinar Notes
NFN-20
NI-T-I
NFT-2
NFT-3
NFZ-I
NFZ-2
UNF-28.47
UNF-28.22
UNF-28.28
UNF-28.42
UNF-28.35
UNF-28.41
Work Hanlcncd Nickel
Unalloyed Titaniulll, Grnde I
Unalloyed Titanium, Grade 2
Til"nium, Gradc I
Zirconium, Alloy 702
Zirconium, Alloy 705
h/3
t
L --+---
1113
h a depth 01 hcad-!4, ..j
L -.;..- L-
Moment axis of ring ~ ~ ~
1-'
00
I
L ~ L
I I
Ih-- L --,J.,- L-i-l
I
I L
r
,
Do
,
Figure 12--Typical Geometry showing variables used for External Pressure Analysis
4-26 EXClIllJllc Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design rllld Annlysis - Seminar Noles Stiffening
STIFFENING
/\ section ora vcsscl held ill a circular shape by a stifTening ring will not buckle into lobes,
and will prevent the sections ncar it on either side frolll buckling into lobes.
for a given length of cylinder, the Code requires that the stiffener have a known moment
of incrtia, to cnsure that it will hold the section round for the calculated external load.
The reinforcement required in a stiffener increases as a function of the length between
stiffeners. However, increasing a stiffener size does not change the maximum length
between stiffeners at all.
When calculating available stiffener moment of inertia, the Code allows you to decide
whether or not to take the shell into account in your calculation.
Thc Codc allows you to include a width of shell in the calcutation cqual to
1.1 * SQRT(Do*t). This is the dccay length of the cylinder.
2.00
Decay Length:!: 1,56SQRT{rl)
0.00
1
0.'
0.0
0.7
0.6
0.'
0.'
0.'
0.2
_ : : ~ H ~ ~ ==+---;' I
-0.2
-0.3
~ O 4
-O.!l
-0.6
-0.7
-0.6
-0
~ I I I I '=...",/ I I I
04.00 6,00
o (Xp(eX) x COS(BX)
v EXP(BX)'COS(8X)
Figure 13--Decay Length for Cylinder Local Bending
The required value of the moment of inertia will be higher when you include the shell in
your actual moment ofincrtia.ln cffect the Code credits something for the shell when you
chose not to use it in your calculation.
Example Problem 1- A Simple DnllJl 4-27
Stifrening Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
r1rY' i
T
,"
l{J i j
L
1_
-l, ,
I 'l'
. - 21 Ibl 1--11
I NOIII (II .nd (:Ill Irlol.1311
--l
T r
iLL
L L
1,
J
'lc - tI Ie - 21
[Notu OJ 3M l:lll
'Cdl
'.1
INoI. (3))
'"
INotll (3)\
'NOTES:
C11 VlII.n 1"'- conl.to-cv'inder Of' thl Junction I. not, line ollUpport. tho nomln,l thlcknell of Ihe cone.
knuckle. 01 1000ieonlc.t uetlon lh.1I not be 111I1han Ih. minimum reQulre-d thlckneu of Ih. adiKllnl evllndlle.1 ,hill.
121 Calculetlon, ch,U be made u,lng tho dllmeter end cOHupandlrog thlcknen of nch ,e-ctlon ..,llh dlmen.lon L III 'hown.
IJI Vlhln \h. con..to-<Vllnder or Ihe knueklo-toeylindef junction II' line of .uPpor(. th' momlnt of Inertl' ,h. II 1.>"
pt'ovldloJ In llGCOrd,nCl with 1-8.
Figure 14--Geometry Showing Design Length for External Pressure for Cylinders
What do you need to know to analyze cylinders and heads for external pres-
sure?
External Pressure Chart
The tables of allowable tensile stress fol' materials also give the name of the external pres-
sure c1wrt to use for the analysis. Many external pressure charts have both lower and upper
limits on temperature. If your design temperature is below the lower limit, use values cho-
sen at thc lower limit. If your temperature is above the upper limit thc component should
not be designcd for vacuum conditions.
Diameter
Thc diamclcr for external pressure considcrations is ;]Iways the ollis ide diamcter.
4-28 Example Problem 1-/\ Simple Drum
Pressurc Vcssel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes SlilTcning
Actual (or assumed) Thickness
The strain factor is based on the ratio of diameter to thickness. Therefore to find the
required thickness for a given pressure, you have to guess a thickness, calculate the allow-
able pressure associated with that thickness, and keep modifying it until the allowable
pressure is equal to the desired pressure.
Design Length for the Vessel or Vessel Segment
The design length orthe section is typically the length orthe vessel pills one third the
depth of the heads or, alternately, the distance between stinening rings.
For a vessel with 2 elliptical heads nnd no intermediate stiffeners, the design length is the
tangent length plus the diameter/G.
for a vessel with 2 spherical hcads and no intermediate stiffencrs, the design length is the
tangent length plus the diametcr!3.
For a vessel with 2 flanged and dishcd heads and no intermediate stiffeners, the design
length is the tangent length pills the diameterl9.
Width and Thickness of Reinforcing Rings.
Most external pressure stiffcning rings arc a simple flat plate cut (or rolled the hard way)
into the shnpe of a donut. Calculate the momcnt of inertia of the flat plate by combining it
with the shell section.
You can also combine the moment of inertia of a beam section with the shell contribution
using thc parallcl axis transfer theorem.
Example Problem A Simple Drum 4-29
.
.
.
wo
~n
~
n<gn
r
n
C
~
n"
-
c
~

;
;
-
-
0

;
:
;
"
-
<
:
-
>
;
;
-
;
;
~
-
<
I
"
"
,
.
.
>
c
r
.
~
g
-
c;
;
-
~
~
z9
-
n"
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
0-101 Shell and Heads - Extemal Pressure:
Stiffening
Using the gCOIllCtlY defined for internal pressurc, eheck the shell and heads for full vac-
UUIll.
Notes:
Questions:
\Vhat is the rcquircd thickness?
Whatthiekness will you use?
What is the M.A. w.p for the Shell?
What is the M.A. w.p. for the Head?
Why are the M.A.W.p for the shell and the head so different?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum 4-31
Stiffening Pressurc Vessel Design ,111(\ Analysis - Seminar Notcs
CQADE Engineering Software
PVEI i te 4 . 00 Li censee: COADE Inc., Loca 1 \'/hi te Lock
F'ileName : Seminar --------------------------------------- P<lgc 6
Shell Analysis: 0101 EXTERNAL Item: 3 9:51<1 Scp "1,2000
Input Echo, Component 3. Description: 0101 EXTERNAL
Include Hydrostatic lIead Components
l-1inimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Design External Pressure
Temperature for External Pressure
External Pressure Chart Name
Ilatedal Specification (Normalized)
Allow<lble Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name [or Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Shell Joint
15.00 psig
450.00 P
CS-2
NO
SI\-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
D
.00
268.0000 in.
244.0000 in.
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
o . 1250 in.
S
SA
T
CA
E
PF.:XT
L
CYLLEN
D
~ n g t h of Section
of Cylinder for Volume Cales.
Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Design
I,ength
Inside
Type o[ Element: Cylindrical Shell
WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, ORIGINAL
Volume of Shell Component
weight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
~ i g h t of Water in Component
THICKNESS:
VOLI1BT
Wl1ET
VOLID
\'111AT
111149.8
31455.4
3973'188.0
143497.9
in . , 3
lb.
in. "3
lb.
lb.
in. "3
lb.
in." 3 97339.7
27547.1
3987598.0
143996.6
CORRODED THICKNESS:
Corroded VOWETCA
Corroded Wl1ETCA
Corroded VOLIDCA
Corroded WWATCA
AND VOLUME RESULTS,
of Shell Component,
of Shell Component,
Volume of Component,
of l1ater in Component,
WEIGHT
Volume
Height
Inside
Weight
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUI18BR 3, Desc.; 0101 EXTERNAL
ASf.lB Code. Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
External Pressure Chart CS-2
Elastic "lodulus for Material
at 450.00 F
27500000.00 psi
Results for tlax. Allowable External Pl"essute (Emawp):
Corroded Thickness of Shell TCA 0.8750
Outside Diameter of Shell 00 146.0000
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone SLEN 268.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio (0/1') 166.8571
Length / Diameter Ratio LD 1.8356
Geometly Factor, A f(DT,LD) l\ 0.0003286
flaterials Factor, B, f(A, Chart) B 4518.0068
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure 36.10
Ef.lA\'IP .. (4'B)/(3'(D/T)1 """ (4 ' 4518.0068 1/( 3' 166.8571 )
in.
in.
in.
psi
psig
.. 36.1028
Results fOl" Reqd Thickness for Ext. Pressure (Tca)
4-32 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressurc Vcssel Design and Analysis - SCml1l<lr Noles Stiffcning
COADE Engineering
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local I'lhite Lock
rileName Seminar ------------------------ -------------- Page 7
Shell Analysis 0101 EXTERNAL Item; 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Corroded Thickness of Shell TCA 0,6158
Outside Diameter of Shell 00 146.0000
Design Length of cylinder or Cone SLEN 268.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio (0/1') 237.0924
Length / Diameter Ratio I,D 1.8356
Geometry F'actor, A f(DT,LD) A 0.0001940
rlaterials F'actor, B, f(A, Chart) B 2667.3970
rlaximum \'larking Pressure 15.00
EI1l\\'/P = (4*S)/D*(O/T)) = ( 'I * 2667.3970 )/( 3 * 237.0924 )
in.
in.
in.
psi
psig
= 15.0006
in.
in.
in.
psi
psig
= 15.0013
0.8750
146.0000
6'1'1.9812
166.8571
4.4177
0.0001365
1877.3041
15.00
166.8571 )
TeA
00
SLEN
(0/1')
LD
A
B
Results for Jlaximum Length Bet"'Jeen Stiffeners (Slenl
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry F'actor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials F'actor, B, f(A, Chart)
rlaximuffi Allowable l'larking Pressure
EHA1'IP", (4*8)/(3*(0/1')) '" (41877.304) l/( 3
(
36.10 psig
15.00 psig
0.7408 in.
1.0000 in.
644.981 in.
268.00 in.
SUI1I1ARY of EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Required Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
rlaximum Length for Thickness and Pressure
Actual Length as entered by User
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum 4-33
Stilfenlng Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
e01\DE Engineering Sofl""'are
i t.e 4. 00 Li censee: COAOE r nc ., Loca I \'/hi te Lock
FileName: Seminar ------------------.--.--- ------------ rage 8
Shell 1\rwlysis : 0101 EXT HE1\D Item; 4 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Component 4. Description: 0101 EXT HEAD
Design Ext.ernal Pressure
Temperat.ure for f:o:xtel'nal Pressure
External Pressure Chart. Name
Include Hydrostatic !lead Components
!latel'ial Specification (Normalized)
1\llowable Stress 1\t Temperature
Allowable Stress At AMbient
Curve Name [or Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency [or Head Joint
Inside Diameter of Elliptical Head
rlinimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
lI.spect Ratio
Length o[ Straight Flal:ge
PEXT
S
SA
r.
D
T
CA
AR
STRTFLG
15.00 psig
450.00
,.
CS-2
NO
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
0
1.00
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.1250 in.
2.0000
2.0000 in.
Type of Element.:
WEIGHT and VOLW1E RESULTS, ORIGINAL
Volume of Shell Component
\'leight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
weight of I-Iater in Component
Inside Vol. of 2.00 in. Straight
Total Volume for Ilcad ... Straight
Elliptical Head
THICKNESS:
VOLt1ET 26074.9 in. H3
wtIET 7379.2 lb.
vaLID 390864.4 in. * 03
WI-I1\T 14114.5 lb.
VOLSCA 32572.0 in. * 03
VOLTaT 423436.4 in.' 03
WEIGHT AND RESULTS, CORRODED TIIICKNESS:
Volume of Shell Component, Corroded VQUoIETCA 22815.5 in. "3
Weight of Shell component, Corroded WIIETCA 6456.8 lb.
Inside Volume of Component, Corroded VOLIDC1\ 392903.7 in.' 03
Weight of NateI' in Component, Corroded I'lWATCA 14188.2 lb.
Inside Vol. ot 2.00 in. Straight, Carr. VOLSCA )2685.2 in ... )
Total Volume for Head * Straight Corroded VaLTCA 425588.9 in.' 03
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUtmER 4, Desc.; 0101 EXT HEAD
Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
External Pressure Chart CS-2
Elastic 1lodulu5 for 1laterial
at 450.00 F
27500000.00 psi
Pressure (Emawp) Results for 11ax. Allowable External
Corroded Thickness of
Outside Diameter o[ Shell
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f{DT,LD)
rlaterials Factor, B, f (A, Chart)
rlaximum 1\llo.... able I-Iorking Pressure
TCA
OD
(O/T)
A
"
0.8750
146.0000
166.8571
0.0008324
10051.5:;n3
66.93
in.
in.
psi
p5ig
4-34 Example Problem 1- A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
eOADE Engineering Software
PVF.lite <1.00 Licensee: eOADE fnc., Local l'lllite Lock
PileName : Seminar - ----- --- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- ------- -- - - Page 9
Shell Analysis 0101 EXT HEAD Item: 4 9:51a Sep 21,2000
EHANP B K O ~ (O/T)) = 10051.5273/( 0.9000 166.8571 I = 66.9337
0.3882 in.
Pressure (Tca):
TeA
on
(0/1')
A
B
146.0000 in.
376.0957
0.0003693
5077.7563 psi
15.00 psig
0.9000' 376.0957) = 15.0014
Results for Reqd Thickness for Ext.
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
Geometry Pactor, A [(DT ,I,D)
'laterials PactaI', B, f(A, Chart I
Ilaximum Allowable l'lorking Pressure
EftM1P = B/ (KO (0/1')) = 5077.7563/ (
(
SI.RolfIJ\RY of EXTERNAl. PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Reguired Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
66.93
15.00
0.5132
1.0000
psig
psig
in.
in.
The PV Elite Program, (cl 1989-2000 by COAOE Engineering Software
Examplc Problcm I-A Simple DnUll 4-35
Nozzle Reinrorccmcnl 'Illd Failure P"th C:llculations Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT AND FAILURE PATH CALCULATIONS
The Code implements an "area replacement" concept: Near an opening there should be
"extra" metal equal to the area of required metal missing due to the presence of the open-
ing.
This area needs to be replaced because of stress intensification at the hole. A hole in a
fairly large cylinder is roughly the same as a hole ill a flat plate loaded in plane. Stress
intensification factors for this case arc
Axial Load Only 3.00
Cylinder 2.50
Sphere 2.00
Asecond consideration in the design of the nozzle is making the connection strong enough
so that pressure loads will not pop the nozzle off the vessel.
The Code rules for nozzle reinforcement and failure path calculations arc found in para-
graphs UG-37 to UG-41. The Code takes into account the differing strengths of different
materials (i.e. the nozzle, the reinforcing plate, the shell) by using strength reduction fac-
tors on any area where the material used has a lesser strength thnn the basic shell material.
All vessel and nozzle thickness calculations arc based on seamless components - Eis
always equal to I.
If the opening is ill the spherical portion of a torispherical head, the required thickness
is based on a torispherical head with M= 1. This is a result of the lower stress in the
central portion of a head, and the lower stress intensity at a hole in a sphere.
If the opening is in an elliptical head and is inside a circle based on 80% of the diame-
ter, the required thickness is based on a seamless sphere with a radius of90 percent of
the vessel diameter.
For external pressure, the Code requires that only one half of the required area removed be
replaced. The required area is based on the niles for external pressure.
For nat heads (Paragraph UG-39), the Code requires that only one half of the required area
removed be replaced, because the head is loaded in bending rather than in tension.
Limits of reinforcement (Paragraph UG-40) are intended to assure that the metal used to
replace missing metal is close enough to the hole to be effective. They arc based on the
characteristic length, or decay length of the vessel:
1.56 * SQRT(R*t)
This is an extremely eomlllon expression in pressure-vessel design; it describes the dis-
tance along a vessel shell in which the efTeet of any load will be felt. Beyond this distance,
the effcct of the load has decayed to ncar zero.
The Code approxilnatcs this distance as 2x the corroded inside diameter orthe hole along
the shell, and 2.5 times the thickness of the nozzle radial to the shell (based on rlt 10).
Small openings (Paragraph UG-36) arc exempt from reinforcement requirements:
if t<=3/8, 3 in. and smaller are exempt
if t> 3/8, 2 in. and smaller are exernpt
4-36 Example Problem I-A Simple Drulll
Pressure Vessel Design nile! Allnlysis * Seminar Notes Nozzle Reinforcement nile! Fnilure Pnlh Calculntiolls
Large openings have special niles which are located in Appendix 1-7. These rulcs required
that more oCthe reinCoreement be placed close to the opening. They apply when one oCthe
Collowing statemenls is tme:
The diameter oClhe nozzle is greater than 20 ill. or greater than D/2 when the vessel is
60 in. or less.
The diameter of the nozzle is greater than 40 in. or greater than D/3 when the vesscl is
more than 60 in.
Bending-end membrane stresses are computed Cor some "large" nozzles per 1-7.
Strength of reinforcement and failure path calculations arc found in paragraphs UG-41,
UW-15, UW-16. The Code requires that the strength of any failure path through the nozzle
and its reinCorcement be grcater than the strength oCa Cailure path through the vessel shell.
There arc two basic placements oC nozzles Cor which the Cailure path becomes an issue: I)
inserted through the shell wall and 2) abUlting the shell wall. Area of reinforcement calcu-
lations arc diITerent Cor the two cases.
Paragraph UW-I 5 (b) exempts many of Ihe commonly used nozzle attachment geometries
Crom strength calculations.
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum 4-37
Nozzle Reinforccment ma\ Fnilurc Pouh Calculnliulls Pressure Vessel Design and Annlysis - Seminar Notes
11.2 STRESSES AND LOADINGS AT OPENINGS 337
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Figure to-Stress Intensification at a Hole
in a Flat Plate under Various Loadings
4-38 Example Problcm I-A Simple Drum
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HEADS, ETC. (CONT' D)
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Nozzle Reinforccment and Failure Path Calculations Pressun: Vessel Dcsign ;llld Analysis - Scminar Notes
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Fig. UG-n.l
U lOIOff v.l.... V.. Ill\'l'f walue
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FIG. UG)7.1 fWMENCLATURE AfW rORMULA$ FOR REINFORCED OPENltlG$
!This Flgurt IIlustrales a Common tlOlllt Confi9uraUon and Is Ilot
Intended to PIohlblt Other Confi9uratlons Permitted by Code.>
Figure 5Area Replacement Calculations for Typical Nozzle Configurations
Exmnplc Problem I-A Simple Drul1l
Prc:-surc Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Nozzle Rcinforn:nu:n( and Failure Path Calculations
PART UO - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
.,
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Fig. UG41.l
FIG. UG-41.1 NOZZLE ATTACHMENT WElD LOADS APID WElD STRENGTH PATHS TO BE COIlSJOEREO
Figure 6--Failure Paths (or Typical Nozzle Configurations
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum 4-43
Nozzle Rcinfon:emcnt and Failure Path C<llculnlions Prc,:.;surc Vt:ssel Design ami Annlysis - Scminar Notes
Fig. UG41.1 1998 SECfION vm - DIVISION I
....;:..
4-44
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GENERAL NOTES:
(al Afeils AI' I I I ~ and AHilfO modified by ',xlaetofs.
(hl Nomenclatufl is the same as in UG37 ilnd Fig. UG37.1.
'IM D.pict. TypiClI Nonl' 0.1111 With Nick Abutting lhe Vossel Well
FIG. UG-41.1 NOZZLE ATTACHMENT WELD LOADS AND WELD STRENGTH PATHS TO BE CONSIDERED
lCDNI'D)
Figure T--Failure Paths for Typical Nozzle Configurations (continued)
Example Problem I ~ Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Scminar Notes
HILLSIDE AND OFF-ANGLE NOZZLE ANGLES
Hillside and Orr-Angle Nozzk Anglcs
There are two main categories of ofT-angIe vessel nozzles: those which are off-angle in the
longitudinal planc of the cylinder (Y-angle nozzles, Figure 23), and those which are orr
angle in the circumferential plane ofa cylinder, or in a head (Hillside nozzles, Figure 24).
In order to analyze these kinds of nozzles, CodcCalc asks the user for the angle between
the nozzle centerline and a tangent to the vessel mean radius, as also showll in Figures 23
and 24. However, for hillside nozzles, the determination of this angle can be difficult. This
section provides a few simple equations that can help the user determine the nozzle angle.
The overall goal of this calculation is simple: to find an angle that will make the finished
diameter of the hole fit perfectly within the nozzle. The finished diameter is the dimension
d in Figures 23 and 24, which is called DLII in the CodeCalc print-outs. Ifwe had the
nozzle in front orus and could measure d, thcn we could calculate the input angle vcry
simply lIsing the following equation:
where dn:=: inside diameter of nozzle
d DLR finished diameter of holc
sinn:=: sine of angle betweellllozzic and vessel
Whcn we analyze Y-angle nozzles, this is really all the information we need: the angle is
known and the result is exact:
d DLR !."-
SInn
However, when we analyze hillside nozzles, as shown in Figure 2, the angle is usually not
known. Instead, we may know the offset distance for the nozzle. This distance (L) is the
distance between the centerline of the cylinder or head, and the centerline of the nozzle. A
first approximation to the angle would take thc cosine of the angle as L I rm, where nll is
the mean cylinder or head radius at the point of attachment. However, this approximation
turns out to be too inaccurate for practical use.
The ASME Code has a sample problem (L-7.7) that shows what their preferred method
appears to be. They do not explicitly address this off-anglc problcm in the body of the
Code. Figure 3, taken from ASME (Section VIII, Division I, Addenda An, Page 512),
shows their sample problem. The key to their approacli is the calculation of two angles, al
and a2, and then the calculation of the finished diameter from the difference between these
two angles. You can follow their calculation on Page 512 aml513 of the Code. For our
purposes, we do not need to eany the calculation that far. The angle we are looking for, a
isjust the average of the two Code angles as calculated previously. The following equa-
tions show how to calculate this angle:
(
L - r,,)
a 0: arccos __
I r
"'
(
L + ,. )
U
J
= arccos --"
- ,.
'"
a
l
+ a
2
n = arccos--
2
Examplc Problcm I-A Simple DIlJlll 4-45
Hillside ami On'-Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure V l ~ e Design and Annlysis - Semil1nr Noles
Where L ~ offsct distancc cylinder / head ccnterline
rn = inside nozzle radius
rill = mean vessel radius
These three equations can be used without any further information for any hillside nozzle
in a cylinder. However, you need to apply thcm carefully to hillside nozzles in heads.
When a hillside nozzle is in an elliptical or torispherical head, the nozzle may be located in
thc spherical portion of the hcad, the toroidal portion of the hcad, or it may straddle the
two portions. This is shown in Figure 4. Each of these cases requires a slightly different L
and I'm to be used in equations.
When the nozzle lies entircly within the spherical portion of the head (Figure 4(a)), L is
simply the offset from the head ccnterline, and I'm is the spherical radius of the head. For
spherical or torispherical heads, this should be a known radius (Code dimension L in Fig-
ure 1-4 of Appendix I, for example).
Note The Code uses inconsistent terms herc.
For elliptical heads, the spherical portion is taken to be a circle drawn on the head with a
diametcr of 80 percent of the head diameter. The radius of the spherical portion is taken to
be 0,90 times the head diameter. The nozzle offset from the vessel centerline should be
known fr0111 the vessel drawings.
The nozzle can also lie entirely in the knnckle portion of the head (Figure 4(c)). The mean
radius (1'",) is the mean knuckle radius, and the offset (L) is distance from the origin of the
knuckle radius to the centerline of the nozzle. Note that for an elliptical head, the knuckle
is defined as anything outside a circle drawn on the head with a diamcter of 80 percent of
the head diameter. The knuckle radius is 0.17 times the vessel diameter.
Finally, the nozzle may be located so that parI of the nozzle is in the spherical portion, and
part in the knuckle (Figure 4(b)). In this case, the angle at the part of the nozzle in the
spherical portion should be caleulated as described for Figure 4(a), and the angle at the
part in the knuckle portion should be caleulatcd as described for Figure 4(c). That is, cal-
culate the inside angle using the spherical radius of the head and olTset from the ccnterline.
4-46 Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design <Inti All<llysis - Seminar Notes Ilillside and Off-Angle Nuzzle Angles
Calcultlte the outside angle using the mean radius of the knuckle and the offset from the
knuckle origin.
Figure 8-- Y-angle Nozzle: Nozzle angled in the longitudinal plane 01 a cylinder
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum 4-47
Ililiside ant! Olrl\nglc Nozzle Angles Prc:-;surc Vessel Design ,lilt! AlI:tlysis - Seminar NOles
L = Offset Dislonce
Figure 9--Hillside Nozzle
-In in.
-....-"'--r---:
,7
_.Y
! /
Rn=2in. ./
./
/
I
/
a2
/
1/2 in. lillel_, ... /
' .... ,..:
r7'77"?/"
[/ / '-
.. ;.:'
R=15 in. / /
,,,,/
aJ/
j
" .,
\ \
\ i
\ \
r
,
, i
; I 11/2 ill.
Figure 10-ASME Code Figure L-7.7, Example of Reinforced Opening
4-48 Example Problem I-A Simple Drulll
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis .. Scminar Noles Ililiside anti Olr-Angle Nozzlc Angles
I--- Lo _. \29
~ r l l
Tordial
P0I1ioll
r-L-l
A'
I ' \
';-i< I II Spherical 1'0l1ion
fI ~ Knuckle \
{'.L1 Radius \ Spherical Radius
Examplc Problcm I-A Simple Drum 4-49
Hillside and O r r n g l ~ Nozzlc Angles
___ I
'I' "'1' oruw
Portion
Pressure Vcssel Design lind Analysis Scminar Notcs
r-
L
Figure l1--Hiflside nozzles in /leads
4-50
What do you need to know to perform nozzle reinforcement calculations?
Required Thickness of Head or Shell and Nozzle
The thickness of an elliptical head is analyzed as "n equivalent spherical head, as speci fied
in the Code, paragraph UG-37 (a), SimilarlY,thc thickness of the spherical portion ofa
torispherical head is analyzed using the same method and code reference.
If your nozzle is outside 80% of the diameter of an elliptical head, or in the toroidal por-
lion of a torispherical head, you must calculate the required IhickJless using the rules of
UG-32 rather than the I1Iles described above (but wilh E=1.0 in all cases).
You must also calculate the required thickness for a flat head. However, you may reduce
the required area of reinforcement by 50% for a Oat head.
For external pressure, you must calculate the required thickness using the guidelines in
Paragraph UG-28 for cylinders and UG-33 for heads. Once again, however, you may
reduce the required area ofreinforeement by 50 percent for external pressure.
Geometry of Nozzle and Shell
You must know the diameters, thicknesses, and corrosion allowances for both the shell
component (cylinder or head) and the nozzle. Most nozzles are constnicted from pipe or
long weld neck Oanges, bUI occasionally from plate (for large nozzles) or from integrally
reinforced inserts.
The Code slates that metal usually associated with the pipe fabrication tolerance (mill
undertolerance) may be included in lhe calculation of the available area in a nozzle. Sec
paragraph UG-16(b),
The nozzle may be inserted through the vessel wall. Ifso, any metal in the insert, less cor-
rosion, is available for reinforcement.
Example Problcm I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Diameter Limit, Thickness Limit
lIillside and Orr.Anglc Nozzle Angles
Thc diamcter limit is the maximum distance, frolll the centerline of the nozzle along the
vessel wall, that can be calculated to delermine available areas in the shell or a pad. The
Code calculates this limit based 011 the corroded ID oflhe nozzle or the inside radius of the
nozzle plus the shell thickness plus the pad thickness. YOlllllust be conscious orallY phys-
ical obstmctions (other nozzles, welds, the end of the vessel, ctc.) which would prevent the
nozzle from making usc of reinforcement out to this diameter.
The thickness limit is the distance, from the vessel surface along the nozzle axis, that can
be taken credit for when calculating the areas available in the nozzle wall and the pad. The
Code calculates Ihis limit based on the thickness of the shell and pad or the nozzle wall.
You must be conscious of any physical obstnlctions (no insert, studding pad, welding out-
lei, etc.) that would prevent the nozzle from making use of reinforcement out to this thick-
ness.
Is the Nozzle in a Seam?
Ifso, the seam emcicncy is used in the "area available" calculations to reduce the area
available in the shell. However, for the shell thickness calculations themselves, the seam
efficiency is always 1.0.
Details of Nozzle Welds
The welds that attach the nozzle and the reinforcing pad to the shell are important because
thcy contribute to the arca available for reinforccment and because they frequently control
the failure path calculations. Most nozzles arc attached with full penetration groove welds,
plus required fillet welds. Some of these geometries arc exempt from failure path calcula-
tions. Specifically, UW-15(b) indicates that no strength calculations for nozzle allachment
welds are required for figure UW-16.I, sketches (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f-I), (f-2), (f-3),
(f-4), (g), (x-I), (y-I), and (z-I).
Nozzle weld thicknesses are based on Figure UW-16. I. The outward nozzle weld is com-
pared to the cover weld required by the Code. Note that the mii,imum dimension of a weld
is 0.7 times its leg dimension. Note also thaI for cover welds the maximum weld the Code
requires is 0.25 in. The pad weld requirement is typically at least one half of the element
thickness. In addition to the cover welds, the total groove weld plus cover weld for
inserted nozzles must bc at least 1.25 timcs thc minimum c1emcnt thickness.
Large Nozzle Considerations
For large diameter nozzles, the rules of Appendix 1-7 rcquire that two-thirds of the rein-
forccmcnt be within 0.75 of the natural diameter limit for the nozzle. If the calculated
value of the percent within this limit is greater than 66%, the nozzle is adequately rein-
forced for the large diameter rules.
Manway or Access Opening
If this nozzle is a manway or access opening, the code docs not require the minimum noz
zle ncck thickness calculations per UG-45 be performed.
Example Problcm I-A Simplc Dnllll 4-51
Ilillside and Olr-Angle Nozzle
4-52
Vessel Design <lnd All<llysis .. Scmil1<lr Nutes
Examplc Problcm I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ;'Iud An;llysis - Seminar Notes Ililiside mul On.... 1\ngle Nozzle Angles
Pressure Vesscl Design and Analysis Scminar
Component Design Problem
D-IOI Nozzle A:
Location
Size
Material
Thickness
Flange Class
Flange Material
Cylinder
12 in. (300 NS)
SA 106, C
Schedule 80
300
1.1
The Nozzle is inserted into the vessel wall.
There is a .687-in. (17.45 mm) partial penetration groove weld
between the vessel wall and the nozzle neck.
Nozzle Outside Projection is 8.0 in. (203 nun)
No Internal Projections arc allowed in this vessel.
There is a 22-in. (559 mm) diameter reinforcing pad
The Pad material is the same as the Shell material.
There is a full penetration weld between the pad and the nozzlc ncck.
There is a 0.375-in.(9.55 mm) cover weld between the pad and the nozzle
neck.
There is a 0.625-in. (16 mm) weld between the OD of the pad and the vessel.
Notes:
Questions:
What pad thickness (ifany) will you use?
What is the M.A.W.P. for the assembly?
Docs this nozzle limit the M.A. w.P. for the vessel? _
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMI'LETED YOUR ANALYSIS
EX,Hllpic Problem I-A Simple Dnull 4-53
Ilillside Orr-Angle Nozzle Angles Vessel Design Anillysis - Seminar Noles
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
PVElite 4.00 COADE Inc., Local \'lhite Lock
FileName; Seminar ------------ ... -.---------------------- Page 14
Nozzle Analysis; 0101 Nozzle A Item; 9;Sla Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Nozzle Item Description: 0101 Nozzle A
Haterial (Not Normalized or NI\)
Allowable Stress at Temperature SN
Nozzle Allowable Stress At Ambient SNA
Insert or Abutting Nozzle Type
Outward Projection of Nozzle
Weld leg size between Nozzle and Pad/Shell
Groove weld depth between Nozzle and Vessel
Angle between Nozzle and Shell or Head
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Diameter of Nozzle
230.00 psig
450.00 F
SI\-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
144.0000 in.
1. 0000 in.
0.1250 in.
90.00 Degrees
SA-I06 C
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
00
12 . 0000 in .
Nominal
SCH 80
0.1250 in.
1.00
1.00
Insert
8.0000 in.
0.3750 in.
0.6870 in.
o
T
CAS
S
SA
NTYP
HD
>1O
WGNV
P
TEIIP
ANGLE
BASISN
DIA
DBN
THKNOi-l
CAN
ES
EN
(Normalized)
Stress at Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Haterial
Allowable
Allowable
Design Internal Pressure Case
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell
Shell
Shell
Inside Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Actual Thickness of Shell or Head
Corrosion Allowance for Shell or Head
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis
Thickness of Nozzle
corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam at Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck
Pad tlaterial (Not Normalized or NA) SA-516 70
Pad Allowable Stress at Temperature SN 20000.00 psi
Pad Allowable Stress At Ambient SNA 20000.00 psi
Diamet.er of Pad along vessel surface DP 22.0000 in.
Thickness of Pad TP 0.7500 in.
Weld leg size between Pad and Shell >lP 0.6'-50 in.
Groove weld depth between Pad and Nozzle Io'IGPN 0.7500 in.
Is this is 'lanway/Access/Inspection Opening
Skip Iterative Failure Thickness calculations
No
Yes
NOZZLE CALCULATION, NOZZLE NUIlBER 1, Description: 0101 Nozzle A
ASf1E Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99, UG-37 to UG45
Actual Nozzle Diameter used in calculation
Actual Nozzle Thickness Used in Calculation
12.750 in.
0.687 in.
Internal Pressure Results {or SHELL/HEAD
4-54 Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Ilressurc Vcsscl Design owl! Analysis - Seminar Noles Ilillside and OlT.Angle Nozzlc Angles
COAOE Engineering SO[Lware
PVElite 4.00 I.icensee: COAOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar -. -_.- -- ---- --- - - -- - - - -. - - - - -- - - Page IS
Nozzle /\nalysis 0101 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Required thickness per UG-H(a) o[ Cylindrical Shell, Tr
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
lP(D/2tCA/(S'E-0.6'P) per UG-27 (c) (1)
(230.00
t
(144.0000/2tO.1250/(20000.00
t
l.00-0.6
t
230.00)
0.8352 in.
InLernal Pressure Results for NOZZLE :
Required thickness per UG-37(a) of Nozzle Wall, Tr
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TRI:
(P'D/21/(S'EtO.4
t
P) per Appendix 1-1 (a) 01
(230.00'12.7500/2)/(20000.00"1.0010.4*230.00)
0.0730 in.
CASE 1
CASE 1
UG-40, Thickness and Diameter Limit Results
,
CASE
Effective material diameter limit, DL 2) . 2520 in .
Effective mat.erial t.hickness limit, no pad TLNP 1 .4050 in.
Effective material thickness limit, pad side TLI'/P 2. 1550 in.
RESULTS of NOZZLE REINFORCErIENT AREA CAl,CUl,ATIONS:
AREA AVAILABLE, A1 t.o A5 Design External r'lapnc
Area Required AR 9.710 NA NA in
Area in Shell A1 0.463 NA NA in
Area in Nozzle 1'laiI A2 2.108 NA NA in
Area in Inward Nozzle A) 0.000 NA NA in
Area in Helds A4 0.531 NA NA in
Area in Pad AS 6.938 NA NA in
TOTAL AREA AVAILABLE ATOT 10.039 NA NA in
Pressure Case 1 Governs the Analysis
Nozzle Angle Used in Area Calculations
The area available without a pad is Insufficient.
The area available with the given pad is Sufficient.
90.00 Oegs.
SELECTION OF POSSIBLE REINFORCING PADS: Diameter Thickness
Based on given Pad Thickness: 21.6250 0.7500 in.
Based on given Pad Diameter: 22.0000 0.7500 in.
Based on Shell or Nozzle Thickness: 22.3750 0.6875 in.
Reinforcement Area Required for Nozzle:
AR (DLR'TR-t2THKTR'O-FFR1)l UG-37(cl or UG-39
AR (11.6260"0.8352.2*(0.6870-0.1250)0.8352(1.0-1.00)
AR 9.710 in
Areas per UG-37.1 but with DL = Diameter Limit, DLR = Corroded 10:
Area Available in Shell (Al):
Al (DL-DLRI (r:S' (T-CAS) -TRI-2* (THKCAN) * (ES (T-CASI-TR)*l1-FFRl)
1\1 '" (23.252-11.626)' 0.00' (l .0000-0.125) -0.835) -2. (0.687-0.125)
n.oo' 0.0000-0.1250) -0.8352)' (l.0-1.00)
Example Problcm I-A Simple Dnull 4-55
llillside ;lnd Orr.. Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vessel Design ;lnd Analysis .. Seminar NOles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COAOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --- ----- -- Pilge 16
Nozzle Analysis: DI01 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Al = 0.463 in
Area
A2NP
fl2NP
A2NP
Area
A21-1P
A21'IP
A2\'IP
Available in Nozzle Hall, no Pad;
( 2 tHN (TLNP, 110) ) (THK CAN
( 2 1.4050 ) ( 0.6870 .. 0.1250
1.3"/4 in
Available in Nozzle Hall, with Pad:
(2'llIN(TLWP,HO))' (THK"CAN.. TRN) 'PFR2
( 2 2.1550 ) , ( 0.6870 .. 0.1250 -
2.108 in
TRN ) " FFR2
0.0730 ) , 1.00
0.07301 ' 1.00 )
Area
MNP
MNP
A4NP
Area
A4HP
A4HP
A4\'JP
Available in Welds, no Pad:
\'IO"'2'FF'R2 t ( 1'/I .. CAN/0.707 )"'2'FFR2
0.3750"'2 1. 0000 t ( 0.0000 )"'2 1. 0000
0.141 in
Available in welds, with Pad:
... 2FFR3t(WI .. CAN/0.707) ... 2FFR2tWP... 2FFR4
0.37502 1.00 ( 0.0000 )2 1.00 t 0.62502 1.00
0.53} in
Area Available in Pad:
AS (lH N(DP, OL) .. (OIlH 2 'TIlK) ) " (Hi n (TP, TLI'IP, TE) ) 'FF'R4
AS (22.0000" 12.7500 ) 0.7500 ' 1. 00
A5 6.938 in
UG-45 Hinimum Nozzle Neck Thickness Requirement:
'" tlax (t.Jin (Hax (/lax (UG4 S81, UG16B) ,Hax (UG4582, VG168) ) , VG4 584) , VG4 sA)
f.lax(t-lin(Nax(flax( 0.9602, 0.1875),'lax( 0.1250,0.1875),0.4531),0.1980)
0.4531 < Minimum Nozzle Thickness 0.6011 in. OK
l-I.A.W.P. RESULTS FOR THIS NOZZLE GEOHETRY
Approximate f<l.A.W.P. for given geometry AHAP 233.8 psig
Weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Vncorroded 119.90 lb.
Weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Corroded 106.49 lb.
/1 INIf.\UH DESIGN tlETAL TEIlPERATURE RESULTS: Nozzle Shell Pad
Hinimum Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS-66 11 -30 16 F
rHnimurn Temp. at operating stress -129 -35 12
,.
/Hnimum Temp. w/o impact per OO .. 20(f) -20 -20 -20 F
Nozzle HOHT Thickness Calc. per UCS-66 l(b),
IHn. J.letal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS .. 66
Ilin. "'etal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
l-lin. fletal Temp. w/o impact per UG .. 20(f)
HIN(tn,t,te)
11
129
20
P
F
F
WELD SIZE CALCULATIONS, NOZZLE Nrn.JBER 1, Desc. 0101 Nozzle A
4-56
llinimum thickness for nozzle/shell welds Tmin
Ilinimum thickness for pad/shell welds TminPad
0.5620 in.
0.7500 in.
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ;md A1l3lysis. Seminar Noles Ilillsidt' anti Orr.. Anglc Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., i'lhite Lock
PileName Seminar .. --- .. ----- .. ---- .. - .. - .. - .... ------------ Page 17
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Scp 21,2000
Results Per UH-16.I,
Nozzle Held
Pad weld
Required Thickness
0.2500 !-lin per Code
0.3750 ::: 0.5'TNINPAD
Actual Thickness
0.2625 0 .. 7 WO
0.4375 = 0.7 ' WP
ill.
in.
HELD STRENGTH AND \'IELD LOADS PER UG-41.1, (al OR (bl
W (AR-Al+2* ITHK-CAN) 'PPR1'(El(T-CASI .. TR)'S
1"1 19.7100 - 0.4627 t 2 ' 10.6870 - 0.1250 I ' 1.0000
I 1.00 ' ( 1.0000 - 0.1250) .. 0.8352 I I ' 20000
\1 185841 .. lb.
\11 IA2tA5tA4-(WII-CAN/.707)A2 *PPR2)"5
WI (2.1077 t 6.9375 1 0.5312 .. 0.0313 ' 1.00 I ' 20000
m 190904. lb.
W2 (A2tA3tA4t(2'(THK-CAN)'(T-CAS)'Prl)'S
(2.1077 -t 0.0000 t 0.1406 .. 0.9835 ) 20000
1'/2 64636. lb.
In (A2IA3+A4tA5, (2' (THK-CAN)' (T-CASI'Prll) '5
1'13 (2.1077 t 0.0000 .. 6.93"'5 I 0.5312 .. 0.9835 ) 20000
1'/3 211199. lb.
STREN"GTll OF CONNECTION ELE11ENTS FOR PAl LURE PATH ANAl.YSIS
SHEAR, OUTI'IARD NOZZLE \'IELD:
SONI'I (PI/2)
SON\'/ (].1416 / 2.0 ) , 12.7500 0.3750 ' 0.49' 20000
SONW 13602. lb.
SllEAR, PAD ELEIIENT \'IELD:
SPEH (PI/2)*OP'WP*0.49*SEW
(3.1416 I 2.0 ) , 22.0000 ' 0.6250 ' 0.49 ' 20000
SPEW 211665. lb.
SHEAR, NOZZLE WALL:
SNW IPI'(DLR-tDLO)/4.0) '(THK-CANI '0.7'SN
13.1416 * 6.0940) , ( 0.6870 - 0.1250 I ' 0 .. 7 ' 20000
150632. lb.
TENSION, PAD GROOVE WELD:
TPGW (PI/2.0) 'DLO'WGPN'O. 74'5EG
(3.1416/2.0)' 12.7500 ' 0.7500 ' 0.74 * 20000
TPGW 222307. lb.
TENSION, NOZZLE GROOVE WELD:
TNGW (PI/2)'DLO*(WGNVICASI*0.74'SNG
TNml (3.1416 I 2.0 I ' 12.7500 ' 10.6870 - 0.1250) , 0.74 ' 20000
TNGW 166582. lb.
STRENGTH OF FAILURE PATHS:
PATH11 (SPEI1. SNW 1 '" ( 211664 of 150631 I " 362296 lb.
PATH22 -t TPGW of TNGW f SINN I
( 7]601 -t 222306 t 166582 .. 0 I " 462490 lb.
PATIO3 (SPEI'1 t TNGWt SINlrl I
( 211664 -t 166582 0 I = 318246 lb.
Examplc Problcm I-A Simple Dnllll 4-57
Ilillside tlnd Orr.Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering soft.ware
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local \/hit.e Lock
FileName Seminar -------.--------------------------- Page 18
Nozzle Analysis: 0101 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
SUHt1ARY OF FAILURE PATH CALCULflTJONS:
Path 1 -1 362297. lb. , must exceed
Ij 185841. lb. 0<
'"
190904. lb.
Path 2-2 462491. lb . must exceed I'j 185841. lb. 0< 112 64636. lb.
Path 33 318247. lb. must exceed I'j 185841. lb. 0< 113 211199. lb.
The PV Elite Program, (e) 1989-2000 by COAOE Engineering Software
4-58 Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Dcsign and Analysis - Scmilltlf Nolcs Ilillside nnd Off-Angle Nozzlc Angles
Pressure Vessel Design .11)(1 Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
0-101 Nozzle B:
Location
Size
Material
Thickness
Flange Class
Flange Material
Cylinder
8 in. (200 NS)
SA 106, C
Schedule 80
300
1.1
The Nozzle is inserted into the vessel wall.
There is a .500-in. (12.7 mm) partial penetration groove weld
between the vessel wall and the nozzle neck.
Nozzle Outside Projection is 8.0 in. (203 mm)
No Intemal Projections are allowed in this vessel.
There is a 0.75-in. (19 mm) thick reinforcing pad
The Pad material is the same as the Shell material.
There is a full penetration weld bel ween the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.375-in. (9.5 mm) cover weld between the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.625-in.(l6 mm) weld between the 00 of the pad and the vessel.
Notes:
Questions:
What pad diameter (if any) will you use? _
What is the M.A.W.P. for the assembly?
DO NOT TUlm THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
EXl1ll1plc Problcm I-A Simple Drulll 4-59
Hillside tllH..I On.Anglc Noule Angles Pressure Vessel Design <lnd Analysis - Seminar Notes
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local \'lhite Lock
FileName: Seminar _... Page 19
Nozzle Analysis: 0101 Nozzle B Item: 2 9:S1a Scp 21,2000
Input Echo, Nozzle Item 2, Description: 0101 Nozzle 13
Nozzle rlatedal (Not Normalized or NA)
Nozzle Allowable Stress at Temperature SN
Nozzle Allowable Stress At Ambient SNA
Insert or Abutting Nozzle Type
Outward projection of Nozzle
Neld leg size between Nozzle and Pad/Shell
Groove weld depth between Nozzle and vessel
Angle between Nozzle and Shell or Head
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Diameter of Nozzle
230.00 psig
450.00 F
$A-516 7.
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
144.0000 in.
1. 0000 in.
0.1250 in.
90.00 Degrees
SA-51G 7.
20000.00 psi
7.0000.00 psi
OD
8.0000 in.
Nominal
SCH 8.
0.1250 in.
1.00
1.00
Insert
8.0000 in.
0.3750 in.
0.5000 in.
S
SA
D
T
CAS
NTYP
HO
110
\'IGNV
P
TEf1P
ANGLE
BASISN
DlA
DBN
THKNO:1
CAN
ES
EN
(Not Normalized or NAJ
Stress at Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Shell Haterial
Shell Allowable
Shell Allowable
Design Internal Pressure Case
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Inside Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Actual Thickness of Shell or Head
Corrosion Allowance for Shell or !lead
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis
Nominal Thickness of Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam at Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck
Pad Haterial (Not Normalized or NA)
Pad Allowable Stress at Temperature
Pad Allowable Stress At Ambient
Diameter of Pad along vessel surface
Thickness of Pad
Weld leg size between Pad and Shell
Groove weld depth between Pad and Nozzle
AS1IE Code Weld Type per
SN
SNA
DP
TP
I1P
I'IGPN
70
20000 _00 psi
20000.00 psi
15.5000 in.
0.7500 in.
0.6250 in.
0.7500 in.
A
Is this is Hanway/Access/Inspection Opening
Skip Iterative Failure Thickness Calculations
No
Yes
NOZZLE CALCULATION, NOZZLE 2, Description: 0101 Nozzle B
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99, UG-37 to UG-45
Actual Nozzle Diameter Used in Calculation
Actual Nozzle Thickness Used in Calculation
8.625 in.
0.500 in.
Internal Pressure Results for SHELL/HEAD
4-60 Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Ilil1sidc and OIT-Angle Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COhDE Inc., Local \'Ihite Lock
PileName Seminar --- .. ---------
Nozzle Analysis D101 Nozzle B Item: 2
Page 20
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Required thickness per UG-]7(a) of Cylindrical Shell, 1'1'
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR);
(P*(D/2+CA))/(S*E-0.G*P) per UG-?? (c) (1)
(2]0.00*(144.0000/2+0.1250))/(20000.00*1.00-0.6*2]0.00)
0.8]52 in.
Internal Pressure Results for NOZ:t,I... E :
Required thickness per VG-)7(a) of Nozzle \'Iall, 1'1'
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*D/2)/(S*E-I0.4*P) per Appendix 1-1 (a) (1)
(230.00'8.6250/2)/(20000.00*1.00+0.4*230.00)
0.0491 in.
CASE 1
CASE 1
UG-40, Thickness and Diameter Limit Results
,
CASE
Effective material diameter limit, DL 15 .7500 in.
Effective material thickness limit, no pad TLNP 0 .9375 in.
Effective material thickness limit, pad side TLI'IP 1 .6875 in.
RESULTS of NOZZI,E REINFORCEl-lENT AREA CALCULATIONS:
AREA AVAILABLE, A1 to AS Design External flapnc
Area Required AR 6.577 NA NA in
Area in Shell AI 0.313 NA NA in
Area in Nozzle 11 A2 1.099 NA NA in
Area in Inward Nozzle A3 0.000 NA NA in
Area in M 0.281 NA NA in
Area in Pad A5 5.156 NA NA in
TOTAL AREA AVAILABLE ATOT 6.850 NA NA in
Pressure Case 1 Governs the Analysis
Nozzle Angle Used in Area Calculations
The area available without a pad is Insufficient.
The area available with the given pad is Sufficient.
90.00 Degs.
SELECTION OF POSSIBLE REINFORCING PADS: Diameter Thickness
Based on given Pad Thickness: 15.2500 0 .7500 in.
Based on given Pad Diameter: 15.5000 0 .7500 in.
Based on the estimated Diameter Limit: 15.6250 0 .7500 in.
Reinforcement Area Required for Nozzle:
AR (DLR'TR+2'THK*TR'(I-PPR1)) UG-37(c) or UG-39
AR ('l. 8'150'0.8352+2' (0.5000-0.1250) '0.8352* (1.0-1.00) )
AR 6.577 in
Areas
Area
A1
Al '"
per UG-37.1 but with DL '" Diameter r.imit, DLR'" Corroded ID:
Available in Shell (AI):
(DJ,- DLR) (ES' (1'- CAS) -TR) .. 2' (THK- CAN) , (ES (T-CAS) -TR) * (1 - FPRl )
(15.750-7.875) * (1.00' (1.0000-0.125) -0.835) .. 2* (0.500-0.125)
Example Problem Simple Dnlln 4-61
I lil1sick alld On'-Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
(OADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Local Lock
FileName Seminar -----------------------.-----
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle B Item: 7.
0.00' n.0000-0.1250) -0.8352) 'n. 0-1.00)
Al = 0.313 in
Page 7.1
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Area Available in Nozzle NaIl, no Pad:
A2NP I 2
.
tuN (TLNP, HO)
I I TIIK - CAN TRN I FFR2
A2Np ( 2
.
0.9375 I
.
( 0.5000 - 0.1250 0.0494 I l. 00 I
A2NP 0.611 in
Area
A2\'/P
A2NP
A2\'/P
Area
MNP
MNP
MNP
Available in Nozzle NaIl, with Pad:
(2'IUN(TLI'IP,HO' (TIlK-CAN-TRN) 'FFR2
( 2 1.6875 ) ' ( 0.5000 - 0.1250 - 0.0494 ) , 1.00 )
1.099 in
Available in \'/elds, no Pad:
\':O"'2'FfR2 .. ( WI-CAN/O. 707 ) ""2'FFR2
0.3750"'2 ' 1.0000 + ( 0.0000 )"'2 1.0000
0.141 in
Area
A'1\'lP
A'1WP
A4rlP
Available in Nelds, with Pad:
FFR3 .. (m -CANtO . 707) '"'2' F'FR2+Trap' F'F'R4
0.)750"'2 ' l.00 .. ( 0.0000 )"'2 ' 1.00 .. 0.1406
0.281 in
, 1.00
Area Available in Pad:
A5 (lUN (op, DL) - (OIA. 2 'THK) ) , (flin (TP, TL\'/P, TE) ) FFR'1
A5 (15_5000 - 8.6250 I ' 0.7500 .. 1.00
AS 5.156 in
UG-'15 IHnimum Nozzle Neck Thickness Requirement:
.. !lax (Min (t,lax (Hax (UG4 581, UGl68) ,!lax (UG4SB2, UGI6B) ) ,UG4SB<l) ,UG4 SA)
1laxIHinll>lax(Hax( 0.9602, 0.187S),t-1ax( 0.1250, 0.1875, 0,4068), 0.1744)
0.4068 < Hinimum Nozzle Thickness 0.4)75 in. OK
M .A.W,P. RESULTS FOR THIS NOZZLE GEOHETRY
Approximate M.A.ILP. for given geometry A/otAP 234.7 psig
\'Ieight of Nozzle, with Pad, Uncorroded 60.16 lb.
Height
0'
Nozzle, with Pad, Corroded 51.13 lb.
NINIHUM DESIGN HETAL TEt1PERATURE RESULTS: Nozzle Shell Pad
Hinimum Temp. wlo impact per Fig. UCS-66
-.
31
,.
F
Ninimum Temp. at operating stress -146 2. 12 F
Hinimum Temp. wlo impact per UG-20(f) -20 -20 -20 F
Nozzle Thickness Calc. per UCS66 l(b),
l-lin. l1etal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS-66
rHn. Netal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per ucs 66.1)
r,Hn. !letal Temp. w/o impact per UG-20(f)
IUN(tn,t,te)
-.
-146
-20
F
F
F
HELD SIZE CALCULATIONS, NOZZLE Nm1BER 2, oesc.: 0101 Nozzle B
4-62
IHnimum thickness for nozzle/shell welds Tmin
Ninimum thickness for pad/shell welds TminPad
0.3750 in.
0.7500 in.
Example Problcm I-A Simplc Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Hillside and Orr-Angle Noah: Angles
COl\DE Engineel"ing Softwal-e
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc. Local ~ h i t Lock
FileName Seminar
Nozzle Analysis DIOI Nozzle B Item: 2
Page 22
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Results Per V\1-16.1,
Nozzle \'Ield
Pad \'Ield
Required Thickness
0.2500 Ilin per Code
0.3'/50 = O.STIUNPAD
Actual Thickness
0.2625 0.7 NO
0.4375 = 0.1 NP
in.
in.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem I-A Simple DnHn 4-63
Ilillsidc tint! Orf-Angle Nozzle Anglcs
4-64
Pressure Vessel Design tint! Antilysis - Scmintlr Notes
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles lIillside and Oll.. Angle Nozzle Angles
Pressure Vessel Design alld Analysis Seminar
Component Design I)roblem
D-I 0 I Nozzle C:
Location
Size
Material
Thickness
Flange Class
Flange Material
Elliptical Head
20 in. (500 NS)
SA 516, 70 rolled plate
.75 (19 mm)
300
1.1
The nozzle is inserted into the vessel wall.
There is a .500-in. (12.7 mm )parlial penetration groove weld
betwecn thc vessel wall and the nozzle neck.
Nozzle outside projection is 8.0 in. (203 mm)
No Internal Projections arc allowed in this vessel.
There is a 0.75-in. (19 mm) thick reinforcing pad.
The pad material is the same as the shell material.
There is a full penetration weld between the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.375-in.(9.5 mm) cover weld between the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.625-in. (16 mm) weld between the 00 of the pad and the vessel.
Notes:
Questions:
Why is the required shell thickness different than previously calculated?
What pad diameter (if any) will you use?
What is the M.A.W.P. for the assembly?
Docs this nozzle limitlhe M.A.W.P. for the vessel? _
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problem I-A Simple DnJlll 4-65
I lillsidc and Off-Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vcssd Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COf\DE Inc., Local I"lhite Lock
PileName : Seminar ------------.- .. ~ ... ------ .. ---. Page 23
Nozzle Analysis: 0101 Nozzle C Item: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Nozzle Item 3, Description: 0101 Nozzle C
Design Internal Pl'essure Case
Temperature for Internal Pressure
P
TEr-1P
230.00
450.00
psig
p
Shell J.laterial
Shell Allowable
Shell Allowable
(Not Normalized or Nf\)
Stress at Temperature
Stress At Ambient
5
5A
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
psi
psi
Inside Diameter of Elliptical Ilead
Aspect Ratio of Elliptical Head
Actual Thickness of Shell or Head
Corrosion Allowance for Shell or Head
Angle between Nozzle and Shell or Head
D
AR
T
CAS
ANGLE
144.0000 in.
2.00
1. 0000 in.
0.1250 in.
90.00 Degrees
Is the Nozzle Outside the 80\ diameter Limit
Nozzle Material (Not Normalized or NA)
Nozzle Allowable Stress at Temperature
Nozzle Allowable Stress At Ambient
5N
5NA
NO
S A ~ S 6 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Diameter of Nozzle
BASISN
DIA
OD
7.0.0000 in,
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis
Actual Thickness of Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam at Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck
Insert or Abutting Nozzle Type
Outward Projection of Nozzle
Weld leg size between Nozzle and Pad/Shell
Groove weld depth between Nozzle and Vessel
DBN
THK
CAN
E5
EN
NT'fP
HO
HO
HGNV
Actual
0.7500
0.1250
1.00
1. 00
Insert
8.0000
0.3750
0.5000
in,
in.
in.
in.
in.
Pad 'later-ial (Not Normalized or NA)
Pad Allowable Stress at Temperature
Pad Allowable Stress At Ambient
Diameter of Pad along vessel surface
Thickness of Pad
Weld leg size between Pad and Shell
Groove weld depth between Pad and Nozzle
ASME Code Weld Type per UW-16.1
5N
5NA
DP
TP
HP
WGPN
S A ~ 516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
32.0000 in.
0.7500in.
0.6250 in.
0.7500 in.
A
Is this is Hanway/Access/Inspection Opening
Skip Iterative Failure Thickness Calculations
No
Yes
NOZZLE CALCULATION, NOZZLE NUtlBER 3, Description: 0101 Nozzle C
Asr1E Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, 11..-99, UG-37 to UG-<l5
4-66
Aclllal No%%le Diameter used in Calculation 20.000 in.
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Prel-iSlIrt; Vcsscl Design and Analysis Seminar Notes Ilillsidc and Orr-Angle Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering So[tl"are
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc . Local I'/hite Lock
FileName Seminar ------------------------
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle C I tern; )
Page 24
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Actual Nozzle Thickness Used in Calculation
Internal Pressure Results for SHELL/HEAD :
Required thickness per UG-37 (a) of Elliptical Head, TR,
0.750 in.
CASE 1
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR);
(P'(D+2'CAj'K)/(2'S*E-0.2'P) Appendix l-<1(c)
(230.00'(14<1.0000t2'0.1250)'0.90)/(2'20000.00'1.00-0.2'230.00)
0.7474 in.
Internal Pressure Results for NOZZLE
Required thickness per UG-37(aj of Nozzle l'lall, Tr
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P'O/2)/(S'EtO.<1'P) per Appendix 1-1 (al (1)
(230.00'20.0000/2)/(20000.00'1.00tO.4'230.00)
0.1145 in.
CASE 1
UG-<10, Thickness and Diameter Limit Results
,
CASE
Effective material diameter limit, DL 3".5000 ill.
Effective material thickness limit. no pad TI,NP 1.5625 in.
Effective material thickness I imi t. pad side TLI'IP 2.1875 in.
RESULTS oE NOZZLE REINFORCEIlENT AREA CALCULATIONS;
AREA AVAILABLE, A1 to A5 Design External /olapnc
At:ea Required AR 14.013 NA NA in
Area in Shell A1 2.393 NA NA in
Area in Nozzle Wall A2 2.23<1 NA NA in
Area in Inward Nozzle A3 O. (100 NA NA in
Area in l'Ields A4 0.531 NA NA in
Area in Pad AS 9. (100 NA NA in
TOTAL AREA AVAILABLE ATOT 14.158 NA
. NA
in
Pressure Case 1 Governs the Analysis
Nozzle Angle Used in Area Calculations
The area available without a pad is Insufficient.
The area available with the given pad is Sufficient.
90.00 Degs.
SELECTION oe POSSIBLE REINF'ORCING PADS: Diameter Thickness
Based on given Pad Thickness: 31. 8750 0.7500 in.
Based on given Pad Diameter: 32.0000 0.7500 in.
Based on Shell or Nozzle Thickness: 31.8750 0.7500 in.
Reinforcement Area Required for Nozzle:
AR (OLR'TR+2'THK'TR' (1-FFRll) UG-37 (c) or UG-39
AR (18.7500*0.7<174 t2' (0.7500-0.1250) '0 . .,474' (l. 0 -1.00) j
AR 1<1.013 in
Areas per UG- 37.1 but wi th DL
Example Problem I-A Simple Dnnll
Diameter Limit, DLR Corroded ID;
4-67
Ilillside lllld Orr-Angle Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc.,
FileName: Seminar ----------
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle C
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Local White Lock
. Page 25
Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Area Available in Shell (All:
I'll (DLDLR)(ES{T-CAS)-TR)-2{THK-CAN)'(ES(T-CAS)TR)(1-FFR1)
I'll
(1.00 11.0000-0.1250) -0.74'/4)" (l.0-1.00)
I'll 2.393 in
Area
A2NP
A2NP
A2NP
Area

A21'IP

Available in Nozzle Wall, no Pad:
( 2 ' t-lIN{TLNP,HO) ) ( THK - CAN
( 2 1.5625 ) ( 0.1500 - 0.1250
1. 595 in
Available in Nozzle l'Iall, with Pad:
(2rlIN(TUIP,1I0) (THKCAN-TRN) 'FFR2
( 2 2.1815 ) ( 0.1500 - 0.1250 -
2.234 in
TRN ) ,. FFR2
0.1145 ) 1.00 )
0.1145 ) 1.00 )
Area
MNP
MNP
MNP
Area
MHP
MWP

Available in Welds, no Pad:
I'IO"2FFR2 t ( I'II-CAN/0.70'! ' .... 2FFR2
0.3750"2 1.0000 ( 0.0000 )A2 1.0000
0.141 in
Available in Welds, with Pad:
1'I0
A
2' FFR3 -t (\'/I -CAN/a. 707' "2' FFR2-t\'/P"2' FFR4
0.3150"2 1.00 -t ( 0.0000 )A 2 ,. 1.00 -t 0.6250"2
0.531 in
1.00
Area Available in Pad:
AS <rUN (DP, DL) - (01 Aof 2 'THK) ) {tolin (TP, TLWP, TE) ) ,. FFR4
1'15 (32.0000 - 20.0000 ) 0.7500 1.00
AS 9.000 in
UG-45 rHnimum Nozzle Neck Thickness Requirement:
Nax U1in (Hax (Hax (UG4 581, UG16B) ,"'ax (UG4 582, UG168) ) ,UG4 584) ,UG4 5A)
l1ax(r-lin(Hax{Max( 0.9554, 0.1875),Itax( 0.1250, 0.187S), 0.4531), 0.2395)
0.4531 < Minimum Nozzle Thickness 0.7500 in. OK
rl.A. W. P. RESUI,TS FOR THIS NOZZLE GEONETRY
Approximate '1.A. \'1. P. (or given geometry AHAP 231. 2 psig
Weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Uncorroded 219.54 lb.
weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Corroded 198.15 lb.
rHNIHUN DESIGN r-1ETAL TEr1PERATURE RESULTS: Nozzle Shell Pad
Hinimum Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS-66 I. II 1. P
Hinimum Temp. at operating stress -124 1. 2
,.
Ninimum Temp. w/o impact per UG-20(f) -2. -2. -2. F
Nozzle f1D/olT Thickness Calc. per UCS-66 1 (b) ,
rolin. f.letal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS66
Itin. f.letal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
'Iin. Netal Temp. w/o impact per UG-20(f)
mN(tn,t,te)
,.
-124
-20
p
P
F
4-68
WELD S1 ZE CALCULATIONS, NOZ7,LE NUIIAER 3, Desc. 0101 Nozzle C
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum
Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Ililisidc <lnd Angles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------.------------------------ Page 26
Nozzle Analysis; 0101 Nozzle C ILem: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
fOlinimum thickness for nozzle/shell welds Tmin
flinimum thickness fOl
o
pad/shell welds TminPad
0.6250 in.
0.7500 in.
Results Pel UN-16.1,
Nozzle \\'eld
Pad weld
Requiled Thickness
0.2500 /lin per Code
0.3750 = O.5T1UNPAD
Actual Thickness
0.2625 0.7 \/0
0.4375 = 0.7 WP
in.
in.
The PV Elite Program, Ie) 1989-2000 by CQADE Engineering Software
Example Problem I-A Simple Drum 4-69
Ilillside ilnd Orr-Angle Nozzle Anglcs
4-70
Prcssurc Vesscl Design and n ~ l y s s * SCl1linar Notes
Example Problcm I-A Simplc Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Chapter 5: Cones
and Conical Sections
Cones combine all of the analysis techniques we learned for internal and external pressure.
(
GUIDELINES FOR CONES
The required thickness of a cone for internal pressure (Paragraph UG-32) is based on the
same design formulas used for cylinders, taking into account the inclination of the cone:
I = PD 0; P = 2SEtcosa
2cosa(SE- O.6P) D + 1.2/cosa
The external pressure calculations for cones (Paragraph UG-33) arc also based on the cyl-
inder analysis, but with adjustments to the thickness and effective length to account for the
inclination of the cone. The effective length for toriconica! sections is adjusted to include a
fraction of the knuckle in the design length.
Cones are required to have reinforcement at the large and small ends under internal pres-
sure (Appendix 1-5) because of the tendency of the cone/cylinder junction to buckle under
the radial load developed in the cone.
The Code calculates the maximum angle below which buckling will not occur as a func-
tion of the design pressure and allowable stress. This ratio is used because it is an accurate
indication of the diameter thickness ratio for the cylinder, and takes into account the
strength of the material. This approach has the odd effect that when you increase the
allowable stress you decrease the allowable cone angle. However, you will nonnally find
that for a given thickness this effect is offset by the increased area available in the cone for
reinforcement.
Given that reinforcement is required, the required area is a function of the radius divided
by the allowable stress. Area available in the shell within one decay length may be
included in the area available for stiffening.
Cones are required to have reinforcement at the large and small ends under external pres-
sure (Appendix 1-7) because of the tendency to buckle under axial external loads.
At both the large and small ends there are requirements for area ofreinforcement and
moment of inertia of the reinforcement. The area of reinforcement is based on consider-
ations similar to those described for internal pressure. The required moment of inertia of
the reinforcement is a function of the strain in the ring at the cone/shell junction, which is
in turn calculated using the Code materials chart from the stress in the ring. See the com-
ments on stiffening rings in the external pressure section for further insight.
Cones <:Ind Conical Sections 5-1
Typical Geometry for a Simple Cone
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Semiuar NoLes
TYPICAL GEOMETRY FOR A SIMPLE CONE
The following four figures arc provided as examples of simple cones.
r----- FLAT HEAD
HALF" APEX ANGLE
CRO\v'N RADIUS
CYLINDER
CORROSION ALLOVANCE
ACTUAL THICKNESS
TORISPHERICAL HEAD
<OR ELLIPTleAl)
<OR HEMISPHERICAl)
Figure 1Typical Conical Vessel
(
THICKNESS Of
REINfURCING RIIlG
_
.:u..;=::T
THlCKNESS Of
LARGE END
'WIDTH OF
LENGTH Of -
LARGE END
-------
DIAMETER OF
LENGTH OF
SHALL END
SMAll END THICKNESS or
SMALL END
-------
I
THICKNESS or
HALF APEX I
CONE
LENGTH OF
I
ANGLE
r-
COOE
I
REINFORCING RING
Figure 2--Typical Geometry for a Reinforced Cone
tana = Opposite
Adjacent
(D,-D
S
)
Opposite = . 2
Adjacellt :-= L
(D
L
- D
s
)/2
a = a1"C lanl--"---;L-"--
5-2
Cones and Conical Sections
(
Pressure Vessel Dcsign and An<tlysis - Scminar Noles Typical Geometry for a Simplc Cone
(
Os
\ I
\ I
\ ex /
\ ' I
\17
\ I
" 1 /
\I
L
(
(
Cones and Conical Sections
Figure 3--Half Apex Angle Calculation
5-3
Typical Geometry [or a Simple COlle Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
:---...t ~ __ ~
v
t ~
.----=
5-4
Figure 4--Free Body Diagram
Cones and Conical SecLions
Pressure Vessel Design <lnd Analysis - Seminar Noles Whal do you need to know to perform cOile calculations?
(
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW TO PERFORM CONE CALCULATIONS?
Dimensions of the Cone and the Cylinders at Either End
The Code calculates areas available not only in the cone itself, but in the cylinders
attaehed to either end of the Cone. If you have no cylinders (i.e. a cone with flanges on
either end) you must make an approximation concerning how much area is available at
either end.
Dimensions of Transition Knuckles (if any exist)
If the cone has a knuckle at the large end and a flare at the small end, area ofreinforcement
and moment ofinertia calculations are not required. However, the thickness ofthe knuckle
and flare must meet the requirements for toriconical sections in Appendix 1-4.
Half Apex Angle of the Cone
For internal pressure calculations without a knuckle or a flare, the half apex angle should
not be greater than 30 degrees. When there is a knuckle or a flare the calculations can be
used up to 60 degrees.
For external pressure calculations the half apex angle must not be greater than 60 degrees.
Some vessel, such (IS reboilers, have two different angles associated with the conc. In other
words, the cone is eccentric rather than concentric. For Code analysis, we recommend that
the half apex angle chosen be the larger of the two angles.
Axial Forces on the Cone
The axial force can be either positive or negative. Positive values cause additional com-
pression at the cone/cylinder intersection. Negative values reduce the eompression at the
intersection. Determine the sign for your loading by drawing a free body diagram.
Width and Thickness of Cone Reinforcement
Cone reinforcement is usually a simple flat plate cut in the shape of a donut. The width
and thickness of the flat plate are used to calculate a combined m9ment of inertia for the
plate/shell section. The Code rules specifY how to include the shell in the calculations,
since the conical part ofthe shell is inclined.
Cones and Conical Sections 5-5
What do you need lo know 10 perfonn cone calculalions?
5-6
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles What do you need 10 know 10 pcrronn cone calculations?
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
D-I02 Transition Cone:
The vessel shown on page 74 has the following dimensions:
Lower cylinder ID =42 in. (1067 mm), thickness 0.375 in. (9.5 mm), length
42 in. (1067 mm)
Upper cylinder ID = 18 in. (457 mm), thickness 0.375 in.(9.5 mm), length 18
in. (457 mm)
Cone thickness 0.375 in. (9.5 mm), length = 30 in.(762 mm)
Design pressure 125 psi (.862 N/mm
2
), Design temperature 300F (149C)
All materials arc SS316 with zero corrosion allowance.
Use higher allowable stresses and 100% radiography
Do this analysis for internal pressure only using the SHELL program.
Then do the full analysis including full vacuum at 300F using the
CONICAL program.
For the full analysis, include reinforcing rings of316SS on the shells at both the large and
small ends. Suggested dimensions for the rings are 2 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick.
Notes:
Questions:
What is the half apex angle?
What is the M.A. w.P. for the Cone?
Are the reinforcing rings adequate?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
(
Cones and Conical Sections 5-7
What do you need 10 know to perform cone calculations'!
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 10
Shell Analysis: DI02 Cone Item: 5 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Component 5, Description: DI02 Cone
Design Internal Pressure
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
Material Specification
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Joint efficiency for Head Joint
Inside Diameter of Conical Head
Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Cone 1/2 Apex Angle
P
S
SA
E
D
T
CA
ALPHA
125.00 psig
300.00 F
NO
SA-240 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
1.00
'2
.0000 in.
0.3750 in.
0.0000 in.
21. 8000 degrees
Type of Element: Conical Head or Shell
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER 5, Dese.: 0102 Cone
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I, 1998, A-99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P(D+2*CA/(2*Coslalpha)*(S*E-0.6*P) per Appendix 1-4 (e)
(125.00+(42.0000+2*0.0000)/(2*0.9285*(20000.00*1.00-0.6*125.00))
0.1419 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(2*S*E*(T-CA)*COSA)/(D+2*CA)+1.2*(T-CA)*COSA) per App 1-4(e)
(2*20000.00*1.0010.3750)*0.9285)/(42.0000+2*0.0000)+1.2*(0.3750)*0.9285
328.34 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
(2*SA*E*T*Cos(alpha/(D+I.2*T*Cos(alpha) per App 1-4(e)
(2*20000.00*1.000.3750*0.9285)/{42.0000+1.2*0.3750*0.9285)
328.34 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(P*(ID+2*CA)+1.2*(T-CA)*Cos(alpha)/(2*E*{T-CA)*Cos(alpha
(125.00*({42.0000+2*0.0000)+1.2*(0.3750)*0.9285)/(2*1.00*(0.3750)*0.9285
7614.16 psi
SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
MAWP
P
0.1419
0.3750
328.34
125.00
in.
in.
psig
psig
5-8
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( Measured at High Point J:
Hydro. per UG-99(b); 1.3 * MAWP * Sa/S 426.84 psig
Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles What do yOlI need to know 10 perfonn COlle calculations?
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 11
Shell Analysis: 0102 Cone Item: 5 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Hydro. per UG-99{c) i 1.3 .. MAPNC
WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, NO C.A.
Volume of Shell Component
Weight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
Weight of Water in Component
426.84 psig
VOLMET 1073.6 in.**3
WMET 300.6 lb.
VOLID 22337.8 in ..... 3
WWAT 806.6 lb.
(
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Cones and Conical Sections 5-9
What do you need fo kllow lo perronn cone calculatIOns? Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar ~ Page 27
Conical Analysis; D102 Cone Item: 1 9:s1a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Cone Item 1,
Design Internal Pressure
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Design External Pressure
Temperature for External Pressure
Take Cone as Line of Support for External
Cone Material
Cone Allowable Stress at Temperature
Cone Allowable Stress At Ambient
Longitudinal Joint Efficiency of Cone
Circumferential Joint Efficiency of Cone
Actual Thickness of Cone
Corrosion Allowance for Cone
Diameter Basis for Cone and Cylinders
Diameter of Small End of Cone
Diameter of Large End of Cone
Half Apex Angle for Cone
Axial Length of Cone
Description: D102 Cone
PINT 125.00 psig
TEMPIN )00.00 F
PEXT 15.00 psig
TEMPEX 300.00 F
Pressure; Yes
SA-2-40 316H
SAC 20000.00 psi
SOC 20000.00 psi
EC 1.0000
ECC 1.0000
TC 0.3750 in.
CAC 0.0000 in.
BASIS ID
DS 18.0000 in.
DL 42.0000 in.
ANGLE 21.80 degrees
LC 30.0000 in.
Small End Cylinder Material SA-240 316H
Small Cylinder Allowable Stress at Operating SAS 20000.00 psi
Small Cylinder Allowable Stress At Ambient SOS 20000.00 psi
Joint Efficiency of Small Cylinder ES 1. 0000
Actual Thickness of Small Cylinder TS 0.3750 in.
Corrosion Allowance for Small Cylinder CAS 0.0000 in.
Axial Length of Small Cylinder LS 18.0000 in.
Large End Cylinder Material SA-240 316H
Large Cylinder Allowable Stress at Operating SAL 20000.00 psi
Large Cylinder Allowable Stress At Ambient SOL 20000.00 psi
Joint Efficiency of Large Cylinder EL 1.0000
Actual Thickness of Large Cylinder TL 0.3756 in.
Corrosion Allowance for Large Cylinder CAL 0.0000 in.
Axial Length of Large Cylinder LL 42.0000 in.
Type of Reinforcement at Large End of Cone:
Large End Reinforcing/Knuckle Material
Large Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Operating
Large Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Ambient
Location of Reinforcement at Large End of Cone:
Radial width of Reinforcing Bar{Large End) RWLB
Axial Thickness of Reinforcing Bar RTLB
Type of Reinforcement at Small End of Cone:
Small End Reinforcing/Knuckle Material
Small Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Operating
Small Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Ambient
Bar
SA-240 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
Shell
2.0000 in.
0.5000 in.
Bar
S A ~ 2 4 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
5-10 Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles What do you need lo know lo perfonn cone calculalions?
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Location of Reinforcement at Small End of
Radial width of Reinforcing Bar(Small End)
Axial Thickness of Reinforcing Bar
Cone:
RWSB
RTSB
Shell
2.0'000
0.5000
in.
in.
(
(
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, CONE NUMBER I, Description: DI02 Cone
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
INTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for CONE:
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*(D+2*CA))/(2*Cos(alpha)*(S*E-0.6*P)) per Appendix 1-4 (e)
(125.00+(42.0000+2*0.0000)/(2*0.9285*(20000.00*1.00-0.6*125.00
0.1419 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(2*S*E*(T-CA)*COSA)/((D+2*CA)+1.2*(T-CA)*COSA) per App 1 ~ 4 e
(2*20000.00*1.00*(0.3750)*0.9285)/{(42.0000+2*0.0000)+1.2*(0.3750)*0.9285
328.34 psig
INTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for SMALL CYLINDER:
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*(D/2+CA))/(S*E-0.6*P) per UG-27 (c) (1)
(125.00*(18.0000/2+0.0000)/(20000.00*1.00-0.6*125.00)
0.0565 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(S*E*(T-CA)/(D/2+CA)+0.6*'(T-CA per UG-27 (c) (1)
(20000.00*1.00*(0.3750)/(18.0000/2+0.0000)+0.6*0.3750)
813.01 psig
INTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for LARGE CYLINDER:
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(p* (D/2+CA / (S*'E-O. 6*P) per UG-27 (c) (1)
(125.00*(42.0000/2+0.0000)/(20000.00*'1.00-0.6*125.00)
0.1317 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(S*'E*'(T-CA/(D/2+CA)+0.6*(T-CA per UG-27 (c)(I)
(20000.00*1.00*'{0.3750/(42.0000/2+0.0000)+0.6*0.3750)
353.36 psig
SUMMARY of INT. PRESSURE RESULTS: Small Cyl Cone Large Cyl
Required Thickness plus CA 0.0565 0.1419 0.1317 in.
Actual Given Thickness 0.3750 0.3750 0.3750 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure 813.01 328.34 353.36 psig
Design Pressure as Given 125.00 125.00 125.00 psig
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, CONE NUMBER 1, Description: DI02 Cone
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I, 1998, A-99
Cones and Conical Sections 5-11
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j
EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for O N ~
External Pressure Chart HA-2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
26600000.00 psi
0.3750 in.
42.7500 in.
21.58 in.
122.7805
0.5048
0.0019588
10835.5977 psi
117.67 psig
122.7805 } '" 117.6690
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f{DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = (4*Bl/{3*DT) '" { 4 * 10835.598 )/( 3
0.1158 in.
42.7500 in.
21.58 in.
397.5126
0.5048
0.0003363
4472.1846 psi
15.00 psig
) '" 15.0006
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Required Thickness for External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart}
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP", (4*B)/{3*DT) '" ( 4 * 4472.185 )/( 3 * 397.5126
EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for SMALL CYLINDER:
External Pressure Chart HA-2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
26600000.00 psi
(
0.3750 in.
18.7500 in.
18.00 in.
50.0000
0.9600
0.0038380
12093.H26 psi
322.48 psig
50.0000 ) '" 322.4838
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = {4*Bl/{3*DTl '" ( 4 * 12093.143 )/( 3 *
in.
in.
in.
_0.0618
18.7500
18.00
303.4573
0.9600
0.0002567
3414.0022 psi
15.00 psig
303.4573) '" 15.0005
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Required Thickness for External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP ~ (4*Bl/{3*DT) '" ( 4 * 3414.002 )/( 3 ~
5-12 Cones and Conical Sections
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EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for LARGE CYLINDER:
External Pressure Chart HA-2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
26600000.00 psi
0.3750 in.
42.7500 in.
42.00 in.
114.0000
0.9825
0.0010881
9549.2256 psi
111.69 psig
114.0000 ) = 111.6869
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable working Pressure
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*DT) = ( 4 * 9549.226 l/( 3 *
Pressure:
0.1423 in.
42.7500 in.
42.00 in.
300.5217
0.9825
0.0002542
3381.0564 psi
15.00 psig
3 * 300.5217 ) = 15.0008 lI(
External
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Required Thickness for
corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, 8, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*DT) = ( 4 * 3381.056
External Pressure Chart HA-2 at 300.00 F
Elastic Modulus for Large End Reinforcement 26600000.00 psi
External Pressure Chart HA-2 at 300.00 F
Elastic Modulus for Small End Reinforcement 26600000.00 psi
(
SUMMARY of EXT. PRESSURE RESULTS: Small Cyl Cone Large Cyl
Reqd. Thickness + CA 0.0618 0.1158 0.1423 in.
Actual Given Thickness 0.3750 0.3750 0.3750 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure 322.48 117.67 111.69 psig
Design Pressure as Given 15.00 15.00 15.00 psig
REINFORCEMENT CALCULATIONS for CONE
/ LARGE CYLINDER:
degrees
degrees
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for LARGE END UNDER
Large end ratio of pressure to allowable stress
Large end max. half apex angle w/o reinforcement
Large end actual half apex angle
INTERNAL PRESSURE
0.00625
25.500
21.800
degrees
degrees
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for LARGE END UNDER
Large end ratio of pressure to allowable stress
Large end max. half apex angle w/o reinforcement
Large end actual half apex angle
EXTERNAL PRESSURE
0.00075
1.875
21.800
Area of Reinforcement Required in Large End Shell:
Cones and Conical Sections 5-13
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ARLE (RKLE*QL*RCLQ*TAN(Alpha)*/(SOL*EL))*
(1.0-0.25* ((PEXT*RCLO-QL)/QL)* (Delta/Angle)
ARLE (1.0000 * 160.3125 ,., 21.3750 ,., 0.400/( 20000 * 1.00 )) *
( 1.0 - 0.25 * ( 15.00 ,., 21.3750 - 160.3125 ) I 160.3125 ) *
( 1.8750 I 21.8000 )
ARLE = 0.0671 in
AREA
AeL
AeL
AeL
of REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE in LARGE END
.55*( Dl*ts ,., ( ts + tc/CoslAlphal
.55 * ( 4.2.750 * 0.375 )" * ( 0.375 +
1.7152 in
SHELL:
)
0.375/ 0.928 )
SUMMARY of REINFORCEMENT AREA, LARGE END, EXTERNAL
Area of reinforcement required per App. 1-8(1)
Area of reinforcement in shell per App. 1-8(2)
Area of reinforcement in stiffening ring
Additional Area needed to satisfy requirements
PRESSURE:
0.0671
1.7152
1. 0000
0.0000
in
in
in
in
REQUIRED MOMENT of INERTIA, LARGE END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
Area Available in Cone, Shell, and Reinforcement 14.87 in
Force per Unit Length on Shell/Cone Junction 466.68 lb./in.
Actual Buckling Stress associated with this Force 1005.92 psi
Material Strain associated with this stress 0.000076
REQUIRED
ISL
ISL
ISL
MOMENT of INERTIA,
AL * DCLO * DCLO *
0.000076 * 42.7500
0.19 in.**4
LARGE END, EXTERNAL
ATL / 10.9
* 42.7500 * 14.87 /
PRESSURE:
10.9
AVAILABLE MOMENT of INERTIA, LARGE END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
Area Centroid Ar*Ce Dist I
Shi 0.826 0.0000 0.000 0.2931 0.010
Can 0.889 -0.4'104 -0.392 0.1335 0.070
Sec 1.000 1.1875 1.188 -0.8944 0.333
TOT 2.715 0.796 0.413
Centroid of Section 0.2931 Moment of Inertia
Ar*Di
A
2
0.1
0.5
0.8
1.3
1. 76
SUMMARY of LARGE END INERTIA CALCULATIONS
Available Moment of Inertia ( Large End )
Required Moment of Inertia ( Large End )
REINFORCEMENT CALCULATIONS for CONE / SMALL CYLINDER:
1.762
0.189
(
degrees
degrees
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for SMALL END under
Small end ratio of pressure to allowable stress
Small end max. half apex angle w/o reinforcement
Small end actual half apex angle
INTERNAL PRESSURE
0.00625
6.750
21.800
REQUIRED
ARS
ARS
ARS
AREA of REINFORCEMENT, SMALL END, INTERNAL:
( RKS * QS *" ReSI / ( SAS *" ES ) ) *" {I DELTA/ANGLE
( 1.00 *" 562 9.0000/ ( 20000 * 1.00 ) ) *"
( 1.0 - 6.75/21.80) * 0.4000
0.0699 in
) *" TanAlpha
5-14
Cones and Conical Sections
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
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AREA of REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE in SMALL END SHELL;
Aes .78. (Rs.Ts) .... Ts-t) + (Tc-Tr) /Cos (alpha) ) A
Aes .78+{ 9.000* 0.375) .... ( 0.375- 0.056 )+( 0.375- 0.061 )/ 0.93 )
Aes 0.9413 in
SUMMARY of REINFORMENT AREA, SMALL END, INTERNAL
Area of reinforcement required per App. 1-5(3)
Area of reinforcement in shell per App. 1-5(4)
Area of reinforcement in stiffening ring
Additional Area needed to satisfy requirements
PRESSURE:
0.0699
0.9413
1.0000
0.0000
in
in
in
in
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for SMALL END under EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Area of Reinforcement Required in Small End Shell:
ARSE (RKSE QS RCSI * Tan( Alpha) / (SOS*ES)
ARSE (1.000070.3125*9.3750*0.4000/(20000+1.00)
ARSE 0.0132 in
AREA of REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE in SMALL END SHELL:
Aes .SS"'(Ds"'ts)A*[(ts-t)+(tc-tr)/Cos(angle))]
Aes .55*( 18.750* 0.375)"'*[( 0.375- 0.062)+( 0.375- 0.070)/ 0.928 )
Aes 0.9361 in
SUMMARY of REINFORCEMENT AREA, SMALL END, EXTERNAL
Area of reinforcement required per App. 1-8(1)
Area of reinforcement in shell per App. 1-8(2)
Area of reinforcement in stiffening ring
Additional Area needed to satisfy requirements
PRESSURE:
0.0132
0.9361
1.0000
0.0000
in
in
in
in
REQUIRED MOMENT of INERTIA , SMALL END, EXTERNAL
Area Available in Cone, Shell, and
Force per Unit Length on Shell/Cone Junction
Actual Buckling Stress associated with this Force
Material Strain associated with this stress
PRESSURE:
10.37
409.14
554.56
0.000042
in
lb./in.
psi
(
REQUIRED
ISS
ISS
ISS
MOMENT of INERTIA , SMALL END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
AS DCSO * DCSO * ATS / 10.9
0.000042 * 18.7500 * 18.7500 + 10.37 / 10.9
0.01 in.*4
AVAILABLE MOMENT of INERTIA, SMALL END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE':'
Area Centroid Ar*Ce Dist I Ar*Di "'2
Shl 0.547 0.0000 0.000 0.6364 0.006 0.221
Can 0.589 0.2916 0.172 .0.3447 0.025 0.070
Sec 1. 000 1.1875 1.188 -0.5511 0.333 0.304
TOT 2.136 1. 359 0.364 0.595
Centroid of Section 0.6364 Moment of Inertia 0.96
(
SUMMARY of SMALL END INERTIA CALCULATIONS
Available Moment of Inertia ( Small End )
Required Moment of Inertia ( Small End )
Cones and Conical Sections
0.960 in**4
0.014 in**4
5-15
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Results for Discontinuity Stresses per Bednar p. 236 2nd Edition
Stress Type Stress Allowable Location
----------------------------------------------------------------
Tensile Stress 5004 _14 80000.00 Small Cyl. Long.
Compres. Stress -1941.64 -80000.00 Small Cyl. Long.
Membrane Stress 4974.11 30000.00 Small End Tang.
Tensile Stress 5122.08 80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Compres. Stress -1823.70 -80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Tensile Stress 5210.00 30000.00 Cone Tangential
Tensile Stress 15693.52 80000.00 Large Cyl. Long.
Compres. Stress -8631.02 -80000.00 Large Cyl. Long.
Membrane Stress 367.91 30000.00 Large End Tang.
Tensile Stress 15965.51 80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Compres. Stress -8359.04 -80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Tensile Stress 911.88 30000.00 Cone Tangential
(
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Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Chapter 6:
Welded Flat Heads
Welded flat heads are analyzed as flat plates under unifonn loading.
GUIDELINES FOR WELDED FLAT HEADS
The Code fonnula for welded flat plates is
t dJzCPlSE
Z, a factor accounting for non-circularity of the plate, is based on the ratio of the large and
small diameters. Lowercase d is the small diameter, and z ranges from 1.0 for circular
plates to 3.4 for plates with very large ratios of Did:
Z 34- 2.4d
. D
C is an attachment factor that ranges from 0.17 for configurations that closely approximate
fixed-end conditions to 0.50 for plates that are simply supported. A typical value of Cis
0.3. For the special CaSe of a formed flat head with a straight flange, C can go as low as
0.100. In this case, the Code has taken into account the smaller effective diameter of the
flat plate due to the bend radius at the edges.
The C factor has a multiplier of 1.5 built into it because the stress in a flat head is bending,
not membrane, and the allowable stress in bending is nonnally 1.5 times higher than the
allowable stress in tension. Notice how the Code factors compare to those in theoretical
solutions of the flat plate problem:
Welded Flal Heads 6-1
Guidelines for Welded FlaL Heads
SIMPLY SUPPORTED
" ~ O.309p(dlt)'
Code (Max C ~ O 3 3
" ~ d'CPISE
SE ~ CP(dllJ'
SE ~ O.33P(dll)'
1.5SE ~ O.50P(dlt)'
(conservative)
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
FIXED EDGE
Il1c!m'
" ~ O.188p(dlt)'
Code (Min C ~ O 1 3
" ~ d'CPlSE
SE ~ CP(dll)'
SE ~ O.13P(dlt)'
I.5SE ~ O.20P(dlt)'
(conservative)
6-2
The thickness is linear with the diameter, but is a function of the square root of the pres-
sure (and the attachment factor). This means that as you increase the thickness, you dra-
matically increase the M.A.W.P.
Welded Flal Heads
Pressure Vessel Design alld Analysis - Seminar NoLes
Guidelines Cor Welded Flat Ileads
PART UG _ GENERAL REQ1..IIR.HMENTS
',m'... - 2'. L
'., .,-o,rnl.. -o.376In.
ttm
.100- '. 0< '-'/2 In"
,3,
.... "". . ,. - 3.,- d . 'mIn." 0..2.'.10'
-1--"':\iJ=t ." min. '. > I.in In.
- . ---- _ bul'-nota,. __
c" 0.17 C-O.33Ih- ",.,,3/41".
C ......... O.20
1b-2)
t.- c.n\.r of I"",
,


T . ,-3,
., __ ." m'n.
C .. 0.30
C" 0.20 w"O. 13
...
c.,
n
'"" '''In.
d - ,
- .. -
C 0.'3
,.,
'"
c.,
IU", Eq, !:II 0' (6))
'"


r
. d
.---- I
C-O.3
(
s.. Fig. UW13.:I.k-u"-t e.) (0 CIII.
Indu....... for doI_n. of -'dMI1o.m
I...... t 1.215',
--'---- --j
..:rr:m-
C"O.33
c",
..... Flo- UW13.2 ..... I.) 10 C111.
, ............ lor doIteJl 01 ouuldoo
__Iolon


e-o.:",
C mlo>. - 0.20
"0
dJ
e-O.3
IU.. Eq. (2) 0' Jell
C",
C-O.:JO
c.,
...... -"',,-,-.
, t .+.. O.Br.mln.
mln.r'l".or... J
.. .. .,- r.
Coo 0.;J3

c" 0.33
'"
C- 0.30
c_,
R'h'nl"'il ""II
C-O.30
,-,

e_O..,6
NOTE'Wh... plpo!lh.....,._
u...,. _ T_ UG-43
'0>
FIG. UG-34 SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF UNSTAYED FLAT HEAPS AND COVERS
The Above IlIllStraUons Diagrammatic: Only. Other Designs Thai Meet.
Ute kequlremenb of UG-34 Are AoeepLable.
C ..
IpJ

Figure 1--Typical Flat Head Atlachment Delails and C Values
(
Welded Flal Heads
6-3
Whm do yOll need 10 know la anf1lyzc welded Oal heads? Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW TO ANALYZE WELDED FLAT HEADS?
Attachment Details
Figure UG-34 shows typical head attachment delails, characteristic diameters, and values
of the attachment factor.
Required and Actual Thickness of the Shell
C is frequently a function of 01, the ratio of required to aclual shell thickness.
C = 0.33 but not less than 0.20
tr
m=-
ts
Ir Required thickness of seamless shell (E = 1.0)
ts Actual thickness of shell, exclusive of corrosion allowance
Large and Small Dimensions for the Head
If the head is non-circular yon need to know both the large and the small dimensions of the
head in order to calculate Z.
(
6-4 Welded Ftat Heads
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes What do you need 10 know to analyze welded nat heads?
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
D-102 Flat Head:
The vessel shown on Page 5-2 and analyzed in the previous examplc also has an
inserted flat head in the upper cylinder. The head is welded with a fillet weld
above and below the head. What is the required thickness of this head?
Upper cylinder 1D ~ 18 in. (457 mm), thickness ~ 0.375 in. (9.5 mm), length = 18
in. (457 mm)
Design pressure ~ 125 psi .862 (N/mm
2
), Design temperature ~ 300F (149C)
All materials arc SS316 with zero corrosion allowance.
Use higher allowable stresses and 100% radiography.
Do this analysis for internal pressure only using the SHELL program.
Notes:
Questions:
How do you calculate C ~ F ?
What is the required thickness?
What is the MAWP for External Pressure?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
(
Welded Flat Heads 6-5
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Shell Analysis: 0102 Flat Item: 6 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Component 6, Description; 0102 Flat
Design Internal Pressure
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
Material Specification
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Joint efficiency for Head Joint
Diameter of Flat Head
Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
p
S
SA
E
D
T
CA
125.00 psig
300.00 F
NO
SA.-240 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
1.00
18.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
Attachment Factor
Large Diameter of Flat Head
Type of Element:
CF
DL
Flat Head
0.2000
0_0000 in.
(
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER 6, Desc.; 0102 Flat
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(D+2ei-CA) *SQRT(Zei-CFei-p/ (S*E)) per UG-34 Ie) (3)
(18.0000+2*0.0000)*SQRT(1.00*0.20*125.00/120000.00*1.00))
0.6364 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(T-CA) / (D+2:lCA) ) "'2* ((S-E) / ICP*Z per UG-34 (c) (3)
(1.0000)/(18.0000+2*O.0000))*ei-2*((20000.00*1.00)/(0.20*1.00))
308.64 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
IT/D) "'2* ((S*E) / (Cp*Z) per UG-34 Ie) (3)
(1.0000/18.0000)772*((20000.00*1.00)/(0.20*1.00)
308.64 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(Z*CP-P) / ( ( ( (T-CA) / (D+2*CA) ) .... 2) *E)
(1.00*0.20-125.00)/((1.0000)/(18.0000+2*0.0000)**2)*1.00)
8100.00 psi
SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
MAWP
P
0.6364
1.0000
308.64
125.00
in.
in.
psig
psig
6-6
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( Measured at High Point );
Welded Fla' Heads
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Shell Analysis; 0102 Flat Item: 6 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Hydro. per UG-99 (bl : 1.3 * MAWP It Sa/S 401.23 psig
Hydro. per UG- 99 (c) i 1.3

MAPNC 401.23 psig
WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, NO C.A.
Volume of Shell Component VOLMET 254.5 in.**3
Weight of Shell Component WMET 71.3 lb.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Welded Flal Heads
6-7
What do yOll need to know to analyze welded flal heads?
6-8
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes
Welded Flat Heads
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Chapter 7:
Half-Pipe Jackets
Half-pipe jackets are frequently used on vessels as heating or cooling coils around the out-
side of a cylindrical shel1, as shown in Figurc I.
GUIDELINES FOR HALF-PIPE JACKETS
Appendix EE of the Code gives rules for the required thickness of the jacket and the
required thickness of the shel1 under the combination of internal pressure and shel1 pres-
sure.
R
Half-Pipe laekets
Figure 1--Half-Pipe Jacket
The required thickness of the shen is first calculated using the normal rules ofUG-27(b).
A half-pipe jacket introduces bending stresses in the shen in the longitudinal direction.
Therefore, the anowable stress for the additional pressure in the jacket is

where S' is the actual longitudinal stress due to internal pressure:
S' Pr/2t
The Code does not givc an explicit formula for the actual bending stress in the shen due to
internal pressure. Instead, it includes three graphs (EE-l, EE-2, and EE-3) that plot the
stress factor (stress/unit pressure) as a function of the shen diameter. Thus the anowable
pressure in the jacket as limited by shen bending is the anowable stress (F) divided by the
stress factor (K).
The required thickness of the half-pipe jacket is calculated from the standard internal pres-
sure formula for a cylinder, but taking E =0.85.
The finet weld attaching the half-pipe jacket to the vessel shan have a throat thickness not
less than the smaner of thc jacket or shell thickness. When a vessel is in cyclic service, a
penetration weld plus a fil1et weld should be used to attach the jacket to the vessel.
7-1
Guidelines for Half Pipe Jackcls
7-2
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Half-Pipe lackets
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Guidelines for Half-Pipe Jackels
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
Pressure Vessel Design and Anal)'sis Seminar
Componenl Design Problem
Half Pipe Jacket:
What is the required thickness of a cylindrical shell subjected to an inside pressure of
190 psi (UI N/mm
2
)and a half-pipe jacket pressure of300 psi (2.06 N/mm
2
)?
The jacket is in non-cyclic service.
J.D. of shell =40 in. (1016 mm)
Allowable stress of shell = 16,000 psi (110.316 N/mm
2
)
Joint efficiency of shell 1.0
Half-pipe jacket is NPS 3
Allowable stress ofjacket material 12,000 psi (83 N/mm
2
)
Corrosion allowance = 0.0
Using the HALFPIPE program, do this analysis for internal pressure only.
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness of the shell?
What is the required thickness of the jacket?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
7-3
Guidelines for Half-Pipe Jackets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 103
Half Pipe Analysis; JACKETED Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Half-Pipe Item I, JACKETED
Inside Diameter of Shell
Thickness of Shell
Internal Pressure in Shell
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell Section Material
Shell Allowable Stress, Design Temp
Shell Allowable Stress, Ambient
Corrosion Allowance of Shell
Joint efficiency for Shell Joint
Nominal Pipe Size of Half-Pipe Jacket
Minimum Thickness of Half-Pipe Jacket
Design Pressure in Jacket
Design Temperature for Jacket
Jacket Material Name
Jacket Allowable Stress, Design Temp
Jacket Allowable Stress, Ambient
Corrosion Allowance of Jacket
DIN
TS
P
S
SA
CA
E
NPS
TJCK
PI
Sl
SIA
CM
40.0000
0.3125
190.00
300.00
SA-516 65
18600.00
18600.00
0.0000
1.00
3.0000
1. 0000
300.00
300.00
SA-53 S/A
13'700.00
13700.00
0.0000
in.
in.
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
7-4
Half-Pipe Jacket Results per ASME App. EE, 1998, A-99
SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATIONS:
Required Thickness of Shell per UG-27 Eqn(l) (Includes CA);
Tr (P '" R ) / ( S '" E - 0.6 ... P ) + ( CA + CAJ )
Tr (190.00'" 20.000 )/( 18600.00 '" 1.00 - 0.6 '" 190.00 ) + 0.000
Tr 0.2056 in.
Required Thickness of Shell to Withstand Jacket Pressure:
Trj = 0.2500 in.
PRESSURE CALCULATIONS FOR INPUT SHELL THICKNESS:
Input Value of Shell Thickness:
Ts = 0.3125 in.
Chart Used to Find the K-Factor:
FIG. EE 2
K-Factor Read from Chart:
K = 46.5000
Longitudinal Stress in Shell due to Internal Pressure (Includes CAl:
SPrime (P '" R ) / ( 2 '" Ts )
Sprime (190.0000 * 20.0000 ) / ( 2 ... 0.3125 )
Sprime 6080.0000 psi
Permissible Jacket Pressure per Appendix EE-l, Equation {Il:
Pprime 0= ( 1.5 * S - Sprime ). I K
Half-Pipe Jackels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Scminar Nolcs Guidelines for Half-Pipe Jackets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 104
Half Pipe Analysis : J ~ K E T E Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Pprime
Pprime
( 1.5 ~ 18600.00
469.2473 psig
6080.0000 ) / 46.50
HALF-PIPE JACKET THICKNESS CALCULATIONS:
Input Half-Pipe Jacket Thickness:
Tj '" 1.0000 in.
Req'd Half-Pipe Jacket Thickness per App. EE-l, Eqn. (2) {Includes CAl:
T (PI '" R ) / ( . 85 ~ SI .6 '" PI 1 + CAJ
T {300. 0000 * 0.7500 1 / ( .85 '" 13700.00 - .6 ,. 300.0000 ) + 0.0000
T 0.0196 in.
MINIMUM FILLET WELD SIZE CALCULATIONS:
Minimum Fillet Weld Size (Based on Shell Thickness) :
Fillet Ts 1.414
Fillet 0.3125 * 1.414
Fillet 0.4419 in.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS;
Input Thickness of Shell
Req.d Thickness of Shell due to Internal P.
Req.d Thickness of Shell due to Jacket P.
Pressure Used for Jacket Design
M.A.W.P. of Jacket for Input Thickness
M.A.W.P. of Jacket for Required Thickness
Input Thickness of Half-Pipe Jacket
Required Thickness of Half-Pipe Jacket
Minimum Acceptable Fillet Weld Size
0.3125 in.
0.2056 in.
0.2500 in.
300.0000 psig
469.2473 psig
338.3333 psig
1.0000 in.
0.0196 in.
0.4419 in.
(
Half-Pipe Jackets
The PV Elite Program, (e) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
7-5
Guidelines for Half-Pipe Jackets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COVER
TATIONARY TUBEFRONT
SHELL FLANGE
CHANNEL COVER
TINGTUBESHEET
TINGHEAD
FIXED TUBESHEET
ERHASTWO
NARYENDS
TINO TIlBESIIEEl)
HANNEL
r
---- ---- ---- -- - -------- --
I
:
I
I
I
L_
"r--
I
S
I I
CHANNEL ill -OR-
I
-
C
ESIDE
,
MEAN GASKETDIA.
I
,
ORROSION
I-J r-- I
LOWANCE
:
I /
I I I I
,
I
I I I I
l'
-
-.< S
I I I I
I II \,l--W-J
\
SHELL GASKETDIA.
X ,
/\
HELL L
DOLT CIRCLE
CKNESS-- f--
DIAMETER

SHELL
HELLSIDE I
RROSION _
f--
f--
I
LOWANCE
NOTRA
,
EXCIIANG
STATIO
(NOFLOA
,
I
,
!
!
!
I

,-
: I
I
I
FLOA
..J l
FLOA
\
/1-
"/ .
SHELL
S
CO
AL
TIlB
C
AL
S
TID
CHANNE
TIllCKNES
Figure 2--Typical Geometry for a TEMA Heat Exchanger
7-6
Half-Pipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design Clnd Analysis - Seminar Noles
FLANGE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Fl,mgc Design and Analysis
(
(
Flange design rules were first published by Taylor Forge in 1937. These nt les were
included in Ihe Code in 1942 and are essenlially unchanged. They are found in Appendix
2. The Taylor Forge bulletin is also still available, and is still one oflhe most uscfullools
for flange analysis. The flange design sheels in Ihis section arc modeled after Ihe Taylor
Forge analysis. .
Gaskets
A key eomponenl in Ihe design and practical applicalion of flanges is Ihe gasket. There are
many differenllypes of gaskel malerials, useful in differenl services and al differenllem-
peralures.
The Code defines Iwo gasket factors:
y Gasket seating stress, minimum stress 10 seat the gasket
m = Multiple of pressure needed as a slress on the gasket surface to keep it from
leaking
Unfortunately, these factors are not reliable as measures of gasket behavior. First of all,
they arc not constant; they vary with such Ihings as applied load, temperature, leakage
rate, and size. Second, they do not by themselves adequately predict leakage rate for a
flanged joint. The Pressure Vessel Research Council is working on improving these design
factors, and has published preliminary findings for the past two years at the annual piping
and pressure vessel conference.
Gasket types and their associated m and y factors are found in Table 2-5.1, shown on the
following two pages. Some typical dimensions for gaskets are also shown on Ihe follow-
ing two pages.
In some cases additional gaskel material is used 10 seal partilions. These partition gaskets
are used for channel flanges and also for channel covers, which seal a channel partition.
Include Ihe area of Ihe gasketed partitions in caleulalions for seating forces and overall
loads.
Half-Pipe Jackets 7-7
Flange Design <HHJ Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
Gasket Materials and Gasket Factors
T.ble 2-5.1 1998 SECTION VIn OlVlSION
TABLE 25.1
GASKET MATERIALS AND CONTACT FACINGSI
Gasket Factors m ror Operaling Condilions and Minimum Design Seating Stress y
Gasket Malerlal
SeIf-eMrlllllng typei fO rinlls, metallic, other
gul(el lypes tOMJdtrtd n stlf'Malll19J
Elastomer$ wilhoYl fabric or high perce"l of aweslos fiber:
75A SOOlt Dwomet.er
751>. or higher Sl'>ore Durometer
Asbul.OS with roltablr birder for- operalillg cOllditlOfJ':
V.ln. Wcic
V
l6
In. thick
V In.. Ihlck
Elastomer$ WfUl canon fabrk IMtrt.lon
flastonms with .uOeslos labrlc Instr1ron (willi or
without wire relnfon:emtn(J:
o
0.50
1.00
2.00
2.75
3.50
l.25
MIn.
Dellgn
SeaUng
SIIHST,
,,,
o
o
200
11:>00
)100
6500
'00
Skekhes
Fa<:lng Skelth
;lAc! Column
in Table 25.2
lllll,(lbl,llel,(ldl,
1-41,C5l; Colu,.", II
( la),(lbl,llel,Cld),
141,151; CoIUIIVI II
(lill,() bl,nel,( ldl,
141,(51; Celu,.", II
2-ply
Ve9tlable fiber
2.25 2200

2."
2.'100

2.75 )700
1.75 aoo

(la),Ubl,lld,CldJ,
(4),(51; Column II
(laJ,flb),(leI,nd),
f4mli Colllll1l'1 II.
Sprral-wolHld metal, asbestos filled:
Carbon
Stalo1JtsS, MOt'leI, and nlckelbast
all0)'5
Conug.altd rnffiJJ, a:sbestos Inserted, or torrugaled metal,
Jacketed asbe110$ filltd:
Soft ah,rnll'l\.ltrl
Soft topper 01' bran
Iron or Jlrer
Monel or 4%-0% ,hr(llM
Stalnltss steels and nrckel-base aJJOI'S
2.50
'.00
2.50
2.75
'.00
3.25
3.50
10,000
10,00<1
2900
3100
<500
5500
60500
nlll,lIbl; Column II
na),( IbJi CollII'M II
7-8
Figure 3--Gasket Materials and Conlact Facings
Half-Pipe Jackets
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Gasket Materials and Gasket Factors (Continued)
APPENDIX 2 - MANDATORY
Flange Design and Analysis
TABlE 25.1ICONT'D}
GASKET MATERIAlS AND CONTACT FACINGSl
Gasket Factors n1 for Operallng Condition' and Minimum Design Seating Stress y
Gas\;et MaterIal
Corh/96kd mm.l:
Soft ahllllinurn
Soft or btan
lroo or 50ft stffl
MON!I or 4%-6% chrome
Stainless fleels and I\kkel-ba!oe 11110)"5
Flill metal, Jacketed asbestos filled:
Soft Ill,I1linl.m
SolI copper or btau
tron or soft Sleel
"-,
4%-{)% chrome
Stainless sleels III>d nlchl-base alloys
MI".
Des19"
Gasht Sealing
Fae!"; SktlCh
Factor Stress .r.-
and ColllM

,.,
Skelchu In Table 252
2.75 )700

).00 4500
Ual,Ubl,llcl,lldl;
3.25 5500
).50 6500
Colt.m11\ II
).75 7600
3.25 5500
3.50 6500
==
llal,f1b),Ue),l
3.75 7600

3.50 BOOO
<SP
Ild)'!;12J
1
;
3.75 90(>0
Column II
3.75 9000
GroO'o'to mel ..l:
Soft alurnlm,m
Soft copptor' or brass
Iron or soft metal
Monel or 4%-6% chrome
Slalnlns sleels and "lckel-base alloys
Solid Rat mnal;
Soft alurnlt'lUm
Soft copper or tnss
Iron Of'" 50ft $letl
MOM! or 4%-6% worne
$liI.1n1m aIId nickel-base alloys
3.25 5500
3.50 6500
3.15 noo
3.15
'000
4.25 10,100
'.00 8800
4.75 n,OOO
5." 18,000
'.00 21,800
6.50 26,000
(U),() bJ,()cl,()d),
m,U); Column II
(laJ,()bl,llc),11!fl,
f21,(3),14l,{5J;
COrllllVl1
RIII9 ./OInt:
1rOll or soft steel
Monet or 4%-6% chrome
Slalnless and nlckel-base allO)'S'
5.50
6.00
6.50
18,000
21,800
26,000
(61; Colum" I
(
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
HOTES:
H) ThIs gives a list of manr convnonlyllsed 9l:et matfrlills -.nd conLact liKings V<ltb SIli9fsted cleslgo 01 m ilId y that hal'e
geltfraJly Pl'ovr-d saUsfattory I" actual service wnen effective QilIke.l sealll'l9 wldl.h b glytn In Table 2,5.2. Tile desilln yaliles and other
t1tlalls giwn In this Table an only and an not mandalory.
(2) The 01 a lIiIsket havh9 II lap not be against tile rAlbblrt
Figure 4--Gasket Materials and Contact Facings (Continued)
7-9
Fhmgc Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
USEFUL TECHNICAL DATA
BOLTING DATA FOR ASME/ANSI B 16.5 & BS 1560 FLANGES
N...
Class 150 ClassJOO Class 400 Clm600
~
RAN" NO BOLT B.r RAN"
NO BOLT B.r
RAN"
NO BlICY B.r RAN"
NO BOLT B.r
Sil:e llA
0'
llA llA llA
0'
llA IIA llA OF llA llA BIA OF llA llA
BOLll BOLll BOW BOLT<
\\ 3% 4
y,
2\\ 3% 4 Yi 2\\ 3% 4 Yi 2\\ 3% 4
y,
2\\
y,
3Y, 4
V,
2% 3% 4 V, 2% 3% 4 Y, 2% 3% 4
V,
2%
% 3Y. 4
V, 2% 4% 4 % 3\\ 4% 4 % 3\\ 4% 4 % 3\\
1 4V. 4 V, 3V. 4% 4 %
3V, 4% 4 %
3V,
4% 4 % 3V,
IV. 4% 4
V, 3V, 5\\ 4 % 3Y. 5V. 4 % 3% 5\\ 4 % 3Y.
W,
5 4
V,
3Y, 6V. 4 %
4V,
6V. 4 % 4% 6V. 4 % 4%
2 6 4 % 4% 6'(, 8 % 5 6% 8 % 5 6% 8 % 5
2% 7 4 % 5V, 7% 8 %
5Y, 7V, 8 % 5% 7\\ 8 % 5%
3
7V, 4 % 6 8\\ 8 % 6% 8V. 8 % 6% 8\\ 8 % 6%
3Y, 8Y, 8 % 7 9 8 % 7V. 9 8 % 7V. 9 8 Y. 7\\
4 9 8 % 7% 10 8 % 7Y. 10 8 Y, 7% 10% 8 Y, 8V,
5 10 8 % 8% II 8 % 9\\ II 8 % 9V. 13 8 I 10%
6 11 8 % 9% 12% 12 % 10% 12Yi 12 % 10'/, 14 12 1
llY,
8
nv,
8 % 11% 15 12 % 13 15 12 I 13 16V, 12 IV. 13%
10 16 12 Y, 14\\ 17V, 16 1 15\\ 17% 16 IV. 15\\ 20 16 1\\ 17
12 19 12 % 17 20% 16 1% 17% 2OY, 16 1\\ 17% 22 20 IV. 19V.
14 21 12 I 18% 23 20 1% 20v. 23 20 1\\ 20\\ 23% 20 1% 20%
16 23V, 16 I 21V. 25V, 20 1\\ 22V, 25V, 20 Pis 22% 27 20
W,
23%
18 25 16 IV. 22% 28 24 1\\ 24% 28 24 1% 24% 29V. 20 1% 25%
20 27V, 20 1% 25 3OY, 24 IV. 27 3OY, 24 IY, 27 32 24 1% 28V,
24 32 20 1% 29V, 36 24
W,
32 36 24 IV. 32 J7 24 1% 33
.
. Figure 5--Bolling Data
7-10 Half-Pipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design rlllrJ Analysis - Seminar Notes
Flange Design ,llld Analysis
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
USEFUL TECHNICAL DATA
BOLTING DATA FOR ASME/ANSI B 16.5 & BS 1560 FLANGES
- ~ ~ . _ - - - - - ~ . ~
-- - -
..
__'N"' ___
- - - ~ _ . _ - ~
NollliAal
Class 900 Class 1500 Class 2500
-
Pipt n",,,,
NO .ou H
""''''
NO ."', .e. n ...", NO
."',
H
Siu
'"
0'
.u. .u. ou
"
.u. ou. .u
0'
.u.
,u.
."'"
""" """
v,
4% 4
*
3v. 4% 4
*
31' 5!h 4 'I. 3Y2
'I. 5Va 4 'I.
3Y, 5Yo 4
*
31'2 5Y, 4 'I. 3%
Ph Sl'a 4 Y. 4 5V! 4 Y. 4 6Y.i 4 Y. 4y"
1 6Y4 4 V. 4% 6lh 4 V. 4% 7Y4 4 I 51's
lYi 7 4 1 4% 7 4 I 41's 8 4 tva
5*
2 81'2 8 V. W, 8Y, 8 Y. 61'2 9'h 8 I 6'1.
2Y, 9% 8 1 7Y, 9% 8 1 71'2 lOY:! 8 tVa 7%
3 9Y2 8 V. 7Y, 10\12 8 tVa 8 12 8 lY.i 9
4 IlVl 8 JY. 9!1.l 12Y4 8 l!1.i 9Y2 14 8 lY1
lQJ'A
5 13.& 8 llh 11 14% 8
jy, llY2 16Yl 8 1% 120/4
6 15 12 lY. 12 15\12 12 1% 121'2 19 8 2 141'1
8 181'2 12 1% Y, 19 12 1% 15lh 21% 12 2 17Y.&
15
Y,
10 21Y2 16 1% 18 23 12 1% 19 261'2 12 2Y, 21Y4
12 24 20 m Y, 261'2 16 2 22Y2 30 12 2% 24%
14 2jy.,
20 Iv.i 21 29112 16 2y., 25 - - - -
16 27% 20 1% 22 321'2 16 21'2 27% - -
24
I'
18 31 20 1% 27 36 16 2% 301'2 - - -
20 33% 20 2 29 38% 16 3 32Jh - - - -
24 41 20 2V, Y, 46 16 314 39 - -
35
Y,
Figure 6-- Bolling Data Continued
7-11
Flange Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Other Gasket Types
The following gasket types arc not pictured in the Code tables, but are also acceptable gas-
ket materials and geometries:
rrorJto

Y
C-Rlng
\'enled
" I '\ . Venl7
I1IJ 1)1IJ
JI
1/ ;I I
'I 1/
J1 J
lens
0'11.

, i
Doubl, Cone
Brldg,"'n
7-12
Figure 7-Olher Gasket Types
Facing Sketches
There are several types of flange facing types. The flange facing is simply the metal sur-
face against which the gasket seats. The Code shows several sketches of typical facing
types in Table 2-5.2. This table also shows how to calculate the basic and effective gasket
seating widths and the diameter of the gasket load reaction.
Two common mistakes in gasket design (and even ill some computer programs we have
seen) are, (I) to use the basic gasket seating width instead of the effective gasket seating
width in the flange calculations, and, (2) 10 use the mean diameter of the gaskel as the
diameter of the gasket load reaction in all cases.
A special type of gaskel geometry, which is not included in the Code sketches, nor even in
the Code design rules, is the flange with a flat face and a gasket that extend from the ID of
the flange to the OD, beyond the bolt circle. The gaskets used with this type of flange are
Half-Pipe Jackets
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Flange Design and Analysis
usually quite soft. These flanges can be analyzed using the Taylor Forge calculation
sheets.
Table 2-5.2 1998 SECTlON vm - DMSION 1
TABLE 2-5.2
EFFECTIVE GASKET WIDTHl
(
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
BAsic Cuket Seating WkIlh b
Q
Facing Skelch
IEu99tr.. ted) Column I Co/umn II
{lal
"'UUe cul' f
vct/
u
"'"

"-
"
lIb)
'(
fu
N'<4
'UtUC" ,
, ,
=
=

J>'tN:J';;r
Set! Hote (I)
Uel
:'f:g0i';'
'"t'iijI"
.,"
w+ r (w+ N )
.. T ( .. " )
lId)
'"'5'& r"
--,--: -.- m"
-,-; -.-m"
=> T
Ste Note III

W<"
,2l

1/... III. nubbin

"W""
wSN/l
'" ',:::[t.., " '"
II... In. IIIJbbln ...
N .
,
wS Nn
,<)
!1'" cry
=
!."-
7"
See Note (II ' tN'J
16
'"
"\
=
N
'"

,
See NtJtt UI
'M -j 1--

...
GMktt Sealing Wi6lh. b
b - b" when b,.s: ".t. in.; b = 0.5 when b. > 1/. In.
LoutJon. of Gasll:tlload Reaction

G h
G
-1
" G..,kCl

NOTE:
(11 Whefl! do not V"" In. c1tpthand '/jl In. wldlh 5paCln9, sketches UbI Cld) be used.
(2) Tile: gaSh! factlm listed lmly apply 10 flanged )<lInts in whkh tilt gasket Is (ontalflt(i enUrtly w1lhln the Irroer edges of the bolt Iloles.
J)
Figure B--Facing Sketches and Gasket Seating Calculations
Flange Types
There are essentially only two categories of flanges for purposes of analysis. These are
integral type flanges, where the flange and the vessel to which it is attached behave as a
unit, and loose types, where the flange and the vessel do not behave as a unit. Within these
categories, however, there are several additional subdivisions.
7-13
Flange Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Weld Neck FJanges-These have a hub that is butt-welded to the vesseL
Slip-on Flanges-These have hubs, and are normally analyzed as loose type flanges. To
qualify as integral type flanges they required a penetration weld between the flange and
the vesseL
Ring Flanges-These do not have a hub, though they frequently have a weld at the back of
the flange. They are normally analyzed as loose, but may be analyzed as integral if a pen-
elration weld is used between the flange and the vessel.
Lap Joint Flanges-These flanges mayor may not have a hub, but they are completely
disconnected from the vessel, bearing only on a vessel "lap." They are always analyzed as
loose.
Reverse geometry flange-Here the gasket seat is on the inside of the shell diameter.
These use integral flange rules, which arc suitably modified for the reversal of the bending
moments. Sec Appendix 2-13.
Loose-type flanges, especially Jap joints, may be split. A split is used when it is required to
have the flange completely removable from the vessel. If the flange is split into two pieces
by a single split, the design moment for the flange is mnltiplied by 2.0. If the flange con-
sists of two separate split rings, each ring shall be designed as ifit were a solid flange
(without splits) using 0.75 times the design moment. The pair of rings shall be assembled
so that the splits in one ring shall be 90 deg. from the splits in the other.
2-5 1998 SECTION vm - DIVISION l 1-5
Slope 1;3 (max.)
L.....ILL:;:r I.S go
(min.)
Slope
1:3 ima>l.l
Whet'& hUb lIop!! adiillC81t
(0 f111'1ge exBdl I :J,
UI. tJ<elehes 1611 or 1Gb)
181

.,12
151
l6bl ......--1--,i----''+I'-'
0.259
0
but nOt Ius tharI 114 In.. 1hl minimum -
for lither leg. This ,"';!Id mil,!, be mee/'llned
til 8 cOUM!r ,..Jius os petmilled in
sketch (51 in which ease 91 9
0
GENERAL NOTES ILoow lind Integ,.l Type Fr.ngoell:
fll FHle\ flIdiU$ r to be II lean 0.25.91 bUI mit than 3/16 in.

lbiFiKin91hlcknttWl or llfOQYll'dlePttll9'"eall!r lIlan 1116 In. ,hall be


i.-.H
D
In uons of Ihl required minimum 1l9nte thlckn.eu I; IhoI'lI
G or Ins lhan 1116 in. m.lIV be intluded In Ihl overall fiar>Qt1hlckOffi.
gQ ,'.
8
Figure 9--ASME Code Flange Types
7-14 Half-Pipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Fl<mge Design and Analysis
A
ScrlM'Qd Wilfl Hub
Full pene1f81lon weld,
lingl.. Of" double. The
full penc'UlItion _ld
may biI throVOh the hI>
lIJI through thl
wall (t
n
),

, min,"0.7r;
This Mk:I may be meehined to. com".. radius
to luit It5'ldmIlap jolnl "eng..
APPENDIX 2 - MANDATORY

, D C
t I.
T
"
To be taken IIl1 midpoint or COotlel bl!tweln
flatlge end IIlP lndepeodlnt 01 gallr.cl location
2-5
III 121
u

min.
Q,7r;

\
Selrwtd .....j
I-
(
WiI'hout HUb
0_7 t:
1/2'
(_...
(tneX.I
m....
_0"
r;" 1/4 in
t: + 1f4 In.
1211 (Not. Ill] 131lNoie (2)1 11I11N01.121) 14J INol1 1211 {4111 (Noli 12)1
NOTES (LOO$8 Type
III For 6 de9- or lnl, Uleg
o
"I'
12) Loedinfj end dlmtn,lOllllor Skttctlel {2,1. (31,13.1. {41, and (4a) tlO1lho.... n Ir. lIle SIlITle U 101 sketch (21.
..
Figure 10-ASME Code Flange Types (Continued)
(
(
Half-Pipe Jackels 7-15
Flange Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
APPENDIX 2 - MANDATORY
ng. 24
t}.
101
110)
FilII PIIl'It1l1liOn and backchlp
[lte Fig. UW13.2 ,ketUt.. Iml
.ocI 1111 and 00.93 Idl UJ I
(11)
GENERAL NOTES (Optional Typa Flenges),
fal Optiona. type flanges m.y b. calellialed u ,ither loole or integ.allype. S" 2-4
Ibllo.dlngs .nd dimenSIO", nol1hown In sk,tchlll UI).18.).19j.1ge).1101, .nd 110011 are Ihe "me u ,hown III Iketch (21
wtlen lhe nang. II clllcllial.d 81 8 loose type lI.nga and as ehown ill ,k.leh (7) when lhe lI,nge Is nlellialed II en
Integrellyp. lIeng'_
(el The groove and lill.1 weld, behyeen Ih. lIanga blck lacI 'nd the shell given in sketch Ie) also apply 10 ,kelches (8.).
(91.190).110). lind (1081_
Opllof\ll Typ. FI."V'<
!1I16In.
All Oillet" dll.il. 'I
shOWn In shIeh 1121
4-llllide
di!lmeler
,-%In. )
!-31'''"
Subtype 1.1
Sllbl""':lbJ
FOI illttglllllY
r.infOl'm
1l0UI".
-nut
he19ht .. 1f4 In:.
SllblyPt lei t
(,-- , I+-
SulMvpe fdl .../"lJ 0
Nul f10pdllmetH"
1121
GENERAL NOTE If...,..Wilh NIlI SI0PtJ:
For wbl:yP8I fd Ind fbl"o II the Ihicltn.u ollhe hub.1 the ...... 11 .nd. For Jubtypet 1(11nd Idl. 9
0
.91'
FlingM \'tlln Hut Stops
FIG. 2-4 TVPES OF flANGES (CONT'D)
Figure 11--ASME Code Flange Types (Continued)
Flange Behavior
The flange design rules incorporated in the Code were based on a paper written in 1937 by
Waters, Westrom, Rossheim, and Williams. This paper assumes linear behavior of all the
components-flanges, bolts, and gaskets.
The Code rules do not take into account external piping loads or Ihennal stresses due to
thermal gradients. In most cases, the flange rules result in a good flange, except Ihat the
bolts must be stressed higher than the Code allowable to get a leak-free seat.
7-16 Half-Pipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Flange Design and Analysis
HalfRPipe Jackets
The flange model assumes that the flange can be modeled as stiff clements (the flange and
hub) and springs (the bolls and gaskets). The initial boll load compresses Ihe gasket. This
load needs to be high enough to seat (deform) the gasket, and high enough to seal even
when pressure is applied. The pressure load adds to the boll load and unloads the gasket.
When pressure is applied, Ihe flange rolates around the gasket, thus decreasing the bolt
load. However, the pressure end load tends to unload the gasket and load the bolts. The
degree of decrease of the gasket load is a function of the gasket stiffness. Real configura-
tions can go either way.
If the gasket is stiff relative to the bolt, the gasket unloads preferentially, and the bolt
load stays relatively constant.
If the bolt is stiff relative to the gasket, the boll loads preferentially, and the gasket
load slays relatively constant.
The Code assumes that if excess balling is provided a propensity exists for prcloading the
bolls in excess of the calculated required bolt load, and it makes an approximation to take
this into consideration so as not to overstress the flanges. The Code also recognizes
(Appendix S) that it is usually advantageous to load the bolt to a higher value than the
allowable stress. Typical values range from 40,000 to 50,000 psi, or up to 90 percent of
yield.
There are several methods of achieving uniform and high boll loads. From simplest to
most complicated these include:
Cross tightening
Torque wrenching
Pneumatic Tensioning
Pneumatic Tensioning with ultrasonics
Pneumatic Tensioning with strain gaging
7-17
Flange Design (lnd Analysis Pressure Vessel Design <Iud Analysis - Seminar Noles
7-18
The following table shows typical torque values for various bolt sizes.
I TORQUE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE BOLT STRESS I
The torque or turning effort required to produce a certain stress in bolting is'dependent
upon a number of condilions. some of which are:
I. Diameter of Bolt.
2. Type and number of threads on bolt.
3. Materialofbo!t.
4. Condition OfllUt bearing surfaces.
5. Lubrication of bolt threads and nut bearing surfaces.
Generally. standard Flexitallic spiral-wound gaskets will require that standard ASME
flange bolting be stressed to 30,000 psi for proper gasket seating. However, it is the
users responsibility to follow ASME Code calculations, and to ensure thaI sufficient
pre-load is applied to withstand infernal pressure. properly seat the gaskel, and com-
pensate for the effects of bolt relaxation.
The table below reflects the results of many tests to determine the relation between
torque and bolt stress. Values are based on sleel bolting welliubricaled with a graphite
and oil mixture.
TORQUE DATA FOR USE WITH ALLOY STEEL STUD BOLTS
Load in Pounds on SLud Bolts when Torque Loads are applied
NO.IIN.\L .....ffi Ow.<rnR
-
"""
~
ornou:.ws ATROOTOr ATROOr 30.000 PSI 45POOPSI llO)lOOUI
OFBOLT ~ 0' T,,,.. C..." .....
To"... C...""Io. To"... C........Io.
(bo<1I<. (porLod) (bI<1I<.) n ...... ~
..,
"...
u. r ~ u
..,
St""\
'"
2. .185 .027
,
.1. 6 1215

1620
5/16
"
.240 .<>1,

1350 12 2025 16 2700


318 16 .294
.06'
12 2<>1.
"
3060
2' '.80
7/16
l' .34'
.093 2. 2790 30 4185
,.
'''0
1/2 13 .400 .126 30 3780
"
5670 60 7560
,n6 II ..154 .162
"
'860 6'
7290 90 ono
'"
11 .507 .202 60 6060 90 9090 120 12120
314 10 .620 .302 100 9060 150 moo 200 18120
7"
,
.731 .'119 160 12570 2'0 18SS5 320 25L40
1

.."
.551
24'
115530
36'
24795
'90
33060
1 118

.963 .728
3"
21840 533 32760 710 '3680
11/4

1.088 92'
"'"
27870 75. 41'805 1000 55740
13/8

1.213 1.155 600 34650 1020 51975 1360 69300


1111

1.338 1.405 000 42150 1200 63225 1600 84300


1 518

1.463 L.6W 1100 'Q400


1650 75600 2200 100800
1 3/4

1.58S 1.980 1500


"'"'"
225. 89100 3000 118SOO
1718
,
1.713 2.304 2000 69120 3000 103680 '000
138240
2

1.838 2.652 2200 79560 3300 110340 4400 ]59120


2114
,
2.088 3An 3180 102690 4770 154035 6360 205380
21/1
,
2.338 4.292 4400 128760 6600 193140
'800
257520
2-314
,
2.588 5.259 '920 157770
"00 2366"
11840 315540
3
,
2.108 6.324 7720 189720 11580 284580 15440 379440
Figure 12--Torque Required to Produce Bolt Stress
Half-Pipe Jackels
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design Clnd Analysis - Seminar Noles
Flange Design and Analysis
BOLnNG DATA-R.ECOM,MNDED MINIMUM
(All Dimensions In Inche'S unleS5 (llhei"fl'ise stated)
IYt 8 0.128 IIVIl 2.0)2 i m Hi Iii m H.
I--"'-J----'---t-==--+---'C.II---cc,.,-+ -
HI 8 i1929 1 nl9; m 1'14 m l% 1'14
._- -- -f-
lY.. 8 '-155 2V" .'.'.16 __ _
Hi 8 1.405 m tEn i jl'o l Ph I 1\1- 3Y. m
7 ,
IY.
8 2.652 I 3% 1m 2\i
Hi 8 1.680: 2.828 I 3\:\ ni ,
8 1.9&:1 [ 2Yo
8 2-J:l4: 2"Ai 3.m m
lY.
lYo
8 H23 I H.62 2Y.
8 4.m i 4.215 511 rYi,
2M 8 5259! 4% 4-688 SY. Wi
L __. _._.-
3 8 6.324 5.102 f,y, j%
(
a I.4-31! 5 5.515 J%
8.749 l SY. 5.923 7Y. 4y!
IO.lM I 5y' 6..341 /11.
1I.S66
."
]'/,
'"
/'t.. 3'h
. '"

D.C.
I
(
Nut dimensions are based on American Nalional Standard 818.2.2 (1972)
Figure 13--80Iting Data-Recommended Minimum
Half-Pipe Jackels
7-19
Flange Stresses
FLANGE STRESSES
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
7-20
Stresses on the flange are determined entirely by the bending moment on the flange. All
the loads on the flange produce bending in the same direction (i.e., counterclockwise) and
this bending is resisted by the ring behavior of the flange, and in integral flanges by the
reaction of the pipe.
The flange design moments differ from the norm for external pressure, reverse flanges,
and flat flanges. Under external pressure only the end load and flange pressure are
included in the design, and their sense is reversed.
For reverse flanges all the moments are present, but the moment arm h
o
is negative, mak-
ing M
u
negative. The load H
T
is negative, and the moment arm h, may be either positive or
negative. The absolute value of the moment is used in the calculations.
For flat faced flanges an alternate value ofhg (h"g) is used to calculate a reverse moment
at the bolt circle. No calculations for seating conditions for full faced flanges arc required.
Figure 14--Calculating the Reverse Moment at the Boll Circle
Stress Analysis
The stresses produce by the bending moment were calculated by Waters Rossheim,
Wesslrom, and Williams using a complicated combination of elasticity and discontinuity
equations.
These equations have been simplified for Code use into curves, formulas, and tables that
contain constants depending on the geometry of the flange assembly.
The form of the stress equations is
a =
I
That is, a constant (dependant on the flange geometry) times the bending moment, divided
by some thickness squared, either the thickness of the flange or the thickness of the hub.
The Code provides formulas so that computer programs can consistently arrive at the
answers that are normally select from charts in the appendix.
Half-Pipe Jackels
(
(
)
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles flange Slrcsscs
Below and on the following pages are the Taylor Forge calculation sheets widely used for
flange analysis calculations.
Flanges are frequently subject to external forces and moments, in addition to internal pres-
sure. Using the following fonnula, you may calculate a roughly approximate equivalent
pressure for flanges loaded axially and/or in bending:
P
+ 4F t6M
P
eq
= des -,+-,
nG nG
Where:
Equivalent Pressure
Design Pressure
Axial foree, lb
Bending moment, in.-Ib
Diameter of gasket load reaction, in.
(
Half-Pipe lackets
There are two commonly used tables of bolt area, which also show spacing required for
the bolts. These spacings frequently govern the geometric design of the flange. The
TEMA table is based on Table D-S in the TEMA Standards. The UNC table is the Unified
National Course thread series, found in many places, stich as Mark's handbook.
Sometimes the mating flange strongly influences the design. For instance, ifyou are
designing two flanges bolted to one another in such a way as to sandwich a tubesheet in
between them, you would have to analyze both flanges and detennine which one had the
maximum bolt loads, then examine the mating flange under those loads.
7-21
Flange Stresses
7-22
Pressure Vessel Design rl1ld Analysis - Seminar Noles
TYPE 1: WELD NECK FLANGE DESIGN (INTEGRAL)
1
DESIGN CONDITIONS
prllsaure. P AlIo".ble SII.....
Dllalgn lempenllule F_
.......
flallQII1N1ot18I [)e,lgn lomp.. s", De&lgl'l I(Jll1lP
malGl'ial "Ill. temp., s.. AIm. 'emp., s.
Conoelotl ;1II1owanol!I
I I
2
OASKET AHD DETAILS
Oaskel
"do"
3
TABLES 2-3 AND 2-4
4
LOAD AND 80U CAlCULATIONS
.. b.oy A", - gl&llillf of
b H,. c. W....S.OfW..
G H. .P/. ",
Y
Wm,-Hp+H W .6(A", .. ,ys.
m
5
MOMENT CAlCULATIONS
Coo.
,
lww m
- """"",
OplA!lng
- -
Ho .. ,,9 f>/4
Mo_ .-
Ha .. Wm,-H 110 ...6{C - G) :;".
hI ...6(fl .. III .. hnl u,. .. H1h-r
-
...
S...""
",.W ha - .5{C G} ...
6
K AND HUB fACTORS
K_MI
"'"

T F
1 V
Y I
t u II_FIh"
s.,.,
d ..
F:':
ho",..reg;
7
STRESS FORMULA FACTORS
,
0'_18 .. 1
" ....1319+1
,. ofT

, .. I'/d
.. 6 I"
m" - MJB
I
H,
mc-M,;IB
C
If bon tpacll"lO txcuds :2a .. t. rnukiply

t::+f
In" 8nd rna in abeNe by: 2a+1
lBo/IS
G"
H
G
FIgure 210. Dimensional dala and torces fOt a weld
neck nange (integral),
B
STRESS CALCULATIONS
Str... Operellng Allowable 81r... Se.t''''II
1.5 St, 1"ong_IJdiFlII hUb. ,. ...
Longitudinal hub,
SH ,"Mg, SH
... Ratialllatlgs ...
SA .. o1mJ).f2
...

...

.. Grealer or .5CSt! +
...
GreSler 01 +
.
or .6($" -+ 8, 5,,+5, .
Adilpled from Tayloi' FOIOO Irx:. by pelml$$icm
Figure 15--Type 1: Weld Neck Flange Design (Inlegral)
Half-Pipe Jackels
Pressure Vessel Design Clnd Anlllysis - Seminar Noles
TYPE 2: SLIPON FLANGE DESIGN (LOOSE)
Fl<mge Stresses
1
DESIGN CONDITIONS
Do$lgrl P'OMUle, P AJlo'QbIo SlnlUH
Deeigl'llemperatore FJong. ....,.
Flange "",,,,1&1 D9a1gl temp., s.. Deaigtll&mp.6t.
BoI\ng meterilll AIm. 1811'9.. Sso Alrn. lamp., S.
COHosion llJoMInee
2
QASI<U AND FAClHQ DETAILS
Gu... Facing
3
TABlES 24 ,\NO 2-4
4
LOAD AND DOLT CALCULATIONS
N W"", .. b
Y "- .. glllalK of
b H,. .. 2brllmP WrdS.or W.A
0 H.G .,P,4
..
Y
Wml",Hp+H W...5<A." ... 1<lJS.
m
5
CALCUlATIONS
lood . Levltr Ann
-
Momon'
"".
....B 14 ho .. R+g,
..... ""'"
Ho. W... H ho .. .5(C-GI
.... -""'"
HJ= H
'"
hI"= .6(f1 ... ; .... hal Mr .. HI'"
...
Stlldng
'"
W
to -'<G
OJ u,;
6
KAND HUll FACTORS

K=NB ...
T F,

z v,
1
!lo-
V
u
0" 5.
i
'"
w
".. h- j.-E. -+f4-Ro -.

". .. ..mg;
t-
7
STReSS FORMULA FACTORS
,
1--8.
a.l, + I

,.
T
ofT
I
C.
......
),"'Y.'
1.
... -M,IB

I!IG" M;.1B
Hboll. spadng elCO&O(Is 23. +I, rnlltiply

G rno and me n above equlillion by: 28 ... 1
Bolls : Ho
Figure 2-11. Dimensional data and lorees for a slip.on
lIanga (loose).
8
STRESS CALCULATIONS .
Allowable Sireu Openllng !1ow"I)IeStreM S..llng
1.5s", loIlWfucf1f1ll1 hUb. 1.6 s.. lOOQlludlnll Ixb,
=mJ).g,'
8H _ "'<'Ag,z
s" Retial Aanw,
s" Radial RaIl",
s,,-_
s"
........
s"
T........
m,Y/I'- Sr maY/l2
s" Gt'88191' 01 + SlIl .. GUlaiet 01 .5(SH +
oc. 5H+S,.)

Adapted Irom laylor Forgo Inlernationill, loc., by perrrus.slon.
Figure 16--Type 2: Slip-On Flange Design (Loose)
Half-Pipe Jackels 7-23
flange Stresses Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
TYPE 3: RING FLANGE DESIGN
1
DESIGN CONDITIONS
ptll9SUlli. P AIJoW/lbl. Strlll.lI11
[)e.slgo lempBfal"ne R"",
""""
RatI{Ill malOfie} DeaIgn 'Imp., s.. Desigtllomp. s"
8oI1i1lg rna\Orial Aim. . St. Aim. lernp_. S.
CroslQn a11o'wance
2
OASKET AND FACJNQ DETAILS
Ge$l<lIl rw",
3
TABLES 2-3 AND 2-4
4
LOAD AND BOLT CALCULATIONS
N Wrrd--hG)' A... .. 9'ler of
b H,.-=2brllmP
0 H .. G'rP,", ..
,
W.., .H,+H w.. M..... -+AtJS.
m
5
MOMENT tALC!JL.ATIONS
...., ,
Lever Arm .
""""',

Hg .. ,BPf4
Ito" .5{C - B) Mo - Hoho
Ho-wm,-H hG- -0)
H,-H
"-
tit ,5(1ID+ ho) M, = Hrhl
M"
Slitting
",.W
ha '" .S(C - 0) M"
6
SHAPE CONSTANTS
W
K. AlB Y

+

J8oJ1 spIocing h
o

20 .. I
[II
G.
7
FLANGE THICKNESS REQUIREO
I '" gf8lIler 01 H(jl HT
""""'"
ScKlliog , Bolls 1

Agure 2-12. Dlmensk>nal data and forces ror a ring


...
1- nange.
.25g.
> 1/4 In.
h ' g,
h

1,.,"'90
,
g,
hl-l;
-g,

-IA
I ; I

I
T
"'"
I
I.
B
B
B

.7cmin
Figure 213. Various allachmenls of ring flanges. (All olher dimensions and loadings per Figure 211.)
8
NmES
la. <1-5t.lI'ldh<9 de$Ic)'lllo! IrI!aglIll-Kg. > 1.$1. &rdh>il". ...
I g, sMh. BIg. s3CKl, j p!!illt>dClWgtl *'1:>. <TCIO". o..q, Il$ ml<q3lorb>lu.
bulro1 loss Ihan In.
7-24
Figure 17--Type 3: Ring Flange Design
Hair-Pipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Flange Stresses
TYPE 5: SLIP-ON FLANGE, FLAT FACE, FULL GASKET
apt y\Ol Forge Int. by pefmlulon
I
DESIGN CONomONS
lIign pressln, P Ioweble Str.....
DeaIgn lempereh"e
,-
-"" fIange rnalorial ()e$ign temp.. s.. tomp. St.
BolIng material Aim. lOmP-. s.. Alm.lelnj)., S.
Cotros;on aIowlll'C9 T
2
GASKET AND FACJHO DETAILS
GB$lI:;eI Facing
3
TABLES AND 2-4
4
LOAD AND BOLT CAlCULATIONS
G C
""
W...:I. - + HQy A", .. grealCO" or
b
H,. 21numP W,dS. 01 W",,1SD
,
I ..
m H. P/4
W.,_H+H,.+Ht\ H6,v .. (halh6)brGy
5
MOMENT CALCULATIONS
..,..

"",,,Am> .
Momenl
Operallftg
Ho" TB'PJ4 ho .. A +111
Mo" Hollo
Hr-H-Ho 1lr-.6(AtQ,+11G) IMr _H,h,
..
levlr Arrrl.
"o",(C-9X2BtC) hir._l..... CK2A+C)
6(9 +C) 6(C + A'J
Rev&l'loIl Moment
Ha .. W-H hO .. hohQ '-"G = He.1IG
ha+hG
6
K AND HUB FACTORS
, AlII
"""
Ho
T
"

z V,

1
y
F,
U
g,,.,
". ,mg;
d .. U h"g.,a
i
v,

7
STRESS fORMULA FACTORS
B.
,

Id
h
I-- 4
0
"+. l,--,t'
t-
jl .. .(f31e + I m,. M,III
W
,-ofT
" bo-. IlCeed:s 2a ... I. nVtIpty 4Bo1l $p&Cino
\
4
m" In 1\ equalion by: 2a of t

L
!
Co
B
STRESS CALCuLATIONS
Allowable SIre.. OperlUng
-- - - - ---
.. s" longitvcJ:nalllub.
,
HG tHr Sw EO rnJ),g,Z H'G

s"

. ,
s"

--
h'o f4-- hG

s" Grtlll8r ol.5<Stt +
or.5{s" + Sy
4 Bolls
s"
Radial $(l8M at
boll drc18
"",. 6Mo
Figure Dimensional data and rorces lor a sJip-on
"he - nd,) nange. flat face. full gasket.
... od from Ta
(
Figure IB--Type 5: Slip-On Flange, Flal Face, Full Gasket
Half-Pipe Jackels
7-25
Flange Stresses
7-26
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
TYPE 4: REVERSE FLANGE DESIGN
1
DESIGN CONOmONS
Design pressu-e. P Allowable Str","
DesIgo tempetAlu,.
"-
""""" Flange mel,riaJ Design tomp., So, Design temp_. s..
Bolting maloriill Aim. temp., Ss. AIm.lemp., S.
Corroalon alCM'anoe
2
OASKET AND FACING DETAILS
Facing
3
TABLES 2-3 AND 2"
4
lOAD AND BOLT CALCULATIONS
N W,.z .. bl'6), A", .. grealef of
b H,. "" 2/nGmP WrdSa 01 W.,,!St.
G H .. OaT P/4
..
,
W.,.H... +H W-.l)(A,.,'tA.)S.
m
5
MOMENT CALCUl...ATtON$
"""

Lever Afm
-
01
OperllJng
Ho- .8 14 hI)" .... Hob,
.., H ha ...5(C - 0)
I
..... -

I
Illy - .5(C (8 i-O}f2) ,
M,- "" Hrllr
Add moment. Ilgabralcalty. "'on UN Ihe absolute voJue 1M,1 in ..1 subsequent caleU'aliorls.
'.... '
....,ng
.... W ho" .5(C - 0) 1M;
6
KAND HUB FACTORS
K .. AlB'
"'"
H, W
...
T F
't-"':l.
G.
l V
V
,
I"

,
u 8 .. FIh"

.",
d ..
'I
h, .n;g;
.. ORY
UR - "AU
bI
. .,.
c.
_111
'-oJ+
<rfl-
W
+ rV
L H.
TA_l!...!:.!)...",T
--. .. +--8.

7
STRESS fORMULA FACTORS
, BoIlS

, a_11d
Q- _10+ 1 ). ... 7+6
FIgure 214. DimensIonal dala and forces for a (everse
,8.41'310 + 1
11\0" "VB' Nange.
't- afT" ""-MOm'
8
STRESS CALCULATIONS
....

u... u_ Allow.bI. Str... , ...Ung


,us,.. longiWdinll hb, 1.5s..,

SIi" 1mJ).9,t
..

.
.. Radial ftlflg!,
s... ...
.. iWlQ8ntillll fI{l.nge ..
S, .. m.,y"p! - zs.. Sr .. - zs..
(0.(1710" 1)'.8 (uno + 1lr'.8
.. a...IBf 01 +t;i .. GI'lNll." oI.6(Stt +
Of SH+S, 01" 5(SH +
.. .. iangenl\ell
SI! rB')
Sr{".e') ..
-il'
Iv "'H"lj
"'H"l!
(kt
(l<.Z-I)).
Figure 19--Type 4: Reverse Flange Design
Half-Pipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Componenl Design Problem
Body flange for a heat exchanger - Weld neck type.
Flange Stresses
(
Half-Pipe Jackets
A body flange (SA350,LF2) has been designed with the following dimensions:
Flange inside diameter 40.000 in. (1016 mm)
Flange outside diameter = 47.650 in. (1210 mm)
Flexitallic gasket, 40.5-in. (1029 mm)!D, 41.5-in. (1054 mm) OD, .5-in. (12.7
mm) ring
56 I-in. (25.4 mm) bolts on 45.5-in. (1156 mm) bolt circle
Bolt material is SA-193, B7
Shell thickness 0.750 in. (19 mm)
Hub thickness 1.250 in.(32 mm)
Hub length 2.5000 in. (63.5 mm)
Flange thickness 3.500 in. (89 mm)
No corrosion allowance
Is this flange acceptable for conditions of 500 psi (3.45 N/mm
2
) at 300F (149C).
Notes:
Questions:
What arc the m and y factors for the giveu gasket? _
What is the required thickness for the given conditions?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
7-27
flange Slresses Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 39
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel F1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Flange Item I, Description: EX-2 Channel F1
Description of Flange Geometry (Type)
Description of Flange Analysis
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Corrosion Allowance
Integral Weld Neck
Analysis Only
P 500.00
300.00
FCOR 0.0000
psig
F
in.
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature ssa
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient SBA
(Not Normalized)
Stress At Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Flange Inside Diameter
Flange Outside Diameter
Flange Thickness
Thickness of Hub at Small End
Thickness of Hub at Large End
Length of Hub
Perform thickness cales. based on
Flange Material
Flange Allowable
Flange Allowable
B
A
T
GO
G1
HL
rigidity
SFO
SFA
40.0000 in.
47.6500 in.
3.5000 in.
0.7500 in.
1. 2500 in.
2.5000 in.
No
SA-350 LF2
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
SA-l93 B7
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
Diameter of Bolt Circle
Nominal Bolt Diameter
Type of Threads
Number of Bolts
Flange Face Outside Diameter
Flange Face Inside Diameter
Flange Facing Sketch
Gasket Outside Diameter
Gasket Inside Diameter
Gasket Factor, m,
Gasket Design Seating Stress
Column for Gasket Seating
C 45.5000 in.
DB 1.0000 in.
TEMA Thread Series
56
FOD 42.5000 in.
FlO 40.0000 in.
I, Code sketch 1.
GOD 41.5000 in.
GID 40.5000 in.
M 3.0000
Y 10000.00 psi
2, Code Column II
7-28
FLANGE ANALYSIS, FLANGE NUMBER I, Description: EX-2 Channel Fl
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
Corroded Flange lO, BCOR B+2.0*FCOR 40.000 in.
Corroded Large Hub, G1COR G1-FeaR 1.250 in.
Corroded Small Hub, GOCOR GO-FCOR 0.750 in.
Code R Dimension, R ({C-BCOR)/2.0)-G1COR 1.500 in.
Gasket Contact Width, N (GOD-GID) / 2 0.500 in.
Basic Gasket Width, BO N / 2.0 0.250 in.
Effective Gasket Width, BE BO 0.250 in.
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G (GOD+GID)
/ 2.0 41.000 in.
Half-Pipe Jackels
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar NoLes Flange Stresses
(
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 40
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel F1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
BASIC FLANGE AND BOLT LOADS:
Hydrostatic End Load due to Pressure:
H 0.785 * G G PEQ
H; 0.7854 * 41.0000 * 41.0000 500.0000
H ;; 660127. lb.
Contact Load on Gasket Surfaces:
HP 2 * BE * PI G M PEQ +
HP ;; 2 0.2500 3.1416 * 41.0000 3.0000 * 500.00
HP;; 96604. lb.
Hydrostatic End Load at Flange ID:
HD 0.785 * Bear * Bear * PEQ
HD;; 0.785 * 40.0000 * 40.0000 * 500.0000
HD ;; 628319. lb.
Pressure Force on Flange Face:
HT H - HD
HT ;; 660127 - 628318
HT ;; 31809. lb.
Operating Bolt Load:
WM1 H + HP + HPP
WM1 ;; ( 660127 + 96603 + 0 )
WM1 ;; 756731. lb.
Gasket Seating Bolt Load:
WM2 y * (( BE * PI * G ) + (BEPG * GLPG)) + HPGY
WM2 10000.00*(0.2500*3.141*41.000)+(0.00*0.0000))+0.00
WM2 322013. lb.
Required Bolt Area:
AM Maximum of WM1!ABSTR, WM2!ABASTR
AM Maximum of 756731 ! 25000 , 322013 ! 25000
AM 30.2692 in
Bolting Information for TBMA Thread Series:
Total Area of Bolts, AD 30.856 in
Minimum radial distance between hub and bolts 1.375 in.
Minimum radial distance between bolts and edge 1.063 in.
Minimum circumferential spacing between bolts 2.250' in.
Actual circumferential spac;:ing between bolts 2.551 in.
Maximum circumferential spacing between bolts 8.000 in.
Min. Gasket Contact Width (Brownell Young):
Nmin AS * ABASTR!(GDSTR PI (GOD+GID)
30.856 * 25000.00!( 10000.00 * 3.14 ,. ( 41.50 + 40.50) )
Nmin 0.299 in.
Flange
W
W
W
Design Bolt Load, Gasket
ABASTR * ( AM + AB ) !
; 25000.00 * ( 30.2692 +
;; 764065.56 lb.
Seating:
2.0
30.8560 ) ! 2.0
Gasket Seating Force:
HG WM1 - H
HG 756731 - 660127
HG 96604.00 lb.
Half-Pipe Jackels 7-29
Flange Stresses Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc .. Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 41
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel F1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
MOMENT ARM CALCULATIONS;
Distance to Gasket Load Reaction:
DHG
DRG '"
DHG =
(C-G)/2.0
( 45.5000 - 41.0000 ) /2.0
2.2500 in.
Distance to Face Pressure Reaction:
DHT
DHT =
DHT '"
( R + G1COR + DHG ) / 2.0
( 1.5000 + 1.2500 + 2.2500
2.5000 in.
I I 2.0
Distance to End Pressure Reaction:
DRO R + ( G1COR / 2.0 )
DRO 1.5000 + ( 1.2500 / 2.0 )
DHD 2.1250 in.
SUMMARY OF MOMENTS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE:
LOADING Force Distance Bolt Corr Moment
End Pressure, MD 628319. 2.1250 1.0000 111265. ft.lb.
Face Pressure, MT 31809. 2.5000 1.0000 6627. ft. lb.
Gasket Load. MG 96604. 2.2500 1. 0000 18113. ft. lb.
Gasket Seating, MA 764066. 2.2500 1.0000 143262. fLIb.
(
TOTAL MOMENT FOR OPERATION, RMO
TOTAL MOMENT FOR GASKET SEATING, RMA
136005. ft.lb.
143262. ft.lb.
Effective Hub Length, HO
Hub Ratio, HRAT
Thickness Ratio, GRAT
SQRT(BCOR*GOCOR)
HL / HO
(GICOR/GOCOR)
5.477 in.
0.456
1. 667
in. "'-1
0.846
0.287
1.000
1.191
12.295
5.772
0.154
1.541
0.836
1.161
e
K
U
2
ALPHA
GAMMA
LAMBDA
in. "3
-L721
0.325
1.842
11.188
131.819
2-7.1
T
y
d
BETA
DELTA
Stress Factors
Flange Factors for Integral Flange:
Factor F per 2-7.2
Factor V per 2-7.3
Factor f per 2-7.6
Factors from Figure
Longitudinal Hub Stress,
SHO (f * RMO / BOOR ) / ( Rlambda * GlOOR"'2 )
SHO = { 1.0000 * 0.163E+07 / 40.0000 / ( 1.1615 * 1.2500"'2 )
SHO = 22482. psi
Longitudinal Hub Stress, Seating:
SHA (f * RMA / BCOR ) / ( Rlambda * G1COR"'2 )
SHA = ( 1.0000 * 0.172E+07 /40.0000 ) / ( 1.1615 * 1.2500"'2 )
SRA = 23682. psi
Radial Flange Stress, Operating:
SRO (BETA * RMO / BeaR ) / ( Rlambda * TH"'2 )
SRO (1.7210 * a .163E+07 / 40.0000 ) / ( 1.1615 * 3.5000"'2 )
SRO 4935. psi
7-30 Half-Pipe lackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Flange Stresses
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar Page 42
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel FI Item: I 9;51a Sep 21,2000
Radial Flange Stress, Seating:
SRA (BETA*RMA/BCOR) / ( )
SRA "'- ( 1.7210 * 0.172E+07/ 40.0000 l / ( 1.1615 * 3.5000'"'2 )
SRA = 5199. psi
Tangential Flange Stress, Operating:
STO (YRMO I (TH*TH*BCOR) ) - Z*SRO
STO",- ( 11.1883 * 0.163E+07 / ( 3.5000'"'2 40.0000) ) - 5.7724 * 4935
STO "'- 8777. psi
Tangential Flange Stress, Seating:
STA (Y*RMA / (TH'"'2*SCORl) ZSRA
STA = { 11.1883 " 0.I72E+07 / ( 3.5000'"'2 * 40.0000) ) - 5.7724 * 5198
STA "'- 9246. psi
Average Flange Stress, Operating:
SAO (SHO + MAX( SRO, STO ) ) / 2
SAO = ( 22482 + MAX ( 4935, 8777 )/2
SAO "'- 15630. psi
Average Flange Stress, Seating;
SAA (SHA + MAX( SRA, STA ) ) / 2
SM = ( 23681 + MAX ( 5198, 9245 ) l/ 2
SAA = 16464. psi
Bolt Stress, Operating:
SBO (WM1 / AS )
SSO "'- ( 756731 / 30.8560
SBO = 24525. psi
Bolt Stress, Seating:
SBA (WM2 / AB )
SBA {322013 / 30.8560
SSA 10436. psi
Longitudinal Hub
Radial Flange
Tangential Flange
Maximum Average
Bolting
Stress Computation Results: OPERATING
Actual Allowed
22482. 30000.
4935. 20000.
8777. 20000.
15630. 20000.
24525. 25000.
GASKET SEATING
Actual Allowed
23682. 30000. psi
5199. 20000. psi
9246. 20000. psi
16464. 20000. psi
10436. 25000. psi
Estimated M.A.W.P. ( Operating)
Estimated M.A.W.P. {Gasket Seating
Estimated Finished weight of Flange
Estimated Unfinished weight of Forging
APP. S Flange Rigidity Index for Seating Case
APP. S Flange Rigidity Index for Operating Case
509.7
716.9
612.8
894
c
.2
0._827
0.785
psig
psig
lb.
lb.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
H.lf-PipeJ.ckels 7-31
Flange Stresses
7-32
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Half-Pipe Jackets
,
J
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Body flange for a heat exchanger - Ring Flange
Redesign the flange in pmblem I as a ring type flange.
Notes:
Questions:
Which flange is lighter?
Which flange is easier to fabricate?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Half-Pipe Jackets
Flange Slrcsses
7-33
Flange Stresses Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 43
Flange Analysis; EX-2 Channel Fl Item; 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Flange Item 2, Description: EX-2 Channel Fl
Description of Flange Geometry (Type)
Description of Flange Analysis
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Corrosion Allowance
Loose Ring
Design, Geometry
P 500.00
300.00
FCOR 0.0000
psig
F
in.
Flange Inside Diameter B
Perform thickness calcs. based on rigidity
41.5000 in.
No
Flange Material
Flange Allowable
Flange Allowable
(Not Normalized)
Stress At Temperature
Stress At Ambient
SFO
SFA
SA-350 LF2
20000.00
20000.00
psi
psi
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient
SBO
SBA
SA-I93 87
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
Length of Weld Leg at Back of Ring
Number of splits in Ring Flange
Type of Threads
Flange Face Outside Diameter
Flange Face Inside Diameter
Flange Facing Sketch
WLEG
NSPLT
TEMA
FOD
FID
I,
0.3750
o
Thread Series
44.0000
41.5000
Code Sketch la
in.
in.
in.
Gasket Outside Diameter
Gasket Inside Diameter
Gasket Factor, ro,
Gasket Design Seating Stress
GOD
GID
M
Y
43.0000 in.
42.0000 in.
3.0000
10000.00 psi
Column for Gasket Seating 2, Code Column II
Geometry Selection for Flange Design Option:
Number of Bolts Selected for Flange
Diameter of Bolts Selected for Flange
Bolt Circle Diameter Selected for Flange
Outside Diameter Selected for Flange
Initial Thickness Given for Flange
36
1.2500 in.
45.7500 in.
4B.2500 in.
5.0000 in.
7-34
FLANGE ANALYSIS, FLANGE NUMBER 2, Description: EX-2 Channel Fl
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 199B, A-99
Corroded Flange ID, BCOR 41.500 in.
Corroded Large Hub, GlCOR Gl-FCOR 0.000 in.
Corroded Small Hub, GOCOR GO-FCOR 0.000 in.
Code R Dimension, R ((C-BCOR)/2.0)-GICOR 2.125 in.
Gasket Contact Width, N (GOD-GID)
/
2 0.500 in.
Basic Gasket Width, BO N / 2.0 0.250 in.
Effective Gasket Width, BE BO 0.250 in.
Half-Pipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Flange Siresses
COADE_Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 44
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel Fl Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G = / 2.0 42.500 in.
\
(
BASIC FLANGE AND BOLT LOADS:
Hydrostatic End Load due to Pressure:
H 0.785" G ,., G ,., PRQ
H = 0.7854 ., 42.5000 ., 42.5000 * 500.0000
H = 709313. lb.
Contact Load on Gasket Surfaces:
HP 2" BE * PI * G * M * PRQ
HP = 2 ,., 0.2500 * 3.1416 * 42.5000 ., 3.0000 * 500.00
HP = 100138. lb.
Hydrostatic End Load at Flange ID:
HD 0.785 * Bear * Bear * PEQ
HD = 0.785 ., 41.5000 ., 41.5000 * 500.0000
HD = 676326. lb.
Pressure Force on Flange Face:
HT H - HD
HT = 709312 - 676326
HT = 32987. lb.
Operating Bolt Load:
WM1 H HP + HPP
WM1 = ( 709312 100138 + 0 )
WM1 = 809451. lb.
Gasket Seating Bolt Load:
WM2 y * ( BE * PI * G ) + (BEPG ., GLPG) HPGY
WM2
WM2 333794. lb.
Required Bolt Area:
AM Maximum of WM1/ABSTR, WM2/ABASTR
AM Maximum of 809451 / 25000 , 333794 / 25000
AM 32.3780 in
Bolting Information for TEMA Thread Series:
Total Area of Bolts, AS 33.444 in
Minimum radial distance between hub and bolts 1. 750 in.
Minimum radial distance between bolts and edge 1.250 in.
Minimum circumferential spacing between bolts 2.813 in.
Actual circumferential spacing between bolts 3.987 in.
Maximum circumferential spacing between bolts 11. 229 in.
Distance Across Corners for Nuts 2.209 in.
Circular Wrench End Diameter a 3.250 in.
Min. Gasket Contact Width (Brownell Young) :
Nmin AS * ASASTR/(GDSTR PI *
33.444 * 25000.00/( 10000.00 * 3.14 * ( 43.00 42.00) )
Nmin 0.313 in.
Half-Pipe Jackels
Flange
W
W
W
Gasket
Design Bolt Load, Gasket
ABASTR * ( AM + AB ) /
= 25000.00 ., ( 32:3780 +
= 822775.50 lb.
Seating Force:
Seating:
2.0
33.4440 ) / 2.0
7-35
Flange Stresses Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 45
Flange Analysis : EX-2 Channel FI Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
HG WMl - H
HG 809451 - 709312
HG 100138.25 lb.
MOMENT ARM CALCULATIONS;
Distance to Gasket Load Reaction:
DBG (C - G ) I 2.0
ORG ( 45.7500 - 42.5000 ) I 2.0
OHG ; 1.6250 in.
Distance to Face Pressure Reaction:
DHT (DRD + DHG ) I 2.0
DRT ( 2.1250 + 1.6250 l I 2.0
DHT = 1.8750 in.
Distance to End Pressure Reaction:
DRD (C - BCOR )/ 2.0
DRO (45.7500 - 41.5000 ) /2.0
DRO 2.1250 in.
SUMMARY OF MOMENTS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE:
LOADING Force Distance Bolt Corr Moment
End Pressure, MD 676326. 2.1250 1.0000 119766. ft. lb.
Face Pressure, MT 32987. 1. 8750 1.0000 5154. it .lb.
Gasket Load, MG 100138. 1.6250 1.0000 13560. ft .lb.
Gasket Seating, MA 822775. 1.6250 1.0000 111418. it.lb.
TOTAL MOMENT FOR OPERATION, RNO
TOTAL MOMENT FOR GASKET SEATING, RMA
138481. it.lb.
111418. ft.lb.
in. 0.000
0.000
0.000
1.163
14.231
6.686
K
U
Z
Defined as 0.0
Defined as 0.0
Effective Hub Length, HO
Hub Ratio, HRAT
Thickness Ratio, GRAT
Factors from Figure 2-7.1
T := 1.854
Y := 12.950
Tangential Flange Stress, Operating;
STO (Y*RMO / (TH*TH+BCOR) ) - Z+SRO
STO = ( 12.9500 * 0.166E+07 / ( + 41.5000) ) - 6.6B58 + 0
STO = 20000. psi
Tangential Flange Stress, Seating:
STA (Y+RMA / Z+SRA
STA:= (12.9500 + 0.134E+07 / (5.0919"-2 + 41.5000) ) - 6.6858'" 0
STA = 16091. psi
Bolt Stress, Operating:
SBO (WM1 / AB )
SRO = ( 809451 / 33.4440
SBO := 24203. psi
Bolt Stress,
SBA (WM2 / AB )
SBA (333794 / 33.4440
SEA 9981.
Stress Computation Results: OPERATING
Actual Allowed
GASKET SEATING
Actual Allowed
7-36 Half-Pipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Flange Stresses
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 46
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel FI Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Estimated M.A.W.P. ( Operating)
Estimated M.A.W.P. ( Gasket Seating
Estimated Finished Weight of Flange
Estimated Unfinished Weight of Forging
APP. S Flange Rigidity Index for Seating Case
APP. S Flange Rigidity Index for Operating Case
Minimum Required Flange Thickness
Tangential Flange
Bolting
20000.
24203.
20000.
25000.
16091.
9981.
20000. psi
25000. psi
5.092 in.
500.0 psig
7-46.9 psig
685.6 lb.
1022.3 lb.
1. 268
1.575
(
(
Half-Pipe Jackets
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by CQADE Engineering Software
7-37
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
BLIND FLANGES AND CHANNEL COVERS
Blind flange design is a mixture of the flange analysis we have just been studying and the
flat head design we reviewed previously.
The ASME Code formula for a circular blind flange is
I "JCP/SE+ 1.9Wh/SEd'
The first term in this formula is the bending of a flat plate under pressure.
The second term is the bending of the plate due to an edge moment.
The stress is limited to 1.5 times the allowable stress, but the 1.5 factor is already built
into the equation, as with welded flat plates.
For bolt-up conditions the first term is zero-the thickness of the flange depends only
on the edge bending.
For non-circular blind flanges the formula is modified as follows:
"JZCP/SE+6Wh/SELd'
Where Zis the samc nou-circularity factor used in welded flat plates, and the factor 1.9/d
has been replaced by 6/L. L is the perimeter of the non-circular head, measured through
the centers of the bolt holes. Notice, therefore, that for a circular head, d is equal to LI
3.14159, as you would expect.
It is interesting to note that the Code coverS non-circular blind flanges, but no other type of
non-circular flange (not even in the rectangular vessel appendix).
Chaunel Covers designed to TEMA must meet at least the minimum thickness require-
ments of the Code. In addition, if there is a pass partition groove, the cover deflection is
limited.
The formula for flange deflection limitation is found in paragraph 9.21 ofTEMA:
y
The deflection is, of course, a function of (J and GJ. Thus, a very small increase in flange
thickness will decrease the deflection significantly.
One implication of using the TEMA formula to check a channel cover is that when the
program selects thickness based on TEMA, the stresses in the channel cover may be Jess
than the Code allowable. The following graph shows how the required thickness of a
channel cover varies with pressure for both the TEMA and ASME requirements. Notice
(
7-38 Half-Pipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Blind Flanges <Iud Channel Covers
(
thai the required thickness for TEMA can be higher than ASME for some pressures, and
lower for others (because ASME is a function of d', and TEMA a function of </3).
Cha.nnel Cover Thickness
lou. y,. J&,I
u

H
"
"
j
,
,.

,.
J
,..
"
"
,..
,..
"
'00
D<>lt., P,......
Figure 20--Channel Cover Thickness
Note The Seventh Edition ofTEMA also gives recommended deflection as a function
of flange size. The previous editions hid the actual deflection you were working
toward in a thickness equation.
Half-Pipe Jackels
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers
7-40
Pressure Vessel Design and An<llysis - Seminar Noles
Half-Pipe Jackels
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Blind Flanges and Chmlllci Covers
(
(
Half-Pipe lackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Channel Cover Design
Analyze a channel cover 10 mate wilh Ihe flange designed in Ihe previous examples.
Geomelry for Ihe channel cover should be as follows;
Thickness ~ 5.0 in. (127 mm)
Outside Diameter ~ 47.375 in. (1203.3 mm)
Diameter of Bolt Circle ~ 45.125 (1146.17)
48 1.125-in. (28.5750) diameter bolts
Flange Face 10 ~ 41.5 in. (1054.1 mm)
Flange Face OD ~ 44.0 in. 1117.6 mm)
Gasket 10 = 42.0 in. (1066.8)
Gaskel OD ~ 43.0 in. (1092.2)
Flexitalic Gasket m ~ 3 . 0 0 0 y=IOOOO.O) (68.94 N/mm
2
)
Notes;
Questions;
Whal is the required thickness of the flange?
Why arc the slresses less than the allowable slresses at the required thickness?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
7-41
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 -Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 47
Flange Analysis: EX-2 ChannelCV Item: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Flange Item 3, Description: EX-2 Channel cv
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature SBO
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient SBA
Flange Inside Diameter B
Flange Outside Diameter A
Flange Thickness T
Perform thickness cales. based on rigidity
Channel Cover
Analysis Only
500.00 psig
300.00
p
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
47.3750 in.
5.0000 in.
No
SA-350 LF2
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
SA-193 B7
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
47.3750 in.
47.3750 in.
141.7644 in.
28500000.00 psi
0.0300 in.
p
TEMA
SFO
SFA
FeOR
DL
OS
L
YMOD
CVDLT
(Not Normalized)
Stress At Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Flange Material
Flange Allowable
Flange Allowable
Description of Flange Geometry (Type)
Description of Flange Analysis
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Corrosion Allowance
Diameter of the Load Reaction, Long Span
Diameter of the Load Reaction, short Span
Perimeter along the Center of the Bolts
Youngs Modulus for Blind Flange MatI.
Allowed Channel Cover Deflection
Diameter of Bolt Circle C 45.1250 in.
Nominal Bolt Diameter DB 1.2500 in.
Type of Threads TEMA Thread Series
Number of Bolts

Flange Face Outside Diameter FOD 44.0000 in.


Flange Face Inside Diameter FID 41.5000 in.
Flange Facing Sketch 1, Code Sketch la
Gasket Outside Diameter GOD 43.0000 in.
Gasket Inside Diameter GID 42.0000 in.
Gasket Factor, m, M 3.0000
Gasket Design Seating Stress Y 10000.00 psi
Colunm for Gasket Seating 2. Code Colunm II
FLANGE ANALYSIS, FLANGE NUMBER 3, Description: EX-2 Channel CV
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
Gasket Contact Width, N (GOD-GID)
/
2 0.500 in.
Basic Gasket Width, BO N / 2.0 0.250 in.
Effective Gasket Width, BE BO 0.250 in.
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G (GOD+GIDl / 2.0 42.500 in.
7-42 Half-Pipe Jackels
Prcssure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Blind Flanges and Channcl Covers
(
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 48
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel CV Item; 3 9:51a Sep :n,2000
BASIC FLANGE AND BOLT LOADS:
Hydrostatic End Load due to Pressure:
H 0.785 * G ... G ... PEQ
H 0.7854 * 42.5000 ... 42.5000 * 500.0000
H = 709313. lb.
Contact Load on Gasket Surfaces:
HP 2 * BE * PI ... G ... M * PEQ +
HP = 2 * 0.2500 ... 3.1416 * 42.5000 ... 3.0000 * 500.00
HP 100138. lb.
Hydrostatic End Load at Flange ID:
liD 0.3*G*G*PEQ
liD 0.3 42.5000 * 42.5000 500.0000
liD 270937. lb.
Pressure Force on Flange Face:
HT 0.0 For Blind Flanges
HT = 0.0 For Blind Flanges
HT=O.lb.
Operating Bolt Load:
WM1 H + HP + HPP
WM1 ( 709312 + 100138 + 0 )
WM1 = 809451. lb.
Gasket Seating Bolt Load:
WM2 Y'" ( BE ... PI * G ) + (BEPG * GLPG)) + HPGY
WM2 10000.00*(0.2500*3.141*42.500)+(0.00*0.0000))+0.00
WM2 333794. lb.
Required Bolt Area:
AM Maximum of WM1/ABSTR, WM2/ABASTR
AM Maximum of 809451 / 25000 , 333794 / 25000
AM 32.3780 in
Bolting Information for TEMA Thread Series:
Total Area of Bolts, AS
Minimum radial distance between hub and bolts
Minimum radial distance between bolts and edge
Minimum circumferential spacing between bolts
Actual circumferential spacing between bolts
Maximum circumferential spacing between bolts
Min. Gasket Contact Width (Brownell Young):
Nmin A8 * ABASTR/fGDSTR * PI * (GOD+GID)
44.592 * 25000.00/( 10000.00 * 3.14
Nmin 0.417 in.
44.592 in
1.750 in.
1.250 in.
2.813 in.
2.951 in.
11: 071 in.
( 43.00 + 42.00) )
(
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
Flange
W
W
W
Gasket
HG
HG
HG
Design Bolt Load, Gasket
ABASTR * (AM. + AS ) /
= 25000.00 ... ( 32.3780 +
= 962125.56 lb.
Seating Force:
WMl
809451
809451. 00 lb.
Seating:
'.0
44. 5920 ) / 2.0
7-43
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 49
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel CV Item: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
MOMENT ARM CALCULATIONS;
Distance to Gasket Load Reaction:
DHG (C - G ) I 2.0
DHG ( 45.1250 - 42.5000 ) / 2.0
DHG = 1.3125 in.
Distance to Face Pressure Reaction:
DHT 0.0 for blind flange
DHT = 0.0 for blind flange
DHT = 0.0000 in.
Distance to End Pressure Reaction:
DHD G/4.0
DHD 42.5000 / 4.0
DHD 10.6250 in.
SUMMARY OF MOMENTS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE:
LOADING Force Distance Bolt Carr Moment
End Pressure, MD 270937. 10.6250 1.0000 239893. ft.lb.
Face Pressure, MT 0. 0.0000 1.0000 0. ft.lb.
Gasket Load, MG 809451. 1. 3125 1. 0000 88534. ft.lb.
(
Gasket Seating, MA 962126. 1. 3125 1.0000 105232. ft.lb.
TOTAL MOMENT FOR OPERATION, RMO 328426. ft.lb.
TOTAL MOMENT FOR GASKET SEATING, RMA 105232. ft .lb.
Tangential Flange Stress, Flat Head, Operating:
STO 1.9
to
WMl"'DHGtoBCORR/(TH
A
2
to
G) + CtozRAT*PEQtoG
.o.
2/(TH
.o.
2)
STO 1.9 to 809451 * 1.3125 * 1.0000/( 5.0000.0. 2 to 42.5000 ) +
0.30 * 1.0000 to 500.00 * 42.5000"'2 )/( 5.0000.0. 2 )
STO 12737. psi
Tangential Flange Stress, Flat Head, Seating:
STA 1.9*W
to
DHG*BCORR/(TH
.o.
2
to
G + 0
STA .. 1.9 * 962125 * 1.3125 * 1.0000 /( 5.0000
A
2 * 42.5000 ) + 0
STA : 2258. psi
Bolt Stress, Operating:
sao (WM1/AB)
SBO = ( 809451 / 44.5920
SBO = 18152. psi
Bolt Stress, Seating:
SSA (WM2/AB)
SSA (33)794 / 44.5920
SSA 7486. psi
Stress Computation
Tangential Flange
Bolting
Results: OPERATING
Actual Allowed
12737. 20000.
18152. 25000.
GASKET SEATING
Actual Allowed
2258. 20000.
7486. 25000.
psi
psi
7-44
TEMA Channel Cover Deflection Calculations:
Actual deflection at center per TEMA formula
Allowed deflection at center of Cover
Estimated M.A.W.P. ( Operating)
0.0286 in.
0.0300 in.
534.0 psig
Half-Pipe Jaekels
l
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Blind Flanges and Channel Covers
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar Page 50
Flange Analysis: EX-2 Channel CV Item: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Estimated M.A.W.P. (Gasket Seating
Estimated Finished weight of Flange
Estimated Unfinished Weight of Forging
3281.1
2494 .3
2494.3
psig
lb.
lb.
(
Half-Pipe Jackets
The PV Elite Program, (el 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
7-45
Large Cenlral Openings
LARGE CENTRAL OPENINGS
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
.'
Some flat heads have large nozzle openings. A special modification ofthc flange rules is
providcd in Appendix 14 in order to analyze the stresscs in thesc hcads. The opening in the
head may have a nozzle or may be a simple hole, as shown:
14-3 1998 SECTION VIII - DMSION I
Tl'li' haU depiell
opMlng wilh noule. "'9'0 loonleI
Thll "_If dvpielS
op!oingwilhoul noule.
14-'
9
0
hheUI 1.--------., -1----- --1
1+--1------ A----jf--------++J
7-46
Figure 21--lntegral Flat Head with Large Cenlral Opening
Notice that these rules apply only to an integral head. A flat head with a large nozzle in it
may be analyzed using the normal rules for flat heads and nozzles. Only when the flat
head is welded or otherwise integral to the shell do these rules apply.
The design procedure begins with the calculation of the normal bending moments for a
flanged connection, taking the point of bending to be not the gasket, but the inside diame-
ter of the vessel wall.
The next step is to calculate the slresses at this point (the OD of the head). These are used
to calculate an equivalent moment and geometry for the head with the large opening. (The
equivalent moment is M
JI
" the equivalent geometry is expressed by (Eg)' andX
j
).
The equivalent geometry and loading are used to calculate the stresses at the Head/Shell
Juncture and at the Opening/Head Juncture. In each case longitudinal, radial, and tangen-
tial stresses are calculated. These stresses are then compared to the standard ASME Code
allowables from Appendix 2-8.
Half-Pipe JackeLs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Large Central Openings
(
(
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Desigll Problem
Large Central Circular Opening.
A flat head designed for 75 psi. (5 I 7N/mm
2
) internal pressure at 500F (260C) has a 12-
in. (305 mOl) centrally located nozzle. Determine the stresses for the head and the nozzle
openillg. The following additional data is available:
Corrosion Allowance 0.0625 in. (1.6 mm)
Flat head thickness = 1.0 ill. (25.4 mm)
Flat head outside diameter 20.0 in. (508 mm)
SheH thickness 0.25 in. (6.35 mOl)
Shell hub thickness, large end 0.5 in. (12.7 mOl)
Shell hub length = 3.0 ill. (76.2 mOl)
Flange and nozzle are both SAI06 B.
Nozzle hub thickness (wall thickness) at small end 0.25 in. (6.35 mm)
Nozzle hub thickness at large end 0.6 in. (15.24 mm)
Nozzle hub length = 2.8 in. (71.12 mm)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the longitudinal stress in the head at the shell?
What is the longitudinal stress in the head at the nozzle?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
7-47
Large Cenlral Openings Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName ; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 105
Lgcenter Analysis: HAND CHECK Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Large Opening Item 1, Description: HAND CHECK
Flange and Nozzle Material
Allowable Stress at Design Temperature SFO
Allowable stress at Ambient Temperature SPA
1, Desc.; HAND CHECK
Design Temperature
Design Pressure
Integral Flat Head Thickness
Opening Inside Diameter
Flat Head Outside Diameter
Shell Side Hub Thickness, Small End
Shell Side Hub Thickness, Large, End
Shell Side Hub Length
Corrosion Allowance
Nozzle Side Hub Thickness, Small End
Nozzle Side Hub Thickness, Large End
Nozzle Side Hub Length
ASME VIII App. 1. A-99 FLANGE RESULTS
TEMP
P
T
B
A
SGO
SGl
FCOR
NGO
NGl
NHL
500.00 F
75.00 psig
1.0000 in.
12.0000 in.
20.0000 in.
0.2500 in.
0.5000 in.
3.0000 in.
0.0625 in.
SA-I06 B
17100.00 psi
17100.00 psi
0.2500 in.
0.6000 in.
2.8000 in.
7-48
Diameter of the Load Reaction G C per App. 14
G FLGOD - 2.0 * SGI + 2.0 * FCOR
G 20.0000 - 2.0 * 0.2500 + 2.0 * 0.0625
G 19.6250 in.
The Flange K Factor
K Flange 00 / Flange ID
K = 20.0000 ! 12.1250
K 1.6495
The Flange Radial Distance Dimension R
R 0.5 * ( G - FLGCID ) - ( SG1 - FCOR )
R 0.5 * ( 19.6250 - 12.1250 ) - ( 0.5000 - 0.0625 )
R 3.3125 in.
The Hydrostatic End Force Hd
Hd PI/4. Flange 10 A 2 ,., P
Hd = PI/4 * 12.1250
A
2 * 75.0000
Hd = 8659.9355 lb.
The Moment Md
Md HD * ( R + 0.5 * ( SGI - FCOR ) )
Md '" 8659.94 * ( 3.3125 + 0.5 * ( 0.5000 - 0.0625 ) )
Md '" 2548.3665 ft.lb.
The Total Hydrostatic End Force H
H PI!4 * G
A
2 * P
H", PI/4 * 19.6250
A
2 * 75.0000
H '" 22686.6562 lb.
The Differential End Force Ht
Ht H - Hd
Ht 22686.66 - 8659.94
Ht 14026.7207 lb.
Half-Pipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design tlod Analysis - Seminar Noles
Large Cenlral Openings
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 106
Lgcenter Analysis; HAND CHECK Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
The Moment Mt
Mt 0.5 Ht * ( R + SGI )
Mt = 0.5 * 14026.72 * ( 3.3125 + ( 0.5000 - 0.0625 ) )
Mt = 2191.6750 it.lb.
The Total Moment Mo
Mo Md -t Mt
Mo 2548.37 + 2191.68
Mo 4740.0415 it.lb.
Flange Factors ( Opening
Factors from Figure 2-7.1
T
Y
1.647
4.054
K
U
Z
1.649
4.455
2.162
( Effective Hub Length,
Hub Ratio,
Thickness Ratio,
110
BRAT
GRAT
SQRT(S*GZERO)
HBLNG / HO
(GONE/GZERO)
1.508 in.
1.857
2.867
Flange Factors for Integral Flange;
Factor F per 2-7.2
Factor V per 2-7.3
Factor f per 2-7.6
d 4.067
in. A 3 e
Stress Factors ALPHA
BETA 1. 501 GAMMA
DELTA 0.203 LAMBDA
0.604
0.058
1.000
0.400 in.
A
_l
1.375
0.835
1.038
(
Longitudinal Hub Stress, Operating:
(F. RMO / B ) / ( RLAMBDA GONE
A
2 )
SHy ( 1.0000 56880 / 12.1250 ) / ( 1.0379 0.4375
A
2 )
SHy = 23613. psi
Radial Flange Stress, operating:
SR. (BETA * RMO / B ) / ( RLAMBDA TH
A
2 )
SR. ( 1.5006 * 56880 / 12.1250 ) / 1.0379 0.9375
A
2 ')
= 7716. psi
Tangential Flange Stress, Operating:
ST* (Y.RMO / TH*TH*B ) - ZSRO
STy (4.0541.56880/ 0.9375
A
2 ) - 2.1623 7716
4954. psi
The Value for E Theta Star ( Integral Nozzle )
Et* 0.91. (NGl/NGOI
A
2Bl*V*Sh*/{f*ho)
Et* 0.91*{ 0.538 / 0.188 )A2 12.312 * 0.058 * 23613/( 1.000 * 1.508)
Et* 83723.1953 psi
Flange Factors ( Shell ) :
(
Half-Pipe Jackels
Effective Hub Length,
Hub Ratio,
Thickness Ratio,
110
IlRAT
GRAT
SQRT(B*GZERO)
HBLNG / HO
(GONE/GZERO)
1.936 in.
1.549
2.333
7-49
Large Central Openings Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc .. Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 107
Lgcenter Analysis HAND CHECK Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Flange Factors for
Factor F per 2-7.2
Factor V per 2-7.3
Factor f per 2-7.6
Integral Flange:
e
0.663
0.095
1.000
0.343 in .... -1
Moment Acting at the Shell to Plat Head Juncture
Mh Et*/C(1.74*ho*V/(SGO"'3*B1+Et*/Mo*(1+Pt/ho)
Mh 83723 /[{1.74 * 1.9365 * 0.0947 /( 0.1875"'3 * 19.9375 + 83723 /
56880 * ( 1 + 0.6633 * 0.9375 / 1.9365 )
Mh 1595.8574 ft.lb.
The Xl Factor
Xl (Mo - Mh ( 1 + Ft/ho ) ) / Mo
Xl (56880 - 19150 ( 1 + 0.6633 * 0.9375 I 1.9365 ) ) / 56880
Xl 0.5552
Stress Results for the Head/Shell Juncture
Longitudinal Hub Stress in the Shell :
Shs (Xl) (E*) (l.lO*ho*fj / ((gl/g0) "'2*Bs*V)
Shs (0.56){ 83723) (1.10 * 1.936 * 1.0001/(( 5.444)"'2 * 19.62) 0.095)
shs 9788.3799 in.
Radial Stress at the Outside Diameter ;
srs 1.91*Mh(1+F*t/ho)/(Bs*t
A
2) + 0.64*F*Mh/{Bs*ho*t)
Srs 1.91 * 1595{ 1 + 0.663 * 0.938 I 1.936 1/( 19.625 * 0.879
A
2 ) +
0.64 * 0.663* 1595/( 19.625 * 1.936 * 0.938 )
Srs 3029.7085 psi
Tangential Stress at the Outside Diameter :
Sts X1*Etheta**t/Bs - .57 {1+P*t/ho)Mhl (Bs*t
A
2) + .64*P*Z*Mh/(Bs*ho*t)
Sts = 0.555 * 83723.195* 0.938 / 19.625 -
.57( 1 + 0.663 * 0.938 / 1.936) 1595 /( 19.625 * 0.8789"'2 ) +
.64 * 0.663 * 2.162 * 1595 I( 19.625 * 1.936 * 0.938 )
Sts = 1877.8865 psi
(
where Z = (K"'2+1)/(K
A
2-1) = ( 2.721 + 1 )/( 2.721 - 1 )
Stress Results for the Opening Head Juncture
Longitudinal Hub Stress in Central Opening :
sho = Xl * Sh* = ( 0.555 * 23613.205 ) = 13110.363 psi
Radial Stress at Central Opening
Sro = Xl * Sr* = ( 0.555 * 7716.479 ) = 4284.292 psi
2.162
Tangential Stress at Diameter of Central Opening
Sto X1*St* + .64*P*Zl*Mh/(Bs*ho*tl
Sto 0.555 * 4953.979 +
.64 * 0.6633 * 3.162 * 1595 I ( 19.625 * 1.936 * 0.938 )
Sto 3472.0491 psi
7-50 Half-Pipe lackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Large Central Openings
CQADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 108
Lgcenter Analysis: HAND Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
where Zl = = (2* 2.721 + 1/12.721 - 1 = 3.162
Flange Stress
Long. Hub
Radial
Tangential
Results per Appendix 14
Head/Shell Allowed
9788 25650
3029 17100
1877 17100
Opening
13110
4284
3472
Allowed
25650
17100
17100
psi
psi
psi
M.A.W.P. for the given Geometry
Estimated Finished Weight of Forging
Approximate Minimum Flange Thickness
146.735
69.3
0.5444
psig
lb.
in.
(
Half-Pipe Jackets
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by CQADE Engineering Software
7-51
Large Central Openings
7-52
Pressure Vessel Design ilnd Analysis - Seminar Notes
Half-Pipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design <llld Analysis - Seminar Noles
Chapter 8:
Floating Heads and
Spherically Dished Covers
Floating hcads and spherically dished covers are discussed in Appendix 1-6.
TYPES OF SPHERICALLY DISHED COVERS
There arc four types of spherically dishcd covers:
Type A covers are evaluated using nomlal head rules. Only the other three rcquire spe-
cial analysis.
The Type B head has a thin spherical section extended across the flange face, with a
flange ring behind the plate.
Type C heads arc made from a single piccc of steel the thicknesses of the flange with
the centcr portion dished.
Type D heads, very commonly used as floating heads for heat exchangers, consist of a
flange ring with the spherical cap welded to the inside of the ring. Type D heads are
the most intcresting, because of the inward reaction of the head to internal pressure
(and outward to external pressure, sincc these are usually found inside heat exchang-
ers).
An additional analysis techniquc, called Soehren's calculation, takes into account the rota-
tion of the flange and head at thc attachment point. This calculation may be used as a
design basis.
DESCRIPTION
Thcse heads always have a flange, which must be designed using modified flange rules,
and frequently a backing ring which is designed as a ring flange.
.Backing rings usually have slightly larger diameters than the flange ring. The backing ring
may be a split ring. If the ring has one split, then it has been split along a diameter, into
two pieces. The bending moment on the ring is multiplied by 2.0 for this case. A ring with
two splits has been sliced in half like a bagel, and then each half has been split along a
diameter. The ring is assembled with the diametral splits offset by 90 degrees. For this
case, enter the thickncss of one half of the original ring, since cach half is required to sup-
port 75 percent of the original design momcnt.
The attachment point of the head to the flange is measured by two diffcrent values.
Qis the distance from the bolting face of the flange to the intcrsection of the head
inside diamctcr and the flange. This dimension is uscd in Soehren's calculation.
HR is lhe distance from the flangc ccntroid to the intcrscction of the head centerline
and the flange. HR is positive if it is above the flange centroid, and negative if it is
below thc flange centroid. HR is used in the Code calculation.
Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers 8-t
Example
EXAMPLE
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
A slolled flange hns bolt holes that extend radinlly to the onter edge of the flange. Slotted
flanges are allowed by the Code for floating heads.
A full face gasket extends from the 10 of the flange 10 the OD, enclosing the bolt holes.
These gaskets are nsually soft malerials such as rubber or nn elastomer, so that the bolt
stresses do not go too high during gasket seating. The Code takes into account the use of
full face gaskets for floating heads.
The tubeside pressure is internal to the flange, creating a typical flange bending moment,
to which is added the moment caused by the pressure on the head acting to rotate the
flange. If the head is allached above the centerline of the flange, this will result in a
moment that is opposite to the olher flange bending moments. Ifthe head is allached
below the centerline, this moment will have the same sign.
The shellside pressure is external to the flange. The rules in Appendix 2 of the Code for
flanges under external pressure are used by the program to calculate the bending moment
on the flange. Note that because the sign of the pressure on the head is also reversed, the
head component of the flange bending will always have the same effect that it does for
internal pressure.
The following figure shows typical geometry for floating heads and spherically dished
heads.
,oJ
Al'PENDD.: I - MANDATORY
NotL.qn.....
'tend 1/1 No
CtM IMt: T'htn
Il2itl.
It- L\
a....ft

1,1
Figure 1--Typical Geometry for Floating Heads and Spherical Caps
1..
8-2 Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers
Pressure Vessel Design and AIl<Jlysis - Seminar Noles
Example
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Special Design Problem-Floating Head
Design Pressure
Design temperature
275 psi shell side
215 psi tube side
300F
. 1.89 N/sqmm
1.48 N/sqmm
149C
Corrosion allowance 0.125 in. 3.175 mm
Head Material
Flange and backing ring
Bolting
Gasket ID
Gasket OD
Spiral Wound SS/Asbestos Gasket
Number of Bolts
Bolt size
Backing ring ID
Backing ring thickness
SA5l6,70
SAlO5
SA193, Grade B7
45.125 in.
45.688 in.
52
314-in.
45.6875 in.
3.75 in.
II 46mm
1160 mm
19mm
1160 mm
95mm
0.675 in_ \hick
rC\
7500 in thick
1
'5.00
I
I
'5.125
---j
I
'6.750
'9.375
Hr
Centroid T
(
Questions:
What is the required head thickness?
What are the required flange thicknesses? _
What are the required ring thicknesses?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
(
Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers
8-3
Example Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 34
Plohead Analysis; EX-2 PLOHEAD Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
)
Input Echo, Floating Head Item 1, Description: EX-2 FLOHEAD
Floating Head Type
Tube side ( Internal ) Design Pressure
Shell Side ( External ) Design Pressure
Design Temperature for Spherical Head
Appendix 1-6
PTS
PSS
TEMP
type (d)
215.00
275.00
300.00
psig
psig
F
Flange Material
Flange Allowable Stress at Temperature SOC
Flange Allowable Stress at Ambient SAC
SOH
SAH
Head Material
Head Allowable Stress at Temperature
Head Allowable Stress at Ambient
Crown Radius for Spherical Head
Head Thickness
Tube Side ( Internal ) Corrosion Allowance
Shell Side ( External ) Corrosion Allowance
Flange Outside Diameter
Flange Inside Diameter
Flange Thickness
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient
CR
TH
CATS
CA.sS
FOD
FlO
TC
SBO
SBA
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
45.0000 in.
1.1250 in.
0.1250 in.
0.1250 in.
SA-lOS
20000.00 psi
20000. 00 psi
49.3750 in.
45.1250 in.
7.7500 in.
SA-I93 B7
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
Full Face Gasket ( Yes or No
Diameter of Bolt Circle
Nominal Bolt Diameter
Type of Threads
Number of Bolts
Flange
Flange
Gasket
Gasket
Gasket
Gasket
Flange
Column
Gasket
Flange
Length
Width
Face OUtside Diameter
Face Inside Diameter
Outside Diameter
Inside Diameter
Factor, m,
Design Seating Stress
Facing Sketch
for Gasket Seating
Thickness
Face Nubbin Width
of partition Gasket
of Partition Gasket
DB 46.7500 in.
DBOLT 0.7500 in.
TEMA Thread Series
52
No
FOD -45.7500 in.
FlO 45.1250 in.
GOD 45.6880 in.
GIO 4 5 2 5 ~ in.
M 3.0000
Y 10000.00 psi
I, Code Sket.ch la
2, Code Column II
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
Distance from Head Centerline to Flange centroid
The Flange is not Slotted.
1.5000 in.
8-4 Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Example
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 I.icensee: COADE Inc . Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 35
Flohead Analysis; EX-2 FLOHEAD Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Backing Ring Material Specification
Backing Ring Allowable Stress, Temperature
Backing Ring Allowable Stress, Ambient
Backing Ring Inside Diameter
Backing Ring Thickness
Number of Splits in Backing Ring
SOTS
SATS
DR
TR
NSPLIT
SA-IDS
20000.00
20000.00
45.6875
3.7500
1
psi
psi
in.
in.
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS FOR SPHERICAL HEADS
ASME Code, Section VIII, Div. 1, 1998, A-99 Appendix 1-6
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure:
t 5PL / 6S per Appendix 1-6
t (5 * 215.00 * 45.1250 ) / ( 6 * 20000 )
t 0.4042 in.
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure at Given Thickness:
Pa 6S(T-Cass-CatsJ / 5L per Appendix 1-6
Pa (6 * 20000 * 0.8750 ) / ( 5 * 45.1250 )
Pa 465.37 psig
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure, New and Cold:
Pnc 6ST / 5L per Appendix 1-6
Pnc (6 * 20000 * 1.1250 ) / ( 5 * 45.0000 )
Pnc 600.00 psig
Actual
Sact
Sact
Sact
stress at given pressure and thickness:
5PL / 6(T-Cass-Cats) per Appendix 1-6
( 5 * 215.00 * 45.1250 ) / ( 6 * 0.8750
9240. psi
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SPHERICAL HEAD
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A-99
External Pressure Chart CS-2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
29000000.00 psi
0.875Q in.
46.0000 in.
52.5714
0.0023777
15586.9805 psi
296.49 psig
= 296.4915
Pressure:
TCA
00/2
(00/2) /T
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Crown Radius of Shell
Crown Radius / Thickness Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(D/T,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = B/( (OD/T)! 2 ) = 15586.9805 /( 105.1429/2.0)
(
Results for Reqd Thickness for Ext.
Corroded Thickness of shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT.LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Pressure
TCA
OD
(O/T)
A
B
(Tea) :
0.B217
92.0000
111.9651
0.002232B
15397.0B9B
in.
in.
psi
(
Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers 8-5
Example Pressure Vessel Design and Anslysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 36
Flohead Analysis: EX-2 FWHEAD Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = B!((D!T)!2) = 15397.0898!< 111.9651 ! 2
INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS FOR FLANGED PORTION:
ASME Code, Section VIII, Div. 1, 1998, A-99 App. 2
275.03 psig
275.0337
Flange Design Bolt Load W
Gasket Seating Force HG
Distance to Gasket Load Reaction DHG
Distance to Face Pressure Reaction DHT
Distance to End Pressure Reaction DHD
Bolting Information for TEMA Thread Series :
Total Area of Bolts
Minimum radial distance between hub and bolts
Minimum radial distance between bolts and edge
Minimum circumferential spacing between bolts
Actual circumferential spacing between bolts
Maximum circumferential spacing between bolts
BASIC FLANGE AND BOLT LOADS:
Hydrostatic End Load due to Pressure H
Contact Load on Gasket Surfaces HP
Hydrostatic End Load at Flange ID HD
Pressure Force on Flange Face HT
Radial Component of Head Membrane Force HH
Operating Bolt Load: WM1
Gasket Seating Bolt Load WM2
Required Bolt Area AM
Gasket Contact Width, N
Basic Gasket Width, BO
Effective Gasket Width, BE
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G
(GOD-GID) ! 2
N ! 2.0
BO
(GOD-tGID) I 2.0
0.281 in.
0.141 in.
0.141 in.
45.407 in.
15.704 in
1.125 in.
0.813 in.
1. 750 in.
2.823 in.
14 _786
in.
348148.4 lb.
25900.4 lb.
347665.5 lb.
482.9 lb.
609473.4 lb.
374048.8 lb.
200778.0 lb.
14.962 in
383324.4 lb.
25900.4 lb.
0.6717 in.
0.6796 in.
0.6875 in.
SUMMARY OF MOMENTS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE:
LOADING Force Distance Bolt Corr Moment
End Pressure, Md 347666. 0.6875 1. 0000 19918. ft. lb.
Face Pressure, Mt 483. 0.6796 1.0000 27. ft.lb.
Gasket Load, Mg 25900. 0.6'717 1. 0000 1450. ft. lb.
Floating Hd. Load, Mh 609473. 1.5000 1.0000 -76184. ft.lb.
Gasket Seating, Ma 383324. 0.6717 1.0000 21458. ft.lb.
TOTAL MOMENT FOR OPERATION ( Internal Pressure )
TOTAL MOMENT FOR GASKET SEATING ( Int. Pressure)
54789. ft. lb.
21458. ft.lb.
BASIC FLANGE AND BOLT LOADS;
Hydrostatic End Load due to Pressure
Contact Load on Gasket Surfaces
Hydrostatic End Load at Flange ID
Pressure Force on Flange Face
Radial Component of Head Membrane Force
Operating Bolt Load:
H
HP
HD
HT
HH
>lMl
445306.1
33128.4
444688.5
617.7
779559.0
374048.8
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
8-6 Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADF. Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 37
Flohead Analysis: EX-2 FLOHEAD Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Example
Gasket Seating Bolt Load WM2
Required Bolt Area l\M
Flange Design Bolt Load W
Gasket Seating Force HG
Distance to Gasket Load Reaction DHG
Distance to Face Pressure Reaction DHT
Distance to End Pressure Reaction DHD
200778.0 lb.
14 .962 in
383324.4 lb.
445306.1 lb.
0.6717 in.
0.6796 in.
0.6875 in.
(
SUMMARY OF MOMENTS FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
LOADING Force Distance Bolt Corr Moment
End Pressure, Md 444688. 0.0158 1.0000 584. ft.lb.
Face Pressure, Mt 618. 0.0079 1.0000 o. ft.lb.
Floating Hd. Load, Mh 779559. 1.5000 1.0000 -97445. ft. lb.
Gasket Seating, Ma 383324. 0.6717 1. 0000 21458. ft.lb.
TOTAL MOMENT FOR OPERATION I External Pressure ) 96861. it.lb.
TOTAL MOMENT FOR GASKET SEATING I Ext. Pressure ) 214.58. ft. lb.
Required
T
T
T
thickness for
F+SQRT{F*
1.273 + SQRT(
5.7316 in.
Main Flange, internal operating
F + J ) per 1-6{g)
1.273 * 1.273 + 18.257 )
conditions:
Required
T
T
T
thickness for
F + SQRT ( F *
0.000 + SQRT(
2.6740 in.
Main Flange, internal
F + J ) per 1-6{g)
0.000 * 0.000 + 7.150
bolt-up conditions:
Required
T
T
T
thickness for
F+SQRT(F*
1.628 + SQRT(
7.5385 in.
Main Flange, external operating
F + J ) per 1-6(g)
1.628 * 1.628 + 32.276 )
conditions:
Required
T
T
T
thickness for Main Flange, external bolt-up conditions:
F + SQRT( F * F + J ) per 1-6 (g)
0.000 + SQRT( 0.000 0.000 + 7.150
2.6740 in.
thickness for Backing Ring, internal operating conditions:
SQRT( M Y / S B ) Per App 2-7(b) (9)
SQRT( 397426.9 * 24.888 / ( 20000.0 * 45.687 ) )
3.2901 in.
(
Required
T
T
T
Required
T
T
T
thickness for Backing Ring, internal bolt-up
SQRT( M Y / S B ) Per App 2-7 (b) (9)
SQRTI 407282.2 * 24.888 / ( 20000.0 * 45.687
3.3306 in.
conditions:
) )
(
SUMMARY OF REQUIRED THICKNESSES:
Tubeside (Internal) Pressure
Shells ide (External) Pressure
Tubeside Gasket Seating Load
FloaLing Heads and Spherically Dished Covers
Head
0.4042
0.8217
Flange
5.7316
7.5385
2.6740
Backing Ring
3.2901 in.
in.
3.3306 in.
8-7
Example
8-8
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar ~ Page 38
Flohead Analysis: EX-2 FLOHEAD Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Shells ide Gasket
Seating Load
2.6740
in.
Maximum
+ Corrosion Allowance
l.0717 7.7885 3.3306 in.
Actual Thickness as Given 1.1250 7.7500 3.7500 in.
WEIGHT OF HEAD AND FLANGE:
Weight of Spherical Head,
Uncorroded WHO
544.9 lb.
Weight of Spherical Head, Corroded WHOCA
428.9 lb.
Weight of Flange Ring, Uncorroded
WFL 691.8 lb.
Weight of Flange Ring, Corroded
WFLCA 610.4 lb.
Weight of Backing Ring, Uncorroded
WBR 292.2 lb.
Weight of Backing Ring, Corroded
WBRCA 252.6 lb.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Floating Heads and Spherically Dished Covers
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Chapter 9: Heat Exchanger
Tubesheets
lEMA TUBESHEETS
Tubesheets are usually analyzed using the TEMA Standards (Standards of the Tubular
Exchanger Manufacturers Associalion). The 7th Edition ofTEMA was issued in 1988,
with addenda.
The following TEMA tubeshcet types are illustrated in Figure 9-1:
A stationary tubesheets, gasketed on both sides.
B stationary tubesheets, integral with the shell.
C stationary tubcshecls, integral with the channel.
N stationary tubeshccts, integral on both sides.
U U-tube tubesheets gaskelcd on both sides.
V U-tube tubesheets integral with the channel.
P floating tubesheets, outside packed floating head.
S floating tubeshects, head with backing device.
T floating tubesheets, pull through floating head.
W floating head, externally sealed floating tubesheet.
D Divided floating tubeshee!.
F Fixed tubesheet exchanger - two stationary tubcsheets.
The TEMA Standard has a very simple equation for lhe of the tubeshee!. The
equation in bending (which controls far more often than shear) is
T is the required thickness.
F is a correction faclor taking into account the fixity of the shell support for the
tubeshee!. It is 1.0 for simply supported (gaskeled) tubesheets.
G is the characteristic diameter of the tubesheel support point-either the 1D of the
shell or the mean diameter of the gasket.
Lowercase h is the ligament efficiency of the tubcsheet. The value ofh depends on the
tube pattern, tube pitch and tube OD. This term was added to the equation (in place of
a constant) in the Seventh edition ofTEMA.
S is the allowable stress.
Heat Exchanger Tubcsheets 9-1
TEMA Tubesheets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
Pis Ihe pressure. But P is really a wild card. TEMA aeeounls for the complexities of
fixed lubesheet geometry and tubesheels extended as flanges by developing multiple
eandidales for an equivalenl design pressure on each side oflhe tubeshee!. These can-
didates lake inlo aeeounlthe loading on Ihe lubesheet from differenliallhermal expan-
sion, Ihe loading due to bolling, and Ihe aelual pressure loads.
fRONT INO
lEAl INO
"AT1OHA.lJ HEAD rn5
SHIll rnu
HEAD lYPU



TT
E
L

A
,...-
flXD rUBHmn
ONf 'ASS SHnL
UKE STAIIONAIlY HEAD

..__... -

F M
AND REM Aau COVER
e
-
TWO p.us SHEll
mefO TUBESHUT
liKE nAflONAJiY HAO
WITH lONGITUDINAl aAFflE

--m-l-----


8
G
N

flXfD TUUSHEET
LIKE Y S'Al1ON101l'Y HEAD
80NNET (INTEGRAL COVER)
!>f'l.1T F\OW
jP
50"
&
'-i-
+
I] ,
H
OUTSIN '.0.00 1l0ATlIiG HEAOI
C

:1: .....
DOUBLE SPlIT nOW'
..

T

5
CHANNEl INTEGRAl WITH TUBE-
SHEeT AND RfMOVABl COVER
J
flOATING HE100
Q:
WITH IAO:ING D[VlCf
OMOfD flOW

t N

T
r .... Jl.
. ....
POll TtUIOUGH fLOAflN(; HE"'O
K
D

(HANNU INTfGIAL wnH lUU-
SHEet AND REMOVABLE (OVER
U
KETTlE TYPE REBOILER
UTUBE BUNDlE

:

X
..
w
"
SPfCIAl HIOH 'RfSSURf: CIOSUIl'
ClOSS flOW
UlUNAUY SfAUO
nOAlING IOBESHUT
Figure 1--Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
(
9-2
One of the most difficult areas of fixed tubesheet design is deciding on the actual metal
temperature for the components.
The most conservative approach is to choose metal temperatures which are based on the
maximum difference belween Ihe shellside and tubeside fluids. For example, if the shell-
side fluid enters the exchanger a1450F and leaves Ihe exchanger al 340F, then the shell-
side mclaltemperature would be assumed 10 be 450F. Ifthe tubeside fluid enlers at 180F
and leaves al 250F, then the tube metallemperature would be taken at 180F. This would
HeaL Exchanger Tubesheers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles TEMA Tubcsheets
(
result in a 270F temperature difference between the shell and the tubes, which would
almost certainly require an expansion joint.
An approach that is one step Icss conservative takes thc metal temperatures at the mean of
the inlet and outlet temperatures for the fluids. In the case described above, this results in a
shell metal temperature of 395F and a tube metal temperature of 215F.
The best approach is to know something about the actual metal temperatures through heat
transfer considerations. We recommended asking a process engineer what the process
design implies about the metal temperatures. Alternately, if you can find out the approxi-
mate shellside and tubeside heat transfer coefficients, you can estimate the tube metal tem-
perature using a simple weight average as
HsT
sF
+HrTrF
TrM H +H
s r
In the case above, if the shellside fluid has a heat transfer coefficient that is five times
greater than the tubeside fluid, then, starting from the average temperature for each side,
the tube metal temperature would be 365F. The shell metal temperature would remain
395F. Thus it would be likely that the exchanger could be built with no expansion joint.
Note Typically a metal temperature difference of up to 50F can be tolerated with no
expansion joint. Note also that there may be operating scenarios (such as a loss of
fluid) where the temperature difference is much higher. These must be taken into
account in the design.
TEMA allows differenlial pressure design. The differential pressure is used as the design
pressure on both the tubeside and the shellside. The exception to this rule is fixed
tubesheet exchangers, which have special differential design pressure rules.
When a tubesheet may be controlled by shear stress, TEMA requires the perimeter and
area of the tubesheet for the shear calculation. The perimeter is the distance covered when
stepping around all of the tubes on the periphery of the bundle. The area is the area
enclosed by this process.
It is difficult to empirically evaluate the perimeter and area. You will be conservative if
you overestimate the area and underestimate the perimeter.
TEMA calculates a pressure below which shear calculations need not be considered. How-
ever, even above this pressure, bending may control the tubesheet thickness.
Fixed tubesheet heat exchangers frequently require expansion joints. For TEMA evalua-
tion, all you need to know about the expansion joint is its spring constant and inside diam-
eter. If you have a flanged and flued expansion joint-that is, one that is relatively stiff-
you will have to know the exact spring constant. For metal bellows expansion joints you
only need to know that the spring rate is below a certain value prescribed by TEMA.
When a tubesheet is extended as a flange, additional bending moments may be imposed
on the tubesheet. TEMA transforms these moments into an equivalent pressure.
The bending moments on the tubesheet extension are calculated assuming the extension is
a ring-type flange, and using the typical Code flange analysis.
TEMA also provides rules for longitudinal stresses, both in the shell and in the tubes.
You need to know the baille spacing and tube physical and material properties to deter-
mine the buckling stress in the tube.
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets 9-3
TEMA Tubeshects Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
The following table shows lhe tube joinl reliability factor used by TEMA to compare the
actual to the maximum tube pull-auI load.
IS98 SECTION VII DIVISION 1
TABLEA-2
EFPICIENCIESf
r
9-4
Dew:iption(l) No...
Heal Ex.changer Tubesheets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Floating TubesllCet Design
TEMA Tubesheels
(
Determine the required thickness for the following floating tubesheet.
Tubesheet type - Floating tubesheet with backing ring, SA-105 Forging
Gasket diameter for tubesheet - 38 in. (965 mm)
Design pressure - 250-psi (1.72 N/mm
2
) shell at 480F (249C), 525-psi channel at
200F (93C)
3/4-in. tubes on 15116 pitch, triangular
Shell: SA-516,70, 37-in. diameter, 0.5-in. thick, 0.125-in. CA
Channel: SA-5 I 6,70, 37-in. diameter, 0.5-in. thick, 0.125-in. CA
Gasket between Channel and Tubesheet
Flange Face OD 38.5 in. (978 mm)
Flange Face ID 37.5 in. (953 mm)
Gasket OD 38.5 in. (978 mm)
Gasket ID 37.5 in. (953 mm
m 2.75, y = 3700.0-psi (2.55 N/mm
2
)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness of the tubeshect?
What is the maximum pressure allowed on the tubeside
for a 4-in.(102 mm) thick tubesheet?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Heal Exchanger Tubeshecls 9-5
TEMA Tubesheels Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite -4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 51
Tubesheet Analysis: EX-) Float TS Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, TubeSheet Item 1, Description: EX-) Float TS
Shell Design Pressure
Shell Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell Material
Shell Allowable Stress at Temperature
Shell Allowable Stress at Ambient
Shell Thickness
Shell Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Shell
Channel Design Pressure
Channel Temperature for Internal Pressure
Channel Material
Channel Allowable Stress at Temperature
Channel Allowable Stress at Ambient
Channel Thickness
Channel Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Channel
TUBESHEET TYPE: Floating, Backing Ring
Tube Outside Diameter
Tube pitch (Center to Center Spacing)
Tube Layout Pattern
Tubesheet Design Metal Temperature
Tubesheet Material (Not Normalized)
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Temperature
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Ambient
Thickness of Tubesheet
Tubesheet Corr. Allowance (Shell side)
Tubesheet Corr. Allowance (Channel side)
Depth of Groove in Tube Sheet
PS
TEMPS
SOS
SAS
TS
CAS
OS
PC
TEMPC
SOC
SAC
TC
CAC
DC
DT
FT
TEMPTS
SOTS
SATS
TTS
CATS
CATC
GROOVE
250.00
480.00
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
0.5000
0.1250
37.0000
525.00
200.00
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
0.5000
0.1250
37.000Q
0.7500
0.9380
Triangular
-480.00
SA-lOS
19680.00
20000.00
4.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR GASKETED TUBESHEETS:
Flange Face Outside Diameter
Flange Face Inside Diameter
Flange Facing Sketch
Gasket Outside Diameter
Gasket Inside Diameter
Gasket Factor, m,
Gasket Design Seating Stress
Column for Gasket Seating
Tubesheet Gasket on which Side
FOD
FID
1, Code
GOD
GID
M
y
2, Gode
SIDE
38.5000
37.5000
Sketch la
38.5000
37.5000
2.7500
3700.00
Column II
BOTH
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS FOR GASKETED TUBESHEETS:
ASME Code, Section VIII, Div. I, 199B, A-99 Appendix 2
9-6
Gasket Contact Width, N
Basic Gasket Width, BO
Effective Gasket Width, BE
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G
(GOD-GID) I 2
N I 2.0
BO
(GOD+GID) / 2.0
0.500 in.
0.250 in.
0.250 in.
38.000 in.
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes TEMA Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 52
Tubesheet 1\Ilalysis: EX-3 Float TS Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
TUBESHEET ANALYSIS, TUBESHEET NUMBER l,Description:EX-3 Float TS
TEMA Standards, Eighth Edition, 1999, RCB-7 Tubesheets
TEMA R-I.131 Minimum Tubesheet Thickness for R-type:
THIN MAX ( DT, CONST - ( CATS CATC ) )
TMIN =: MAX ( 0.750, 0.750 - ( 0.000 + 0.000) )
TMIN = 0.7500 in.
Min. Thickness + CATS + MAX (CATC, GROOVE)
TREQMIN = 0.7500 in.
Shellside Fixity Factor, F, per RCB 7.132 FS 1. 0000
Shellside Effective Diameter, per RCB 7.132 GS 38.0000 in.
Tubeside Fixity Factor, F, per RCB 7.132 FC 1.0000
Tubeside Effective Diameter, per RCB 7.132 GC 38.0000 in.
TEMA Eta factor used in calculation ETA 0.4201
Shells ide Effective Pressure, Bending, PSU 250.0000 psig
Tubeside Effective Pressure, Bending, PTU 525.0000 psig
TEMA RCB-7.132 Required Thickness for Shellside Pressure:
TRS FS I GS I SQRT { PSU / ( ETA I SOTS) ) / 3.0
TRS = 1.0000 I 38.0000 I SQRT( 250.00 / ( 0.4201 I 19680 ) ) / 3.0
TRS = 2.2025 in.
TEMA RCB-7.132 Required Thickness for Tubeside Pressure:
TRC FC I GC I SQRT { PTU / ( ETA I SOTS) ) / 3.0
TRC = 1.0000 I 38.0000 I SQRT( 525.00 / ( 0.4201 I 19680 ) ) / 3.0
TRC = 3.1918 in.
TEMA RCB-7.132 Required Thickness for Bending + CATS + MAX ( CATC,GROOVE):
TREQ = 3.1918 in.
No Shear Calculation, since Pressure is less than 1264.8911 psig
SUMMARY of RESULTS for Tubesheet calculations
Reqd Tubsheet Thk. + CATS + MAX(CATC,GRV)TREQ
Actual Tubsheet Thickness as Given TTS
3.1918 in.
4.0000 in.
(
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets 9-7
TEMA Tubeshcets
9-8
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes
Heal Exchanger Tubeshcels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Fixed tubesheet design
Determine the required thickness for the following fixed tubesheet.
TEMA Tubesheets
(
(
Tubesheettype - SA-lOS Forging
Design pressure - 250 psi shell at 480F (249C), 525-psi channel at 480F (274C)
3/4-io.( 19 mm) tubes on 15/16 (24 mm) pitch, triangular
Shell- SA-516,70 - 40.5lD (1029 mm) by 0.5 (12.77 mm) thick, 0.125 (3.175 mm)
corrosion allowance
Channel- SA-516,70 - 40.5 lD (1029 mm) by 0.5 (12.77 mm) thick, 0.125 (3.175
mm) corrosion allowance
Tubesheet is welded to shell, extended as flange, and gasketed to channel.
aD of extension is 47.65 (1210 mm), thickness of extension is 3.5 in. (89mm)
56 I-in. bolls on 45.5-in.(1156 mm) boll circle, SA-193, B7
40.5-in. (1029 mm) gasket lD, 41.5-in. (1054 mm) aD, flexitallic

40.5-in. (1029 mm) face lD, 42.5-in. (l080 mm) face aD.
Tubes (SA-214, allowable ksi (69N/mm
2
), yield=23 ksi (159 N/mm
2

Tube metal temperature 241F (116C)


Shell metaltemperalure 259F (126C)
Tubesheet melal temperature 250F (121C)
No expansion joint
1511 tubes, 0.075-in. (1.9056 mm) thick, 96-in. (2438 mm) overall length
44-in.(l1I8 mm) spacing all baillles
Tube to tubesheet joinl factor (ASME) 0.65
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness of the tubcsheet?
What is the maximum pressure allowed on the tubeside for a 4-in.(l02 mm)
thick tubesheet?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Heal Exchanger Tubesheels 9-9
TEMA Tubesheels Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
CQADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 53
Tubesheet Analysis; EX-3 f-'ixed TS Item: 2 9 ~ a Sep 21, 2000
Input Echo, TubeSheet Item 2, Description: EX-3 Fixed TS
Shell Design Pressure
Shell Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell Material
Shell Allowable Stress at Temperature
Shell Allowable Stress at Ambient
Shell Thickness
Shell Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Shell
PS
TEMPS
SOS
SAS
TS
CAS
OS
250.00
480.00
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
0.5000
0.1250
40.5000
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
Channel Design Pressure
Channel Temperature for Internal Pressure
Channel Material
Channel Allowable Stress at Temperature
Channel Allowable Stress at Ambient
Channel Thickness
Channel Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Channel
PC
TEMPC
SOC
SAC
TC
CAC
OC
525.00
480.00
S1I-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
0.5000
0.1250
40.5000
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
TEMPTS
in.
in.
F
psi
psi
in.
in,
in.
in.
0.7500
0.9380
Triangular
480.00
SA-lOS
19680.00
20000.00
4.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
OT
PT
SOTS
SATS
TTS
CATS
C/l,TC
GROOVE
TUBESHEET TYPE: Fixed Tubesheet Exchanger
Tube Outside Diameter
Tube Pitch (Center to Center Spacing)
Tube Layout Pattern
Tubesheet Design Metal Temperature
Tubesheet Material (Not Normalized)
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Temperature
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Ambient
Thickness of Tubesheet
Tubesheet Corr. Allowance (Shell side)
Tubesheet Corr. Allowance (Channel side)
Depth of Groove in Tube Sheet
in.
F
F
F
psi
psi
psi
in.
lbs./in.
in.
in.
in.
259.00
241.00
250.00
.1511
96.0009
SA-214
1l400.00
11400.00
21400.00
0.0750
0.6500
0.00
40.5000
44.0000
44.0000
No
SOT
SAT
SYT
TT
Fl\SME
SJF
OJ
SL
SLT
EXCHANGERS
ACTUALl
ACTUAL2
ACTUAL3
TNU>lT
TLENT
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR FIXED TUBESHEET
Actual Metal Temperature for Shell
Actual Metal Temperature for Tubes
Actual Metal Temperature for Tubesheet
Number of Tubes
Length of Tubes
Tube Material
Tube Allowable Stress at Temperature
Tube Allowable Stress At Ambient
Tube Yield Stress At Operating Temperature
Tube Wall Thickness
ASME Tube Joint Reliability Factor
Expansion Joint Spring Rate
Expansion Joint Inside Diameter at Bellows
Maximum Unsupported Tube Length
Tube Span Between Baffle and Tubesheet
Is this a Kettle-type configuration
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR TUBESHEETS EXTENDED AS FLANGES:
9-10 Heal Exchanger Tubesheets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes TEMA Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COhOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 54
Tubesheet Analysis: EX-3 Fixed TS Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Outside Diameter of Flanged Portion
Diameter of Bolt Circle
Thickness of Extended Portion of Tubesheet
Nominal Bolt Diameter
Type of Threads (Thread Series
Number of Bolts
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient
Weld between Flange and Shell/Channel
OF 47.6500 in.
DB 45.5000 in.
TF 3.5000 in.
DBOLT 1.0000 in.
TEMA Thread Series
NUMBER 56
SA-193 B7
SBO 25000.00 psi
SB' 25000.00 psi
WLDH 0.0000 in.
(
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR GASKETED TUBESHEETS;
Flange Face Outside Diameter
Flange Face Inside Diameter
Flange Facing Sketch
Gasket Outside Diameter
Gasket Inside Diameter
Gasket Factor, m,
Gasket Design Seating Stress
Column for Gasket Seating
Tubesheet Gasket on which Side
FOD
FID
1, Code
GOD
GID
M
Y
2, Code
SIDE
42.5000
40.5000
Sketch 1a
41.5000
40.5000
3.0000
10000.00
Column. II
CHANNEL
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
(
INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS FOR TUBESHEETS EXTENDED AS FLANGES:
ASME Code, Section VIII, Div. 1, 1998, A-99 Appendix 2
Gasket Contact Width, N (GOD-GID)
/ 2 0.500 in.
Basic Gasket Width, BO N / 2.0 0.250 in.
Effective Gasket Width, BE BO 0.250 in.
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G (GOD+GID)
/ 2.0 41.000 in.
BASIC FLANGE AND BOLT LOADS:
Hydrostatic End Load due to Pressure:
H 0.785*G*G*PEQ
H = 0.7854 * 41.0000 * 41.0000 * 525.0000
H = 693134. lb.
Contact Load on Gasket Surfaces:
HP 2 * BE * PI G * M * PEQ +
HP = 2 * 0.2500 3.1416 41.0000 * 3.0000 525.00
HP = 101434. lb.
Hydrostatic End Load at Flange 10:
HD 0.785 * Bear * Bcor * PEQ
HD = 0.785 * 40.7500 * 40.7500 * 525.0000
HD = 684706. lb.
Pressure Force on Flange Face:
HT H - HD
HT = 693133 - 684706
HT = 8427. lb.
Operating Bolt Load:
WMI H + HP + HPP
WM1 = ( 693133 + 101434 + 0 )
WMI = 794568. lb.
Gasket Seating Bolt Load:
WM2 = y * (t BE PI * G ) + (BEPG * GLPG) + HPGY
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets 9-11
Heal Exchanger Tubesheels
TUBESHEET ANALYSIS, TUBESHEET NUMBER 2.Descriptian:EX-3 Fixed TS
TEMA Standards, Eighth Edition, 1999, RCB-7 Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 55
Tubesheet Analysis: EX-3 Fixed TS Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
WM2
WM2 32201J. lb.
Required Bolt Area:
AM Maximum of WMl/ABSTR, WM2/ABASTR
AM Maximum of 794567 I 25000 I 322013 I 25000
AM 31.7821 in
(
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
_-I
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
1. 375 in.
1.063 in.
2.250 in.
2.551 in.
6.000 in.
30.356 in
1<15459. ft .lb.
14.6809. ft-Ib.
I 2.0
Pressure Vessel Design Analysis - Seminar Notes
hub and bolts
bolts and edge
between bolts
between bolts
between bolts
Seating:
2.0
30.6560 )
between
between
spacing
spacing
spacing
to Gasket Load Reaction:
(C - G ) j 2.0
( 45.5000 - 41.0000 ) I 2.0
2.2500 in.
to Face Pressure Reaction:
I R + GleOR + DHG ) I 2.0
( 2.0000 + 0.3750 2.2500 l I 2.0
2.3125 in.
to End Pressure Reaction:
R + ( GICOR I 2,0 I
2.0000 + < 0.3750 I 2.0 )
2.1875 in.
radial distance
radial distance
circumferential
circumferential
circumferential
Design Bolt Load, Gasket
1I.BlI.STR * ( AM + AB ) I
25000.00 * ( 31.7827 +
"" 7e298J.BB lb.
Seating Force:
WMI - H
794567 - 69)133
101434.19 lb.
Flange
"
"
" Gasket
HG
HG
HG
Minimum
Minimum
Minimum
Actual
Maximum
MOMENT ARM CALCULATIONS:
SUMMARY OF MOMENTS FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE:
LOADING Force Distance Bolt Carr Moment
End Pressure, MD 684706. 2.1875 1.0000 124.816. ft. lb.
Face Pressure. MT 8427. 2.3125 1.0000 1624. ft.lb.
Gasket: Load, MG 101434. 2.2500 1.0000 19019 . ft.lb.
Gasket Seating, MA 782984. 2.2500 1.0000 146809. it.lb.
** WARNING ** Required Bolt Area > Actual Bolt Area
Bolting Information tor TEMA Thread Series:
Total Area of Bolts, AS
Distance
DHG
DHG ""
DHG ""
Distance
nUT '"
DHT '"
DHT ""
Distance
DHD
DHD '"
DHD
TOTAL MOMENT FOR OPERATION, RMO
TOTAL MOMENT FOR GASKET SEATING, RNA
TEMA Tubesheets
9-12
Pressure Vessel Design and AIl<\lysis - Seminar Notes TEMA Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 56
Tubesheet Analysis: EX-3 Fixed TS Item; 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
TEMA R-7.131 Minimum Tubesheet Thickness for R-type:
TMIN MAX( DT, CONST - ( CATS + CATC ) )
TMIN;; MAX( 0.750, 0.750 - ( 0.000 + 0.000 ) )
TMIN ;; 0.7500 in.
Min. Thickness + CATS + MAX(CATC,GROOVE)
TREQMIN;; 0.7500 in.
Shells ide Fixity Factor, F, per RCB 7.132 FS 1.0000
Shellside Effective Diameter, per RCB 7.132 GS 40.7500 in.
Tubeside Fixity Factor, F, per RCB 7.132 FC 1.0000
Tubeside Effective Diameter, per RCB 7.132 GC 40.7500 in.
TEMA Eta factor used in calculation ETA 0.4201
0.6752E-05
0.2829E+08
0.6260E-05
0.2825E'l-08
MATERIAL PROPERTIES FOR THERMAL EXPANSION ANALYSIS:
Shell - TEMA : C-Mn-Si, 1-1/4Cr-1!2Mo & 3Cr-1Mo
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp. 0.6108E-05
Elastic Modulus at Metal Temp. 0.2870E+08
Tubes - TEMA : Plain Carbon Stl & C-Mn Stl.
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp.
Elastic Modulus at Metal Temp.
TubeSheet - TEMA : C-SI, C-1/2Mo & Cr-l/2Mo
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp.
Elastic Modulus at Metal Temp.
/ deg F
psi
/ deg F
psi
! deg F
psi
RK ,., FO l
0.0000 /
+ 1.0000 .,
FD
TEMA RCB-7.161 K Factor for Thermal Expansion
TEMA RCB-7.161 Fq Factor for Thermal Expansion
TEMA RCB-7.161 Differential Expansion / Length
TEMA RCB-7.161 Equivalent Differential Thermal
PD 4 * RJ * ELAS * TSCA * DLL /
( DOS - 3.0*TSCA ) ( 1.0 + RJ *
4 * 1.0000 * 0.287E+08 * 0.3750 *
( 41.5000 - 3.0 * 0.3750 ) * ( 1.0
PD;; -0.07 psig
0.2045
3.7930
-0 .12E-06
Expansion Pressure:
0.2045 3.7930 )
(
RCB 7.162 Equivalent Shellside Bolting Pressure:
PBS 6.2. RMA / ( F*.2 * G**3 )
PBS = 6.2 * 0.176E+07 / ( 1.0000
A
2 * 40.7500
h
3
PBS = 161.42 psig
RCB 7.162 Equivalent Tubeside Bolting Pressure:
PST 6.2. RMO / ( F**2 * G**3 )
PBT 6.2 * 0.175E+07 / ( 1.0000
A
2 * 40.7500
A
3
PBT 159.93 psig
TEMA RCB 7.163 Effective Shellside Design Pressure:
TEMA RCB-7.163 Fs Factor for Shells ide Design 0.4882
PSP1 0.4 * RJ * ( 1.5 + RK * (1.5 + FFS ) )
0.4 * 1.0000 * ( 1.5 + 0.2045 (1.5 + 0.4882 ) )
PSP2 0.5 - RJ / 2.0 ) * ( DJ**2 / G**2 - 1.0 )
( ( 0.5 - 1.0000 / 2.0 ) * ( 40.7500**2 / 40.7500**2 - 1.0 )
PSP3 1. 0 + RJ * RK * FQ
1.0 + 1.0000 * 0.2045 * 3.7930
PSP PS * ( ( PSPI - PSP2 ) / PSP3 )
Heal Exchanger Tubcsheets
9-13
TEMA Tubes/wets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis _Seminar Notes
250.00 ,0; ( ( 0.7627 - 0.0000 ) /1.7758
PSP 107.37 psig
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName 'Seminar ------------------_____________________ Page 57
Tubesheet Analysis, EX-3 Fixed TS Item, 2 9,51a Sep 21,2000
) / 2.0
/ 2.0
161.42
) / 2.0
)
or
or ( PSP
TEMA RCB-7.163 Eff. Shell Side Design Pressure:
PSU = Max (absolute) of PSP 107.37
or PBS 161.42
PSP - PD) / 2 (107.37 -0.07
PD - PBS) /2 (107.37 -0.07
or ( PBS + PD ) / 2 (161.42 + -0.07
or ( PSP - PBS) (107.37 161.42
161.42 psig
7.163 Shellside Shear Design Pressure,
: 107.37 psig
psu '"
TEMA RCB
PSS
RCB 7.164 Effective Tubeside Design Pressure:
TEMA RCB-7.164, Ft Factor for Tubeside Design 0.6724
PTPI 1.0 0.4 * RJ * RK .. ( 1.5 + FFT )
1.0 + 0.4 * 1.0000 .. 0.2045 * ( 1.5 + 0.6724 )
PTP2 1.0 + RJ * RK ,0; FQ
1.0 + 1.0000 * 0.2045 ... 3.7930
PTP PT * PTP1 / PTP2
525.00 ... 1.1777/1.7758
PTP 348.19 psig
Side Design Pressure:
( 348.19 159.93 + -0.07 ) / 2.0
( 348.19 + 159.93
(348.19 107.37 + 159.93 + -0.07 ) / 2.0
(348.19 107.37 + 159.93
508.12 psig
Design Pressure (PBT=O):
: 348.19 psig
7.164 Tubeside Shear
TEMA RCB-7.164 Effective Tube
PTU = Max (absolute) of
( PTP + PBT + PD ) / 2
or ( PTP + PBT )
PTP - PSP + PBT + PO) / 2
or ( PTP - PSP + PBT )
PTU
RCB
PTS
TEMA RCB-7.132 Required Thickness for Shellside Pressure:
TRS FS'" GS ,0; SQRT ( PSU / ( ETA * SOTS) ) / 3.0
TRS = 1.0000 < 40.7500 < SQRTI 161.42 / I 0.4201 < 19680 ) ) / 3.0
TRS '= 1. 8979 in.
TEMA RCB-7.132 Required Thickness for Tubeside Pressure:
TRC FC,o; GC ... SQRT ( PTU / ( ETA" SOTS) ) / 3.0
TRC = 1.0000 < 40.7500 < SQRTI 508.12 / I 0.4201 < 19680 ) / 3.0
TRC '" 3.3673 in.
TENA RCB-7.132 Required Thickness for Bending < CATS + MAxI CATC, GROOVE) ,
TREQ = 3.367] in.
No Shear Calculation, since Pressure is less than 1264.8971 psig
TENA RCB-7.134 Required Thickness for Tubesheet Flanged Extension,
TPREQ .98* SQRT( (RM* fR"'2 - 1 + 3.71'" R"'2 ... LN IR)
/ ( SOTS .. ( DF - G -' .. ( 1.0 + 1.86 ... R..... 2 )
TFREQ .98< SQRTII 0.176E+07<1 1.17'2 I + 3.71< 1.17'2<LNI 1.17)))
/ ( 19680,0; ( 47.65 - 40.75 ) * ( 1.0 + 1.86 ... 1.17"'2 J
TFREQ = 2.0204 in.
9-14
Heat Exchanger Tubesheels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes TEMA Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 58
Tubesheet Analysis; EX-3 Fixed TS Item; 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
RCB-7.22 Shell Longitudinal Stress:
Max. Effective Pressure for Longitudinal Stress, 284.18 psig
TEMA RCB-7.22 Maximum Shell Longitudinal Stress:
STSMAX PSSMAX * CS * ( DOS - TSCA )/( 4 * TSCA )
STSMAX 284.18 * 1.00 * ( 41.5000 - 0.3750 ) / ( 4 * 0.38 )
STSMAX 7791. psi
TEMA RCB-7.22 Allowable Shell Longitudinal Stress
STSALL 20000. psi
RCB-7.23 Tube Longitudinal Stress Results:
Max. Effective Pressure for Longitudinal Stress,
Min. Effective Pressure for Longitudinal Stress,
TEMA RCB-7.23 Maximum Tube Long. Stress (Tension):
STTMAX PTTMAX*CT*FO*G*G /(4*TNUMT*TT*(DT-TT)
STTMAX 255.12* 1.00* 3.79*-40.7500* 40.7500
/ ( 4* 1511* 0.0750*( 0.7500- 0.0750) )
STTMAX 5251.62 psi
TEMA RCB-7.23 Allowable Tube Long. Stress (Tension):
STSALL = 11400.00 psi
TEMA RCB-7.23 Minimum Tube Camp. Longitudinal Stress
STTMIN = PTTMIN*CT*FO*G*G/{4*TNUMT*TT*(DT-TT)
STTMIN = -75.27* 1.00* 3.79* 40.7500* 40.7500
/ ( 4* 1511* 0.0750*( 0.7500- 0.0750) )
STTMIN -1549.40 psi
255.12
-75.27
psig
psig
Modulus of Elasticity of
External Pressure Chart
Elastic Modulus for Tube
Tubes at Mean Tube
CS-l
Material,
Temperature
at 300.00
ET 29000000.00
F
psi
TEMA RCB-7.24 Allowable Tube Compressive Stress
STTCOM -PI**2 * ET / ( FSAF * RKLR**2 )
STTCOM - 3.14**2 * 0.290E+08 / ( 1.35 * 183.24**2
STTCOM -6297.79 psi
RCB-7.25 Tube-To-Tubesheet Joint Load:
Effective Pressure for Tube-to-Tubesheet Load 255.12 psig
TEMA RCB-7.25 Actual Tube-To-Tubesheet Load
WJ PI * FQ * PTLOAD * G * G / ( 4.0 * TNUMT )
WJ = 3.14 * 3.79 * 255.12 * 40.75 40.75 / ( 4.0 * 1511 )
WJ = 835.23 lb.
TEMA RCB-7.25 Allowable Tube-To-Tubesheet Load:
WJA (PI/4.0)* (DT
A
2-(DT-2*TT) **2)*SOT*FASME
WJA (3.14/4.0)*( 0.7500
A
2-( 0.7500-2.0 * 0.0750)**2) *
WJA 11400 * 0.65
WJA 1178.51 lb.
LONGITUDINAL TUBE STRESS SUMMARY
Heat Exchanger Tubesheels
Actual Allowable
9-15
TEMA Tubesheels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NOles
psi
psi
psi
lb.
in.
in.
in.
in.
psig
psig
psig
20000.00
114 00.00
-6297.79
1179.51
3.3673
4.0000
2.0204
3.5000
-0.0740
107.3695
349.1878
7791.29
5251.62
-1549.40
935.23
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar ---------------------__________________ Page 59
Tubesheet Analysis; EX-3 Fb-:ed TS Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Shell Long. Stress (Tens.+J
Tube Long. Stress (Tens.+)
Tube Long. Stress (Comp.-)
Tube-to-Tubesheet Load.
SUMMARY of RESULTS for Tubesheet Calculations
Reqd Tubsheet Thk. + CATS + MAx(CATC.GRV)TREQ
Actual Tubsheet Thickness as Given TTs
Required Thickness for the Flanged Portion TFREQ
Actual Thickness for the Flanged Portion TF
Equivalent Differential Ther. Expansion Pressure
Shellside Prime Pressure
Tubeside Prime Pressure
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
."
.
}
':c. ;t
9-16
Heal Exchanger Tubesheels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
ASME TUBESHEETS
ASME Tubesheels
Beginning in 1989, the ASME Code began to include rules for some kinds of tubesheels.
These rules have now been expanded 10 include bolh U-Iube exchangers and mosl kinds of
fixed tubesheet exchangers. These are located in appendix AA of the Code, an oplional
appendix, and most people continue to use the TEMA rulcs for most exchangers. How-
ever, there are many occasions in which the ASME rules can result in a thinner tubeshcct,
at the expense of a slightly more complicated analysis.
(
0,
(
(til Typkil Sholl.Sldo Inleg';l1 ;lnd ChannQISldG TypQ ConHnxllon
Wrth Twuhul n a Flango
Figure 2--Typical Fixed Tubesheet Type Constructions
The design considerations and calculations for ASME tubesheets are similar 10 those for
TEMA tubesheets which we have already considered. Notice, however, the following
additional considerations:
The ASME method requires a specific and independent calculation of each design
case (temperature plus pressure, pressure only, temperature only). The TEMA method
takes these cases into account by means of the various candidates for design tempera-
ture and pressure.
The ASME method uses a model in which the tubesheet is considered to be a flat plate
on an elastic foundation. This model typically results in a thinner tubesheet than caleu-
lated by the TEMA melhod.
In cases where the stresses at the junetion between the tubesheet and the shell are high,
the ASME method allows the introduction of plastiticity at this joint. Recalculating
using a reduced stiffness al the joint typically results in a significant reduction in the
stresses. The CodeCalc program performs this type of recalculation automatically.
This Appendix was rewritten in 1989.
Heat Exchanger Tubeshecls 9-17
ASME Tubeshee.s
9-J8
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Heat Exchanger Tubesheels
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Selllll1ar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
ASME Tubesheels
(
ASME Tubesheet Calculation:
Recalculate the required thickness of the fixed tubeshcet analyzed using lhe ASME pro-
gram.
Tubesheel type - SA-105 Forging.
Design pressure - 250-psi shell at 480F (249C), 525-psi channel at 480F (249C)
3/4-in.(19mm) tubes on 15116 (24mm) pitch, triangular
Shell - SA-516,70 - 40.5 (I 029mm) !D by 0.5 (12.7mm) thick, 0.125 (3.175mm) cor-
rosion allowance
Channel- SA-516,70 - 40.5 (l029mm)!D by 0.5 (l2.7mm) thick, 0.125 (3.175mm)
corrosion allowance
Tubeshect welded to shell, extended as flange and gasketed to channel.
aD of extension is 47.65 (1210 mm), thickness of extension is 3.5 in. (89mm)
56 I-in. bolts on 45.5-in. (1156 mm) bolt circle, SA-193, B7
40.5-in. (1029 mm) gasket!D, 41.5-in. (1054 mm) aD, flexitallic
y=IOOOO)
40.5-in. (1029 mm) facc!D, 42.5-in. (1080 mm) face aD.
Tubes (SA-214, allowable ksi (69N/mm
2
, ksi (159 N/mm
2
)
Tube metal temperature 241F (116C)
Shell metal temperature 259F (126C)
Tubesheet metal temperature 250F (121C)
No expansion joint
1511 tubes, 0.075 thick (1.9050 mm), 96-in.(2438 mm) overall length.
44-in.(l118 mm) spacing all barnes.
Tube to tubesheet joint factor (ASME) 0.65
Notes:
Questions:
What is thc rcquircd thickness oflhe tubeshect?
How does this requircd thickness compare to the rcquired thickness
calculated using the TEMA program?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Hettl Exchanger Tubesheets 9-19
ASME Tubesheels Pressure Vessel Design and Ana!ysis - Seminar Notes
\
\
coADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar Page 93
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
INPUT ECHO, TUBESHEET NUMBER Description: EX-2 FlXED COM
\
\
\
(
\
\
\
\
\
( \
\
\
\
\
"-.c.;"'-
\
\
\
psig
in.
in.
in.
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
psig
in.
in.
in.
F
in.
in.
F
psi
lbs./in.
in.
in.
in.
F
F
F
F
F
psi
psi
F
psi
psi
in.
250.00
0.5000
0.1250
-40.5000
525.00
0.5000
0.1250
40.5000
480.00
S1\-105
1.96BQ.OO
20000. 00
4.0000
0.0000
0.0000
Heal Exchanger Tubesheets
4BO.00
S1\-516 70
20000.00
20000. 00
480.00
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
96.00
O.QO
2HOO.00
o.
0.0000
44.00
4.4.0000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.65
r
1511
0.0,50
0.7500
480.00
Triangular
SA-214
Pt
HC
CAC
DC
Ps
Hs
CAS
Os
S
S1\TS
H
CATS
CATS
Ss
SAS
DELTC
RNTUBS
t
D
TEMPTS
So
SAC
RL
k
SYT
Sj
wj
SL
SLT
TEMPSM
TEMPTM
TDASH
TDASHS
TDASHC
FASME
TJNT
shell Design Pressure
Shell Thickness
Shell Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Shell
TUBESHEET TYPE: Fixed Tubesheet Exchanger
Channel Design Pressure
Channel Thickness
Channel Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Channel
Tubesheet Design Metal Temperature
Tubesheet Material Specification
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Temperature
Tubesheet Stress at Ambient
Thickness of Tubesheet
Tubesheet Carr. Allowance (Shell side)
Tubesheet Carr, Allowance (Channel side)
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR fIXED TUBESHEET EXCHANGERS
Shell Temperature for Internal Pressure DELTs
shell Material
Shell Allowable Stress at Temperature
Shell Allowable Stress at Ambient
Channel Temperature for Internal Pressure
Channel Material
Channel Allowable Stress at Temperature
Channel Allowable Stress at Ambient
Length of 'I'tJbes
Tube Fixity condition
Tube Yield Stress At Operating Temperature
Expansion Joint Spring Rate ( Ibs./in. )
Expansion Joint Projection from Shell 00
Maximum Unsupported Tube Length
Tube Span Between Baffle and Tubesheet
Mean Shell Metal Temp. along Shell len.
Mean Tube Metal Temp. along Tube length
Tubesheet Metal Temp. at Rim
Shell Metal Temp. at Tubesheet
Metal Temp. at Tubesheet
ASME Tube Joint Reliability Factor
Classification for Tube Joint Type
Number of Tubes
Tube Wall Thickness
Tube Outside Diameter
Design Temperature of the Tubes
Tube Layout Pattern
Tube Material
9-20
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes ASME Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 94
ASMETube Analysis: EX-Z FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21/2000
Tube Allowable Stress at Temperature
Tube Allowable Stress At Ambient
Tube Pitch (Center to Center Spacing)
Radius to Outermost Tube Hole Center
Tube-side pass partition groove depth
Largest Center-to-Center Tube Distance
Length of Expanded Portion of Tube
SOT
SAT
P
rc
hg
Ul
Pedd
11400.00 psi
11400.00 psi
0.9375 in.
18.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR TUBESHEETS EXTENDED
Flanged Tubesheet Outside Diameter
Diameter of Bolt Circle
Flange Thickness
Nominal Bolt Diameter
Type of Threads
Number of Bolts
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient
Weld between Flange and Shell/Channel
AS FLANGES:
DF 47.6500
DB 45.5000
TF 3.5000
DBOLT 1.0000
TEMA Thread Series
56
SA-193 87
SBO 25000. 00
SBA 25000.00
WLDH 0.0000
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
psi
in.
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR GASKETED TUBESHEETS;
Flange Face Outside Diameter
Flange Face Inside Diameter
Flange Facing Sketch
Gasket Outside Diameter
Gasket Inside Diameter
Gasket Factor, m,
Gasket Design Seating Stress
Column for Gasket Seating
Tubesheet Gasket on which Side
FOD
FID
I, Code
GOD
GID
M
y
2, Code
SIDE
42.5000
40.5000
Sketch 1a
41.5000
40.5000
3.00
10000.00
Column II
CHANNEL
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
(
Installation Temperature of Assembly 70.00 F
ASME TubeSheet Results per APP. AA. 1998 Addenda A-99
Gasket Contact Width, N (GOD-GID)
I
2 0.500 in.
Basic Gasket Width, 80 N I 2.0 0.250 in.
Effective Gasket Width, 8E 80 0.250 in.
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G (GOD+GID)
I
2.0 41. 000 in.
Flange Design Bolt Load W 782983.88 lb.
Note: Since ASHE does not provide an explicit formula for flanged
extensions, the TEMA formula will be used.
Req. Thk. of Flanged Extension for Fixed Tubesheet Per TEMA 8th Edition
FTREQ .98ISQRT((RMICRAZ-l+3.71IRA2ILN(R)/((S*(A-G)I(1+1.86*RA2
FTREQ .98+SQRT( 0.176E+07+( 1.1693
A
2-1+3.71* 1.1693
A
2
I
LN( 1.1693)/
( 19680+( 47.6500- 40.7500)*(1+1.86* 1.1693
A
Z
FTREQ 2.0204 in.
Elasticity/Expansion Material Properties
Heal Exchanger Tubcshccts 9-21
ASME Tubesheels Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 95
ASMETube Analysis EX-2 FIXED COM Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
0.5666E-05
0.2708E+08
0.6076E-05
0.2708E+08
Shell - TEMA C-Mn-Si, 1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo & 3Cr-1Mo
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp. along Length 0.5530E-05
Elastic Modulus at Design Temp. 0.2758E+08
Channel - TEMA : C-Mn-Si, 1-1/4Cr-l/2Mo & 3Cr-lMo
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp. at Tubesheet 0.5530E-05
Elastic Modulus at Design Temp. 0.2758E+08
Tubes - TEMA : Plain Carbon Stl & C-Mn Stl.
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp. along Length
Elastic Modulus at Design Temp.
TubeSheet - TEMA : C-SI, C-1/2Mo & Cr-1/2Mo
Coeff. of Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp. at Rim
Elastic Modulus at Design Temp.
Shell - TEMA : C-Mn-Si, 1-1/4Cr-l/2Mo & 3Cr-lMo
Coeff. of-Thermal Exp. at Metal Temp. at Tubesheet 0.5530E-05
Results for ASME Fixed Tubesheet Calculations,
Per 1998 Revisions, Original Thickness :
Results for Step 1
rho Pedd / h
rho 0.0000/ 4.0000
rho 0.0000 ( must be 0 rho <= 1
d* MAX ( dt 2tt'" ( Et/E ) ( St/S ) ( rho), dt - 2tt)
d* MAX ( 0.7500-2* 0.0750*( 0.271E+08/ 0.271E+08)*
( 11400/ 19680 )"'( 0), 0.7500-2* 0.0750 )
d* 0.7500 in.
ao ro + dt / 2
ao 18.0000 + 0.7500 / 2
ao IB.3750 in.
/ deg F
psi
/ deg F
psi
/ deg F
psi
/ deg F
psi
/ deg F
pstar
pstar
pstar
mustar
mustar
mustar
p I sqrt{ 1 - 2*ro*UL/(Pi '* )
0.9375 / sqrt( 1 - 2* 18.0000* 0.0000/
( 3.142 * )
0.9375 In.
1 - dstar / pstar
1 - 0.7500 / 0.9375
0.2000
9-22
Ks as / ao
Ks 20.5625 / 18.3750
Ks 1.1190
Kc ac / ao
Kc 20.5000 / 18.3750
Kc 1.1156
xt 1 - Nt*{ (dt - 2*tt) / (2*ao) )'2
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles ASME Tubesheets
O ~ E Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: O ~ E Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 96
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
xt 1 - 1511""( ( 0.7500 - 2"- 0.0750)/(2"- 18.3750) )"2
xt 0.5972
xs 1 - Nt*( dt/(2.ao) l"2
xs 1 - 1511*( 0.7500/(2"- 18.3750) )"2
xs 0.3707
Results for Step 2
Ks Pi * ts( Ds + ts )Es/t
Ks 3.14"- 0.3750( 40.7500 + 0.3750 ) 0.276+08/ 96.000
Ks 13919066.0000 psi * in.
Kt Pi"- tt( Dt - tt )Et/L
Kt 3.14"- 0.0750( 0.7500 0.0750) 0.271E+08/ 96.000
Kt 44863.4180 psi * in.
Kst Ks / ( Nt ,.- Kt )
Kst 0.139E+08 / ( 1511 * 44863.4180 1
Kst 0.2053
s (( 3 * (l rnus
A
2) )AO 25 ) /
0; ( (Os + ts)/2 * ts ) .... 0.5
s (( J * (l - 0.30"2) )"0.25 ) /
( { 40.7500 + 0.3750)/2. * 0.3750) .... 0.5
s 0.4629 (= 0.0 if Gasketed 1
c (( 3 * (1 - rouc""2l )""0.25 ) /
= ( (Dc + tc)/2 tc lA O. 5
c ((3"- (1 - 0.30""2) )""0.25 ) /
( ( 40.7500 + 0.3750l/2. * 0.3750)""0.5
c 0.0000 (= 0.0 if Gasketed )
Results for Step 3 :
J 1 / ( 1 + Ks/Kj )
J 1 / ( 1 + 0.139E+08/ 0.0000 )
J 1.000000000 ( = 1.0 if No Exp. Joint)
(
,
(
Lambdas
Lambdas
Lambdas
Lambdat
Lambdat
HeaL Exchanger Tubesheets
rnus*as/ts + Es/Et * ( (rnut*dt)/(2"-tt) +
ao""2"- xs/( Nt * tt "-(dt-tt) )
0.3* 20.5625/ 0.3750 + 0.276E+08/ 0.271E+08 ,.-
( ( 0.3* 0.7500)/(2* 0.0750) + 18.3750""2 0.3707/
( 1511 ,.. 0.0750 ,.. ( 0.7500 - 0.0750) )
19.6441
rnut*( dt - 2*tt )/( 2*tt ) +
ao
A
2 * xt/( Nt * tt *(dt-tt) )
0.3*( 0.7500 - 2* 0.0750 l/{ 2* 0.0750 ) +
18.3750.... 2 * 0.5972/( 1511 * 0.0750 *
( 0.7500 - 0.0750))
9-23
ASME Tubesheels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------_____________ Page 97
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Lambdat = 3.8361
gamma
gamma
gamma
{alphatm*( Ttm - Tarnb
( 0.608E-05*( 0 - 70)
96.00
-0.0037 in.
- alphasm*( Tsm - Tamb ))* L
0.553-05*( 0 - 70)"
Qe = J*gamma/L + J*Lambdas " (Ps/Es) _
(Pt/Et) * (J*Lambat + Et"as/ (2"Es*ts)
* hj* (Ds + hj)/(Es*ts*Os)
Qe 1.0000* -0.0037/ 96.00 + 1.0000* 19.6441*{ 250.00/ 0.276E+08)
( 525.0/ 0.271E+08)*( 1.0000* 3.8361 + 0.271E+08* 20.5625/
(2* 0.276E+08* 0.3750) - 250.0*(1 - 1.0000)/2 * 0.00*
( 40.7500 + 0.00)/( 0.276E+08* 0.3750* 40.7500)
Qe -0.000456451
Results for Step 4
eta
eta
eta
( E*/E ) * ( 1
( 0.1553 )" (
0.1790
nu
A
2)/( 1 - nu*A
2
)
1 - 0.3000
A
2 )/( 1 _ 0.4586*A
2
Xa ({24 * (1 rnu*"'2) "Nt * Et* tt+ (dt - tt)" aO"'2) /
( E* " L * H
A
3 ) )AO. 25
Xa (24 *(1 0.459
A
2)* 1511* 0.271E+08" 0.0750"
(0.7500 0.0750)* 18.3750
A
2)/( 0.421E+07 *
96.00 * 4.000
A
3 ))A
O
.
25
Xa = 4.7588
v = 2/(E * h
A
3)* ( s" ts
A
3* Es* as/(1 _ rnus
A
2)*
(1 + s*h + SA2 * h
A
2 /2) + c* tc
A
3* Ee* ac/
(1 - rouc"'2)* (1 + c*h + c
A
2* h
A
2 /2) )
V 2/( 0.271E+09* 4.0000
A
3)* ( 0.463* 0.3750
A
3 * 0.276E+08* 20.5625/
(1 - 0.300
A
2)*(1 + 0.463* 4.0000 + 0.463
A
2* 4.0000
A
2 /2) +
( 0.000* 0.3750
A
3 * 0.276E+08* 20.5000/
(1 - 0.300"'2)*(1 + 0.000* 4.0000 + O.OOOA
Z
* 4.0000
A
2 /Z)
V = 0.08015467Z
gamastars
gamastars
gamastars
SAZ * ts
A
2 * Ks"'3 *(1 + s*h)/(6*(1 _ rnus"'Z
0.463
A
Z * 0.3750
A
Z * 1.119
A
3* (1 + 0.463* 4.0000)/
( 6* ( 1 - 0.300
A
2 ) )
0.022053536
gamastarc
gamastarc
gamastarc
9-24
gamas
gamas
gamas
(Ks
A
2 - 1) * (Ks -1)/4 - gamastars
( 1.119"'2 - 1) * ( 1.119 - 1)/4 - 0.OZ21
-0.014545569
CAZ * te"'2 " KC"'] *(1 + c*h)/(6*(1 _ rnuc
A
2l)
0.000A
2
" 0.3750
A
2 * 1.116"'3* (1 + 0.000* 4.0000)/
( 6* ( 1 - 0.300
A
2 ) )
0.000000000
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
ASME Tubesheels
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local_ White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 98
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
gamac
gamac
gamac
(Kc
A
2 _ 1) w (Kc -1)/4 - (Kc
A
3 Ks)/2
( 1.119
A
2 - 1) w ( 1.119 - 1)/4
( 1.116
A
3 - 1.119)/2 - 0.0000 .
-0.005373001
gamastarc
Results for Step 5 :
Values
Zd
ZV
Zm
from Table AA-2.4
0.013938
0.043256
0.296594
(1 - rnu
A
2)!eta * ( In( A/{2*ao) ) V)
(1 - 0.3000
A
2)/ 0.1790 * (In( 47.65/(2* 18.3750) )
0.0802 )
1. 727864861
Q1 (Ks - 1 - * Zv) / (l + * Zm)
Q1 (1.1190 - 1 - 1.7279* 0.0433)/(1 ..,. 1.7279* 0.2966)
Q1 0.029294359
Tr (T + Ts + Tc)/3
Tr (0.0 + 0.0 + 0.0) / 3
Tr 0.0000 F
T*s (Ts + Tr)/2
T*s (0.0 + 0.0) / 2
T*s 0.0000 F
T""c (Tc Tr) /2
TIC (0.0..,. 0.0) / 2
T*c 0.0000 F
Es*ts/as * ( alphas * (TIs Tamb)-
alpha ..,. (Tr - Tamb) )
0.276E+08* 0.3750/ 20.5625 * ( 0.553E-05 "" ( 0.0 - 70.0) -
0.567E-05 * ( 0.0 - 70.0) ]
4.8049 psig
Pstars
Pstars
Pstars
Pstarc
Pstarc
(
Pstarc
Ec*tc/ac * ( alphac "" (Tirc Tamb)-
alpha * (Tr - Tamb) )
0.276E+08* 0.3750/ 20.5000 * [ 0.553E-05 * ( 0.0
0.567E-05 * ( 0.0 - 70.0) )
4.8196 psig
70.0) -
(
Q2 (ao
A
2*( Pt*gamac + Pstarc*gamastarc Ps""gamas -
pstars,o,gamastars) + W*gamab!(2*Pi) ) ! (1 + *Zm)
Q2 (18.3750
A
2*( 525.00* -0.00537 + 4.82* 0.00000..,.
250.00* -0.01455 4.80* 0.02205) + 782983.9* -0.12245/
(2* 3.14) ) / (1 + 1.7279* 0.2966)
Q2 -11549.908203125
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
9-25
ASME Tubesheets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc . Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 99
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Results for Step 6 :
QZl (Zd + Ql*Zv) /2 "Xa"'4
Qzl (0.01394 + 0.02929* 0.04326)/2 * 4.75884"'-4
Qzl 3.8992
Qz2 (Zv + Ql*Zm) /2 *Xa
A
4
Qz2 (0.04326 + 0.02929 0.29659)/2 * 4.75884 .... 4
Qz2 13.3203
Ux (Zv + (Ks - 1) *Zm) Xa
A
4/2
Ux (0.0433 + ( 1.1190 - 1)* 0.2966)* 4.75884"'4/2
Ux 20.1466
Pe 2/ao"'2" (as*Es*ts*Qe - J*Kst*Q2*Ux
O.5*(Ps - Pt)*ao"'2*(Ks"'2 - 1/(1 + J*Kst*
(Qzl + (Ks -I)*Qz2) )
Pe 2/ 18.3750"'2 * ( 20.5625* O.276E+OB* 0.3750* -0.0005 -
1.0000* 0.2053* -11549.91* 20.15 - 0.5*( 250.00 - 525.00)*
- 1)/(1 + 1.0000* 0.2053*{ 3.899 +
( 1.119 - 1)* 13.320) )
Pe -104.6997 psig
Q3 Q1 + 2*Q2/{pe*ao
A
2)
Q3 0.02929 + 2*-0.115E+Os/( -104.700* 18.3750
A
2)
Q3 0.6827
Results for Step 7 :
Curve Value from Table AA-2.4
Fro '" 0.360388
hmin
hmin
h (For pressure plus thermal case and thermal only case)
4.0000 in.
9-26
The Tubesheet Bending Stress - original Thickness:
Sigma (1.5*Fm/mustar) * (2*ao/hmin)A2 * Pe
Sigma (1.5* 0.3604/ 0.2000) * (2* 18.3750/ 4.0000)A2 ... -104.70
Sigma -23887.5625 psi
The Allowable Tubesheet Bending Stress ;
Sigma allowed 1.5 * Omega * S
Sigma allowed 1.5 * 2.6667 * 19680.00
Sigma allowed 78720.0000 psi
The Tubesheet Bending Stress - Final Thickness:
Sigmaf (l.s*Fm/mustar) * (2*ao/hmin) AZ * Pe
Sigmaf (1.5* 0.1963/ 0.2000) * {2* 18.3750/ 1.9270)A2 * 147.01
Sigmaf 78719.8125 psi
Required Tubesheet Thickness, for bending stress :
Heat Exchanger Tubesheels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles ASME Tubesheels
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 100
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
(Including CATS
H reqd _ bend.
H reqd. bend.
H reqd. bend.
and CATC)
H + CATS + CATC
1. 9270 + 0 _0000
1.9270 in.
+ 0.0000
mu (p - dt) /p
mu (0.9375 0.7500)/0.9375
mu 0.2000
The Tubesheet Avg. Shear Stress - Original
Tau (1/ (2*mu) ) * { ao/h l Pe
Tau (1/{2* 0.200) ) * ( 18.3750/4.000
Tau -1202.4100 psi
The Allowable Tubesheet Shear Stress
Tau allowed 0.8 * S
Tau allowed 0.8 * 19680.00
Tau allowed 15744.0000 psi
Thickness:
1 * -104.700
The Tubesheet Shear Stress - Final Thickness:
Tauf (1/ (2*mu) ) * ( ao/h ) * Pe
Tauf (1/ (2* 0.200) ) * ( 18.3750/ 0.976 ) * 333.879
Tauf 15715.6035 psi
Required Tubesheet Thickness, for shear stress :
(Including CATS and CATC)
H reqd. shear H + CATS + CATC
H reqd. shear 0.9759 + 0.0000 + 0.0000
H reqd. shear 0.9759 in.
Required Tubesheet Thickness for Given Loadings,
(Including CATS and CATC)
H reqd. Max{ H_re'L-bend,
H reqd. Max{ 1.9270, 0.9759)
H reqd. 1.9270 in.
Results for Step 8 ;
Fq (zd + Q3*Zv)*Xa
A
4/2
Fq (0.0139 + 0.6827* 0.0433)* 4.7588
A
4/2
Fq 11.1474
(
The Tube
Sigmato
sigmato
Sigmato
Stress in the outermost Tube row.
( (Ps*xs - Pt*xt) - pe*Fq) / (xt - xs)
( ( 250.00* 0.3707 525.00* 0.5972)
( 0.5972 - 0.3707)
4176.6797 psi
-104.70* 11.147)/
(
The Allowable Tube
Sigmato allowed
Sigmato allowed
Sigmato allowed
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
Stress
omegat * Sot
2 * 11400.00
22800.0000 psi
9-27
ASME Tubesheets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 101
ASMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
The Force on
TubeForce
TubeForce
TubeForce
the Outermost Tube ;
TubeStress * Tube Area
4176.68 * 0.15904
664.2722 lb.
The Allowable Tube Force Per Appendix A VIII 1
Force Allowed 0.1590 * 11400.00 * 0.65 * 1.00 * 1.00
Force Allowed = 1178.5096 lb.
Results for Step 9
Qz2star
Qz2star
Qz2star
( (Zv + Q3*Zm)*Xa
A
4 )/2
( ( 0.0433 + 0.6827* 0.2966)* 4.7588
A
4 )/2
63.0190
The Shell Membrane stress due to joint interaction
Sigmasm ao
A
2*Pe/(2*as*ts) + Pt*as/(2*ts) +
(Ps - Pt)/2 * ao*(Ks
A
2 - 1)/(Ks*ts)
Sigmasm 18.3750
A
2* -104.70/(2* 20.5625* 0.3750) +
525.0* 20.5625/(2* 0.3750) + ( 250.0 - 525.0)/2 *
18.3750*( 1.119
A
2 - 1)/( 1.119* 0.3750)
Sigmasm = 10582.6562 psi
The Shell sending stress due to joint interaction
Sigmasb = 12* (1 + s*h/2)* (Es/E)* (s*ts/eta) *
(ao
A
3/(h
A
3*Xa
A
4)* Pe*Qz2star +
1/(1 - rnus
A
2)*(Ps - rnus*Sigmasm*ts/as +
Pstars)* SA2 * as
A
2
Sigmasb 12* (1 + 0.463* 4.000/2)* ( 0.276E+08/ 0.271E+08)*
( 0.463* 0.3750/ 0.179) + { 18.3750
A
3 /
( 4.000
A
3* 4.7588
A
4))* -104.700* 63.019 +
1/(1 - 0.30
A
2)* (250.0 0.30* 10582.7 *
0.3750/20.5625 + 4.80) * 0.4629
A
2* 20.S62S
A
2
Sigmasb = -8859.6250 psi
SHELL STRESS SUMMATION VS. ALLOWABLE
ISigmasm/ + ISigmasbl =< 1.5 * Omega * Ss
I 10582 I + I -8859 I =< 1.5 * 2.6667 20000
19442.28 must be < or = 80000.0000
Computations completed for ASME Tubesheet configuration b
Summary of stress/force comparisons
(
Stress Description Stress Value Allowable
9-28
Tubesheet bending stress 23887.6 78720.0 psi
Average Tubesheet shear stress 1202.4 15744.0 psi
Tube stress in the outermost tube 4176.7 22800.0 psi
Force on the outermost tube 664.3 1178.5 lb.
Shell stress due to j t. inter. 19442.3 80000.0 psi
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles ASME Tubesheels
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 102
i\SMETube Analysis: EX-2 FIXED COM Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Portion
Portion
SUMMARY of RESULTS for ASHE Tubesheet
Reqd Tubsheet Thickness + CATS + CATC
Actual Tubsheet Thick. as Given
Required Thickness for the Flanged
Actual Thickness for the Flanged
Calculations
HREQ
H
FI'REQ
TF
1.9270 in.
4. 0000 in.
2.0204 in.
3.5000 in.
(
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Heat Exchanger Tubeslleets 9-29
ASME Tubcshects
9-30
Pressure Vessel Design and An'alysis - Seminar NOles
Heal Exchanger Tubesheets
>
- - - ~
Pressure Vessel Design amI Analysis - Seminar Notes
Chapter 10:
Expansion Joints
FLANGED AND FLUED EXPANSION JOINTS
These are also commonly called "thick-walled" expansion joints. They are characterized
by having a small number of large bellows with relatively thick walls on the order of 0.25
m.
Thick-walled expansion joints are analyzed using "Expansion Joints for Heat Exchang-
ers," by S. Kopp, American Locomotive Company, Alco Products Division, and M.F.
Sayre, Union College, Schenectady, N.Y. This method is commonly referred to as the
"Kopp and Sayre" method.
TEMA has modified the Kopp and Sayre method to reflect the use of plate and shell the-
ory, and has implemented it as paragraph RCB-8. This is also the method that is imple-
mented in the CodeCalc program.
Evaluation of the stresses calculated by this method is based on the ASME Code, Section
VJII, Division I, Appendix CC, Paragraph CC-3.
The formnlas contained in the program are applicable based on the following assumptions:
Applied loadings are axial.
Torsional loads are negligible.
The flexible elements are snfficiently thick to avoid instability.
The flexible elements are axisymmetric.
The sequence of calcnlation used by the program is as follows:
I. Select a geometry for the flexible clement per RCB-8.21 (user input).
2. Determine the effective geometry constants per RCB-8.22.
3. Calculate the flexibility factors per RCB-8.3.
4. Calculate the flexible element geometry factors per RCB-8A.
5. Calculate the overall shell spring rate with all contributions from flexible shell ele-
ments per RCB-8.S.
6. Calculate Fax for each condition as shown in Table RCB-8.6. This requires that you
run the CodeCalc Tubesheet program to determine the differential expansion and
shellside and tubeside equivalent pressures.
? Calculate the flexible element stresses per RCB-8.?
8. Compare the flexible element stresses to the appropriate allowable stresses per the
Code, for the load conditions as noted in Step 6.
9. Modify the geometry and rerun the program if necessary.
Expansion Joints
to-t
Flanged and Flued Expansion Joints Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Figure lO-1 shows geomelry for the THICKJNT program. (TEMA Figure RCB-8.2l and
RCB-8.22) Both the input geomelry and the equivalent geometry used for the analysis are
shown. The discussion of input data below uses the nomenclature shown on this figure.
I. I.
t.
I.
t.
r ~
<:l
<:l
C
C
t, I, I,
1
1.-0
/ ... 0
r." 0
r.-O
"
I, I,
I,
til.
I.)
I, I,
(
-
I,
(--"
Ii
-
TI
_.
-I
r
..
+
I.
-
.Q
~
y,
Y.
a
~ X
Figure 1--Geomelry for Flanged and Flued Expansion Joints
The Kopp and Sayre Method uses continuity considerations '0 elastically calculate equiv-
alent stresses in the expansion joint.
The bellows outside diameter, inside depth, and the radius of the inside and oulside cor-
ners are shown in the sketch on the following page. The analysis technique also applies to
joints with a square comer (zero radius) at either 'he inside diameter or the outside diame-
ter.
When a flanged-only expansion joint or a square expansion joinl is analyzed, the bellows
thickness should be the same as the shell thickness, and the web thickness should be the
thickness of the annular plate.
10-2 Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design and AnCllysis - Seminar Noles Flanged and Flued Expansion Joints
(
(
Expansion Joints
For fully flanged and flued joints, thc bellows web thickncss is typically a lillie bit less
than thc nominal bcllows thickness due 10 thinning in the forming operation.
The Kopp and Sayre method analyzcs a square cornercdjoint, and approximatcs radiused
corners by substituting the length of a square corner wilh the samc stiffness. Thus Ihe
method produces an equivalcntlcngth and span for use in the analysis.
Allowable stress for internal and external pressure are based on the ASME Code, Section
VIII, Appendix CC, Paragraph CC-3, and is 1.5 limes the basic material allowable stress
in Ihe flat pari of the annulus and 3.0 times the basic allowable slress near the corners.
Individual stress intcnsitics are based on the algcbraic addition ofthc various cases,
including differential expansion pressure, shellside and lubeside design pressurc, and the
equivalent pressures due 10 othcr loadings. All ofthesc loads are found in the output of the
CodeCale Tubesheet Program.
Since thc CodeCale Tubesheel program is separate from the flanged and flued expansion
joinl program, a new expansion joint design requires an iterative approach:
I. Select expansion joint geometry using the expansion joint program based only on
shcllside and tubeside pressure. Detcrmine the spring constant for this joint.
2. Run Ihe Tubeshcet program with this spring constant and determinc the required
tubesheet Ihickness plus thc differential and equivalent pressures.
3. Enter the differential and equivalcnt pressures into the cxpansionjoinl program and
determine if the joint is adequate from a strcss standpoint. If il is nOI, rcsize the joinl
and repeal from Stcp I.
The stress resulting from intcrnal pressure (shellside pressure) lends 10 increase as the
joint OD increases, and decrease as the joint thickness increases. The stress due to differ-
cnlial cxpansion and tubeside pressure lends to decrease as joint OD increases and
increase as joint thickness increases. Workable designs will adequately balance Ihesc com-
peting demands.
The maximum stress range is automatically calculated for eachdesign case by the TEMA
procedures.
The cycle lifc is bascd on the material category, using the fonnulas given in the ASME
Code, Section VIII, Division I, Appendix CC, Paragraph CC-4. This paragraph includes a
power law formula for fatigue evaluation as follows:
( )
2.17
< 2.2
- 14.2K
g
S
n
E 0.03
b
for series 3XX high alloy steels, nickel-chromium iron alloy, nickel-iron chromium alloy
and nickel-copper alloy.
[ )
2."
< 2.0
- 15K S
+-0.011
b
for carbon, low alloy, series 4XX, and high alloy steels.
N is the number of cycles, the cycle life.
Sn is the maximum stress range resulting from the analysis.
10-3
Flanged and Flued Expansion Joints Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
10-4
E
b
is the elastic modulus for the material at the temperature under consideration.
Kg is the fatigue strength reduction factor. Use a fatigue strength reduction factor of
1.0 if both thc inside and the outside comcr radii are greater than 3 times the joint
thickness. Ifeither radius is 0.0 usc a factor of4.0. Ifboth radii arc greaterthan 0.0 but
less than 3.0 times the thickness, use a value of2.5.
Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Componenl
(
PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS SEMINAR
COMPONENT DESIGN PROBLEM
. Flanged and Flued Expansion Joint Analysis
Evaluate the stresses in the following expansion joint:
10-1\ (3048mm) tit shell, 0.375-in. (9.5 mm) thickness, 25.25-in.(641 mm)!D, SA-
516-70 at 200F (93C)
34-in. 00, 33-in.!D Expansion Joint, 0.4375 thick, SA-240 316 SS at 200F
At the joint!D there is a I-in. (25.4 mm) straight flange and 1.5-in. (38.1 mm) radins
bend.
At the joint 00 there is a l-in.(25.4 mm) straight flange and 1.5-in. (38.1 mm) radius
bend.
There is a short I-in. (25.4 mm) outer cylinder connecting the two halves of
the expansion joint.
The outer cylinder thickness is 0.5 in. (12.7 mm), SA-240 316 SS.
From the Tubesheet Program you learn the following Information:
PO = 515.9200 psi (3.55 Nmm
2
)
PS 200.0000 psi (1.372 Nmm
2
)
PSP -38.7500 psi (-0.267 N/mm
2
)
PT 100.0000 psi (0.689N/mm
2
)
PTP = 86.9000 psi (0.559 Nmm
2
)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the minimum cycle life for the bellows? _
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
(
Expansion Joints 10-5
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Componelll Design Problem
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis-
COADE Engineering Software
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FileName : Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 83
Thickjnt Analysis: EX-4 JOINT 1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Thick Joint Item I, Description: EX-4 JOINT 1
Design Temperature for Expansion Joint
Inside Diameter of Expansion ~ o t
Outside Diameter of Expansion Joint
Wall thickness of Expansion Joint
Corrosion Allowance for Expansion ~ o t
Material for Expansion Joint
Operating Allowable Stress, Expansion Joint
Ambient Allowable Stress, Expansion Joint
Inside Diameter of Shell
Wall thickness of Shell
Corrosion Allowance for Shell
Length of Shell Cylinder
Material for Shell
Operating Allowable Stress, Shell
Ambient Allowable Stress, Shell
TEMP
RID
ROD
TE
CAE
SOE
SAE
G
TS
CAS
RLI
SOS
SAS
200.0000
33.0000
34.0000
0.4375
0.0000
SA-240 316
20000.00
20000.00
25.2500
0.3750
0.0000
40.0000
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
F
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
psi
Length of Straight Flange, Joint ID
Radius of Knuckle, Joint ID
Length of Straight Flange, Joint 00
Radius of Knuckle, Joint 00
FA
RA
FB
RB
1. 0000 in.
1. 5000 in.
1. 0000 in.
1.5000 in.
Thickness of Outer Cylinder
Corrosion Allowance for Outer Cylinder
Length of Outer Cylinder
Outer Cylinder Material Name
Operating Allowable Stress, Outer Cylinder
Ambient Allowable Stress, Outer Cylinder
Differential Expansion Pressure
Shellside Design Pressure
Shellside Prime Design Pressure
Tubeside Design Pressure
Tubeside Prime Design Pressure
TO
CAO
RLa
SOO
SAO
PD
PS
PSP
PT
PTP
0.5000
0.0000
1. 0000
SA-240 316
20000.00
20000.00
515.9200
200.0000
-38.7500
100.0000
86.9000
in.
in.
in.
psi
psi
psig
psig
psig
psig
psig
Analyze for Differential Expansion
Analyze for Shellside Pressure
Analyze for Tubeside Pressure
A.nalyze for Shellside + Tubeside Pressure
Analyze for Shellside + Differential Expansion
Analyze for Tubeside + Differential Expansion
Analyze for Shellside + Tubeside + Differential
Results per TEMA 1999
y
y
y
y
y
N
N
(
10-6
TEMA
Ta
Tb
A
B
Paragraph RCB B.22 Effective Geometry Constants:
IF(RA<>O,Te,Ts)
IF (MoO, Te, To)
( G + TA ) / 2.0
(ROD-TB)/2
0.4375
0.4375
12.B437
16.7B12
in.
in.
in.
in.
Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design ilnd Analysis - Semin<lr Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Component
COADE Engineering Software
PVEl-ite -:1.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
PileName ; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 84
Thickjnt Analysis: EX-4 JOINT 1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
H I B - A)
3.9375 in.
RLA FA + RA+ TE
I
2.0
2.7188 in.
RLB FB + RB
I
4.0 + TE I
2.0 2.7188 in.
RADASH
"
RA + o. 5

TE 1.7l88 in.
RBDASH
"
RB + 0 .5 TE 1.7188 in.
YA MIN I RLA + RLI, 2 SQRT A TA 4.7409 in.
YB "" MIN I RLB + RLO, 2 SQRT B
TB 3.7188 in.
TEMA Paragraph ReB 8.30 Element Flexibility Factors:
Elastic Modulus for Expansion Joint Material EE 0.273E+08 psi
Elastic Modulus for Shell Material ES O. 290E+08 psi
Elastic Modulus for Outer Cylinder MatI. EO 0.273E+08 psi
EA IF (RA <> 0, EE, ES) 0 .273E+08 psi
EB IF (RB <> 0, EE, EO) 0 .273&+08 psi
Ba 1.285 / SQRT( A * TA 0.5421 l/in.
Bb 1. 285 / SQRT! B * TB 0.4742 l/in.
Da 0.0916 EA

TA**3 209407.53 in. lb.
Db 0.0916 EB * TB**3 209407.53 in. lb.
De 0.0916

EE * TE.... 3 209407.53 in. lb.
Wa BA YA
2.5700
RJIA SIN( WA SINH { WA 3.5134
RJ2A COS ( WA * COSH ( WA -5.5266
ZZA RJIA**2 + RJ2A**2 42.8877
RKOA SINH{ WA ) + SIN ( WA 7.0356
RKIA COSH{ WA ) + COS ( WA I
RKOA 0.8144
RK2A SINH( WA ) SIN{ WA I
RKOA 0.8462
RK3A COSH! WA ) COS { WA I RKOA 1.0535
wb BB
YB
1.7636
RJIB SIN( WB )
.
SINH{ WB 2.7785
RJ2B COS( WB ) '* COSH{ we -0.5753
ZZB RJIB*"'2 + RJ2B"'2
8.0511
RKOB SINH{ we ) + SIN( WB 3.8124
RKIB COSH( we ) + COS ( WB I
RKOB 0.7373
RK2B SINH{ WB ) SIN ( HB I
RKOB 0.4851
RK3B COSH( WB ) COS I WB I RKOB 0.8378
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.31 Cylinder Flexibility Factors:
CIA (RLA / SQRT ( A TA ) )
C2A (TS / TA )
C3A (EA / ES )
C4A -0.364661+{0.338172/C2A)-(O.0366351/C2A**2
C5A -1.06871+(1.01164/C2A)-(0.122627/C2A2)
C6A 0.0696709+(1.76415*C2A)-(S.46103"'C2A"''''3)
C7A -0.142734+{0.918656*C2A)-(2.00749"'C2A**3)
C8A (C5A/C1A'*2-C6A/CIA"'*3+C7A/CIA*"'4-C4A)
/(C3A
H
O.2)
EAA 2.718"''''C8A
1.1469
0.8571
0.9414
-0.0200
-0.0554
-1. 8572
-0_:6195
0.8612
2.3658
(
Expansion Joints
CIB
C'B
RLB / SQRT( B TB ) )
TO / TB )
1.0034
1.1429
10-7
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Component Design Problem
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis-
COADE Engineering Software
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FileName: Seminar ------------------------------------ Page 85
Thickjnt Analysis EX-4 JOINT 1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
C3B
C4B
C'B
CGB
C7B
C'B
EBB
( EB I EO I
(3.3731-1.707962*C2B+0.226216*C2B**2)/1000
-0.403287+0.3200J7*C2B-0.0307508*C2B**2
-0.684978+0.582549*C2B-0.0547812*C2B**2
-0.201334+0.168201*C2B-0.015728*C2B**2
(CSB/C1B**2-C6B/C1B**3+C7B/C1B**4-C4B)
/ (C3B
H
O.2)
2.718**C8B
1.0000
0.0017
-0.0777
-0.0908
-0.0296
-0.0183
0.9819
RX4
RX'
RXG
XBOT
RX7
RX'
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.40 Element Geometry Factors:
RYl (EAA* (RK3A-RK2A
H
2/ (2*RK1A)) / (DA*BA))
RY2 (EBB* (RK3B-RK2B
H
2/ (2*RK1B)) / WB*BB))
C {A**2/ (B**2 - A**2)
D ( B / A )
RXI -A * C * (0.769 + 1.428 * D * D) / DE
RX2 2.2 * A * C * D * D / DE
RX3 -A*A*(1.538+LN(D)*{2+C*(2+3.714*D*D)))
/ (4*OE)
( -2.2 * B * C ) / DE
{B * C * (0.769 * D * D + 1.428) / DE)
(-A*B*{1.538 + 5.714*C*ln(D)) / (4*DE)
(RX1 RY1) * (RX5 + RY2) - (RX2 * RX4)
(RX2 * RX6 RX3 * RXS RX3 * RY2) / XBOT
(RXJ * RX4 - RX1 * RX6 + RX6 * RY1) / XBOT
RQ1 0.38S * A * A + 1.429 * C * B * B * In{D)
RQ2 (-0.385 - 1.429 * C * In(D)) * B * B
RQ3 .2S*A*B*B*(1.269/fC*D*D)+3.714*C*ln(D)"'2)
GG (A/B)
GST (GG**4 * In(GG) / (1-GG**2))
RM1 0.51 - 0.635 * GG**2 + GST
RM2 0.635 (1 - GG**2 ) + GST
RM3 2.357 * GG**2 + 3.714 * GST
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.50 Stiffness Multiplier:
12.7948
I
10-"6
6.7051
I
10"'6
1.4142
1.3066
-278.1458
I
10"'6
325.7556
I
10"'6
-1.0294
I
10"'3
-249.3214
I
10"'6
310.6066
I
10"'6
-951.7537
I
10-"6
-0.0111 I
10"6
-1.4941
1.8255
215.6894
-260.5991
814.9036
0.7654
-0.2215
-83.4889
I
10"'3
41.5111
I
10"'3
0.5580
TEMA
YA
YB
Paragraph ReB
IF( YA/G >00
00 IF( YB/G >'"
8.51 Y Geometrical
0.075) YA 1.0
0.075) YB = 1.0
Parameters:
1. 0000
1. 0000
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.52 Equal Knuckle Radii Case {RA
M = Fig RCB-8.51 ( RADASH, H, TE )
ALPHA '" IF{G/TE < 160) ALPHA '" 4.3*(G/TE)"'-0.287
K '" ALPHA * M * YA * YB
RB) :
1.6949
1.3427
2.2758
10-8
TEMA RCB 8.60 Flexible Element Stiffness :
SJ 2*PI*A*DE*K/{ RX7*RQl + RX8*RQ2 + RQ3
SJF", {1.0 / (1.0/ SJ + 1.0 / SJ))
Analysis of Differential Expansion
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.70 Induced Axial Force:
Tubeside Equivalent Pressure for this case, PIC
2272059.250 lb./in.
1136029.625 lb./in.
0.000 psig
Expansion Joints
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COADE Engineering Software
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Thickjnt Analysis: EX-4 JOINT 1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Shellside Prime Pressure for this case, PSPC
Differential Expansion Pressure for this Case, PDC
Shellside Pressure for this Case, PSC
Equivalent Pressure, PSS PIC + PSPC - PDC
Induced Axial Force, FAX = A + PSS / 2.0
0.000 psig
515.920 psig
0.000 psig
-515.920 psig
-3313.174 lb. in.
MT2B
RMB
THB
ZA
ZB
MTlA
MT21'.
RMA
MT1B
TEMA Paragraph RCB S.80 Flexible Element Moments
THA (Ps+S"3) / (8DE) )
(-2+GG+RM2-RM3/GG-GG"J/2-2
I
GG"JLN(GG))
(PsB++J)+{-2RM2-RM3+0.5-GG++2)/(S+DE)
(pSA++2-0.J1'.+FAX)/(EATA)
(PSIS"'2- 0.3 + (A+FAX+ { (B.... 2 -A"2) /2) IPS1)
/ (ES+TB)
(RXS+RY2)(-THA-FAXRX3-BAZA)
RX2*(FAXIRX6+THB-(BS*RK2B+ZB/RK1B)
(MTlA+MT21'.)/XBOT
(RYl-RX1) +
(THB+FAX*RX6-(BB*RK2B*ZB/RKlB))
RX4 * (FAXRX3+THA+BA*ZA)
(MTlB+MT2B)/XBOT
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.82 Flexible Element Moments
RAIl -C*RMA+C*O*ORMB+0.65*A+C*FAX*ln(GG)
RA12 PSS*(0.32S.RM2*B*B+0.412S*A*Al
RA1 (RA1D1-RAI2)
RA21 C*RMA-C*RMS-0.6S.A*C*FAX*ln(GG)
RA22 0.087S*RM3*PSS*B*B
RA2 B*B.(RA21+RA22)
RA3 O. 206*PSS
RA4 0.65*A*(FAX-0.S*A*PSS)
0.0000
I
10"'6
0.0000
I
10.... 6
1. 0688
I
10.... 3
1.0688
I
10.... 3
-1.0823
I
10"'3
1. 0271
I
10.... 3
4976.483 in.lb./in.
917.3J31
I
10.... 6
-850.4341
I
10 .... 6
-6026.405 in.lb./in.
-11.1267

10"3
0.0000
I
10"6
-11.1267 10"3
5.1003 10.... 3
0.0000
I
10.... 6
1. 4363

10.... 6
0.0000
I
10.... 6
-27.6598

10.... 3
155997.55 psi
-188909.36 psi
+ RA3*R*R + RA4
I
ln{R/S)
in. ,
in.,
12.8437
16.7812
Stress in Expansion Joint Flange:
SBX(R) = (6.0 / TE+*2) * (RAI + RA2/(R*R)
Stress Suounary:
Location: (A)
Location: (B)
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.83 Cylindrical Element Stresses
For the Inner Cylinder at X = YA
DEA +RRA*(PSS*RRA-0.3*F2A)/(EA*TYA) 1.2470
I
10.... 3
BIA (l/ZZA)* {RJ21'.IRMA/{2*8A"'2*EAA*OA)-RJIA*DEA -2.3046
I
10.... 3
B2A (1/ZZA)*(-RJIA*RMA/(2*BA*BA*EAA*OA)
-RJ2A*DEA) -1.2395
I
10.... 3
UlA +BA* (YA-YA) 0.0000
I
10"'6
U2A 811'.*SIN(U1A)*SINH(UI1'.)+B21'.*COS{UIA)
*COSH(Ul1'.) -1.2395
I
10"'J
SMYA EAI(OEA+U2A)/RRA 16.003 psi
For the Inner Cylinder at X = LA
DEA RRA*{PSS*RRA-0.J*F2A)/(EA*TY1'.) 1.2470
I
10"'3
BIA (1/ZZA1*{RJ2A*RMA/(2*BA"'2*EAA*OA)-RJ1A*OE1'. -2.J046
I
10"'3
B2A (1/ZZA)(-RJIARMA/(2*BA"'2
I
EAA*OA)-RJ2A*DE -1. 2395
I
10.... 3
(
Expansion Joints 10-9
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DIA BA*(YA-LA) -0.9317
D2A BIA*SIN(UIA) *SINH (UIA) +B2A*COS (UIA) *COSH (U -3.0679 / 10.0.
3
SMYA EA*(DEA+U2A)/RRA -3870.467 psi
For the Outer Cylinder at X = YB
DEB RRB*(PSS*RRB-O.3*F2Bl!(EB*TYB) 1. 0688
/
10"'3
BIB (1/ZZB)*(RJ2B*RMB!C2*BS"'2*EBS*DB)-RJlS*OEB 4.2870
/
lOA)
B'B (1/ZZB)*(-RJlS*RMB/(2*Ss"'2*E8B*DB)-RJ2S*DE 22.5635
/
lOA)
DIB BB*(YB-YB) 0.0000
/
10"'6
D'B
BIB*SIN(UIBj*SINH(UIB)+B2B*COS(UIB)
COSH(UIB) 22.5635
/ 10
A
3
SMYB EB(DEB+U2B)/RRB 38445.434 psi
For the Outer Cylinder at X '" LB
DEB RRS*(PSS*RRB-0.3*F2B)/(ES*TYB) 1.0688
/
10.... )
BIB (1/ZZB)(RJ2B*RMB/(2*BB.... 2*EBB*DB)-RJIB*DEB 4.2870
/
10.... 3
B2B (1/ZZB)*(-RJIB*RMB/(2*BB*BB*EBB*DB)-RJ2B*O 22.5635
/
10.... 3
UlB BB*(YB-RLB) -0.8151
D2B BIB*SIN(U1B)SINH(U1B)+B2B*COS(U1B)
*COSH(U1B) 23.7395 / 10.... )
SMLB EB*(DEB+U2B)/RRB 40358.613 psi
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.84 Maximum Cyclic Stresses
Evaluated per ASME A-99 Appendix CC, Paragraph CC-3(C):
For the Inner Cylinder:
SCLA = ABS(6.0*RMA/ (T*T)) + ABS(F2A/T)
RNA= 47.11*EXP(ln(SCLA*28.3E6/EB)-14.12)**2/1.023
For the Outer Cylinder:
SCLB = ABS(6.0*RMB/ (T*T) + ABS(F28/T)
RNB= 47.11*EXPln{SCLB*28.3E6/EB)-14.12)*2/1.023
Analysis of Shellside Pressure
163570.484 psi
3.2217 * 10.... 3
194705.406 psi
1.6345 * 10.... 3
TEMA Paragraph RCB
PIC 0.000
PSC '" 200.000
8.70 Induced
PSPC=
PSS '"
Axial Force:
-38.750
-38.750
PDC
FAX
0.000
-248.848
TEMA pa-ragraph RCB 8 .80 Flexible Element Moments
THA -0.438 THB -0.410
2A 2.843
/10.... 3
ZB 4.503 /10.... 3
MT1A 57.324 /10 .... 6 MT2A -56.875 /10
A
6 RMA -40.404
MT18 -50.797 /10 .... 6
MT2B 45.041 /10
A
6 RMB 518.487
(
TEMA
RAIl
RA21
RA3
Paragraph
2.094
-1.576
41.200
RCB 8.82 Flexible Element Moments
*10 3 RA12 14.369 *10 3 HAl
10 3 RA22 2.750 *10 3 HA2
RA4 -12.800 *10
A
3
-12.275 *10
A
3
0.331 0010 .... 6
10-10
Stress in Expansion Joint Flange:
SBX(R) '" (6.0/ TE*2) (RAI + RA2/(R*R) + RA3*R*R + RA4*ln(R/B
Stress Summary:
Expansion Joints
\
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Thickjnt Analysis EX-4 JOINT 1 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Location: (A)
Location: (R)
Location: (B)
12.8437 in.,
14. 0081 in.
16.7812 io.,
-1621.83 psi
-6070.31 psi
15717 _07 psi
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.83 Cylindrical Element Stresses
For the Inner Cylinder at X = YA
DEA 3.316 /10.... 3 BIA -253.799 /10"'6 B2A 438.722 /10"6
OlA 0.000 /10"'6 U2A 438.722 /10"'6 SMYA 7.982 *10"'3
For the Inner Cylinder at X = LA
DBA 3.316 /10"'3 BIA -253.799 /10"'6 B2A 438.722 /10"'6
UIA -0.932 U2A 165.245 /10"'6 SMLA 7.400 *10"'3
For the Outer Cylinder at X YB
DEB 4.503 /10"'3 BIB -1.955 /10"'3 B2B -1.613 /l0"'3
UlB 0.000 /10"'6 U2B -1.613 /10"'3 SMYB 4.701 *10"'3
For the Outer Cylinder at X LB
DEB 4.503 /10"'3 BIB -1.955 /10"'3 B2B -1 .613 /10"'3
UIB -0.815 U2B -2.787 /10"'3 SMLB 2 .792 *10"'3
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.64 Maximum Cyclic Stresses
Evaluated per ASME A-99 Appendix CC, paragraph CC-3fc):
For the Inner Cylinder:
SCLA 1. 635 *10"'3 RNA 1.000 *10"'6
For the Outer Cylinder:
SCLB 17.406 *10"'3 RNB 1.000 *10"'6
Analysis of Tubeside Pressure
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.70
PIC 13.100
PSC ':0 0.000
Induced
PSPC=
PSS =
;r>.xial Force:
0.000
13.100
PDe
FAX
0.000
84.127
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.80 Flexible Element Moments
THA 0.000 /10"'6 THB 0.000 /10"'6
ZA -27.140 /10"'6 ZB -27.140 /10"'6
MT1A 27.482 /10.... 6 MT2A -26.080 /10"'6 RMA -126.361
MT1B -23.292 /10.... 6 MT2B 21.594 /10"'6 RMB 153.020
(
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.82 Flexible Element Moments
RAll 282.523 RAl2 0.000 /10"'6 RAI 282.523
RA21 -129.504 RA22 0.000 /10"'6 RA2 -36.470 "'10"'3
RAJ 0.000 /10"'6 RA4 702.325
-3961.02 psi
4796.70 psi
+ RA3*R*R + RA4*ln(R/B)
in. ,
in. ,
12.8437
16.7812
Stress in Expansion Joint Flange:
SBX(R) = (6.0/ TE*"'2) * (RA1 + RA2/(R"'R)
Stress Summary:
Location: (A)
Location: (B)
(
Expansion Joints
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TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.83 Cylindrical Element Stresses
For the Inner Cylinder at X Y ~
DEA -31.663 /10.... 6 BIA 58.517 /10"'6 B2A 31.472 /10"'-6
UIA 0.000 /10"'6 U2A 31.472 /10"'6 SMYA -0.406
For the Inner Cylinder at X LA
DEA -31.663 /10"'6 BIA 58.517 /10"'-6 B2A 31.472 /10"'6
UIA -0.932 U2A 77.899 /10""6. SMLA 98.277
For the Outer Cylinder at X YB
DEB -27.140 /10"'6 BIB -108.853 /10"6 B2B -572.921 /10.... 6
UIB 0.000 /10"6 U2B -572.921 /10"'6 SMYB -976.188
For the Outer Cylinder at X = LB
DEB -27.140 /10.... 6 BIB -108.853 /10"-6 B2B -572.921 /10"-6
UIB -0.815 U2B -602.782
/10.0.
6 SMLB -1.025
... 10.... 3
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.84 Maximum Cyclic Stresses
Evaluated per ASME A-99 Appendix CC , Paragraph CC-3(c):
For the Inner Cylinder:
seLA 4.153 ... 10.... 3 RNA 1.000 ... 10.... 6
For the Outer Cylinder:
SCLB 4 _944 ... 10.... 3 RNB
Analysis of Shellside + Tubeside Pressure
TEMA Paragraph RCB
PIC 13 .100
PSC = 200.000
8.70 Induced
PSPC=
PSS =
Axial Force:
-38.750
-25.650
PDC
FAX
0.000
-164.721
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.80 Flexible Element Moments
THA -0.438 THB -0.410
2A 2.815
/loA]
ZB 4.476 /10.... 3
MT1A 84.806 /10.... 6 MT2A -82.955 /10.... 6
RMA -166.764
MTIB -74.089 /10.... 6
MT2B 66.635 /10.0. 6 RMB 671. 506
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.82 Flexible Element Moments
RAll 2.377 "'10.0. 3 RA12 14.369
... 10.... 3
RAI -11.992
~ A 3
RA2l -1.705 "'10"-3 RA22 2.750
'""10.0.
3 RA2 0.294
"'10.0.
6
RA3 41. 200 RA4 -12.098 "'10"-3
psi
psi
psi
-5582.82
-7494.45
20513.79
in. I
in ..
in. ,
12.8437
13.6136
16.7812
Stress in Expansion Joint Flange:
SBX(R) = (6.0/ TE...... 2) ... (RAI + RA2/(R"'R) + RA3"'R'""R + RA4"'ln(R/B))
Stress Summary:
Location: (A)
Location: (R)
Location: (B)
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.83 Cylindrical Element Stresses
10-12 Expansion Joinls
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For the Inner Cylinder at X = YA
DEA 3.285 /10"'3 BIA -195.282 /10..... 6 B2A 470.194 /10"'6
UlA 0.000 /10"'6 U2A 470.194 /10"'6 SMYA 7.981 10"'3
For the Inner Cylinder at X = LA
DEA 3.285 /10"'3 BIA -195.282 /10..... 6 B2A 470.194 /10"'6
UIA 932 U2A 243.144 /10"'6 SMLA 7.499 *10"'3
For the Outer Cylinder at X YB
DEB 4.476 /10..... 3 BIB -2.063 /10"'3 B2B -2. lB6 /10"'3
UIB 0.000 /10..... 6 U2B -2.186 /10"'3 SMYB 3. 725 10"'3
For the Outer Cylinder at X LB
DEB 4.476 /10.... 3 BIB -2.063
/10 .... 3 B2B
/10..... 3
UIB -0.815 U2B -3.389 /10"'3 SMLB 1.767 *10"'3
Paragraph RCB 8.84 Maximum Cyclic Stresses
Evaluated per ASME A-99 Appendix CC, Paragraph CC-3(c);
For the Inner Cylinder:
SCLA 5.604 *10"'3 RNA 1.000 *10"'6
For the Outer Cylinder:
seLB 22.350 *10"'3 RNB 1.000 10"'6
Analysis of + Differential Expansion
TEMA Paragraph RCB
PIC 0.000
PSC = 200.000
8.70 Induced
PSPC=
PSS =
Axial Force:
-38.750
-554.670
PDC
FAX
515.920
-3562.022
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.80 Flexible Element Moments
THA -0.4 3 8 THB -0.410
ZA 3.911 /10"'3 ZB 5.572 /10..... 3
MT1A -1. 025 /10"'3 MTZA 970.229 /10..... 6 RMA 4.936
*10..... 3
MT1B 866.536 /10"'6 MT2B -805.393 /10"'6 RMB -5.508 *10"'3
TRMA Paragraph RCB 8.82 Flexible Element Moments
RAll -9.032 *10"'3 RA12 14.369
*10..... 3 RAI ,.10"'3
RA2l 3.524 *10..... ) RA22 2.750 10"'3 RA2 1.767
10.... 6
RA3 41.200 RA4 -40.460 *10"')
psi
psi
154375.70
-173192.11
in. I
in. ,
12.8437
16.7812
Stress in Expansion Joint Flange:
SBX(R) = (6.0/ TE**2) * (RA1 + RA2/{RR) + RA3*R*R + RA4*ln(R/B)
Stress Summary:
Location: (A)
Location: (8)
TEMA paragraph RCB 8.83 Cylindrical Element Stresses
For the Inner Cylinder at X
DEl'. 4.563 /10"'3 B1A
YA
-2.558 /10..... 3 B2A -800.740 /10"'6
Expansion Joints 10-13
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UtA 0.000
/loA
6 U2A -800.740
/loA
6 SMYA 7.998
*10.0.)
For the Inner Cylinder at X LA
DEA 4.563 /10"'3 BIA -2.558 /10""'3 B2A -800.740 /10"'6
UIA -0.932 U2A -2.903 /l0"3 SMLA 3.530 *10")
For the Outer Cylinder at X YB
DEB 5.572 /10"'3 BIB 2.332 /10
A
) B2B 20.951 /10""'3
UIB 0.000 /10"'6 U2B 20.951 /10.0.
3 SMYB 43.147 10"'3
For the Outer Cylinder at X LB
DEB 5.572 /10.0.)
BIB 2.332 /10"3 B2B 20.951 /10"'3
UIB -0.815 U2B 20.953 /l0") SMLB 43.151 "'10""3
TEMA Paragraph RCB 8.84 Maximum Cyclic Stresses
Evaluated per ASME A-99 lI.ppendix CC, Paragraph CC-3(c);
For the Inner Cylinder:
SCLA 0.163 *10"'6 RNA 3.278 *10.... )
For the Outer Cylinder:
SCLB 0.177 *10"'6 RNB 2.337 *10"'3
STRESS SUMMARY: Analysis of Differential Expansion
Inside Junction Outside Junction
Actual Allowed Actual Allowed
Annular Element 155998. (Fatigue) -188909. (Fatigue) psi
Annular Ring at R 16.781 188909. (Fatigue) psi
CyL at point Y 16. (Fatigue) 38445. (Fatigue) psi
CyL at point L -3870. (Fatigue) 40359. (Fatigue) psi
Max. Cycle Stress 163570. (Fatigue) 194705. (Fatigue) psi
Max. Cycle Life 3222. Cycles 1635. Cycles
STRESS SUMMARY; Analysis of Shells ide Pressure
Inside Junction Outside Junction
Actual Allowed Actual Allowed
Annular Element -1622. 60000. 15717. 60000. psi
Annular Ring at R 14.008 -6070. 30000. psi
CyL at point y 7982. 20000. 4701. 20000. psi
CyL at point L 7400. 20000. 2792 .
20009 psi
Max. Cycle Stress 1835. (Fatigue) 17406. (Fatigue) psi
Max. Cycle Life 999999. Cycles 999999. Cycles
STRESS SUMMARY: Analysis of Tubeside Pressure
Inside Junction Outside Junction
Actual Allowed Actual Allowed
Annular Element -3961. (Fatigue) 4797. (Fatigue) psi
Annular Ring at R 16.781 4797. (Fatigue) psi
CyL at point y o. (Fatigue) -976. (Fatigue) psi
Cyl. at point L 98. (Fatigue) -1025. (Fatigue) psi
Max. Cycle Stress 4153. (Fatigue) 4944. (Fatigue) psi
Max. Cycle Life 999999. Cycles 999999. Cycles
Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design aud Analysis - Seminar Noles
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Annular Element
Annular Ring at R
Cyl. at point Y
Cyl. at point L
Max. Cycle Stress
Max. Cycle Life
7981.
7499.
5604.
999999.
STRESS SUMMARY: Analysis of Shellside
Inside Junction
Actual Allowed
-5583. (Fatigue)
13.614
(Fatigue)
(Fatigue)
(Fatigue)
Cycles
Tubeside Pressure
Outside Junction
Actual Allowed
20514 _ (Fatigue)
-7494. (Fatigue)
3725. (Fatigue)
1767. (Fatigue)
22350. (Fatigue)
999999. Cycles
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
+ Differential Expansion
Outside Junction
Actual Allowed
-173192. (Fatigue) psi
43147. (Fatigue) psi
43151. (Fatigue) psi
171299. (Fatigue) psi
2337. Cycles
Analysis of Shellside
Inside Junction
Actual Allowed
154376. (Fatigue)
7998. (Fatigue)
3530. (Fatigue)
162873. (Fatigue)
3278. Cycles
STRESS SUMMARY:
Annular Element
Cyl. at point Y
Cyl. at point L
Max. Cycle Stress
Max. Cycle Life
The PV Elite Program, (e) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Expansion JoinLs 10-15
Metal Bellows Expansion Joints Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NOles
METAL BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINTS
These arc also called "thin-walled" expansion joints. They characteristically have multiple
bellows with thin walls on the order of 0.05 in.
There arc several ways to analyze metal bellows expansion joints. Many of them use clas-
tic analysis of an equivalent structure, constrained by continuity effect. The most widely
used method is the one presented in the standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers
Association (EJMA).
The method we will usc is the one presented in the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I,
Appendix 26. (This used to be Appendix BB, but it was moved up in the An revision to
the Code.) These formulas take into account both internal pressure and axial joint move-
ment. They do not include lateral or angular joint movements. The appendix covers expan-
sionjoints up to liS-in. thick, with multiple convolutions, and includes both reinforced
and unreinforced expansion joints.
Circumferential and meridional stresses are calculated in the bellows for both the rein-
forced and unreinforced geometries. In addition, for reinforccd expansion joinls the stress
in the reinforcing clement and in any bolted fastener that may be on the reinforcing ele-
ment arc calculated.
The ASME approach calculates the maximum stress for the worst combination of internal
pressure andjoinl opening, and uses this value to calculate the maximum cycle life for the
joint.
Notice that the thickness you use in the analysis is the thickness of the sheet from which
the bellows is formed, measured before the forming process occurs. The method itself cal-
culales the thinning due to forming.
The method in the Code also calculates stresses in a reinforcing ring and in a bolted fas-
lener for the reinforcing ring. {Sec the sketch on the next page for details of this geome-
try.}
The faclor q/2w is used to identify the location on the X axis of curves 26-3, 26-4, and
26-5. In the same way the factor q/(2.2* SQRTd+w)-*t is used to select the curve on
these figures. Figure 26-3 is then interpolated linearly for Cpo Figures 26-4 and 26-5 arc
interpolated logarithmically for Cf and Cd respectively.
The meridional membrane plus bending stress due to pressure (Smmp+-Smbp) is com-
pared to 1.5 times the basic allowable stress for unreinforced bellows and 3.0 times the
basic allowable stress for reinforced bellows. The sum of the meridional stresses
(Smmp+Smbp+Smmd+Smbd) is compared to the allowable stress (Sn) at the givennum-
ber of design cycles for the given material type.
The actual stresses in the reinforcement arc compared to the basic allowable stress for the
reinforcement. The actual stresses in the bolt (fastener) arc compared to the allowable
stress in the bolt. These values arc only calculated if AR and/or AF are greater than zero.
The stress amplitude for cycle life evaluation is the sum of all the meridional stresses. This
value is used with the appropriate formula in Paragraph 26-3 to calculate lhe cycle life.
(
(
10-16 Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes Metal Bellows Expansion Joints
(
Expansion Joints
The cycle life calculation should be ba.sed on the fonnulas in the ASME Code, Section
VIII, Division I, Appendix 26. These formulas implement a power law for fatigue life as
follows:
[

N < 2.5
- _I4_.2_K--",-s'.::.. _0.02
E.
for series 3XX high alloy steels, nickel-chromium iron alloy, nickel-iron chromium alloy,
and nickel-copper alloy.
;.0 ]"1
-0.011
E.
for carbon, low alloy, series 4XX, and high alloy steels.
N is the number of cycles, the cycle life.
S. is the maximum stress range resulting from the analysis.
E
b
is the elastic modulus for the material at the temperature under consideration.
K, is the fatigue strength reduction factor. Use a fatigue strength reduction factor of
1.5 for lInreinforeed bellows, and 3.0 for reinforced bellows. Alternative factors may
be used if substantiated by test data, for example by hudrotes for design temperatures
below the creep range.
The nominal bellows thickness must be greater than the thickness required for pressure as
calculated by the ASME method.
10-17
Melal Bellows Expansion Joints Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis R Seminar NOles
The knuckle radius for the bellows must be grcater than threc limcs tm, the minimum
unformed thickness. If r<3 'tm you should increase the K factor for fatigue and stress cal-
culations from 1.0 to 4.0, usually resulting in unacceptably high slresses or low cycle life.
n
Li-L
drt ~ L . J
(ill Unrelnfarced BellowJ
E,.u t'<.!ualiling ring
(
A-A
~ h
td'''m.
(b! Reinlor..,.Q' 8flllows
~ A ~ A
/--.....
I \
f V EqU3Iilir>g"ng
L.A I I
GENERAL NOTE'
Nominal t ;0 :3'm .
Figure 2--Geometry for Melal Bellows Expansio'n Joints
(
10-18 Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Componenl
PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN AND ANALYSIS SEMINAR
COMPONENT DESIGN PROBLEM
Metal Bellows Expansion Joint Analysis
Evaluate the following expansion joint for a design life of 1800 cycles.
Pressure is 150 psi (1.034 Nmm
2
) at 200F (93C).
The joint opens .125 in. (3.175 mm) per convolution.
Bellows ID is 24 in. (610 mm) The joint is fabricated from SA-240-304.
The convolutions are I-in. (25.4 mm) deep on a 1.l25-in. (28.57 mm) pitch.
The thickness of the bellows before forming is 0.05 in. (1.27 mm)
This is an unreinforced bellows.
There is no provision for corrosion.
Notes:
The elastic modulus for SA-240-304 at ambient temperature is 28.3e6 (195121)
The elastic modulus for SA-240-304 at 200F is 27.7e6 (190984)
Questions:
What is the cycle life for the bellows?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
YOUR ANALYSIS
Expansion Joinls
10-19
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Thinjnt Analysis: EX-4, JOINT 2 Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Thin Joint Item 1, Description: EX-4, JOINT 2
Design Cycle Life, Number of Cycles
Design Temperature of Expansion Joint
Design Internal Pressure
Expansion Joint Opening Per Convolution
Material of Expansion Joint Bellows
Bellows Operating Allowable Stress
Bellows Elastic Modulus at Design Temp.
Bellows Elastic Modulus at Ambient Temp.
NCYC
TEMP
P
E
MATI
ALLST1
EMOD1
EAMBI
1800
200.0
150.0
0.1250
SA-240 304
20000.0
. 27700E+08
0.2830E+08
F
psig
in.
psi
psi
psi
Material Category for Cycle Life Evaluation AUSTENITIC STAINLESS
Inside Diameter of Bellows
Convolution Depth
Convolution pitch
Bellows Minimum Thickness before Forming
Fatigue Strength Reduction Factor
D
W
Q
TM
Kg
24.0 in.
1.0000 in.
1.1250 in.
0.0500 in.
1. 0000
(
10-20
THIN JOINT RESULTS, ASME VIII DIV. I App.26, 1998, A-9B
Nominal Bellows Thickness Based on given Minimum
T (TM SQRT ( D/ ( D + W ) ) )
T (0.0500 SQRT( 24.00/( 24.00 + 1.0000 ) ) )
T 0.0490 in.
Cross Sectional Area of Bellows
AS (0.571 * Q + 2. 0 W ) * T
AB (0.571 1.1250 + 2.0 * 1.0000 ) 0.0490
AB 0.1294 in
Final Reinforcement Ratio 1.0000
Minimum Required Thickness for Unreinforced Bellows
Tu
Tu 150.0*( 24.0+ 1.0000)/( 1.0000/ 1.1250
Tu 0.0399 in.
Required Bellows Thickness for Pressure = 0.0399 in.
Actual Knuckle Radius for one Convolution
RKN (Q/4-TM/2)
RKN (1.1250 / 4 - 0.0500 / 2 )
RKN 0.2562 in.
Allowed Knuckle Radius for one Convolution
TM3 = 3.0 * TM = 0.1500 in.
Stiffening Factor for Bellows Under Pressure
RKS 0.3-( 100.0/( 0.6 * P**1.5 + 320.0 ) )**2
RKS 0.3-( 100.0/( 0.6 150.0**1.5 + 320.0) )**2
RKS 0.2951
Expansion Joints
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Semill<lr Component
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName ; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 81
Thinjnt Analysis: EX-4, JOINT 2 Item: 1 9;51a Sep 21,2000
SUMMARY for PRESSURE CALCULATIONS ;
Nom. Bellows Thickness based on given Minimum
Required Bellows Thickness for Pressure
Actual Knuckle Radius for One Convolution
Allowed Knuckle Radius for One Convolution
Cross-Sectional Area for One Convolution
Fraction of Pressure Resisted by Bellows
Stiffening Factor for Bellows under Pressure
T
TREQ
RKN
3"*TM
Ab
R
RKS
0.0490 in.
0.0399 in.
0.2562 in.
0.1500 in.
0.1294 in
1.0000
0.2951
q/(2.2(d+w)*
Figure B8-3, Cp
Figure 88-4, Cf
Figure B8-4, Cd
SUMMARY of FIGURES B8-3, 8B-4, BB-5
Horizontal Figure Factor
Vertical Figure Factor
Value Interpolated from
Value Interpolated from
Value Interpolated from
q/2W
t) "'* .5)
Cp
Cf
cd
0.56250
0.46207
0.63207
1.74880
1. 78330
Expansion Joints
STRESS RESULTS for UNREINFORCED BELLOWS
Circumferential Stress in the Bellows
SCMPU P*(D+W)/(T*(1.14+4.0*W/Q)
SCMPU 150.0*( 24.0+ 1.0000)/( 0.0490*(1.14+4.0* 1.0000/ 1.1250))
SCMPU 16301.9 psi
Meridional Membrane Stress due to Pressure
SMMPU (P*W )/( 2.0*T )
SMMPU (150.0 * 1.0000 )/( 2.0 * 0.0490 )
SMMPU 1530.9 psi
Meridional Bending Stress due to Pressure
5MBPU (p * W "* W * CP ) / ( 2.0 * T * T )
5MBPU (150.0. 1.0000* 1.0000* 0.63207 )/( 2.0 "* 0.0490 * 0.0490 )
5MBPU 19752.2 psi
Meridional Membrane Stress due to Deflection
SMMDU (EAMB1*T*T*E )/(2.0*W"3*Cf )
SMMDU (0.283E+08* 0.0490* 0.0490* 0.1250 )/(2.0* 1.0000..... 3* 1.74880 )
SMMDU 2427.4 psi
Meridional Bending Stress due to Deflection
5MBDU 5.0EAMB1"*T*E/(J.0*W*W*CD)
5MBDU 5.0* 0.283E+08* 0.0490"* 0.1250/(3.0* 1.0000"* 1.0000* 1.78330)
5MBDU 161967.2 psi
Summation of all Meridional Stresses
STOTU = (SMBDU+SMMDU+SMBPU+SMMPU) = 185677 psi
The Total Cycle Life
CYCU (FM/ (FN*RKG*STOTU/EMOD1) -FO) ** 2.00
CYCU ( 2.5/ 14.2* 1.0000* 1856771 0.277E+08)- 0.020)**2
CYCU n06.
Maximum Stress for Given Cycle Life
10-21
Pressure Vessel Design and Anfllysis Seminar Camponelll Design Problem
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis-
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 82
Thinjnt Analysis : EX-4, JOINT 2 Item: 1 9:S1a Sep 21,2000
SMAXC
SMAXC
SMAXC
(FM/{RNCYC**(1/2.00)+FO)*(EMODl/FN*RKG)
( 2.S!( 1800**(1/2.00))+ 0.020)*( O.277E+08/ 14.2* 1.0000)
153960.4 psi
STRESSES in BELLOWS, psi
Circumferential membrane, pressure
Meridional Membrane, pressure
Meridional Bending , pressure
Meridional Membrane, deflection
Meridional Bending , deflection
Meridional Membrane + Bending , pressure
Summation of all Meridional Stresses
Stress Amplitude for Cycle Life Evaluation
Cycle Life for Bellows
Scmp
Smmp
5mbp
Smmd
5mbd
Actual
16301
1530
19752
2427
161967
21283
185677
Allowed
20000
20000
30000
153960
185677
1105
10-22
The PV Elite Program, Ie) 1989-2000 by CQADE Engineering Software
Expansion Joints
(
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Chapter 11:
Stresses
STRESSES IN SHELLS DUE TO LOADS ON ATTACHMENTS
This analysis is based on "Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to Exter-
nal Loadings," Welding Research Council Bulletin 107, August 1965, based on the prior
work ofP.P. Bijlaard, and with revisions through 1979.
In this section, you will calculate slrcsses at eight points around the periphery of an exter-
nally loaded attachment to a shell. You will analyze two shell types-cylinders and
spheres. All head types are approximated as spheres.
You will also evaluate several attachment types. On spheres, attachments can be round or
square, hollow or solid. On cyUndcrs, attachments can be round, square, or rectangular,
but all are considered solid.
IThe program does not calculate stresses in attachments, only in the shell of the vessel.
, Stresses in attachments can, in fact, be higher than the stresses in the shell.
liThe WRC107 analysis does not specifically address reinforced nozzles. An approach that
I we believe to be eonservative is to analyze the nozzle at the nozzle OD and the vessel plus
\ pad thickness, and then to analyze the nozzle at the reinforcing pad OD and the vessel
1
thickness. Ifboth of these analyses yield reasonable stresses, then the nozzle is OK. If this
,approach does not work, a more sophisticated analysis is required.
Loads for analysis of cylinders include the following:
Design pressure on the cylinder
Radial load on the cylinder (axial load on the nozzle)
Cireumferential shear, dragging the attachment around the vessel
Longitudinal shear, dragging the attachment along the vessel
Torsional moment, twisting the attachment
Circumferential moment, tipping the attachment around the vessel
Longitudinal moment, tipping the attachment along the vessel
The ratio of cylinder radius to wall thickness (the shell parameter, gamma) must be in the
range 5 < RMITH < 300 or the analysis willllot work. In other words, the analysis is not
valid for very thick or very thin vessels.
The ratio of attachment radius to cylinder radius (the attachment parameter, beta) must be
in the range 0.0571 < RO/RM < 0.571 or the program wiII give an error message. In other
words, the program is not valid for very small or very large attachments.
The value beta must be adjusted when calculating several of the figures for rectangular
attachments. Thus, the error for a beta greater than 0.571 may occur even when the nomi-
nal beta is less than 0.571.
Slresses It-I
Stresses in Shells due to Loads 011 Allachmcllls
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
11-2
The analysis e ~ l u l l e s stresses at four points around the periphery of the allaehment, and
at the inside of the cylinder and the outside of the cylinder at each point.
The computer program makes the following modification:
The last page of Appendix A (to WRC-107) indicates that curves IC and 2C were uneon-
servalive by as much as a factor of three, and were truncated for that reason. Now, how-
ever, instead ofjust using the values that exisl at the end of the truncated curves, we
compared those points to the same point in Figure IC-I and 2C-I, multiplied by 3.0. For
example, if the value from IC-I is more than three times less than the truncated value
from IC, the value of IC-I multiplied by 3.0 will be used.
The typical allowable stress for the combined stresses is 1.5 times the basic material
allowable stress. If all your results are less than 1.5*SA then the configuration and loading
are acceptable. If the load is self-relieving (that is, if it would disappear after only a small
rotation or translation of the attachment), then the allowable stresses may be increase to
3*SA.
Loads for the analysis of spheres include the following:
Design pressure on the cylinder.
Radial load, along the axis of the attachment.
Shear from point A to point B.
Shear from point C to point D.
Torsional moment, twisting the attachment.
Moment tipping point A toward point B.
Moment tipping point C toward point D.
The shell parameter for spheres is Upsilon, the radius allachment divided by the decay
length of the sphere.
The ratio of sphere thickness to allaehment thickness must be in the range 0.25 < TslTn <
10.0 or the analysis will not work.
The ratio of allachment radius to allachmentthiekness must be in the range 5 < RnlTn <
50.0 or the analysis will not work.
If the above two parameters for a hollow allachment are out of range, the attachment can
probably still be analyzed as a solid allachment.
)
' The analysis yields stress at both the inside of the sphere and the outside of the sphere at
four points around the periphery of the nozzle. Stresses are not calculated in the nozzle
wall. .
Stresses
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
WRC107 Stress Calculations
Discussion of Results
CodeCale computes stress intensities in accordance with WRCI07 and includes the
effects of longitudinal and hoop stresses due to internal pressure. If the geometry includes
a circular reinforcing pad, CodeCale will perform two analyses on the geometry. The first
analysis will compute the stresses at the edge of the nozzle. The second stress analysis will
be at the edge of the reinforcing pad.
CodeCale uses the Lame equation to determine the exact hoop stress at the upper and
lower surface of the cylinder around the edge of the altaclunenl. The hoop stress equa-
tions, as well as the longitudinal stress equation, are as follows:
SHoop(Upper) = 2Sl.ong
Where P
r;
Design Pressure
Inner diameter of shell
(
Stresses
ro Outer diameter of shell
For spherical shells the program uses the following equation:
SHoop = SLong
For each run performed, a table of dimensionless stress factors for each loading will be
displayed for review. Any table figure followed by an exclamation point (!) means that the
curve figure for that loading has been exceeded.
Why are the Stresses at Edge of the Pad the Same as at the Edge of the
Nozzle?
Since the stress is a direct product of the stress factor, the stresses computed at the edge of
the pad may be same as those at the edge of the nozzle ifthe curve parameter for that type
of stress has been exceeded.
What are the Allowable Stresses?
The stress intensities computed should typically be between 1.5 and 3.0 times the hot
allowable stress for the vessel material at operating temperature. If the results arc less than
1.5 Sa then the configuration and loading are acceptable. If the load is self-relieving (that
is, if it would relax or disappear after only a small rotation or translation of the attach-
ment), the allowable stress intensity would increase to 3.0 Sa.
11-3
Discussion of Results Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
Since many geometries do not fall within the acceptable range of what WRClO7 will
accept, it may be necessary to use a more sophisticated 1001 to solve the problems where
the diameter of the vessel is very large in comparison with the nozzle or where the thick-
ness of the vessel or nozzle is small. An example of a more sophisticated tool would be a
FEA (finite elemeut analysis) program.
SPHERICAL SHELLS CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
11-4
To Define WRC Axes:
To Define WRC Axes:
I. P-axis: Along the Nozzle centerline and posi-
I. P-axis: Along the Nozzle centerline and posi-
tive entering the vessel. live enleTing the vessel.
2. MI-axis: Perpendicular to the nozzle center-
2. Me-axis: Along the vessel centerline and pasi-
line along convenient global axis. live to correspond with any parallel global axis.
3. M2-axis: Cross the P-axis into the MI axis and 3. M2-axis: Cross the P-axis with the Me axis and
the resull is the M2-axis.
the result is the ML-axis.
To Define \VRC Stress Points: To Define WRC Stl"CSS Points:
u-upper, means stress on outside ofvesscl wall at u-upper, means stress on outside of vessel wall at
junction. junction.
I-lower, means stress 011 inside of vessel atjunc- I-lower, means stress on inside of vessel a!junc-
tion. tion.
A-Position on vessel at junction, along negative A-Position on vessel at junction, along negative
Ml axis. MCaxis.
B-Position on vessel atjunclioll, along posilive B-Position on vessel at junction, along positive
M2 axis. MCaxis.
C-Position on vessel at junction, along positive C-Position on vessel at junction, along positive
M2 axis. MLaxis.
D-Position on vessel at junction, along negative D-Position on vessel aljunction, along negative
M2 axis. ML axis.
Note: Shear axis "VC" is parallel, and in the same
direction as the bending axis "ML." Shear
axis "VL" is parallel, and in the opposite
direction as the'bending axis "MC."
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
WRC107 Stress Summations
Discussion or Results
Stresses
ASME Seclion VIII, Division 2, provides for a fairly elaborate procedurc to analyzc the
local stresses in vesscls and nozzles (Appendix 4-1 "MandatOlY Design Based On Stress
Analysis"). Only the elastic analysis approach will bc discussed here. The user should
always refer to the applicable code if any of the limits described in this seclion arc
approached, or ifany unusual material, weld, or stress situation exists, or thcre are non-lin-
ear concerns such as the material's operation in the creep range.
The first step in the procedure is to determine if the clastic approach is satisfactory. Sec-
lion AD-160 contains the exact method and basically states that if all of the following con-
ditions are met, then fatigue analysis need not be done:
a) The expected design number offull-range pressure cycles does not exceed the
number of allowed cycles corrcsponding to an S, value ons
m
(4S
m
for non-inte-
gral allachments) on the material fatigue curve. The Sm is the allowable stress
intensity for the material at the operating temperature.
b) The expected design range of pressure cycles other than startup or shutdown must
be less than 1/3 (1/4 for non-integral attachments) the design pressure times (S,I
Sm), where S, is the value obtained on the material fatigue curve for the specificd
number of significant pressure fluctuations.
c) The vessel does not experience localized high stress due to heating.
d) The full range of stress intensities due to mechanical loads (including piping reac-
tions) does not exceed S, from the fatigue curve for the expecled number of load
fluctuations.
Once the user has decided that an elastic analysis will be satisfactory, either a simplified or
a comprehensive approach may be taken to the vessel stress evaluation. Both melhods will
be described in detail below, after a discussion of the Section VIII Div. 2 Requirements.
11-5
Discussioll of Results Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
tl-6
ASME Section VIII Division 2-Elastic Analysis of Nozzle
Ideally in order to address the local allowable stress problem, the user should have the
endurance curve for the material of construction and complete design pressure / tempera-
ture loading information. If any of the elastic limits are approached, or ifthere is anything
out of the ordinary about the nozzlelvessel connection design, the code should be carefully
consulted before performing the local stress analysis. The material Sm table and the
endurance curve for carbon steels are given in this section for illustration. Only values
taken directly from the code should be used in design.
There are essentially three criteria that must be satisfied before the stresses in the vessel
wall due to nozzle loads can be considered within the allowables. These three criteria can
be summarized as
Where Pm. P
r
, Pb' and Q are the general primary membrane stress, the local primary mem-
brane stress, the local primary bending stress, and the total secondary stresses (membrane
plus bending)} respectively; and K, Smh' and Smavg are the occasional stress factor, the hot
material allowable stress intensity, and the average material stress intensity (Smh +Sm,) / 2.
Because of the stress classification defined by Section VIII, Division 2, in the vicinity of
nozzles, as given in the Table 4-120. I, the bending slress terms caused by any external
load moments or internal pressure in the vessel wall ncar a nozzle or other opening, should
be classified as Q, or the secondary stresses, regardless of whether they were caused by
sustained or expansion loads. This causes P
b
to disappear, and leads to a much more
detailed classification:
Pm General primary membrane stress (primarily due to internal pressure)
PI Local primary membrane stress, which may include the following:
Membrane stress due to internal pressure
Local membrane stress due to applied sustained forces and moments
Q Secondary stresses, which may include the following:
Bending stress due to internal pressure
Bending stress due to applied sustained forces and moments
Membrane stress due to applied expansion forces
Bending stress due to applied expansion forces and moments
Membrane stress due to applied expansion moments
Each of the stress terms defined in the above classifications contain three parts: two stress
components in nonnal directions and one shear stress component. To combine these
stresses, the following rules apply:
Compute the normal and shear components for each of the three stress types, i.e. Pm,
PI, and Q.
Compute the stress intensity due to the Pm and compare it against kSmh.
Stresses
(
Pressure Vessel Design c1nd Analysis - Seminar Noles Discussion ofResulls
Add Ihe individual normal and shear stress components due 10 Pmand PI, compute Ihe
resullant slress intensily, and compare ils value against 1.5kSmh.
AddIhc individual normal and shear slress componenls due to Pm, PI, and Q, compute
Ihe resuhant slrcss inlensity, and compare ils value 10 against 3Smavg.
If Ihere is an occasional load as well as a suslaincd load, Ihese Iypes may be repeated
using a k value of 1.2.
These criteria can be readily found from Figure 4-130.1 of Appendix 4 of ASME Seclion
Vl1l, Division 2 and the surrounding lexl. Nole Ihallhe primary bending slress lerm (Pb) is
not applicable 10 the shell stress evalualion, and Iherefore disappears from Ihe Scclion
Vl1l, Division 2 requirements. Under Ihc same analogy, Ihe peak slress limil may also be
written as
PI + P
b
+ Q+ F < S,
(
The above equation need not be salisfied, provided Ihe elaslic limit crileria of AD-160 is
met based on the slalement explicitly given in Seclion 5-100:
"If the specified operation ofthe vessel meets all ofthe conditions ofAD-160, no analysis
for cyclic operatioll is required and it may be assumed that the peak stress limit discussed
in 4-135 has been satisfied by compliance with the applicable requirements for materials,
design,jabricafion, testing and inspection afthis division. "
..'
,,,
..
J. I I
II) E - 30" to'poi.

131 Tlbhl5-110.1 ...... .. buI .."" ...... _ Iooonul.ofor.n ........ 0-
.,

/_'OfUTs "eo ...



"'--
!"<0- r... UTS Il!-UOb'
I-

--
--
---
---

' ,
'"
, , , ,
'"
, ;- "':;;"
..
,,,.
,"
FIG. s-nO.1 DE-SICH fAll(,UE CURVES fOR CARBON. LOW AllOY, SERIES 4XlC, HleH ALLOY STEELS AHD
HleH TENSILE STEELS FOR NOT EXCEEDINC 100'F
Figure 1--Example Fatigue Curve (For Values of Sa)
The equations used in CodeCale to qualify the various stress components can be summa-
rized as follows:
Pm(SUS) < Smh
Pm(SUS + acC) < I.2S
mh
Stresses 11-7
Discussion of Resulls Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pj(SUS + OCC) < 1.5( 1.2)Smh
Pm(SUS +OCC) +NSUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(Sm, + Smh)
J 1-8
If some of the conditions listed in ASME VIII Div.2 (in which AD-I 60 is not satisficd),
you probably need to perfonn the fonnal fatigue analysis. Peak stresses are required to be
calculated or estimated. You may consider using AD-560 "Alternative Rules for Nozzle
Design" instead of Article 4-6 "Stresses in Openings for Fatigue Evaluation" to calculate
the peak pressure stress for the opening.
Ifall conditions of AD-560.1 through AD-560.6 are satisfied, the stress indices given in
Table AD-560.7 may be used. Ifuser says "Yes" to indicate the conditions have been satis-
fied, the program will use these pressure stress indices to modify the primary stress due to
internal pressure (hoop and longitudinal stresses). For external loads, the highest peak
stresses are usually localized in fiIlets and transitions. If the user decides to use WRCI07
stress concentration factors (Kn, Kb), the fillet radius between the Vessel and Nozzle is
required. (If a reinforcing pad is used, the program assumes the same pad fillet radius.)
The program will make a crude approximation and use WRCI07 Appendix-B equations
(3) and (4) to estimate Kn and Kb. The tension and bending stresses are thus modified
using Kn and Kb respectively. The program outputs the local stresses for 4 pairs of points
(upper and lower) at the intersection.
Note The user should 1101 direct the program to perform the stress summations. Instead
the user should detennine which stresses should be added based on locations in
order to obtain the peak stress level, then use Appendix-4 & 5 rules and fatigue
curves depending on operation cycles.
Based on comparisons with finite element analysis, it is known that the top tip of the fiIlet
weld on the nozzle usually experiences the highest peak stress due to external loads. So it
is conservative to add all the peak stresses after including both pressure stress indices and
concentration factors.
Note The stress summation may ollly be used to check stress intensities, not stress !ev-
els.
You need the peak stress level to perform fatigue analysis. The current stress summation
routine does not compare stress level with fatigue allowables per Appendix-5. However,
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Discussion of Results
you may find the stress summation results useful to compare the combined effect due to
the stress concentration factor and pressure stress indices.
""------"'Ll:%'lOITUOIN.'<L
TORSION....L IJOl.1ENT
o
GEOMETRY
POINTS FOR STRESS RECOVERY
(
Stresses
Figure 2--Geometry for Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells
11-9
Discussion ofResulls
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
I. ""pl ., Lud,' ,. C........ic P.,_OI."
.t.
Ilooli.1 Lood.
,
r __
'b.
'.
,.
"--
SI._L""
__I>. , T
SI. .., L... d. __lb,
P
T
f
0.- ......",".......,,'.
..
T
O.... ... ftt .140 ....... ',- __If_,t
U '" ,--
r.,,'....I ...... u,. " -_.'I.,';.
\'''1r.T
l. c ",
V I Thlch.... T '" __: ....
V III __ A __: .
I. TMd".... .. __:,.-
.......1. lol.uR.d;y., '",= __;f..
..... ,.I.OuIJ;d. Rd;u I.=- __i".
.. s"... C... c......II011 Foe, ...
1-0. '.'
.. ..... I... d.IC.. "' __
b",lin.I..d. llo ...- __
"'OTE, I!ftlon IOU Iuoo I..
u....donee -<lh "tn II.ft
NOZZLE
Do
DL
HOLLOW ATTACHMENT
R
m
STllESSES _ lilood', .,,..';1. ,h." .t.o ,. , .. ,.. .... c-,.... ..h.....1.....1
f;.
.., .1....................1'
" 10
0.'
..
(";').
-,- .
o.
..
,-"')-
"
-,-
iT
,.
+-
..
+ + +
;
f
...., .
" ... , 11.
_ .
1 W,
N.I, i;i" (N.r, 1i;l) o.
-.-,- -.-,- 1'\1'it:i
"' .
.. I W
II., Il..I :b ( ...
-',- 01. I .... ...'
"'dd al,"".lcoll, lor __ ...f q ..
IP_I 10
."
. ..

-,.-
',.
Y,
"(.!'f) " T
'Y'
.
S.o.l '. It
Hr'.,tI;t

Y,
Y,
..
."..[W
IO."L'
..
(II,\IW) ....
-Y-,-' --- '-
,
II, "V'
H",r.=f"
..
(",,\Ji;"i) .__,,_

Y,
,.." "ya;f



-.-,-'
..
',.yt;T
... al I... I..II, hll .......lIn 01 aJ.
1.. _1 I. 10
COKBINEO STP.E:SS INTmSJrY - S.
11. When '( "I- o. s .. laraC!.':t llbsoll.lte 1l\.1'lnltuc1C! of eithC!r
S .. 1/2 [Ox+Oy! {lOll: Oy)2 .. 4Tl)or {(all. -
2) When t O. S .. lIIrqest Abi!;Ol\Ite Illaqnitude of either
S .. 0.:c' 0y or (Ox - a I
7
Figure 3--AII Attachments to a Spherical Shell
ll-JO
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NOles
Discussion of Results
p
..-
CYLINDRICAL SHELL
..- +
_ "1..4 ..., ....11. ,ht.o.... , ........., .........
... BLc..CLDw
{J tUJSl -it ;:--
St C , I ..'
.1 .. _\_.1 Ko --
\J \ ...1'", '''1. K\ -- Om
'HOT(, (", n 10 lwII I.
1 1,10. .1 ,..
..
.... {jt ;;:;.
.."....4_ , ....1.
(..!!2. . ...!... _
P/... ..,-

10 ,.., ...
.. -!.- <
P/.... II.'
u/_1I.a
'--.{j ...flr
.. (.!!..). .0=:
. "
..
.., ....1' {jt
,. =---1'"
101.", __1... 1",
l1li1.:: __1 1\,
If.:--I... I",
v. =__"
VI. : __"
,. -_...
'" -_..
...:.--"
COMBINED STRESS INTENSITY - S
No... , ....
" r.." IIl.
so. .
1 V.
.....1 ,1..... - .....
1+ " +_
3(" or ..

"
..,..;
1C-1 ..
01' 2e T
..
..

..

..
.......,ll
..
..
IIL/U
,..'
..
= :II_I
"1./"'fJ
.II_'.. 10. __
-'l.'....... .,..
J.IlA" n __II_
.,....,;.., , 1'".
1. ",,,11'" 1. ..1.'
iIl.II.. ,.
CI .......
1..",.101_.".
T...I..........,.
Sh... L..
.._I......
2. G_....,
Y.... ....
",,,,,"-..1,,,11
Y....l .. ...
,..
............
".
)C or
--'!t
=
<C
"b
Ie or

1C1 ..
..
11./ ....
-
..
..":!-


(
"

1.' .... 18
II

= -11.1
JlvfJ
(
1) When T # 0, S ;; largest absolute of either
S;; 1/2 [Ox+04l .,t(Ox - 0tP)2 + 4T
2
Jor - 0'41)2 +
2) When ;; 0, S = largest absolute magnitude of either
S'-D ox' or (ax - 41)
Figure 4--AII Attachments to a Cylindrical Shell
(
Slresses
1t -11
Discussion of Results
11-12
Pressure Vessel Design (lnd Analysis - Seminar Notes
Stresses
(
(
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Stresses in a Cylinder due to Loads on a Nozzle
Analyze the cylinder for Drum D-IOI under the following loads:
Design pressure is 200 psi (1.378N/mm
2
)
Radial load is 5,400 lbs (24021 N)
Longitudinal shear load is 2, I00 Ibs (9342 N)
Longitudinal bending moment is 3500 ft-Ibs (4.74e
6
Nmm)
The cylinder is 144 in. (3658 mm) ID and I-in. (25.4 mrn) thick
The attachment is ronnd and has an OD of 12.75 in. (324 mm)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the highest stressed point?
Is the stress at Ihis point acceptable?
Discussion of Results
(
Stresses
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
11-13
Discussion of Results Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar NOles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 71
WRCI07 Analysis: Nozzle/Cylinder Item: 1 9;51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, WRC107 Item
"
Description: Nozzle/Cylinder
Diameter Basis for Vessel
Cylindrical or Spherical Vessel
Corrosion Allowance for Vessel
Vessel Diameter
Vessel Thickness
Attachment Type
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Nozzle Diameter
Nozzle Thickness
Design Internal Pressure
VBASIS
CYLSPH
CAS
DV
TV
TYPE
N8ASIS
CAN
D"
TN
DP
ID
Cylindrical
0.0000 in.
14-<1.000 in.
1.000 in.
Round
ID
0.0000 in.
12.000 in.
1.000 in.
200.00 psig
External Forces and Moments in WRC 107 Convention:
Radial Load P
Circumferential Shear VC
Longitudinal Shear VL
Circumferential Moment MC
Longitudinal Moment ML
Torsional Moment MT
5400.00
0.00
2100.00
0.00
3500.00
0.00
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
n .Ib.
ft.lb.
Compute Maximum Radial Force
Compute Maximum Circumferential Moment
Compute Maximum Longitudinal Moment
Compare Maximum Stress Intensity to
Yes
"0
"0
26250.00 psi
Global Force (SUS) Fx
Global Force (SUS) Fy
Global Force (SUS) Fz
Global Moment (SUS) Mx
Global Moment (SUS) My
Global Moment (SUS) Mz
Internal Pressure (SUS) P
Include Pressure Thrust
-LOI
0.00
44.00
44 .00
0.00
0.00
0.00
"0
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft .lb.
fLlb.
psig
Use Interactive Control
WRCI07 Version
INTACT
VERSION
"0
March 1979 ( 81 & B2 )
Include WRC107 SIF(Kn,Kb)--concentration factors
Include Pressure Stress Indices per Div. 2
Dimensionless Parameters used: Gamma = 72.50
Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells
"0
No
Curves read for Beta Figure value
11-14
N{PHI) / ( P/Rm
M(PHI) / ( P )
0.084
0.084
4C
2C1
12.282
0.078
Slresses
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Discussion ofResulls
COME Engineering Software
PlJElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc. , Local White Lock
FileName
,
Seminar
---------------------------------------
Page 72
WRC107 Analysis
,
Nozzle/cylinder Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
N(PHI)
I
MC/(Rm**2 Beta) 0.084 3A 2.280
H(PHI)
I
MC/ (Rm Beta) 0.084 1A 0.093
N(PHI)
I ML/(Rm**2 Beta) 0.084 3B 8.115
M(PHI)
I ML! (Rm
Beta) 0.084 1B 0.043
N(x)
I P/Rm ) 0.084 3C 10.437
M(x)
I
p ) 0.084 1C1 0.118
N(x)
I MC!(Rm**2

Beta) 0.084 4A 3.410
M(x)
I MC! (Rm
Beta) 0.084 2A 0.051
N(x)
I ML!(Rm**2 Beta) 0.084 4B 2.289
M(x)
I ML! (Rm Beta) 0.084 2B 0.063
STRESS POINTS C & 0 (MARCH 1979)
N(PHI)
I
( P!Rm ) 0.084 3C 10.437
M{PHI) I
( p ) 0.084 1C 0.115
M(PHI)
I
( ML/ (Rm

BETA) ) 0.084 1B1 0.042


(
N(x)
I P!Rm ) 0.084 4C 12.282
M(x) I
p ) 0.084 2C 0.078
M(x)
I ML/ (RID BETA) 0.084 2B1 0.064
Stress Concentration Factors Kn = 1.00, Kb 1.00
Stresses in the Vessel at the Attachment Junction
[ Stress Values at
Type of [ (psi)
---------------1--------------------------------------------------------
Stress Load I Au Al Bu Bl Cu Cl Du D1
---------------1--------------------------------------------------------
Circ. Memb. DP I 14300 14500 14300 14500 14300 14500 14300 14500
Cire. Memb. P I -914 -914 -914 -914 -777 -777 -777 -777
Cire. Bend. P I -2523 2523 -2523 2523 -3711 3711 -3711 3711
Cire. Memb. MC I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cire. Bend. MC I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cire. Memb. ML I -767 -767 767 767 0 0 0 0
Cire. Bend. ML I -1739 1739 1739 -1739 0 0 0 0
I
Tot. Circ. Str.[ 8357 17081 13369 15137 9812 17434 9812 17434
Long. Mernb. OP
1
7150 7150 7150 7150 7150 7150 7150 7150
Long. Mernb. P
1
-777 -777 -777 -777 -914 -914 -914 -914
(
Long. Bend. P
1
-3817 3817 -3817 3817 -2541 2541 -2541 2541
Long. Memb. MC
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Long. Bend. MC
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Long. Memb. ML
1
-216 -216 216 216 0 0 0 0
Long. Bend. ML
1
-2648 2648 2648 -2648 0 0 0 0
1
Tot. Long. Str1 -308 12622 5420 7758 3695 8777 3695 8777
Stresses
Shear VC
Shear VL
Shear MT
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
-95
o
o
-95
o
o
95
o
o
95
o
11-15
Discussion of Results Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Semiriar --------------------------------------- Page 73
WRCI07 Analysis: Nozzle/Cylinder Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
I
Tot. Shear I o o o o -95 -95 95 95
Str. Int. I 8665 17081 13369 15137 9813 17435 9813 17435
With the Given Forces and Moments the
Maximum Radial Force (Edge of Nozzle) is ..... 21621.90 lb.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
11-16 Siresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Stresses in a sphere due to Loads on a Nozzle
Discussion of Results
(
(
Stresses
Analyze the elliptical head for Drum D-IOI under the following loads:
.Design pressure is 200 psi. (1.378 N/mm
2
)
Radial load is 5,400 Ibs. (24021 N)
Longitudinal shear load is 2,100 lbs. (9342 N)
Longitudinal bending moment is 35,000 ft-lbs. (4745 N-m)
The elliptical head is 144 in. (3658 mm) ID and I-in. (25.4 mm) thick.
The attachment is round and has an OD of 12.75 in. (324 mm)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the highest stressed point?
Is the stress at this point acceptable?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
11-17
Discussion or Results
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NOles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 74
WRCI07 Analysis: Nozzle/Head Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, WRCI07 Item 2, Description: Nozzle/Head
Diameter Basis for Vessel
Cylindrical or Spherical Vessel
Corrosion Allowance for Vessel
Vessel Diameter
Vessel Thickness
VBASIS
CYLSPH
CAS
OV
TV
10
Spherical
0.0000 in.
259.200 in.
1.000 in.
Attachment Type
TYPE Round
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Nozzle Diameter
Nozzle Thickness
NBASIS
CAN
ON
TN
10
0.0000 in.
12.750 in.
0.6B7 in.
Design Internal Pressure
OP 200.00 psig
lb.
lb.
lb.
it.lb.
it.lb.
ft.lb.
5400.00
0.00
2100.00
0.00
3500.00
0.00
P
V2
V1
Ml
M2
MT
(VC)
(VL)
(MC)
(ML)
External Forces and Moments in WRC 107 Convention:
Radial Load
Circumferential Shear
Longitudinal Shear
Circumferential Moment
Longitudinal Moment
Torsional Moment
Compute Maximum Radial Force
Compute Maximum Circumferential Moment
Compute Maximum Longitudinal Moment
Compare Maximum Stress Intensity to
Yes
No
No
26250.00 psi
Use Interactive Control
WRCI07 Version
INTACT
VERSION
No
March 1979 ( Bl & B2 )
Include WRCI07 SIF(Kn,Kb)--concentration factors
Include Pressure Stress Indices per Div. 2
No
No
Dimensionless Parameters: U ; 0.62 TAU 9.78 RHO 1.46
Dimensionless Loads for Spherical Shells
Curves read for Figure Value
N(x)
T /
p
SP 2 0.05315
M(x)
/
P SP 2 0.0598B
N{x)
T
SQRT(Rm * T
/ MC SM 2 0.10030
M(x)
SQRT(Rm
T
/
MC SM 2 0.13465
N(x)
T SQRT(Rm
T
/
ML SM 2 0.10030
M(x)
SQRT(Rm T
/ ML SM 2 0.13465
N(y)
T
/ P SP 2 0.15573
M(y)
/
P SP 2 0.03152
N(y)

T
SQRT(Rm
T )
/ MC SM 2 0.14582
II-IS
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Discussion of Resulls
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar ~ Page 75
WRCI07 Analysis : Nozzle/Head Item: 2 9: 51a Sep 21,2000
M(y)
N(y)
M(y)
,.. SQRT(Rm T
... T ... SQRT(Rm T
SQRT(Rm ... T
I MC
I ML
I ML
SM 2
SM 2
SH 2
0.09009
0.14582
0.09009
Stress Concentration Factors Kn = 1.00, Kb == 1. 00
Stresses in the Vessel at the Attachment Junction
I Stress Values at
Type of I (psi)
---------------1--------------------------------------------------------
Stress Loadl Au Al Bu 81 Cu Cl Du Dl
---------------1--------------------------------------------------------
Rad. Memb. DP I 12%0 12960 12960 12960 12960 12960 12960 12960
Rad. Mernb. P I -287 -287 -287 -287 -287 -287 -287 -287
Rad. Bend. P I -1940 1940 -1940 1940 -1940 1940 -1940 1940
Rad. Memb. MC I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rad. Bend. MC I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rad. Memb. ML I ~ 6 9 -369 369 369 0 0 0 0
Rad. Bend. ML 1 -2974 2974 2974 -2974 0 0 0 0
1
Tot. Rad. Str.1 7390 17218 14076 12008 10733 14613 10733 14613
Tang. Memb. DP
1
12960 12960 12960 12960 12960 12960 12960 12960
Tang. Memb. P
1
-840 -840 -840 -840 - 840 -840 -840 -840
Tang. Bend. P
1
-1021 1021 -1021 1021 -1021 1021 -1021 1021
Tang. Memb. MC
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tang. Bend. MC
I
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tang. Memb. ML
I
-536 -536 536 536 0 0 0 0
Tang. Bend. ML
I
-1990 1990 1990 -1990 0 0 0 0
I
Tot. Tang. Str1 8573 14595 13625 11687 11099 13141 11099 13141
shear VC
I
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shear VL
1
0 0 0 0
-9' -9' 9'
9.
Shear MT
I
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
Tot. Shear I 0 0 0 0
-9' -9'
9.
9'
Str. Jnt. I 8573 1721B 14076 1200B 11121 14618 !11121 14618
(
With the Given Forces and Moments the
Maximum Radial Force (Edge of Nozzle J is 0.0" 34893.37 lb.
(
Slresses
The PV Elite Program, (cl 19B9-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
11-19
Stresses in Horizontal Pressure Vessels Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
STRESSES IN HORIZONTAL PRESSURE VESSELS
The Zick analysis method calculates stresses in horizontal pressure vessels created by the
combination of internal pressure and the weight of the vessel and its contained liquid. The
method is based on "Stresses in Large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two
Saddle Supports," The Welding Journal Research Supplement, J95 I, and subsequent
interpretations of that work.
The geometry analyzed by the Zick method is a horizontal cylinder with torispherical,
hemispherical, or spherical heads, supported at two locations on saddles. The saddles
extend between 100 degrees and 180 degrees around the shell and mayor may not have
wear pads separating them from the shell.
The melhod calculates the stresses at several points in a horizontal vessel, including the
following:
Longitudinal stresses at the top and bottom of the shell near the saddles, including
pressure stresses
Longitudinal stresses at the top and bottom of the shell at the midspan, including pres-
sure stresses
Tangential shear stresses in the shell
Tangential shear stresses in the head
Circumferential stress above the saddle, including pressure stresses
Stress in the head if it is used as a stiffener
Compressive stress in the shell
The method also analyzes additional stiffening rings that may be required to reduce the
stresses to acceptable levels.
The saddle is generally located close 10 the head in order to take advantage of the stiffen-
ing effect of the head. In general, 'A' should be less than 0.2*L.
Acceptable bearing angles are between 100 and 180 degrees. Ifyou enter a value greater
than or equal to 180 you will not be able to compute the result. The most typical value is
120 degrees, except for very small vessels, and the maximum is generally f50 degrees.
If the dimensions of the wear pad and the saddle are appropriate, this method allows sum-
ming the thicknesses of the shell and pad for circumferential membrane stress calcula-
tions. For circumferential bending stress calculations the method will use the square root
of the sum of the squares of the wear pad and shell thicknesses.
If the wear pad extends above the horn orthe saddle more than R110 in., and if the saddle
is within O.5R of the head, then the wear pad thickness may be included in the caleulation
for the circumferential stress at the horn of the saddle. If the wear pad width is more than
1.56*SQRT(R*TS) then the wear pad thickness may be included in the calculation for the
circumferential stress at the bottom of the vessel.
This type of vessel may have a full encirclement stiffener either on the ID or the OD. The
purpose of the stiffener is to keep the shell round, just as in external pressure caleulations.
Several different kinds of stiffeners may be analyzed. These include simple plate stiffen-
ers, tees, double plate stiffeners, and beam sections.
Longitudinal stresses at the saddle include both the bending stresses across the vessel, and
the longitudinal pressure stress (SLP+-SLS). The allowable stress in tension is the shell
allowable stress times the shell joint efficiency. The allowable stress in compression is the
allowable compression per the ASME Code, Paragraph UG-23 , using the materials chart
(
11-20 Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Noles Stresses ill Horizontal Pressure Vessels
associated with the given material. If you entered alternate stresses for the material, then
the allowable compressive stress is based on chart CS-2. The top section of the shell for an
unstiffened vessel is ineffective as a beam. Therefore, except for the stiffened case, the
section modulus of the shell is lower at the saddles than away from them.
Longitudinal stresses at the mid-span include both the bending stresses across the vessel,
and the longitudinal pressure stress (SLP+-SLM). The allowable stress in tension is the
shell allowable stress times the shell joint efficiency. The allowable stress in compression
is the allowable compression per the ASME Code, Paragraph UG-23, using the materials
chart associated with the given material. If you entered alternate stresses for the material,
then the allowable compressive stress is based on chart CS-2.
The tangential shear in the shell varies depending on whether the shell is stiffened or the
head acts as a stiffener, or neither of these cases. Tangential stress in the head only exists if
the head is close enough to the saddle to be used as a stiffener. The allowable stress in
shear is 80% of the allowable tensile stress.
The stress at the hom of the saddle depends on the location of the saddle and the equiva-
lent thickness of the saddle and wear pad. It is zero if the shell is stiffened by rings. This
stress is always compressive and the allowable stress is -1.5 times the allowable tensile
stress.
Use of a head as a stiffener creates additional tensile stress in the head. The allowable
additional stress in the vessel head is limited to 0.25 times the allowable tensile stress. If
you add the pressure stress in the head (not shown) to this value, the resulting stress must
be less than 1.25 times the allowable tensile stress.
The ring compressive stress in the shell is the compression at the bouom of the saddle due
to the weight of the vessel. The allowable membrane compressive stress is taken to be one
half the yield stress or 1.5 times the tension allowable, whichever is less.
If the stiffening ring is internal then the maximum stress in the shell is compressive. If the
ring is external, the stress in the shell is tensile, and internal pressure adds to this stress.
The slress should be limited to +/- 1.5 times the shell allowable stress.
(
(
Stresses
POINTS FOR STRESS RECOVERY
..." LONG! TUOINAl. smESS
l3 SHEAR STRI::SS
! STRESS
Figure 5--Geometry for the Analysis of Horizontal Vessels on Saddle Supports
11-21
Stresses in Horizontal Pressure Vessels
11-22
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis R Seminar Notes
Stresses
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Stresses in Horizonlal Pressure Vessels
(
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Horizontal Vessels on Saddle Supports (Zick Analysis).
Analyze Drum D-I 0I for stresses as a horizontal drum:
Design pressure 230 psi (1.585 Nmm
2
) at 450F (232C)
SA-516,70 (shell and heads) with 0.125-in. (3.175 mm) corrosion allowance
144-in. (3658 mm) ID with I-in. (25.4 mm) wall, full radiography
2:1 elliptical heads, I-in. (25.4 mm) thick, full radiography
Vessel is 20 ft 6096 tangent to tangent.
Saddle is 30 in. (762 mm) from the vessel tangent, and 12 in. (304.8 mm) wide.
The saddle has an arc of 120 degrees.
The wear pad, 0.375, 9.5 extends only a small amount outside the saddle.
There is no reinforcing ring.
Weight of attachments and appurtenances 40,000.0 lbs. 177934N
Notes:
Questions:
What happens if you extend the wear pad?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
11-23
Stresses in lIorizontal Pressure Vessels Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc . Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 60
Horizves Analysis; 0101 Zick Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Horizontal Vessel Item
Design Internal Pressure
Design Temperature
Corrosion Allowance for Vessel
Shell Material
Shell Operating Allowable Stress
Shell Ambient Allowable Stress
Head Material
Head Operating Allowable Stress
Head Ambient Allowable Stress
Density of Shell and Head Material
Liquid Height in vessel
Density of Stored Liquid
Extra Weight
Baseplate Length
Baseplate Thickness
Baseplate Width
Number of Ribs ( inc. outside ribs )
Rib Thickness
Web Thickness
web Location
Height of Center Web
I, Description: 0101 zick
200.00 psig
450.00 F
0.1250 in.
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
0.2830 lb. lin
144.2500 in.
0.2830 lb. 1ft
40000.000 lb.
168.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
12.0000 in.
3
1.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
Center
12.0000 in.
11-24
Design Temperature of Base Structure
Saddle\Baseplate\Rib\Web Material
Operating Allowable Stress
Ambient Allowable Stress
Use ASCE 7-95
Force Coefficient
Extra Area
Importance Factor
Wind Velocity
Exposure Category
Height above Grade
Distance from Center of Vessel to Support-
Seismic Loads Present
Diameter Basis for Vessel
Shell Diameter
Shell Length Tangent to Tangent
Thickness of Shell
Shell Joint Efficiency
Head Type
Head Thickness
Head Joint Efficiency
100.00 F
SA-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
No
0.500
2880.0000 in
1.050
110.000 mile/hr
C
7.0000 ft.
84.0000 in.
N
ID
144.0000 in.
20.0000 ft.
1. 0000 in.
1.0000
Elliptical
1. 0000 in.
1.0000
Stresses
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Stresses in Horizontal Pressure Vessels
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 61
Horizves Analysis: 0101 zick Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Distance from Saddle to Vessel Tangent
Saddle Width
Saddle Bearing Angle
Wear Pad Thickness
Wear Pad Extension above Horn of Saddle
Wear Pad Width
Stiffening Ring Present
30.0000
12.0000
120.0000
0.3750
0.0000
O. 0000
N
in.
in.
degrees
in.
in.
in.
Results for HORIZVES Number 1, Description: 0101 Zick
Shell Allowable Stress
Shell Compressive Yield
Head Allowable Stress
used in
used in
used in
calculation
Calculation
Calculation
20000.00
31750.00
20000.00
psi
psi
psi
Volume of Vessel
Weight of Vessel, Empty
Weight of Vessel, Full
2722.20 ft.**3
83924.85 lb.
84695.23 lb.
Stresses
Required Actual
Shell Thickness, Reqd. VS. Actual 0.851 1.000 in.
Head Thickness, Reqd. VS. Actual 0.847 1.000 in.
Shell M.A.W.P. Reqd. VS. Actual 200.00 240.88 psig
Head M.A.W.P. Reqd. VS. Actual 200.00 2'12.3'1 psig
Actual Allowable
Long. Stress at Top of Saddles 824].46 20000.00 psi
Long. Stress at Bottom of Saddles 8162.25 20000.00 psi
Long. Stress at Top of Midspan 8116.58 20000.00- psi
Long. Stress at Bottom of Midspan 8289.13 20000.00 psi
Tangential Shear in Shell 642.27 16000.00 psi
Tangential Shear in Head 642.27 16000.00 psi
circ. Stress at Horn of Saddle -3360.27 -28575.00 psi
Addl. Stress in Head as Stiffener 292.74 5000.00 psi
Ring Compressive Stress in Shell -1044.44 -15875.00 psi
WIND ( ASeE #7 J
and SEISMIC RESULTS
Transverse Wind Load Component Ft
Ft {AFT '" CF '" GH * QZ 1 * 0.5
Ft {391.311 * 0.5000 * 1.3967 '" 27.3514 1 * 0.5
Ft 3737.1382 lb.
Saddle Reaction Force due to Wind Ft
Fwt 1.5 * Ft * B / E
Fwt 1.5 * 3737.1 * 84.0000 / 126.6562
Fwt 3717.7756 lb.
Longitudinal Wind Load Component Fl
FI {AFL"'CF*GH*QZl
Fl { 159.671 * 0.5000 '" 1.3967 '" 27.3514
11-25
Slresses in Horizontal Pressure Vessels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar -------------------------------------- Page 62
Horizves Analysis: 0101 Zick Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
FI ~ 3049.8240 lb.
Saddle Reaction Force due to Wind pI
Fwl FI * B I La
Fwl 3049.8240 '* 84.0000 / 180.0000
Fwl 1423.2512 lb.
Load Combination Results for Q + Wind or Seismic
Q WO!2 + Max( Fwl, Fwt, FsI, Fst )
Q 42347 + Max( 1423, 3717, 0, 0 )
Q 46065.3945 lb.
FORMULAS and SUBSTITUTIONS for ZICK ANALYSIS RESULTS
Shell and Head Required Thickness and MAWP :
TR
TR
TR
(PI (D/2+CA)) / (S*E-O. 6,o,P) per UG-27 (c) (1)
( 200.00 '* ( 144.0000 ! 2 + 0.1250 )) /
( 20000 '* 1.00 - 0.6 * 200.00 ) + CA
0.851 in.
Shell
MAWP
MAWP
MAWP
(S'*E* (T-cA) ) ! ( (D!2+CA) +0.6* (T-CA)) per UG-27 (c) (1) : Shell
( 20000 '* 1.00 * ( 1.0000 - 0.1250 ) I
( 144.0000 I 2 + 0.1250 ) + 0.6 '* ( 1.0000 - 0.1250 ))
240.9 psig
TR (p* (D+2*CA) '*K) / (2SE-0. 2P) per App. 1-4 (c) Elli. Hd.
TR (200.00 '"' ( 144.0000 + 2 * 0.1250 ) * 1.00 ) I
( 2 * 20000 * 1.00 - 0.2 * 200.00 ) + CA
TR 0.847 in.
MAWP
MAWP
MAWP
(2*S*E(T-CA)!(K,o,(D+2*CA)+0.2'*(T-CA.)I per App. 1-4 (c) ; Elli. Hd.
( 2 * 20000 1.00 '* ( 1. 0000 - 0.1250 )) I
( 1.00 * ( 144.0000 + 2 * 0.1250 ) + 0.2 *( 1.0000 - 0.1250 )
242.3 psig
11-26
Longitudinal Bending (+-) at Midspan
( 3 '"' Q * L '* K.2 / ( PI * ~ '* ( TS - CA ))
( 3 * 46065 * 20.00 * 0.4464 ) I
( PI * 72.1250 * 72.1250 * ( 1.0000 - 0.1250 I))
86.27 psi
Longitudinal Bending (+-) at Saddle
( 3 * Q * L '"' K.l / { PI '* R
A
2 * (TS CA I))
( 3 * 46065 * 20.00 * 0.2101 ) /
( PI * 72.1250 * 72.1250 '* ( 1.0000 - 0.1250 I))
40.60 psi
Tangential Shear in Shell near Saddle
Q '"' K.5 / ( R * ( TS - CA I)
46065 * 0.8799 / ( 72.1250 ( 1.0000 - 0.1250 )
642.27 psi
Tangential Shear in Head used as Stiffener
Stresses
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Stresses in Ilorizontal Pressure Vessels
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc" Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 63
Horizves Analysis; 0101 zick Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Q .., K.5 I ( R ... ( TH - CA )
46065 * 0.8799 / ( 72.12 ... ( 1.0000 - 0.1250 )
642.27 psi
Circumferential Stress at Horn of Saddle
_Q!(4*TEM*(SADWTH+l.56*SQRT(R*CA)-12*Q*R*K.7!(12*L*TEB)
-46065!1 4'" 0.8750 ... ( 12.00 + 1.56 ... SQRT( 72.1250 ,.. 0.8750 ))
-12.0 ... 46065 ... 72.12 ... 0.0130 I ( 12 .., 20.0000 ... 0.7656 )
-3360.27 psi
Additional Tension in Head used as Stiffener

( 46065 I ( 72 .1250 ... ( 1. 0000 - 0.1250 )))"* (3/8)"* ( SIN ( 1.99 ) -"-2) I
( PI - 1.99 + SIN{ 1.99 ) ... COS ( 1.99 )))
292.74 psi
Circumferential Compression at Bottom of Shell
(Q*( K.9/( TEM9"*( B+1.56 "* SQRT( R * TEM9
( 46065*( 0.7603/( 1.2500*( 12.00+1.56*SQRT( 72.25* 1.2500))))
-1044. 44 psi
Longitudinal Pressure Stress
DP"*SID/2+CA)-0.4"'(TS-CA/{2.0*(TS-CA))
200.0'" 144.00 I 2 + 0.1250 - 0.4 '" ( 1.000 - 0.1250 )) /
( 2.0 * ( 1.000 - 0.1250 ))
8202.86 psi
RESULTS for VESSEL RIBS, WEB and BASE
Moment of Inertia of Saddle Lateral Direction
Shell
wearplate
Web
BasePlate
Totals
Y A AY
Ay"'2 10
0.4375 10.8438 4.7441 2.0756 0.6919
1.0625 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
6.1250 9.7500 59.7187 365.7773 77.2383
11.5000 12.0000 138. 0000 1587.0000 1.0000
19.1250 32.5937 202.4629 1954.8529 78.9301
Value C1
Value I
Value As
SumQfAy/SumOfA
SumQfAy"'2 + SumOfIo - C1*SumOfAy
SumOfA - Ashell
6.2117
776.1425
21.7500
in.
in*"'4
in
K1
(1+Cos(b)-.5*Sin(b)A2 >/(pi-b+Sin(b)"'Cos(b)) 0.2035
Fh (K1*Q)=
9375.3076 lb.
( M C1 I I )
.66 Yield Str.
( 2.0 ... Fh/As )
.6 * Yield Stress
19124.1465 ft.lb.
1836.6779 psi
25080.0020 psi
psi
psi
862.0974
22800.0000
d Fh
Tension Str .. St
Allowed Str . Sa
Bending Mom. , M
Bending Str., Shnd
Allowed Str. , Sa
(
Stresses
11-27
Stresses in Horizonlal Pressure Vessels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 64
Horizves Analysis: 0101 Zick Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Minimum Thickness of Baseplate
Baseplate Min .. (3*Q*F/{4*A*SA)A. 5 0.3137 in.
Calc. of Axial Load, Inter. Values and Compo Stress
e
e
BPLEN - 1 ) / ( NRIBS - 1)
168.0000 - 1 ) / ( 3 - 1 ) 83.5000 in.
AP
AP
e * BPWID / 2
83.5000 * 12.0000 / 2 501. 0000 in
P AP * SF
P 501.0000 * 22.8499 = 11447.7988 lb.
AR
AR
BPWID - 1 - WEBTK ) * RIBTK + e/2 * WEBTK
12.000 - 1 - 1.000 ) * 1.000 + 83.5000/2 * 1.000 51.750 in
se
se
P/AR
11447.7988/ 51.7500 221.2135 psi
Rib
Web
Values
Check of Outside Ribs
Inertia of Saddle, Outer
Y
6. 0000
6.0000
6.0000
Ribs - Axial
A
10.0000
41.7500
51.7500
Direction
AY
60.0000
250.5000
310.5000
Ay.... 2
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
10
143.9167
6.9583
150.8750
11-28
KL/R < Cc ( 27.8921 < 122.7360 ) per AISC E2-1 9th Edition
Sea (1-(Klr) .... 2/(2*Cc.... 2))*Fy/{5/3+3*(Klrl/(8*Cc)-(Klr"'3)/(8*Cc"'3l
Sea (1-( 27.89 )"'2/(2 * 122.74"'2 ) * 38000 /
( 5/3+3*( 27.89)/(8. 122.74)-( 27.89.... 3)/{8* 122.74"'3)
Sea 21148.51 psi
AISC Unity Check on Outside Ribs ( must be <= 1.0 )
Check Sc/Sca + Sb/Sba
Check 221.21 / 21148.51 + 334.94 / 250S0.00
Check 0.02
Check of Inside Ribs
Inertia of Saddle, Inner Ribs - Axial Direction
Y A AY Ay"'2 10
Rib 5.5000 10.0000 55.0000 0.0000 110.8333
(
Web 5.5000 83.5000 459.2500 0.0000 6.9583
Values 5.5000 93.5000 514.2500 0.0000 117.7917
KL/R < Cc { 9.5776 < 122.7360 1 per AISC E2-1 9th Edition
Sea (1- (Klr) .... 2/ (2*Cc"'2) 1*Fy/ (5/3+3* (Klr) / (S*Cc) - (Klr .... 3) / (S*CC.... 3)
Sea (1-( 9.58 ) .... 2/(2 * 122.74.... 2 )) * 38000 /
( 5/3+3*( 9.581/(8* 122.74)-{ 9.58"'31/(8* 122.74"'3)
Sea 22339.15 psi
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Stresses in Horizonlal Pressure Vessels
(
Stresses
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 65
Horizves Analysis: DIOI zick Item: I 9:51a Sep 21,2000
~ S Unity Check on Inside Ribs ( must be <= 1.0
Check Se/Sea + Sb/Sba
Check 244.87/ 22339.15 + 177.54 / 25080.00
Check 0.02
The PV Elite program, (cl 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
11-29
Siresses in JIorizonlal Pressure Vessels
11-30
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Chapter 12:
Tall Vertical Towers
ENGINEERING SOfTWARE
ALLOWABLE STRESSES ON TALL TOWERS
The allowable stress for the hoop direction is the same as always-the labulated stress for
thc material.
The allowable stress for longitudinal tension can be increased when calculaling cases Ihal
include wind or earthquakc loads. The factor for this increase is 1.2
The allowable compressive stress (which may also be multiplied by the above factor) is
calculated as follows:
I. Allowable strain, A, is O.125/(RO/t).
2. Allowable stress, B, is taken from the appropriatc external pressure chart.
3. Joint efficiency for butt-welded joints is taken as unity.
The temperature limitations on the external pressure charts also apply 10 the compressive
allowable.
Tall Vertical Towers t2-1
Analyzing Tall Vertical Process Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NOles
Dead Loads
Thermal
Moments
ANALYZING TALL VERTICAL PROCESS TOWERS
The analysis ofta]] vertical process towers is somewhat more complicated than that for
simple pressure vessels. There are several reasons for this additional complication:
Pressure - Internal
- External
- Hydrotest
- Vessel Weights
- Equipment & Appurtenances
- Contents
- Temperature Effects
- Wind
- Earthquake
- Piping
- Erection
t2-2
Load Case
Erection
Operating
Operating
Internal
Pressure
x
External
Pressure
X
Dead Wind!
Loads Seismic
X X
X X
X X
Thermal
x
X
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
DESIGN PROCEDURE
Design Procedure
force on each segment of the vessel
wind pressure
(
(
In light of the various loadings found on towers, a very carefully thought out design proce-
dure must be followed. The following list shows typical steps in a procedure of this kind:
I. Analyze vessel geometry and determine the X and Y coordinate for elements.
2. Analyze or design the vessel for internal pressure-determine initial thickness esti-
mates.
3. Analyze or design the vessel for external pressure-verify original thickness esti-
mates, and modify if necessary. When thicknesses are modified, return to Step 2.
4. Calculate the weights of elements and details. This would include shells and heads,
nozzles, flanges, skirts, baserings, insulation, internals, platforms, fireproofing, pack-
ing, liquid, trays, and other miscellaneous items. This turns out to be one of the most
tedious steps you will perform, even ifusing a computer program, since the geometry
of each of these items must be determined.
5. Determine the support forces and/or moments. Based on the weights of each compo-
nent, determine the force and moment at the support point (or, in a more sophisticated
analysis, the support points.)
6. Calculate the cumulative weight and bending moment for the vessel. In the case of a
tower, this is calculated both for the upright and the horizontal position, since the hor-
izontal weight and bending moment diagram is used to determine the natural fre-
quency.
7. Determine the natural frequency for the vessel. This is most often done using a numer-
ical method such as Freese's method. In a more sophisticated analysis, this might be
done with a finite element or finite difference analysis.
8. Calculate the wind load on the vessel. This is done using the rules found in national
standards such as American Society of Civil Engineers, Standard 7, the National
Building Code of Canada, or the Uniform Building Code.
9. Calculate the earthquake load on the vessel. THis is done with the same national stan-
dards described above.
10. Calculate the cumulative weight and bending moments for the various load cases.
These include the various combinations of wind, earthquake, internal pressure, exter-
nal pressure and weight described above, plus hydrotest cases.
I I. Calculate the stresses and required thicknesses for the various load cases. It may be
that the designer will have to increase the thickness of one or more vessel components
at this point. If so, then the designer will have to begin all over with his calculations,
starting from Step 2.
Wind load Computations
Most wind load calculations will be done using a national standard such as the American
Society of Civil Engineers, Standard 7, the National Building Code of Canada, or the Uni-
form Building Code.
The ASCE Standard contains the following formula for wind load computation:
Where:
F
q,
Tall Vertical Towers 12-3
Design Procedure Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar NOles
gust response factor
structural force coefficient
Exposure Coefficient
Wind Pressure
Importance Factor
Wind Velocity
Wind Pressure Computation
Where:
KZ
qz
I
V
Where:
zg Gradient Height
a Power Law Coefficient
z Elevation
I. "Category" classification
Structure
All Structures Not Covered Below
Primary Occupancy Of Over 300
Essential Facilities
~ o r Structures
2. "Importance" Factor
Category 100 Miles F/ Hurricane
I 1.00
11 1.07
III 1.07
IV 0.95
. Category
I
11
1Il
IV
At Hurricane Line
1.05
1.11
1.11
1.00
12-4
3. "Exposure" Constants
Category Alpha : Zg
A - Large Cities 3.0 1500
B - Suburban Areas 4.5 1200
C - Open Terrain 7.0 900
D - Flat, Coastal 10.0 700
When the wind pressure has been calculated, the gust and structural factors for each ele-
ment must be determined. The gust response factor can be either static or dynamic. The
static just response factors are given in tables similar to those above, evaluated at the
building or structural height h. The dynamic gust response factor is calculated based on
the natural frequency of the vessel, various damping factors, and the design wind speed.
Calculations for this factor can be found in the commentary to ASCE-7. The dynamic gust
response factor must be used when the natural frequency of the structure is less than 1hz.
If the natural frequency is unknown, then a guideline given by ASCE is to use the dynamic
gust response factor when the height to width ratio of the vessel is greater than 5.
The structural force factor is also found in tabular form. The most commonly used table in
ASCE 7 looks like this:
Force Coefficients Jar Chimneys, Tanks, and Similar Structures, CJ
Tall Vertical Towers
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
CHar hiD values of
Design Procedure
Shape
Square (wind normal)
Square (wind diagonal)
Hexagonal or octagonal
Round, highly loaded
Rough 0.7 0.8
Very RoughO.8 1.0
Round, lightly loaded
Type of Surface I
All 1.3
All 1.0
All 1.0
Moderately smooth 0.5
0.9
1.2
All 0.7
7
1.4
l.l
1.2
0.6
0.8
25
2.0
1.5
1.4
0.7
1.2
Earthquake Load Computation
ASCE-7 and several of the other standards have a relatively simple calculation for the lat-
eral force imposed by an earthquake:
Where:
Z Seismic Zone Coefficient
I Importance Factor
C
T Fundamental Natural Frequency
K Horizontal Force Factor
S Soil Profile Coefficient
Note C' S need not exceed 0.14 for profile 3 in zones 3 and 4; C need not exceed 0.12.
'Z''Seismic Zone Coefficient
(
Zone
4
3
2
I
o
Z
I
3/4
3/8
3/16
1/8
'l''Gccupancy Importance Factor
Category
Tall Vertical Towers
I
11
III
IV
1.0
1.25
1.5
N/A
12-5
Design Procedure Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
'S''Soil Profile Coefficient
Profile Type S
Rock, Stiff Soil SILO
Deep Cohesionless, Stiff Clay S2 1.2
Soft - Medium Clay S3 1.5
'K'!Horizontal Force Factor
12-6
Structure Type
Unreinforced Masonry Walls
Reinforced Masonry Walls
Light Wood or Metal Walls
Building Frame Systems
Moment Resisting, Concrete
Moment Resisting, Ordinary Steel
Moment Resisting, Special Frames
Dual Systems
Elevated Tanks
Other (Pressure Vessels)
K
NlA
1.33
1.0
1.0
N/A
1.0
0.67
0.80
2.5
2.0
Tall Vertical Towers
(
(
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Semill<lT Notes
Tall Vertical Towers
Design Procedure
12-7
Design Procedure Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Tall Vertical Process Towers
Use PVElite to analyze the tower shown on the following page.
(You need not perform nozzle calculalions)
Assume the tower full of liquid 10 the bottom of the cone (s.g. .9)
Notes:
'<
j
12-8
Questions:
Arc the thicknesses adequate?
What arc the dimensions of the basering? _
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes Design Procedure
T101 LIQUID PHASE REACTOR
SA516.70
SA516.70
SA285.C
SA516.70
SA105
SA106.C
SA516.70
MATERIALS:
SHELL & SKIRT
HEADS
BASE PLATE
REINFORCEMENT
FORGINGS
NOZZLE NECKS PIPE
NOZZLE NECKS PLATE
NOZZLE SCHEDULE:
MARK SIZE PURPOSE
A-D 20" MANWAY
E 18" INLET
F 32" OUTLET

DESIGN PRESSURE = 225 PSIG
EXTERNAL PRESSURE = 15 PSIG
2'1 ELLJPTlCAL DESIGN TEMPERATURE 350 F
.,,5' CORRISION ALLOWANCE = 0.125
JOINT EFFICIENCY:
LONGITUDINAL 100%
CIRCUMFERENTIAL 85%
lCOO FT LBS
250 LBS
1
11 ...0000
t-f------l

l-I-----------l
H"'WOO
(
.2\1 ELLlPTlCAL

F
0.625'
Figure 1--Geometry for Tower Design Example English
Tall Vertical Towers
12-9
Design Procedure Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Noles
101 LIQUID PHASE REACTOR
NOZZLE SCHEDULE:
MARK SIZE PURPOSE
A-D 20" MANWAY
E 18" INLET
F 32" OUTLET
DESIGN PRESSURE = 1.55 N/mm'
EXTERNAL PRESSURE = 0.103 N/mm'
DESIGN TEMPERATURE = 177 C
CORRISION ALLOWANCE = 3.175 mm
JOINT EFFICIENCY:
LONGITUDINAL = 100%
CIRCUMFERENTIAL = 85%
SA516.70
SA516.70
SA285.C
SA516.70
SA105
SA106.C
SA516.70
MATERIALS:
SHELL & SKIRT
HEADS
BASE PLATE
REINFORCEMENT
FORGINGS
NOZZLE NECKS PIPE
NOZZLE NECKS PLATE
'''''
2-4 t-iN
2'1 ELLlPTICAL
16 MH
1.62.691e+006 N-I'lM
1112 N
2.1 ELLIPTICAL
24 ~
16 MM
Figure 2-Geamelry for Tower Design Example Metric
12-10 Tall Vertical Towers
\
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
SKIRT AND BASERING DESIGN
Skirl and BaseRing Design
Basering Thickness Calculations
Thickness of basering under compression: The equalion for the thickness of the basering is
Ihe equalion for a simple cantilever beam. The beam is assumed to be supported al the
skirt, and loaded with a uniform load caused by the compression ofthe concrete due to the
combined weight of the vessel and bending moment on the down-wind I down-earthquake
side of the vessel. The equation for the cantilever is found in most of the common vessel
design textbooks, including Jawad & FaIT, Structural Analysis and Design of Process
Equipment, page 434, formula 12.12:
Where:
(
fc
bearing stress on the concrete
J cantilever length of basering
J allowable bending stress of basering (typically 1.5 times Code allow-
able).
There are two commonly accepted methods of determining the bearing stress on the con-
crete. The approximate method simply calculates the compressive load on the concrete,
assuming that the neutral axis for the vessel is at the centerline. Thus the load per unit area
of the concrete is, from Jawad & FaIT equation 12.1, equal to
Where:
W Weight of vessel (worst case).
M Bending moment on vessel (worst case).
(
A Cross sectional area of basering on foundation
c Distance from the center of the basering to the edge
J Moment of inertia of the basering on the foundation
However, when a steel skirt and basering are supported on a concrete foundation, the
behavior of the foundation is similar to that of a reinforced concrete beam. If there is a net
( I
Tall Vertical Towers
12-11
Skirt and BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
bending moment on the foundation, then the force upward on the bolls must be balanced
by the force downward on the concrete.
T
11'---"

. .

. .
(. )
,
d
( b)
..
d

'WL!
fll t i
I C
ICI
Ie
(
/2-12
Figure 3--Neutral Axis Shift
Because the concrete and the steel have different elastic moduli, and because the strain in
the concrete cross section must be equal to the strain in the basering at any specific loca-
tion, the neutral axis of the combined bolt/concrete cross section will be shifted in the
direction of the concrete. Several authors, including Jawad & FaIT (pages 428 to 433) and
Megyesy (Pages 70 to 73) have analyzed this phenomenon. In the program, we have used
the formulation of Singh and Soler, Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers and Pressure
Vessel Components, Pages 957 to 959. This formulation seems to be the most readily
adaptable to computerization, as there are no tabulated constants. Singh and Soler provide
the following description of their method:
In this case a neutral axis parallel to the y axis exists. The location ofthe neutral axis is
identified by the angle a. The object is to determine the peak concrete pressure p and
the angle a.
For narrow base plate rings, an approximate solution may be constructed using numer-
ical iteration. It is assumed that the concrete annulus under the base plate may be
trcated as a thin ring of mean diameter c. Assuming the foundation to be linearly elas-
tic, and the base plate to be relatively rigid, Brownnell and Young have developed an
approximate solution that can be cast in a form suitable for numerical solution.
Let the total tensile stress area of all foundation bolts be A. Within the limits of accu-
racy sought, it is permissible to replace the bolls by a thin shell of thickness f and
mean diameter equal to the bolt circle diameter c, such that t A/ pc. We assume that
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Skirt and BaseRing Design
(
(
the discrete tensile bolt loads, acting around the ring, are replaced by a line load, vary-
ing in intensity with the distance from the neutral plane.
Let n bc the ratio of Young's moduli oflhe bolt material to that oflhe concrete; II nor-
mally varies bctwcen 10 and 15. Assuming that the concrete can take only comprcs-
sian (non-adhesive surface) and that thc bolts are effective only in tension (untapped
holes in base plate), an analysis [similar to that given above) yields the following
results:
2W+ P21ca
p ~ -:p'-,(7:,-,_-=-:., )-c
a ~ 2(M- Wp,c)
2
P2 P)/C
(
a ~ - ex::: cos--
a+n
Where:
I, width of basering (similar to I in Jawad & Farr's equations above)
c bolt circle diamctcr
p four constants based on the neutral axis angle, and defined in Singh &
Soler equations 20.3.12 through 20.3.17, not reproduced here.
These equations give the required 7 non-linear equations to solve for 7 unknowns,
namelyp, s, a, and thc r; (i = 1,4) parameters. The simple iteration scheme described
below converges rapidly. The iterative solution is started with assumed values of sand
p; say So andPo' [the program takes thesc from the approximate analysis it has just per-
formed). Then a is determined via the above equation, and then the dimensionless
parameters Tj, T2' T)) and 4 are computed. This enables computation of corrected val-
ues ofp and s (say Po' and so'). The next iteration is started with s, andp, where we
choose the following:
l7
1
::; 05 ( l7
0
+ l7n
P, = 05 (PO + pi)
This process is continued until the errors e; and e; at the ith iteration stage are within
specified tolerances, (e; = e; = 0.005 is a practical value), where
Actual numerical tests show that thc convergence is uniform and rapid regardless of
the starting values of So and Po'
(
Tall Vertical Towers 12-13
Skin and BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Once the new values of bolt slress and bearing pressure are calculated, the thickness of the
basering is calculated again using the same fonnula given above for the approximate
method.
Thickness of Basering under Tension
On the tensile side, ifthere is no top ring but there are gussets, there is disagreement on
how to do the analysis. For example, Brown & Root does not look at the tensile side at all,
Megyesy uses a "Table F" to calculate an equivalent bending moment, Dennis R. Moss
uses the same approach but gives the table (Page 126-129), and Jawad & FaIT use a "yield-
line" theory (Page 435-436). Since Jawad & FaIT is both accepted and explicit, Ihe pro-
gram uses their Equation 12.13:
3.91F
t=
S, 2b + ~ - ~ + ..!.-)
,,21 ,,2/
Where:
F
a
b
I
d
Boll Load =Allowable Stress * Area
Distance between gussets
Width of base plate that is outside of the skirt
Dislance from skirt to bolt circle
Diameler of bolt hole
Thickness of Top Ring under Tension
Ifthere is a top ring or plate, its thickness is calculated using a simple beam fonnula. Tak-
ing the plate to be a beam supported between two gussets with a point load in the middle
equal to the maximum bolt load, we derive the following equation:
t=lM
,7
Where:
M
FI
s
z
z
Bending moment from Megyesy, beams, case II, fixed beam.
2 F, e.
80
Bolt Load ~ Allowable Stress time Area
Allowable stress, 1.5 * plate allowable
Seclion Modulus, from Megyesy, Properties of Seclions
12-14
Wt
(
Do _D, _d.)
2 2.
Width of Section
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Skirt and BaseRing Design
(
Required thickness of gussets in tension: Iflhere are gussets, they must be analyzed for
both tension and compression. The stress fonnuJa in tension is just the force over the area,
where the force is taken to be the allowable bolt stress times the boll area, and the area of
the gusset is the thickness of the gusset times one half the width of the gusset (because
gussets normally taper).
. Required thickness of gussets in compression: In compression (as a column) we must iter-
atively calculate the required thickness. Taking the actual thickness as the starting point,
we perfonn the calculation in AISC 1.5.1.3. The radius of gyration for the gusset is taken
as 0.289 t per Megyesy (Fifth edition, Page 404). The actual compression is calculated as
described above, then compared to the allowed compression per AISC. The thickness is
then modified and another calculation performed until the actual and allowed compres-
sions are within one half of one percent of each other.
Basering Design Selections
Selection of Number of Bolls: This selection is made on the basis of Megyesy's table in
Pressure Vessel Handbook (Table C, Page 67 in the fifth edition). Above the diameter
shown, the selection is made to keep the anchor boll spacing at about 24 in.
Calculation of Load per Boll: This calculation is made per Jawad& Farr, Equation 12.3:
W 2M
p= ----
N NR
Where:
W
N
R
M
Weight of vessel
Number of bolls
Radius of boll circle
Bending moment
(
Calculation of Required Area for Each Bolt
This is just the load per boll divided by the allowable stress.
Selection of the Bolt Size
The program has a table of boll areas, and selects smallest boll with area greater than the
area calculated above.
Selection of Preliminary Basering Geometry
The table of bolt areas also contains the required clearances in order to successfully
tighten the selected boll (wrench clearances and edge clearances). The program selects a
preliminarybasering geometry based on these clearances. Values selected at this point arc
the boll circle, basering outside diameter, and basering inside diameter.
Analysis of Preliminary Basering Geometry
Using the methods described above for the analysis section, the program determines the
approximate compressive stress in the concrete for the preliminary geometry.
Selection of Final Basering Geometry
If the compressive stress calculated above is acceptable, then the preliminary geometry
becomes the final geometry. lfnot, then the boll circle and bascring diameters arc scaled
Tall Vertical Towers 12-15
Skirt and BttseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
up to the point where the compressive stress will be acceptable. These become the final
basering geometry values.
Analysis of Basering Thicknesses
The analysis then continues through the thickness calculation described above, determin-
ing required thicknesses for the basering, top ring, and gussets.
Skirt Thickness Calculations
Basic Skirt Thickness
The required thickness of the skirt under tension and compression loads is determined
using the same formula used for the compressive stress in the concrete, except using the
thickness of the skirt:
W Me
lZ =----
, A I
Where:
W
M
A
c
1
Weight of vessel (worst case)
Bending moment on vessel (worst case)
Cross sectional area of skirt
Distance from the center of the basering to the skirt
(radius of skirt)
Moment of inertia of the skirt cross section
In tension this actual stress is simply compared to the allowable stress, and the required
thickness can be calculated directly by solving the formula for t. In compression, the
allowable stress must be calculated from the ASME Code, per paragraph UG-23, where
the geometry factor is calculated from the skirt thickness and radius, and the materials fac-
tor is found in the Code external pressure charts.
As with all external pressure chart calculations, this is an iterative procedure. A thickness
is selected, the actual stress is calculated, the allowable stress is determined, and the origi-
nal thickness is adjusted so that the allowable stress approaches the actual stress.
Stress in Skirt due to Gussets or Top Ring
If there are gussets or gussets and a top ring included in the base plate geometry, there is
an additional load in the skirt. Jawad & Farr have analyzed this load and determined that
the stress in the skirt due to the boll load on the base plate is calculated as follows:
12-16
Where:
F
b
Total load in one bolt load on one gusset
Width of the gusset at the base
thickness of the skirt
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes Skirt and BaseRing Design
h height of the gusset
Jawad & Farr note that this stress should be combined wilh the axial stress due to weight
and bending moment, and should then be less lhan three times the allowable stress. They
thus categorize this stress as secondary bending. The program performs the calculation of
this stress, and then repeats the iterative procedure described above to determine the
required thickness of the skirt at the lop of the basering.
Generally the skirt/head/shell weld is a non-inspectable weld detail. Frequently the joint
efficiency oflhis weld is taken to be as Iowa 0.45, sometimes 0.55 (See UW-12). Thus the
skirt thickness may very well be governed by the loads at the top, even though the bending
moment is higher at the bottom.
r
TTA

I
I HG
DS
-L
I
I
I I I
DC
-rl.
! .. DC
DO
I h ~ B N D
I
I
1-=
l- I
I
I
I I
I
TGA
Figure 4--Geometry for Baserings and Bolt Chairs
(
Tall Vertical Towers 12-17
Skirl and BaseRing Design
12-18
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Tall Vertical Towers
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles Skirl and BnseRing Design
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Baserings:
Use the Basering program to analyze the support for tower shown on Page 198.
You will need the following additional information:
Basering ID ~ 118 in. (2997 mm.), O D ~ 8 in. (3251 mm.), Thickness ~ I in.
(25.4 mm), SA-516 70 at 100F (37.7C)
Top Ring Thickness ~ I in. (25.4 mm), SA-193 B7 on a 124 in. (3150 mm) Bolt
Circle
Compressive strength of concrete, 3,000 psi (20.68 N/mm
2
)
Gussets, I in.(25.4 mm) thick by 12 in. (304.8 mm) tall, 2 per bolt. (locate 3 in.
(76.2 mm) to cach side of bolts)
Gussets arc SA-516 70 at 100F (37.7C), Elastic Modulus ~ 29,000,000 (19947
N/mm
2
).
Skirt is 0.625 in. (15.9 mm) thick, 121.875 in.(3096 mm) OD, SA 516 70 at
100F (37.7"C)
From PYElite, get the weights and moments for the tower:
(thcse have been increased to make the problem more interesting)
Dead weight ~ 200,000 Ib (839672 N)
Operating weight ~ 250,000 Ib (1.I1e
6
N)
Test weight = 400,000 Ib (1.77e
6
N)
Operating Moment = 1,000,000 ft Ib (1.335e
9
Nmm
2
)
Test Moment ~ 1,000,000 ft Ib (1.335e
9
Nmm
2
)
Notes:
Questions:
Are thc thicknesses chosen adequatc?
Tall Vertical Towers 12-19
Skirt and BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 76
Basering Analysis: PVD&A Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Sasering Item 1, Description: PVD&A
Analyze or Design the Sasering
Design Temperature for sasering
Thickness of Sasering
Sasering Material
Sasering Operating Allowable Stress
Sasering Ambient Allowable Stress
Inside Diameter of sasering
Outside Diameter of sasering
Nominal Diameter of Bolts
Bolt Material
Bolt Operating Allowable Stress
Salt Ambient Allowable Stress
Number of Bolts
Diameter of Bolt Circle
Nominal Compressive Stress of Concrete
AORD
RNGTMP
TBA
BASOPE
SASAMB
Dr
DO
BND
SA
SAHAMB
NGIV
DC
FPC
AM
100.00 F
1.0000 in.
8A-516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
118.0000 in.
128.0000 in.
0.8750 in.
81\-193 87
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
20
124.0000 in.
3000.0 psi
Thickness of Gusset Plates
Temperature for Gusset plates
Average Width of Gusset Plates
Material for Gussets
Gusset Plate Elastic Modulus
Gusset Plate Yield Stress
Height of Gussets
Distance from Bolts to Gussets
Number of Gussets per bolt
Thickness of TOp Ring/Plate
Radial Width of the Top Ring/Plate
TGA
GUSTMP
AVGWDT
E
SY
HG
CG
NG
TTA
TOPWTH
1.0000
100.0000
2.0000
8A-516 70
29000000.0
38000.00
12.0000
3.0000
2
1.2500
4.0000
in.
F
in.
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
External Corrosion Allowance 0.0000 in.
Skirt Thickness
Skirt Temperature
Skirt Material
Skirt Operating Allowable Stress
Skirt Ambient Allowable Stress
Outside Diameter of Skirt at Base
Outside Diameter of Skirt at Bottom Head
Joint Efficiency of Skirt Weld
Dead Weight of Vessel
Operating Weight of Vessel
Test Weight of Vessel
Operating Moment on sasering
Test Moment on Sasering
TS
SKTTEM
SKTOPE
SKTAMB
DS
SKTHED
ARCJNT
DW
ROW
TIl
ROM
TM
0.6250
100.0000
SA-516 70
20000.00
20000.00
121. 8750
121.8750
0.7070
200000.0
250000.0
400000.0
1000000.0
1000000.0
in.
p
psi
psi
in.
in.
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
12-20
RESULTS FOR BASERING ANALYSIS : ANALYZE OPTION
Tall Vertical Towers
\
Pressure Vessel Design ami Analysis - Seminar Noles Skirl and BnseRing Design
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 77
Basering Analysis: PVD&A Item: 1 9:51a sep 21,2000
Calculation of Load per Bolt, Dead Weight Condition:
W/Bolt ({ 4 M/De ) - W ) / RN per Jawad Farr, Eq. 12.3
W/Bolt ({ 4 * 0.120E+08 / 124.000) - 200000 ) / 20
W/Bolt 9354.8389 lb.
Required Area for Each Bolt, Based on Max Load
Area Available in a single Bolt
Area Available in all the Bolts
Bolt Stress Based on Approximate Analysis
Concrete Contact Area of Base Ring
Concrete Contact Section Modulus of Base Ring
0.3742 in
0.4190 in
8.3800 in
22326.58 psi
1932.08
57185.03
(
Calculation of Concrete Load, Test Weight Condition:
SC ((ABT*SA+W)/CA) + M/CZ per Jawad & Farr Eq. 12.1
SC {( 8.3800 25000+ 400000)/ 1932.08) + 0.120E+08/ 57185.03
SC 525.31 psi
Calculation of sasering Thickness, (Simplified):
TB RW * SQRT( 3 SC / S ) + CA per Jawad & Farr Eq. 12.12
TB 3.0625 * SQRT{ 3 525 / 30000 ) + 0.0000
TB 0.7019 in.
Results of Neutral Axis shift Calculation:
Searing Pressure on Concrete
Stress in Bolt
412.50 psi
0.00 psi
Calculation of Sasering Thickness, (N.A. Shift):
TBNA RW * SQRT{ 3 SCNA / S) + CA per Jawad & Farr Eg. 12.12
TBNA 3.0625 * SQRT( 3 412 / 30000 ) + 0.0000
TBNA 0.6220 in.
Required Thickness of Top Ring/Plate in Tension:
(Calculated as a fixed beam per Megyesy)
FT (SA*ABSS) , Bolt Allowable Stress * Area
RM (FT*2.0*CG)/B.0. Bending Moment
SS (1.5*BASOPE), Allowable stress 1.5
WT (TOPWTH BND), Width of Section
T SQRT ( 6 RM / ( SB * WT + CA
T SQRT( 6 .7856 / ( 30000 3.1250 )) + 0.0000
T 0.7091 in.
Required Thickness of Gusset in Tension:
T = ( SA*ABSS )/( NG*S*( AVGWDT ) + CA
Required thickness based on average cross-section
Actual thickness as entered by user
0.1309 in.
1.0000 in.
(
Required Thickness of Gusset in
1. Allowed Compression at Given
Factor KI/r Per E2-1
Factor Cc Per E2-1
All. Buckling Str. per E2-1
Tall Vertical Towers
Compression, per AISC E2-1 9th Ed.
Thickness:
83.0450
122.7360
15572.10 psi
12-21
Skirt ami BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 78
Sasering Analysis: PVD&A Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Act. Buckling Str. at Given Thickness
Required Gusset thickness, + CA
2. Allowed Compression at Calculated Thickness:
Factor KI/r Per E2-1
Factor Cc Per E2-1
All. Buckling Str. per E2-2
Act. Buckling Str. at Calculated Thickness
SUMMARY OF BASERING THICKNESS CALCULATIONS
Required Basering Thickness (simplfied)
Required Basering Thickness (N.A. Shift)
Actual Basering Thickness as entered by user
Required Top Ring/Plate Thickness as a Fixed-Beam
Actual Top Ring Thickness as entered by user
Required Gusset thickness, + CA
Actual Gusset Thickness as entered by user
2618.75 psi
0.4931 in.
168.4202
122.7360
5264.57 psi
5310.98 psi
0.7019 in.
0.6220 in.
1. 0000 in.
0.7091 in.
1.2500 in.
0.4931 in.
1. 0000 in.
TENSILE STRESS CALCULATIONS FOR SKIRT AT TOP HEAD:
S
0
Mil PI*R"2*T
I
- F/ (2*PPR*T)
Operating Dead Load Test Load
Skirt Rad. Given by User 60.9375 60.9375 60.9375 in.
Skirt Thkn. Given by User 0.6250 0.6250 0.6250 in.
Bndg. Mom. Given by User 1000000.0 1000000.0 1000000.0 ft. lb.
Axial Force Given by User 250000.0 200000.0 400000.0 lb.
Actual Stress in Skirt 601.1 810.1 -25.7 psi
Allowed Stress in Skirt 11312.0 11312.0 16968.0 psi
THICKNESS CALCULATION FOR
Required Thickness
Actual Thickness as Given
SKIRT:
0.0332
0.6250
0.0448
0.6250
N/A in.
0.6250 in.
Skirt Rad. Given by User
Skirt Thkn. Given by User
Bndg. Mom. Given by User
Axial Force Given by User
Actual Stress in Skirt
Allowed Stress in Skirt
COMPRESSIVE STRESS CALCULATIONS AT BASE
S = M/IPIrR"2*T) + F/(2*PIrRrT)
Operating
60.9375
0.6250
1000000.0
250000.0
2690.5
13426.0
OF SKIRT:
Dead Load
60.9375
0.6250
1000000.0
200000.0
2481. 6
13426.0
Test Load
60.9375 in.
0.6250 in.
1000000,0 ft.lb.
400000.0 lb.
3317.4 psi
20139.0 psi
THICKNESS CALCULATION FOR
Required Thickness
Actual Thickness as Given
SKIRT AXIAL
0.2378
0.6250
COMPRESSION:
0.2284
0.6250
0.2156 in.
0.6250 in.
SUMMARY OF SKIRT THICKNESS:
Req. Thickness, Tension
Req. Thickness, Camp.
Actual Thickness as Given
Operating
0.0332
0.2378
0.6250
Dead Load
0.0448
0.2284
0.6250
Test Load
N/A in.
0.2156 in.
0.6250 in.
12-22
The PV Elite Program, {cl 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Noles
Chapter 13:
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs,
and Lifting Lugs
These design caleulations are done with simple hand methods. It is useful to review the
origin of the calculations.
VESSEL LEGS
The loading for vessel legs is the weight of the vessel, including operating weight or
weight of water for hydrotest, plus the horizontal shear and overturning moment due to
wind, earthquake, or external loads.
A vessel must have at least three legs. A vessel on two legs develops unacceptably high
bending stresses in the legs under even small horizontal loadings.
For the column furthest away from the neutral bending axis, the axial force in the column
due to these loads, per Jawad & Farr 12.3, is
W 2M
p= -----
N NR
Where:
W
N
R
M
Weight of vessel and contents
Number oflegs (columns)
Radius of column circle
Bending moment due to wind or loads
Note Because the bending moment is only effectively carried by legs that are quite far
removed from the neutral axis, the total number of legs is divided by two in this
equation.
To generate the stress in the leg, simply divide the force by the cross sectional area of the
leg.
For the column closest to the neutral axis, the axial force does not contain the bending
moment term. However, the axial load may be increased by cross-bracing of the legs.
Cross bracing resolves the shear at the top of the legs into an axial load.
The shear at the top of one leg is the horizontal load divided by the number oflegs which
support the shear load. As implemented in Codecale, the number ofeffective legs for shear
is the integer part of the number of legs divided by two, rounded up. For example, if you
have 4 legs, the number oflegs effective for shear is two, but if you have three legs the
number of effective legs is still two.
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs 13-1
Vessel Legs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
The axial force can be computed from the horizontal force by resolving the force vectors.
First, the horizontal force, assumed to be tangential to the vessel, is resolved into a force
into the vessel and a force in the plane from one leg to the next. The angle between the two
legs is alpha, and the force X in that plane is
H
X=--
sin it
Where:
H
a
a =
Horizontal force at top of one leg
Angle between tangent and next leg
180N -360
2N
This horizontal force in the plane of the legs is further resolved into an axial force in the
cross bracing and an axial force in the leg (F):
X
F=-
tantl'
Where:
X
P
Horizontal force in plane of legs
Angle between top and bollom of legs
,.vDIN
atan---
L
13-2
P
D Diameter of leg circle
L Length oflegs
When you have many legs, or if the legs are quite tall, the angle of the cross bracing will
be high, and even a small horizontal load will require a large vertical component in the
brace and leg to resist it.
The leg closest to the neutral axis carries the weight of the vessel and the additional axial
compression caused by the cross bracing:
w
p=---p
N
Vessel legs are generally a simple structural shape - an I beam, a channel, an angle, or a
structural tube. I-beams and channels have a strong and a weak orientation. If the beam is
allached such that the tangent to the vessel is parallel to the beams strong axis use the
strong axis beam properties. Otherwise use the weak axis properties. '
For angles, iflhe angle is allached with one leg welded to the vessel or one flat welded 10
the vessel, use the strong axis properties. If the angle is attached with both legs welded 10
the vessel (like an upside down V), use the properties of the angle in a diagonal direction.
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes Support Lugs
(
These leg loads are compared to the allowable leg comprcssion per the AISC Stcel Con-
struction Manual, paragraph 1.5.1.3:
KI
Wmn-<C,
r
F. = 5 3( ~ (
-+------
3 gC, 8C;
Wmre:
C = l,,i'E
, F
>
K Effective length factor
Length
,. Least radius of gyration
E Young's Modulus of column material
F, Yicld strength of column material
If you cross brace the legs, there will be no bending at the bottom. OthelWise the bending
at the bottom will be equal to the length ofthe leg times the shear at the top of the leg clos-
est to the neutral axis.
The combination of bending and compressive stress is compared to the allowable per
AISC 1.6.1 (unity check).
SUPPORT LUGS
The lug support point should be set as close to the vesscl OD as possible, to reduce bend-
ing moments on the lugs and the vessel.
Most support lug calculations also assume a minimum of three lugs, so that the lugs do not
have to carry a bending moment. However, some vessels are supported on two wide lugs
that can carry transverse bending.
The force on one lug is the weight of the vessel divided by the number oflugs, plus the
bending moment at the lug support point divided by the radius to the lug and the number
of effective lugs. This is thc same fonnula shown above for the force on a leg far away
from the neutral axis of the bending moment.
Most support lugs have two gussets, equally spaced about a bolt hole. The distance
between the gussets is used to calculate the bending in thc support plate.
(
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs t3-J
Lining Lugs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
The bending stress in the bottom plate of a vessel support lug is calculated using a simple
beam formula for a beam (the plate) on two simple supports (the gussets):
M
17=-
Z
Wmre:
z
2
= W,lf,l
6
F = Force on one lug
D
gp
=Dist.ance between gussets
Wpi = Width of supportlugboLlotn plaLe
f pi =Thicknessof support plaLe
Bending stress in Lhe bottom plate ofa vessel support lug is compared to the AISC allow-
able bending stress.
The stress in the gusset is one half the lug force divided by the gusset area. This compres-
sion is compared Lo the AISC allowable compression. If the gussets arc angled (as they
would be iffor cases with no top plate), ealeulate the mean gusset widlh and usc that value
in the gusset compression calculations.
Compressive stresses in support lug gussets arc compared to AISC compressive allow-
able, which is caleulaled using the same formulas given above for the legs as columns.
The loads on the vessel shell should also be checked. These can be checked using the
WRC- I 07 analysis technique.
LIFTING LUGS
There are two orientations of lifting lugs: flat to the vessel and perpendicular to the vessel.
Flat lugs arc generally welded below the top head scam and extend far enough above the
scam for the lifting cables to clear the head and its nozzles. Perpendicular lugs (cars) are
used to clear some obstruction at or ncar the top head (such as a l;>ody flange) by moving
the support point away from the vessel shell. They arc also used as tailing lugs.
Lifting lugs are normally subject to forces that arc "horizontal" in the natural coordinate
system of the vessel during the early part of the lift, and then to purely vertical forces. For
lifting lugs that are flat to the vessel shell, these tangential forces are usually not a prob-
lem. However, for lifting lugs that are perpendicular to the shell (ears), these forces can
easily bend the lug, and should be avoided.
Forces normal to (away from) the shell should be avoided on lifting lugs that arc flat to the
shell, since these will tend to peel the lug off the shell. In other words, don't pull on the lug
in its weak direction.
The most significant stresses in the lug usually occur in the welds which attach the lug to
the vessel. You need to know the minimum leg width and the location of these welds.
Then you need to calculate the cross sectional area and the shear stress on the welds that
attach the lug to the vessel. The load for the direct shearing stress may calculated as the
(
13-4 Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes Lining Lugs
(
square root oflhe squares of all Ihe loads on Ihe lug (W, Nand T). This is only slightly
cOIlservativc.
WeldArea =(2 L\Uld + B
Weld
)( T
wdi
)
Wmre:
LWld =Length of weld on sides of support
B
wl1
= Widlh of weI d on boltom of support
T
Wld
"" Thickness of welds
Load = lw' + N' + T'
Wmre:
W =WeighlLo.d
N =Horizontal force nonn at to the vessel
T = Horizon.tal force tangent to the vessel
In addition to the direct shear stress, the shear stress at the ends of the welds due to the
bending on the lifting lug is must be calculated for each load. First, calculate the section
modulus of the weld group. Then calculate the shear stresses:
Bending Stress Due to Normal Force:
Bending Stress Due to Weight:
Bending Stress Due to Tangential Force:
Hlif Height of Lifting Lug
L,'dd Length of weld on sides of support
O'if Offset vessel OD to center of hole
Z" Section Modulus, Longitudinal Direction
Z/c Section Modulus, Circumferehtial Direction
Tensile, bending and shear loads are combined to calculate the stresses in vessel lifting
lugs. The stresses in the lugs arc compared to ASME allowable for base material shear and
fillet weld shear.
Most lifting lugs have a circular hole located in a semi-circular arc of metaI. Shear across
this section may control the lug design.
The bending load on a flat lifting lug is caused by the force N that you entered normal to
the vessel. The bending load on perpendicular lifting lugs is caused by the combination of
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs 13-5
Lifting Lugs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Ihe vessel weight (W) and Ihe force you entered in Ihe tangential direclion. Nole Ihallhis
combinalion calculates the slress only allhe highest slressed corner of the weld group.
LEGs----+-<.1
CROSS
Of'S[
SlDEFU..1ET
WELD
flATUFTllm
_-__'LU'G\ ARC
RADIUS
o
-SlRONG.
F'f:RF'ENDlC
LUG
_ / OFFSET OF UFllNGlOO


LEG ORlENTATJON;
__=:::- WEAK
Figure 1--Geometry for Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
13-6
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
I.
Pressure Vessel Design find Analysis - Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Desigu and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Vessel Legs
Lining Lugs
(
(
Design vessel support legs for the following vessel:
The design pressure is 200 psi (1.37 N/mm
2
), design temperature is 300F 149C.
The diameter of the vessel is 42 in. (1067 mm)
The height of the vessel itself is about 14.3 ft. (4359 mm)
The weight of the vessel is 30,000 lbs. (133451 N)
The wind load is 40 psf (0.002 N/mm
2
)
The centroid of the vessel area is 10 ft (3048 mm) above grade.
The vessel has 4 legs
Each leg is a W6x25 beam, oriented with the axis in the strong direction.
The leg material is SA-285, C
The vessel legs are 5 ft (720 mm) tall and are not cross-braced.
Notes:
Questions:
What is the result of the AISC unity check?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
13-7
Lining Lugs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar NoLes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 66
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Legs Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Leg & Lug Item Description: 0102 Legs
Additional Horizontal Force on Vessel FF
Location of Horizontal Force above Base Point FH
Operating weight of Vessel (vertical load ) W
Erection Weight of Vessel (Lifting Analysis) W
Design Internal Pressure
Design Temperature for Attachment
Vessel Outside Diameter
Tangent to Tangent Length of Vessel
Height of Bottom Tangent Above Grade
Force Coefficient
Additional Area
Importance Factor
Wind Velocity
Exposure Catagory
Use ASCE 7-95 Wind Code
Number of Legs
Length of Legs
Effective Leg End Condition Factor
Material for Legs
Yield Stress of Leg Material
AIse Member Designation
Leg Orientation to vessel Axis
Are the Legs Cross-Braced
Occasional Load Factor (AISe A5.2)
TEMP
OD
TANTAN
Cf
I
V
Expcat
NLEG
LLEG
K
ORIENT
XB
OCCFAC
200.00 psig
300.00 F
42.0000 in.
14 .3000 ft.
5.0000 ft.
30000.00 lb.
30000.00 lb.
0.500
2880.00 in
1.050
110.000 mile/hr
C
No
0.00 lb.
0.00 ft.

5.0000 ft.
1.00
SA-285 C
26500.00 psi
W6X25
Strong
NO
1 .33
Description:D102 Legs
COMPUTED pARAMETERS:
Effective Wind Area of Vessel
Wind Pressure on Vessel ( ASCE #7 or User
Location of Centroid above Base Point
RESULTS FOR LEGS :
Section Properties for the selected Member
Cross Sectional Area for W6X25
Radius of Gyration ( strong axis )
Section Modulus (strong axis )
Overturning Moment at top of Legs
Weight Load at top of one Leg
Additional force in Leg due to Bracing
Shear at top of one Leg
Vleg (V + FF '" ( Imax / Itot )
Vleg (1843.3 + 0.0 ) '" ( 53.5 / 140.93 )
Vleg 699.86 lb.
Axial Compression, Leg futhest from N.A.
AREA
PWIND
WH
13962.21
38.02
12.15
7.340
2.700
16.700
13179.9
7500.0
0.0
in
psf
ft.
in
in.
in. **3
ft.lb.
lb.
lb.
13-8 Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
l
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Lining Lugs
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar Page 67
Leg & Lug Analysis DI02 Legs Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Sma (W/Nleg) + (Mleg/{Nlegm*Rn) II. 0000) / (Aleg
I
1. 0000)
Sma ( 30000/4) + ( 13179 /( 2 .., 2.02 I) .., 1.00001/
( 7.340 .., 1. 0000) )
Sma 1466.92 psi
Allowable Compo for the Selected Leg (KL/r <Cc )
Sa (1- (kl/r) "2/ (2*Cc"2) *Fy /
{
Sa (1-( 39.47 )"2/(2 ... 146.97'''2 I) ... 26500 /
( 5/3+3*( 39.47 1/(8* 146.97 )-( 39.47"3)/(8* 146.97"3)
Sa 19249.06 psi
Bending at the Bottom
S {Vleg * Rlngth
S (699.86 * 5.00
S 2514.48 psi
of the Leg closest
12.0000 / Smdsa )
0.0000 / 16.70 )
to the N.A.
Sb (0.6 * Fy * Occfac )
Sb (0.6 * 26500 * 1.33 )
Sb 21147.00 psi
AISC
Sc
Sc
Sc
Unity Check ( must be < or = to 1.00 )
(Sma/Sa)+(0.85S)/1-Sma/spex)*Sb)
( 1466/ 19249 )+( 0.85 .., 2514.476 1/(
0.1785
1 - 1466/ 127463 ) * 21147 )
lb.
lb.
lb.
it.lb.
ft.lb.
o.
o.
7500.
1994.
o.
WRC107 Analysis: Weight only
Max. Shear/leg
Max. Shear/leg
Load / Leg
Moment/ Nlegs
Max. Shear/leg* Dist.
Additional Results
Forces/Moments for
Radial Load
Circumferential Shear
Longitudinal Shear
Longitudinal Moment
Circumferential Moment
Forces/Moments for WRC107 Analysis: Occasional
Radial Load Max. Shear/leg
Circumferential Shear Max. Shear/leg
Longitudinal Shear Load / Leg
Longitudinal Moment Moment/ Nlegs
Circumferential Moment Max. Shear/leg Dist.
..700.
700.
10767.
2862.
;186.
lb .
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
The PV Elite Program, (cl 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
(
(
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
13-9
Lining Lugs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COAOE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COAOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar ----------------------------------- Page 68
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Lugs Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Leg & Lug Item 2, Description: 0102 Lugs
Design Internal Pressure
Design Temperature for Attachment
Vessel Outside Diameter
TEMP
00
200.00
300.00
42.0000
psig
F
in.
Operating Weight of Vessel (vertical load ) W
Erection Weight of Vessel (Lifting Analysis) W
Force Coefficient Cf
Additional Area
User defined Wind Pressure
Use ASCE 7-95 Wind Code
Additional Horizontal Force on Vessel FF
Location of Horizontal Force above Base Point FH
30000.00 lb.
30000.00 lb.
0.500
2880.00 in
34.490 psf
No
3000.00 lb.
0.00 ft.
Horizontal Force Normal to the Vessel
Horizontal Force Tangent to the vessel
Lifting Lug Material
Lifting Lug Yield Stress
Lifting Lug Orientation to Vessel
Width of Lifting Lug
Thickness of Lifting Lug
Diameter of Hole in Lifting Lug
Radius of Semi-Circular Arc of Lifting Lug
Height of Lug from bottom to Center of Hole
Offset from Vessel 00 to Center of Hole
Minimum thickness of Fillet Weld around Lug
Length of weld along sides of Lifting Lug
Length of Weld along Bottom of Lifting Lug
N
T
YIELD
WLIF
TLIF
DLIP
RLIF
HLIF
OLIF
TWELD
LWELD
BWELD
3000.00
15000.00
SA-516 70
33600.00
Flat
6.0000
1.0000
1. 5000
3.0000
15.0000
0.5000
0.5250
8.0000
6.0000
lb.
lb.
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
Occasional Load Factor (AISC A5.2)
COMPUTED PARAMETERS:
Effective Wind Area of Vessel
Wind Pressure on Vessel ( ASCE #7 or User
Location of Centroid above Base Point
OCCFAC
AREA
PWIND
WH
1.33
13962.21
34.49
12.15
"in
psi
it.
13-10
RESULTS FOR LIFTING LUGS : Description:D102 Lugs
Held Group Inertia in the Longitudinal Direction 86.50 io**4
Weld Group Centroid distance in the Long. Direction 5.16 in.
Weld Group Inertia in the Circumferential Direction 108.41 in
I
*4
Weld Group Centroid Distance in the Circ. Direction 3.53 in.
Primary Shear Stress in the Welds due to Shear Loads:
Ssll SQRT(W
A
2+T
A
2+N
A
2)/(2*Lweld+Bweld)*Tweld)
Ssll SQRT( 30000
A
2+ 15000
A
2+ 3000
A
2)/((2* 8.0+ 6.0)* 0.5250)
Ssll 2915.5B psi
Shear Stress in the Welds due to Bending Loads ;
Shlf = (N*IHlif-Lweld/2*YLL/ILL+fW*OLIF*YLL/ILL)+(T*OLIP*YLC/ILC)
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lining Lugs
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 69
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Lugs Item; 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Shlf 3000*( 15.000- 8.000/2)* 5.162/ 86.496 +
30000* 0.500* 5.162/ 86.496) +
( 15000* 0.500* 3.525/ 108.405)
Sblf 3108.76 psi
Total Shear Stress vs. allowable Shear for Combined Loads
St (Ssll + sbU )
St (2915.577 + 3108.760 )
St 6024.34 psi
Sta (0.4 * Yield * Occfac ) AISC Shear All.
Sta (.4 * 33600 * 1.33 )
Sta 17875.20 psi
Secondary Shear Stress in the Welds due to Shear Loads:
Unit Weld Section Modulus ( Uwsm )
(2*LWELD+WLIF)A3/ 12 - LWELD
A
2(LWELD+WLIF\)A2/(2*LWELD+WLIF)
317.15 in .... 3
Lifting Lugs
Loads
Fth
Fth
on Welds due to Torsional Moment
T * (Hlif-(Lweld-Cent) * (Bweld/2J/Uwsm
1715.56 lb./in.
Ftv T * ( Hlif-(Lweld-Cent) * Cent / Uwsm
Ftv 2911.24 lb./in.
Fsv T / ( 2 * Lweld + Wlif )
Fsv 681.82 lb./in.
Resultant Load on Weld Group
Fr Sqrt( Fth"'2 + ( Ftv+Fsv )A2 )
Fr = 3981.61 lb./in.
Resultant Secondary Weld Stress
Fws Fr / Tweld
Fws = 7584.02 psi
Allowable Resultant Secondary Weld Stress
Psa (.4" Yield * Occfac )
Psa = 17875.20 psi
shear
Shs
Shs
shs
Stress in Lug above Hole vs. Allowable Base
SQRT( W
A
2 + N
A
2 + T
A
2 ) / Sha
SQRT( 30000
A
2 + 3000"'2 + 15000
A
2 ) / 4.500
1483.31 psi
Metal Shear
Sas (0.4 * Yield * Occfac ) Shear Allowable
Sas (0.4 * 33600 * 1.33 )
Sas 17875.20 psi
Pin Hole Bearing Stress Vs. Allowable Bearing Stress
pbs Sqrt( W
A
2 + N
A
2 + T
A
2 )/( Tlif * Dlif )
pbs = Sqrt( 30000"'2 + 3000"'2 + 15000
A
2 )/( 1.000 * 1.500
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs 13-11
Lifting Lugs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar --------------------------------------- Page 70
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Lugs Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Pbs 22449.94 psi
Pba I 0.75
.
'field AISC Bearing All.
Pba I 0.75 33600
Pba 25200.00 psi
Bending Stress in Lug at Weld Vs. Allowable Stress
Fbs N*(HLIF-LWELD)/(WLIF*TLIF
A
2/6)
Fbs 3000 *( 15.000 - 8.000 )!( 6.000 ,., I.DOO
A
2 / 6)
Fbs 21000.00 psi
Fba
Fba
Fba
( 0.4 Yield
( 0.4 .., 33600
17875.20 psi
Occfac ) Shear Allowable
.., 1. 33 )
13-12
The PV Elite Program, (c) 1989-2000 by COADE Engineering Software
VesselLegs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Notes
Bibliography
Brief Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texts and Standards
This bibliography describes several of the commonly available texts and standards used by
the author of CodeCalc to develop and support the program. This list will help you to iden-
tify resources you may need to effectively design or analyze pressure vessels:
ANSI Standard A58.1 - 1982, Building Code Requirements for Minimum Design
Loads in Buildings and Other Structures, American national Standards Institute, New
York,1982.
This standard provides the most commonly used design technique for cDlculating wind loads and
earthquake loads on structures, including pressure vessels.
ANSI Standard Bl6.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, American National Stan-
dards Institute, New York.
This is 1he standard for 'standard' flanges up to 24 inches in diameter. Provides flange geomelries
and allowable pressures for the various classes oftlanges (150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500. and 2500)
made from a variety of materials and over a wide range of temperatures.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, SECTION VIII, Division I, Rules for Con-
struction of Pressure Vessels. July 1989. American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
345 East 47th Street. New York, N.Y., 10017.
This is 'lhe Code'. The INTERNAL, EXTERNAL, NOZZLE and CONICAL programs are based
exclusively on this document. The FLOHEAD and FLANGE programs are based primarjly on Ihis
document. All of the allowable stresses used by these programs are also taken from this document.
ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Pip-
ing ANSIIASME B31.3, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th
Street. New York, N.Y., 10017.
This is the piping code for refineries and chemical plants. The PIPE&PAD program is based on this
code. In addition, this document has good tables of elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal
expansion for many classes of materials.
Bednar, H.H., Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co., Prince-
ton, H.J., 1981.
Bibliography
Drief Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texis and Standards Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
2
Bednar provides good calculation techniques for tall process towers and fair coverage ofa variety of
other pressure vessel design problems.
Brownell, L.E. and Young, E.H., Process Equipment Design, John Wiley, New York,
1959.
This is a classic reference on process equipment design, and contains many useful calculation tech-
niques. However, many copies of Ihis book are in an unreviscd format Ihat contains errors in tables
and formulas. We recommend comparing agiven technique to some of the other texts before using
it.
Farr, J.R. and Jawad, M.H., Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.
This is lhe best recent book on pressure vessel design and analysis. The book covers a wide scope of
design techniques, and presents the rational and use of the ASME Code techniques beller than any
other pressure vessel textbook. (J.R. FaIT is on many of tile ASME Code commiltees). The book also
provides a good balance of theory, practice, and example problems. Highly recommended.
Harvey, J. F. Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels, 2nd Edition, Van Nos-
trand-Reinhold, Princeton, N.J.
Harvey provides a basic overview of pressure component design, but little information on supports
or other peripherals to the vessel. His sections on thick walled pressure vessels, aUlofretiage, and
thermal stress are especilllly useful.
Manual of STEEL CONSTRUCTION, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chi-
cago, III. Eighth Edition, 1980.
This standard provides tables ofall beam sections and structural tubing, and provides calculations
for allowable compression on columns, allowable stress on beams, and allowable combined loads.
These are vel)' useful for support leg, gusset plate, and even flat plate cldculations. Later editions are
also available.
Megyesy, E.F., Pressure Vessel Handbook,Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing, Inc.,
Tulsa OK, 74135
This is another very widely used book with a good combination ofeasy-to-usc formulas, examples,
and tables of data, including pipe sizes and schedules, flange dimensions and weights for compo-
nents.
Modern Flange Design. Bulletin 503, 7th Edition, Gulf and Western Taylor-Bonney
Division, Southfield, Michigan.
This is the best known bulletin on design of flanges, and includes all of the f1rmge calculation sheets
commonly used for flange design. It also contains a good pmctical discussion offlange design and
bolting, and a good table of bolt dimensions.
Moss, Dennis R., Pressure Vessel Design Manual, Gulf Publishing Company, HOlls-
Bibliography
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
ton, TX, 1987.
Brier Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texis <lnd Standards
Bibliography
This relatively new book provides many different calculation procedures, and some calculation
sheets, for most of file common teclmiques in pressure vessel design. A major weakness of the book
is a lack ofexample problems illustrating the use oftlie leehniques. Some ofthe calculations for sup-
port lugs,lining lugs, and vessel legs in the LEG&LUG program are from this book.
Roark, R.J., and Young, W.C., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 5th Edition, McGraww
Hill, New York, 1795. (Later editions also available).
This well known reference book provides an abundance of [annulas for detennining the stresses in
structural components. The book provides tables for beams, plates, shells, and many other types of
components under many pmcticalloading cOlldifiollS.
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Seventh Edition,
1988. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. 25 North Broadway. Tarrytown,
N.Y.,10591.
This is Ihe standard used for tubcsheets (in the TUBESHT program) and channel covers (in the
FLANGE program). This document also contains excellent tables ofelastic modulus, coefficient of
Ihennal expansion, thennal conductivity, and the bolt tables used in the FLANGE, TUBESHT, and
FLOHEAD programs.
Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw Hill, New York, 1972.
This is a 'standard' textbook for mechanical engineering students. It provides many basic fommlns
for beams, plates, shells, bolting, screws, springs, shafts, and olher mechanical components you may
need to analyze from time to time.
Wiclunan, K.R, Hopper, A.G, and Mershon, J. L., "Local Stresses in Spherical and
Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings," WRC Bulletin 107, Welding Research
Council, New York, 1965 (revisions through 1979).
This is the 'WRC-I07' technique whieh is widely used to detennine stresses in shells due to loads on
nozzles and attachments. This analysis is implemented in the CYLNOZ and SPHNOZprogmms.
Though widely used, the results of this analysis are !lot especially accurate.
Zick, L.P., "Stresses in large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle
Supports," in Pressure Vessel and Piping Design Collected Papers 1927-1959, Amer-
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1960.
This is the 'Zick' analysis, used in the HORIZVES program. The Ziek analysis is very widely used to calculate
stresses in horizontal vessels.
3
4
Brief Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texts and Standards
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis - Seminar Noles
Bibliography
(
)