::luLl OIrz..oo3
ENGINEERING SOFTWARE
Pressure Vessel
Design and AnalVsis
Seminar Notes
Revised 6/2001
Table of Contents
Table ofContents
Chapter 1: II/trodl/ctioll to the Semil/a/' & the Sofhl'are
Purpose of the Seminar 1
Structure of the Seminar 1
Seminar Da)' I /
Semillar Da)' 2 2
Seminar Da)' 3 2
Overall Notes 2
About the Software 2
CodeCalc: The PVElite Component Anal)'sis Pmgram 2
Features 2
SUlJlmalY ojApplications 3
Chapter 2: Ol'erl'iew ofthe ASME Code
History of the Code 1
Organization of the Code 2
Scope and Limitations of the Code 3
Allowable Tensile Stress per the Code 4
Internal pressure 011 shells and heads 5
C)'lindCl's 5
Spheres, Elliptical Heads, Torispherieal Heads 7
Important Terms for analyzing cylinders and heads 8
Geometry for Pressure Vessel Heads 8
Elliptical Heads 8
Hemispherical Heads 9
Geometry for Pressure Vessel Heads 10
Torispherical Heads /0
Press lire Vessel Design am/ Af1al)'sis
Chapter 3: Usil/g the ProgramThe 1I1ail/ Mel/II
File Menu 1
New 2
Open 2
Save 2
Save As 3
Prillt 3
Prilll Prel';ew 3
Prilll Setup J
Exit 3
Previous FOlll' Files 3
Edit Menu 4
Title Page 4
Project Data 4
Insert New Item 4
Delete Current Item 4
Se/ecl All 4
Dese/ecl All 4
Analyze Menu 5
Browse 5
Analyze Selected Items 5
Analyze Current Componenl 5
SlImmll1Y 5
Choose Analysis Type 5
Output Menu 6
Tools Menu 7
Configuratioll Options 7
Comput3tion Control Tab 7
Miscellaneous Options 9
Set Unit 9
Make UI/il File 10
Calculator IJ
Edit/Add Materials Dialog JJ
Diagnostics Menu 13
CRC Check /3
Build Version Check J3
DLL Versio/1 Check 13
ii Pressure Vessel Design find Analysis
View Menu 14
ESL Menu 15
Phone Updmc J5
GClIemle Fax Codes J5
ReceiJ'c lind Enler Fax Codes /5
View ESL In/ormation J5
Help Menu 16
Camel/IS J6
Tip ofIhe Da)' 16
Illfo 16
Chapter 4: Example Problem lA Simple Dl'lIm
Problem 1
Specifications
Brittle Fracture  Minimum Design Metal Temperature 10
External Pressure on shells aud heads 21
Stiffening 27
What do )'011 need to kllow 10 analyze cylinders alld heads for external
pressure? 28
External Pressure OUU1 28
Diameter 28
Actual (or assumed) Thickness 29
Design Length for the Vessel or Vessel Segment 29
Width and Thickness of Reinforcing Rings 29
Nozzle Reinforcement and Failure Path Calculations 36
Hillside and OffAngle Nozzle Angles 45
What do you need 10 know /0 pelform nozzle reinforcement calClllatiolls? 50
Required Thickness of Head or Shell and N07..z1e 50
Geometry ofNol.7.le and Shell 50
Diameter Limit, Thickness Limit 51
Is the Nozzle ill a Seam? 51
Details of Nozzle Welds 51
Largc Nozzle Considerations 51
Mallway or Access Opening 51
Press"re Vessel Design and Analysis iii
Chapter 5: Cones and Conical Sections
Guidelines for Cones I
Typical Geometry for a Simple Cone 2
What do yOll need (0 know to perform cone calculations? 5
Dimensions of/he COile am/the Cylinders at Either End 5
Dimensions o/Trallsifioll Klluckles arallY exist) 5
HalfApex Angle offhe COliC 5
Axial Forces 011 'he COile 5
Width alld 11/ickncss o.rCone Reinforcement 5
Chapter 6: Welt/ed Flat Heads
Guidelines for Welded Flal Heads 1
Whal do you need to know to analyze welded nat heads? 4
Af/achme,,' Dctails 4
Required lIlId AClllal Thickness o/Ihe Shelf 4
Large ami Small Dimensions for the Head 4
Chapter 7: HalfPipe Jackets
Guidelines for HalfPipe Jackets
Flange Design and Analysis 7
Gaskets 7
Gasket Materials and Gasket Factors 8
Other Gasket Types 12
Facing Sketches 12
Flange Types 13
Flange Behavior 16
Flange Stresses 20
Stress Analysis 20
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers 38
Large Central Openings 46
Chapter 8: Floating Heads ami Spherically Dished Covers
Types of Spherically Dished Covers 1
Description 1
Exmnple 2
iv Pressure Vessel Design find Analysis
Chapter 9: Heat Exchallger Tubesheets
TEMA Tubesheets 1
ASME Tubesheets 17
Chapter 10: Expallsioll Joillts
Flanged and Flued Expansion loints 1
r ~ s u r Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Component Design Problem 5
Metal Bellows Expansion Joints 16
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Cornponcllt Design Problem 19
Chapter 11: Stresses
Stresses in Shells due to Loads on Attachments
Discussion of Results 3
WRC107 Stress Calculations 3
Why are the Stresses al Edge of the Pad the Same as at the Edge of the NOlzle? 3
What arc the Allowable Stresses? 4
IYRe/O? Stress SUlIlmatiollS 5
ASME Section VIII Division2Elaslic Analysis a/Nozzle 6
Stresses in Horizontal Pressure Vessels 20
Chapter 12: Tall Vertical Towers
Allowable Stresses on Tall Towers 1
Analyzing Tall Vertical Process Towers 2
Design Procedure 3
Wind Load Computations 3
Wind Pressl/re Complllation 4
Earthquake Load Computation 5
Skirt and BaseRing Design 11
Basering Thickness Calculations 11
Thickness of Basering llnder Tension 14
Thickness of Top Ring under Tension 14
Basering Design Selections 15
Calculation of Required Area for Each Bolt 15
Selection of tile Bolt Size 15
PreSSl/re Vessel Design and Analysis v
Selection of Preliminary l3asering Gcometly 15
Analysis of Preliminary Uasering Geometry 15
Sclection of Final Bascring Gcomctry 15
Analysis of Uasering Thickncsses 16
Skirt 11lickness Calculations /6
13asic Skirt Thickness 16
Stress in Ski'1 due to Gussets or Top Ring 16
Chapter 13: Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
Vessel Legs I
Support Lugs 3
Lining Lugs 4
Bibliogmphy
vi Pressure Vessel Design alltl Analysis
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction to the
Seminar & the Software
PURPOSE OF THE SEMINAR
Weleome to COADE's Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar. The purpose of this
course is to help you become comfortable with the guidelines for designing and analyzing
pressure vessels, and to make you more effective at your job by introducing you to com
puterized design tools for pressure vesselsthe CodeCale program and the PVElile pro
gram.
The intent of this course is IlQ1 to have you memorize the exael rules of the ASME Code
for pressure vessel design. Instead, we want you to become morc familiar with the ASME
Code, be able to find what you need to know in it. "'nd above all be able to spot unrealistic
results or questionable designs, whether gcncrated by you, by a computer. or by some
other engineer. In a nutshell, we want to teach you what you need to know to successfully
apply the ASME Code to pressure vessel design and analysis.
STRUCTURE OF THE SEMINAR
Our approach to this goal will be to look at pressure vessels on a component by component
basis. In other words, we will study separately each of the many pressure vessel compo
nentssheils, heads, nozzles, flanges, tubesheets, etc. This approach is widely practiced
by engineers as they design or analyze pressure vessels. It also allows us to start with rela
tively simple components and progress to more complicated ones. Most of the lecturcs in
the course will have the following fonnat:
Introduction to the theory of analysis for a particular component.
Detailed review of ASME Code rules associated with a particular component.
Design of the component using the CodeCale or PVElile programs.
Seminar Day 1
The first area to cover includes the history nnd structure of the ASME Code, calculation of
nllowable stresses using Code rules, and review of the scope of vessels covered by the
Code.
This section of the seminar also inCludes a discussion of the design of some of the most
basic components of pressure vessels: shells, heads, and nozzles. We will begin with rules
for internal pressure design of shells and heads, along with associated mles for weld effi
ciency and brittle fracture. We will also learn how to use the o d e ~ l program, espe
cially the SHELL program for internal pressllre analysis.
Introduction to the Seminar & the Software 11
Abollt the Software Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Semin<tr Notes
We will then stndy the mles for external pressnre design of shells and heads. If time per
mits we will also study nozzle reinforcement and the design of Oal head and conical sec
tions. This will complete our study of components typically associated with drums.
Seminar Day 2
On day two we will study components associated with heat \\le will extell
sively study flanges and bolted flanged connections such as those in TEMA channel cov
ers, ASM E blind flanges, and floating heads ofheat exchangers. We will look at
tubeshccts, including floaling, stationary, and fixed tubesheet designs, as well as metal
bellows expansion joints and flanged and nued expansion joints, commonly lIsed in heat
exchangers to absorb differential thermal stress.
Seminar Day 3
On day three we will focus on tall vertical pressure vessels and vessel supports. We will
review the loadings on tall vessels, such as wind and earthquake. We will also review the
design of vessel skirts and base rings, horizontal vessels on saddle supports, and legs or
support lugs which arc commonly used for smaller yessels and exchangers. We will also
study yesselshell stresses that arc caused by loads on attachmcnts, including nozzles and
support lugs.
Overall Notes
This notebook is arranged to allow yOll to work stepbystep through the course, and to
work example problems of each type of calculatiou. Plenty of space has been left to take
additional notes.
We want to encourage you to ask questions and make comments during the course so that
we can cover the material you 1110st want to learn. A three day course is really 100 short to
fully explore both the theoretical and the practical aspects of the ASME Code, but we do
want to cover as much of these topics as possible. Your input will make this easier and
more effective.
ABOUT THE SOFTWARE
CodeCalc: The PVElile Component Analysis Program
The CodeCale program is a package of seyenleen applications for the design and analysis
of pressure vessels and heat exchangers. The purpose of the program is to provide the
mechanical engineer with easy 10 use, technically sound, well documented calculations
that will speed and simplify the task ofyessel design or rerating.
Calculations in the CodeCalc program are based on the latest editions of national codes
such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, or industry standards such as the Zick
method of analysis for horizontal drums. The CocicCalc program offers exceptional case
of usc, which results in dramatic improvement in efficiency for both design and rerating.
One expert estimates that the time he needs (0 rcrate an exchanger has been reduced from
eight hours to two hours.
Features
The following arc features of the CorieCalc/PVElile program:
12 Introduction to the Seminar & the Softwmc
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes Abollt the SoOwarc
Thc Windows cnvironmcnt provides cxtcnsive online help at a keystrokc, and man
ages multiple analysis files so that thc USCI' CHn define a whole pressure vcssel in a sin
gle file.
The USCI' Cfln define his own unit systcm, opening CodeCfllc 10 thc world of metric
and Sf calculations. Internally, however, calculations continuc to be in the English sys
tcm of units, assuring continued compliance with ASME Code requirements.
The CodeC"le progmm has " complete m"teri"llibmry including over 2000 t"bles of
allowable stress versus temperature and 49 external pressure charts.
The CodcCalc program also includes a component library which contains diameter
and wall thickness for all standard pipc sizes, pressure vs. temperature charts for
ANSI B16.5 nanges, "nd section properties for AISC beam sections.
A sUlllmary capabi lity allows evaluation of all the components of a pressure vessel or
hcat exchanger. Design pressure, temperature, material, and Maximuill Allowable
Working Pressure are shown for each component.
Printed output from the CodcCalc program is exceptionally clear and complcte, with
user definable headings on each pagc. User comments and additions Illay bc inserted
at any point in the output. The ability to save any analysis to disk m<lkes it easy to
keep records and do revisions.
High quality documentation with complete operating instmctions, tlltorifll, and many
example problems makes the CodeC"1c program suitable for both beginners and
experts.
Summary of Applications
The following applie"tions are avail"ble in the CodeC"le Program:
SHELLlntern"1 and external pressure design of vessels and exeh"ngers using the
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles. Components include cylinders, coni
cal sections, elliptical heads, tori spherical heads, nat heads, and spheric"1 shells
and heads. This program calculates required thickncss and maximum allowable
intern<ll prcssure for thc given componcnt. It also calculates the minimum design
metal temperature per UCS66, and evaluates stiffening rings for external pressure
design.
NOZZLERequired w"1I thickness and reinforcement under internal pressure for
nozzles in shells and heads, using the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles
and including tables of outside diameter and wall thickness for all nominal pipe
diameters and schcdulcs. The program also calculates the strength of reinforce
mcnt and evaluates failure paths for the nozzle.
CONICALlnternal and external pressure analysis of conical sections and stiffening
rings using the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles. Complete are" of
reinforcement and moment of inertia calculations for the cone under both internal
<lnd cxternal pressure are included.
HALFPIPEIntcrnal pressure design for vessels with split pipc type j"eketing. The
program calculates the required thickness of the vessel wall as well as the required
thickness of the halfpipej"ekel. l3ased on ASME, Section VIII, Division I,
Appendix EE.
FLOHEADJntern"1 "nd exten,"1 pressure "nalysis of bolted dished heads (/loating
heads) using the ASME Code, Scetion VIII, Division I mles. An "dditional e"leu
Introduction to the Scminar & the Softwmc 13
About the Sofiwarc
14
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
lations technique allowed by the Code (Soehren's ealeulation) is also imple
mented by this program.
FLANGEStress analysis and geometry selection for all types of flanges using Ihe
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I mles. This program bOlh designs and ana
lyzes the following types of flanges:
Weld neck flanges and all integral flange types
Slip on flanges and all loose flange Iypes with hubs
Ring type flanges and all loose flange types without hubs
Blind flanges, both circular and n o n ~ i r l l i r
TEMA channel covers
Reverse geometry weld neck flanges
Flat faced flanges with full face gaskets
LGCENTERStress analysis for flat heads with a large, central circular opening
based on ASME, Section VIII, Division I, Appendix 14. The program calculates
the stresses at both the OD of the head and the location of the opening.
TUI3SHTAnalysis of aillypes of lubesheets using Ihe Seventh Edition of the Stan
dards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufaelurers Association. The program takes
full account of the effects of tubesheets extended as flanges, and'for fixed
lubesheets also includes the effects of differentialthemlal expansion and the pres
ence of an expansion joint.
ASMETUI3EAnalysis of several types of tubesheets using the mles from Appendix
AA of the ASME Code, Section VlIl, Division I. This appendix provides alter
nate mles for tubesheet design, and may result in thinner tubesheets than the
TEMA program.
HORIZVESSlress analysis of horizontal dmms on saddle supports using the
method of L.P. Ziek. Results include stresses at the saddles, the midpoint of the
vessel, and in Ihe heads. Stiffening rings used inlhe design of the vessel arc also
evaluated.
LEG&LUGAnalysis of vessel support legs, support lugs, and lifling lugs. This anal
ysis is based on industry standard calculation techniques, and the resulting
stresses are compared to the AISC Handbook of Steel Construction or the ASME
Code. A full table of AlSC beams, channels and angles is included in the program.
PIPE&PADRequired wall thickness and maximum allowable working pressure for
two pipes, and branch reinforcement rcquirements for the same two pipes consid
ered as a branch and a header. I3ased on ANSI 1331.3 mles, this program includes
tables of outside diamcter and wall thickness for all nominal pipe diameters and
schedules.
WRC 107Stresses in cylindrical or spherical shells due to loading on an attachment,
using the method of P.P. I3ijlaard as defined in Welding Research Council Bulletin
107.
I3ASERINGThickness calculations and design for annular plate base rings, lop
rings, bolting, and gussets. Thesc calculations are performed using industry stan
(!cud calculation techniques.
Introduction to the Seminar & the Sofiware
Pressure Vesscl Dcsign and Analysis  Seminar Notes About the Sofiware
THINJNTCalculates stress in a metal bellows expansion joint of the type typically
used in piping and heat exchangers. The program does elastic stress analysis for
stresses due to internal pressure and opening or closing of the joint, and calculates
the cycle life of the joint based on the ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I,
Appendix BB.
THICKJNTCalculates stresses in a heat exchanger expansion joint fabricated from
relatively thick plate, also called flanged and filled expansion joints, using the
mles of the TEMA Seventh Edition, Paragraph RCB8. The analysis is based on
the equivalent geometry used in "Expansion Joints for Heat Exchangers" by S.
Kopp and M. f. Sayre, with slight modifications.
RECTVESPerfonns stress calculations and Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
calculations for the rectangular, obround, and circular vessels described in the
ASM E Code, Section VIII, Division I, Appends 13. The calculations arc taken
from Sections 136 through 1313.
SUMMARYDescription and evalnation of all the components ofa pressure vessel
or heat exchanger. Design pressure, temperature, material, actual thickness, and
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure are shown for each component.
Introduction to thc Scminar & thc Software t 5
About the Software
16
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Introduction to lhe Seminar & the Soflwarc
Pressure Vessel Design and AllCllysis  SeminClr Notes
Chapter 2: Overview
of the ASME Code
HISTORY OF THE CODE
The Boiler Codc has becn in existence for almost 90 years.
During the 1800's there wcre numerous catastrophic failures of prcssure vessels and boil
ers, resulting in thousands of deaths.
Public and professional concern resulted in the release of the first mles for power boilers
in 1915.
The first pressure vessel Code was issued by the ASME in 1925.
In 1968 the Code was divided into two subsections:
Section VIII, Division 1  Rules for Constmction of Pressure Vessels.
Section VIII, Division 2  Alternative Rules for Pressure Vessels.
The main differences between Division 1 and Division 2 are
Division 2 has higher allowable stresses in most cases  resulting in thinner vessels.
Division 2 also has more sophisticated design requirements, requiring more extensive
stress analysis than is used in Division J.
Division 2 frequcntly requires a fatigue analysis.
Division 2 frequently requires more extensive inspection and record keeping than
Division
In 1992, the Code moved the allowable stress tables and external prcssure charts for mate
rials from Section VIII, Division 1 to Section II, Part D. This new publication contains all
of the material data from previous editions of Section Vlll, Division I, plus a few new ref
erence tables from other sections.
Division 3, whieh is a new division intended fOf high prcssufe vessels, has been in prepa
ration for sevcral years, and is now issued.
Section VIII, Division I is by far the most widely used of the two current divisions.
Almost all the pressure vessels constmeted in the U.S. are constmcted to Division 1.
In this course, unless specifically noted otherwise, "The Code
ll
is Section VIII, Division I.
ASME approves Code Case 2290 which increases Division I allowable stresses.
Overview orlhe ASME Code 21
Organization of the Code
ORGANIZATION OF THE CODE
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
22
The Code is divided into three Subseelions, pins Mandatory Appendices and NOl1Jnanda
tory appendices
Thc three subsections cover
A  General Requiremcnts
B  Requirements Pertaining to Methods of Fabrication of Pressure Vessels
Part UW  Requirements for Pressure Vessels rabricated by Welding
Pari ur  Requirements for Pressure Vessels rabricaled by rorging
Part UB  Requiremenls for Pressure Vessels rabricated by Brazing.
C  Rcquircmcnts Pertaining to Classes of Materials
Part UCS  Carbon and Low Alloy Steels
Part UNr  Nonferrous Materials
Part UCI  Cast lron
Part UCL  Clad and Lined Vessels
Part UCD  Cast Ductile Iron
Part UHT  Heal trealed ferritie steels
ParI ULW  Layered Construclion
Part ULT  Materials with higher allowable stresses at low temperature
Mandatory appendices cover snbjects nol covered in the main body of the Code. The
requirements of these appendices are mandatory when the subject covered is appropriate
10 the eonslmction oflhe vessel.
Nonmandatory appendices provide information and suggest good practices relative to
prcssure vessel construction. They also scrve as a place where new design rules 3rc intro
duced and tested before moving into the mandatory requirements.
Overview of the ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE CODE
Scope and Limitations of the Code
Section VIII, Division I applies to all pressurized containers, but with Ilumerous excep
tions. Some of the exceptions listed in paragraph UI include
Vessels within the scope of other sections (i.e. power boilers).
Fired process tubular heaters (furnaces)
Pressure containers that arc part ora machine (i.e. pumps)
Piping or piping components
Pressurized water storage up to 300 psi
Ileated water storage up to 210F
Vessels with design pressure 15 psi or less
Vessels with a maximum cross section dimension 6 in. or less
Vessels for Human Occupancy
Division I rules are applicable to vessels not exceeding 3000 psi design pressure. You can
usc Division I above 3000 psi, but special precautions to avoid fatigue and other additions
to the mles are recommended.
The scope of Division I includes the nozzles and attachments to the vessel.
Unfired steam boilers may be constmeted to Division 1 or Section I. Some classes, such
as evaporators or vessels in chemical plants fife required to meet Division I.
SOIIle small vessels are exempt from inspection:
Up to 5 cubic feet at 250 psi
Up to 1.5 cubic feet at 600 psi
ANY Vessel that meets ali the requirements of Division I may be stamped with a U stamp
even though exempted by one of the above limitations.
Overview of the ASME Code 23
Allowable Tensile Stress per the Code Pressure Vessel Design anu Analysis  Seminar Notes
ALLOWABLE TENSILE STRESS PER THE CODE
Division I mles arc based on a maximum principle stress failurc theory. While not very
accuratc, this thcory is simple to understand and apply.
By way of contrast, Division 2 is based on a maximum shear stress theory, which is more
accuratc. Somc other Codcs are based on the even more accurate theory of maximum dis
tortion encrgy (Von mises stress).
The allowable tensile strcss for materials in Division I is the minimnm of the following
stresses:
1/3.5 ofthc specified minimum tensile strength at ambient temperature
1/3.5 of the tensile strength at the design temperature
2/3 of the specified minimum yield strength at ambient temperature
2/3 of the yield strength at the design temperature
100% of the average stress to produce a creep rate of 1% in 10,000 hours.
67% of the average stress to produce rupture in 100,000 hours.
80% of the minimum stress to produce rupture in 100,000 hours.
In 1999, the ASME changed the 1/4 to 1/3.5.
In the temperature range in which tensile strength or yield strength set the allowable
stresses, higher allowable stresses arc permitted for austenitic stainless steels and nickel
alloy materials where greater defomlation is not objectionable. In this case the critcrion of
2/3 yield strength at temperature may bc increased to 90% of yield strength at temperature.
Bolting materials whose strength has been enhanced by heat treating or strain hardening
are limited to 1/5 of tensile and 1/4 of yield.
24 Overview orllle ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design <llld Analysis Seminar Notes Internal pressure on shells <Iud heads
INTERNAL PRESSURE ON SHELLS AND HEADS
Cylinders
Theoretical derivation of stress for thin walled cylinder:
Hoop Strcss: (circumferential)
Force PXD;XL
Areo = 2 X / X L
Force I'D; I'D;
  orl
Area 21 2S
Axial Stress: (longitudinal)
(
D)2
Force = P x n x i
Area = n x D; X t
Force
Area
I'D;
or 1
4/
I'D;
4S
For thickwalled cylinders the theoretical stress is expressed by the Lame equations. The
formulation of the Lame equations is as follows, for internal pressure only. The maximum
stress at the ID surface is:
Hoop Rodial I'
ASME has a slight variation on the first formula, making it fit fairly closely the rcsult of
thc sccond fommla:
PR
SE  0.61'
The aD basis form of the samc equation is:
SE + 0041'
The ID and OD formulas do not yicld exactly thc same results: for relatively thick walled
cylinders, the effect can bc noticeable.
The following graph shows the relative accuracy of these three formulas. The Lame equa
tion is exact for all geometries. Thc simple approximation becomes pretty bad for thick
Overview of the ASME Code 25
Internal pressure 011 shells and heads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notcs
walled cylilHJers. The ASME equation is much closer to the exact solution than the simple
approximation.
2M
10"0
to
T


"'"
".....,


EO.ls"9l 
 
 EQ(8.1
 EO.(s.l)
.10
1.0
,.5 2.0 2"S
3.0 35 4.0
26
"
figure '.6 Compori.on ol fom,vlai !of O<x>p Il'ml r. 0 cy!i,*kol Votl
The Joint Efficicncy in this (and all othcr) ASME Code formulas is a measure of the
inspeclion quality on Ihe weld seam. In general, weld seams that receive full radiography
have a joint efficicney of 1.0. Weld scams that receive spot radiography have a joint effi
ciency of 0.85. Weld seams that receive no radiography have a joint efficiency of 0.7.
Seamless components have ajoint efficiency of 1.0.
In addition to the basic mles described above, the Code requires that no two seams in the
same vessel differ in joint efficiency by more than one category of radiography. For exam
ple, ifcireumferential seams receive no radiography (E=0.7) then longitudinal scams have
a maximum E of 0.85, even if they receive full radiography. The practical outworking of
this is that circumferential seams, which are usually less highly stressed, may be spot
radiographed (E=0.85) while longitudinal seams arc fully radiographed. This provides the
sallle metal thickness at some savings in inspection costs.
Overview or the ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Splleres, Elliptical Ileads, Torispherical Heads
SPHERES, ELLIPTICAL HEADS, TORISPHERICAL HEADS
Cylinder
Elliptical Hcad
Spherical Head
Torispherical Head
In Basis
~ p(D12 + CAl
SE 0.61'
~ p[K(D + CAl]
2S  0.21'
(
DI2 + CA)
f ~ l' 2S0.2P
f ~ p[M(L + CAl]
2SE0.lp
00 Basis
l' (D/2)
SE + 0041'
f  1'[ KD ]
2SE+2p(KOI)
~ 1'( D/2 )
2SE+ 0.81'
1'[ ML ]
I ~ 2SE+ 0.785P(M  02)
OD Basis
Pa ~ SE(fea)
[D/20A(Ica)]
Cylinder
Elliptical
Spherical
Pa
Pa
Pa
In Basis
SE(I  ea)
[(D/2 + ea) + 0.6(1  ea)]
2SE(I  ea)
[K(D + 2ea) + 0.2(1  ea)]
SE(Iea)
(DI2 + ea) + 0.2(1  ea)]
Pa
Pa
2SE(I cal
[KD2(1 +ea)(K 0.1)1
SE(I  ea)
[D12  0.8(1  ea)]
Torispherical
Pa ~ SE(Iea) Pa
[M(D + ea) + 0.1 (1 ea)]
SE(tea)
[(MD  (I  ea))(K 0.2))
The fonnulas for elliptical and torispherical heads are general. The factors M and K are
semiempirical adaptations of more complicated shell theories. K and M have the follow
ing fommlas:
Where h ~ depth of head L ~ crown radius
r ~ knuckle radius
For the special case of a 2: I elliptical head, K ~
For the special case of a nanged & dished (6%) torispherieal head, M ~ 0.885 and the
inside crown radius equals thc outside diameter of the vcssel.
The shape of elliptical and torispherieal heads produces compressive stresses at the knuck
les.
ror thin torispherical heads the eqliatiol1 in Division I is unconscrvativcdimpling can
occur even in vesscls that meet the Code requircments. Division 2 contains a more compli
cated equation that should be checked when the value of rlt is large.
Overview of the ASME Code 27
Important Terms for analyzing cylinders and heads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
IMPORTANT TERMS FOR ANALYZING CYLINDERS AND HEADS
ALLOWABLE STRESSSclect the allowable slrcss from the appropriatc Code table
at thc design temperature.
JOINT Erf'ICIENCYSclcct Ihejoinl cfficiency from lable UW12
DIAMETER (INSIDE OR OUTSIDE)ID formulas are found in paragraphs UG27
and UG32 00 formulas arc found in Appendix I
CORROSION ALLOWANCESubtractthc corrosion allowance from the actual
thickncss, and [liso increase the inside diamcter to account for corrosion.
ACTUAL THICKNESS ANDIOR DESIGN PRESSUREYou can calculate maxi
mum allowable working pressure if you know the thickness of the component.
Otherwisc, use the design pressure to calculate the required componcnt thickness.
ASPECT RATIO f'OR ELLIPTICAL HEADSThis is typically 2:1, but may range
from I: I to 3: I
CROWN RADIUS AND KNUCKLE RADIUS FOR TORISPHER1CAL HEADS
The ratio ofcTOwn radius to knuckle radius may not bc less than 1 nor grcater than
16.66
GEOMETRY FOR PRESSURE VESSEL HEADS
Elliptical Heads
Major ~ s (Head Diameter)
Minor Axis
(1/2) Head Diameler
28
(Aspect mtio =ratio of major nxis to minor axis, Iypically 2.0)
Overview oftbe ASME Code
Pressure Vcssel Design ;:md Analysis  Seminar Notes
Hemispherical Heads
Geomctry for Pressure Vessel lIeads
/
,I
!
I
I
I
Overview of the ASME Code

/"""""" ~ ........
/ "
"""
\.
\
\
\
  HCild Di;nnctcr ~ ,I
29
Geomelry ror Pressure Vesscilleads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
GEOMETRY FOR PRESSURE VESSEL HEADS
Torispherical Heads
r'"
I ...., ........ ........
I
I ). KNUCKLE
IIEAO DIAMETER _/ / \ RADIUS Ir)
I
/
I
I
_I
til
[$1
q I
"I
"'/
i!
",/
vi
I
I
/
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The typical torispherieal head, also known as Flanged & Dished, has a crown radius equal
to the outside diameter of the cylinder, and a knuckle radius equal to six percent of the cyl
inder diameter.
2tO Overview or tile ASME Code
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Chapter 3:
Using the Program
The Main Menu
CodcCalc always starts with the Vessel Data Input Screen. Across the top of this screen is
a line of itcms that is called the Main Menu. The Main Menu controls the major fUllctiolls
of the program. \Ve will review the functions available in each of these menu items.
The items in the Main Menu  file, Edit, Analyze, Output, Tools, Diagnostics, View, ESL,
and Help  may be selected with a mouse click or by pressing the underlined character
while pressing the Ait key. for example, the Output processor may be selected by pressing
the Ait and 0 keys simultaneously.
First, we will begin by going over each of the Main Menu items.
FILE MENU
The File Menu controls the general operations of CodeCalc files. Options that are dis
played in the menu with an ellipsis ( ... ) cause a file manage window to appear when
selected.
Figure 1The File Menu
Using the Program The Main Menu 31
File Menu
New
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Scminar Noles
Starts a new file.
[jo 1I4<. {1,.,J 1""" ObTrJir.. '/>e.. lI,t> .'
o c& "fa I + 9 ,( 1.< ri&'ff .ftOEHD r= ($lUI H H(]) I:ll
nOlO SJo"f, .. dllo<o....
;,.;.......Ii!'.' ;OJ:", J
.
'I ,f".:""..".",
,P"",
h. .
:'I:rl.i:r).... "," J.;!!_... r: L....J
Open
Figure 2File New
Save
32
Opens a previously created file. When the Open option is chosen, the user is prompted to
select an existing job file. Files ortype '.ee; will be displayed for selection.
?X
Figure 30pen Dialog
Saves the current file in its present condition.
Using the Program Thc Main Menu
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Nolcs
Save As
file MCIIU
Saves a file that has not been previously namcd or saves the current file under another
namc.
fWi
I T...t.!hffiCCI :=l Shls C(I
, t:JChed,lCcl
I
S .e<D!>plI: ICOOU:ALCFlesl'.cci)
it
Figure 4Save As Dialog
Print
Sends the current vcsscl graphic image directly to a postscript or laser jet printer.
Print Preview
Displays the page that will be sent to the printer (sec above).
Print Setup
Brings up the standard Windows printer setup screen,
Exit
Exits CodeCalc. A message window will appear to give the user a last opportunity to save
any modifications to the current job.
Previous Four Files
The File Menn also lists the last fOUf vessel inpullilcs accessed from your computer. Any
of these liles may be opened with a mouse click.
Using the Program The Mnin Menu 33
Edit Menu
EDIT MENU
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
34
Once a filc is selectcd, the Edit Mcnu indicates the options available for ediling.
A3Irujll'.I."juOnli,Nj 1.i,.l.tmiif.!:1.it1,3i
{. l{lnbeo: I[IOOI
Oew'f.olT.nd.s.heaStc6:.'l:I: "'ISPH=rR"'iC.'''"l"''''''''''';'
pooocoo
... ... ,": J1OO0C0J
Figure 5 Tile Edit Menu
Title Page
Allows the user to enler report titles for this group of reporIs.
Project Data
Allows the user to enler up to 3 Ii tie lines, which appear at Ihe lop of each page of the
prillted reports.
Insert New Item
Inserts a new element after the current element.
Delete Current Item
Deletes the current clement.
Select All
Selects all of the items in the browse window.
Deselect All
Deselects all of the items in the browse window.
Using the Program Thc M"in Mcnu
Pressure Vessel Design illHJ Analysis  Seminar NOles
ANALYZE MENU
Analyze Menu
The Analyze options cause the program to quit the input process and enter the analysis
process. CodeCalc will first save the current job to the input file with the same filename;
Ihcn il will process the analysis.
Browse
Allows the seleclion of certain components in Ihe input lile to be analyzed.
Analyze Selected Items
Performs calculations for selecled analysis Iypes. The calculations will be saved in a
binary file and will be ready for display or printing.
Analyze Current Component
Performs calculations for the current analysis type. The analysis program looks for appro
priate data in the current analysis file and performs calculations, saving the results in a text
file. The results oflhc analysis will then be ready for display or printing.
Summary
Looks through all the data in the current analysis file and prepare a brief summary of cach
analysis.
Choose Analysis Type
Selects Ihe Iype of componenl you wish to work on.
Figure 5Choose Analysis Type Menu
The analysis types chosen from this menu can also be selected from Ihe Analysis Tool Bar
by simply clicking on the icon.
Figure 7 The Analysis Types Toolbar
Using the Program The Main Menu )5
Output MCllu
OUTPUT MENU
Pressurc Vessel Design and Analysis  Scminar Notes
36
The Output Menu allows the user to review the analysis results and print (hc graphics of
the vessel. The following option is available under Output:Review  allows the user to
review the analysis results of the clIrrcJ1tjob, if those results are available.
__f
Sedi:tl: ISPHRlCAlliEAO
Figure 8Ti,e Output Menu
Using the The Main Menu
}
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
TOOLS MENU
Tools Menu
The Tools Menu controls the utility processors as summarized here. Configuration  This
option allows the user to dcfine a variety of system variables for the program. The first
screen of the Configuration mcnu looks like this:
!
pic5lHljlf.lllliS1i0!!!ij4BH.'i'iMl. f1r1.i!'. 33.
1
.
,De .li. hWfli 1m i,SL
! 0 cHi Ie;J,' f: 1 '(0:(9'1"L ',: ]1Il1l3 ill
, 1 1 !
Of 3 .....
. ,
t I ILU/JJ"1iMD.o'l:
, }
Figure 9Tile Tools Menu
Configuration Options
Computation Control Tab
The Computation Control Tab in thc Configuration dialog leis some specific program
computation control parameters be set. These controls Icl you set some options in some
programs that control the results of some computations.
Figure 1aConfiguration Options
Following is a description of the options:
Computc Increascd Nozzle Thickness? In many cases pressure vessels are designed
and built long before the piping system is attached to them, This means that the nozzle
loadings are unknown. lfthis field is checked, thcn your minimum nozzlc thickness (tm)
will be the maximum of
trn =(.134,trn for internal pressure) less than or equal Nps 18
Irn =(DD/ISO,trn for internal pressure) greater than Nps 18
By using such a requirement in addition 10 UG45, the piping dcsigners will have some
additional metal to work with to satisfy thermal bending stresscs in systems these vessels
are designed for.
Using the The Main Menu 37
Tools Menu Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes
Note These fonnulae are not in the ASME Code. They are used in industry.
You can also specify the minimum wa)) thickness of the nozzle (Tm) in the Nozzle input.
If you do so, that will override this calculation.
Calculate F iu Flohead if the Pressure is Zero? In the design of noating heads, a
factor F is computed. The factor F is a direct function of the internal pressure. If the inter
nal pressure is 0, then F is equal to 0. However, some interpret the Code to mean that F
should always be computed regardless of which case we arc analyzing. Typically, the case
in question is the flange boltup case. When the uni' is being bolted up, it has 110 internal
pressure. That is why the defanlt is not checked.
(fyou wish F to always be considered in the thickness cales, then check this box. This is
the conservative method of calculation.
Use P iustead ofMAWP for UG99B? The Code paragraph UG99(b) discusses the
subject of hydrostatic test pressure on vessels. The equation that wonld nonnally be used
is as follows:
Test Pressure = 1.3' MAWP StestfSdesign
The code in note 34 states that the MAWP may be assumed to be the same as the design
pressure when calculations arc not made to delcnnine the MAWP.
This will allow for lower test pressures. This directive should be used with caution.
Perform Area Calculatious for Small Nozzles? The Code paragraph UG36 dis
cusses the requirement of performing aTea placement calculations when srnall nozzles arc
involved. The Code States
Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require
reinforcement other than that inherent in the constmetion under the following con
ditions:
3.5in. finished opening in a shell or head .375 in. thick or less
2.375in. finished opening in a shell or head greater than .375 in.
If your geometry meets this criteria and this box is nol checked, then no area of reinforce
ment calculations will be perfonned.
Priut Water Volume jn Gallons? Normally the volumes computed by the program
arc in diameter units.
]fyou want to use US gallons instead of cubic diameter units, check this directive. Other
wise, the program will use cubic units as the default value.
Use Calculated Value of M for Torispherical Heads in UG45 bI? The Code in
paragraph UG45 requires a calculation of the required head thickness at the location of
the nozzle. This may lead one to believe that the thickness Inay be computed per para
graph UG37. However a recent code interpretation states that the thickness should be
computed by the mles of paragraph UG32 or by the rules in Appendix I.
Thus, this directive should always be checked.
The second screen of the Configuration Menu looks like this:
38 Using the Program The Main Menu
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Tools Menu
Miscellaneous Options
The Miscellaneous Options of the Configuration MCllulets the user select some miscella
Ileous directives. These directives control some printout style options and others.
?Ixl
Oda<.iUr.sfle Kr.;lllhll iJ1
"
Figure 11Miscellaneous Options
Following is a description of the options:
Report Content. This directive allows thc uscr to change the length of the printcd
reports. When the summary option is checked. the formulas and substitutions will not be
printed out. Thus, this option will generate less paper and more compact reports.
Whcn thc dctailcd option is chccked, the reports will be the normallcngth.
External Printont in Rows? There are two choices for thc style of printing extemal
pressure results: rows and columns. Printing the values by row tends to reduce the length
of the printouts. This is the default.
If you wish to print by column, do not check this directive.
Set Unit
This option allows the user to change the current job's units system. Once this option is
selected, a File Open dialog will appear and allow the user to select a new units file. Thcsc
Using the Progmm The Main Menu 39
Tools Menu Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes
units files have the extension ,fil. English, Metric and SJ units are available in the system
subdirectory. After you select a units file, the following window will appear:
!
"SystemUnl' Ctml.v. utt.Unl . Coi'<rtl. . UlerlW
'lmtth' led "It _ J"' 1n:7cuft, Ihled'!.. f
! foe pw>dt. 1 IJ. .WrdSpeed .. _' ... lt:"Mf it
 "11 In .d "at;oWeO:;H _
Mil h .. .....1
it ......... """""" . r=l} ...... .r;:J1.1rl1
bthqn brJfql\. 'P"'7l;IP'f _11'
,.;,., d<gtt,F rr::::;:j ,"'..... 'ttl .' rrlj
(Preuue 'p$iQ ... VclnoO utt:i'doe.l' I }. ,lIn, 't
i .MocUn !'sqn'" 1, Oi.YMer Wes ' flit..
bl./Nn, .
ImlkiJonOM . r:l
1
.. b./cull
lr::=!Ci
"
Figure 12..Unil Window
If the units selection is acceptable, press the OK bullon; otherwise, press Cancel. When
OK is selected, the current units will be overlayed with the selected units.
Make Unit File
This option allows the creation of a cuslom units file. Simply pull down the appropriate
conversion constant or label and the corresponding unit or label will change accordingly.
If your conversion constant is not one ofthe choices, type in the label and constant for
your particular unit. (The program will continue to use English units internally).
Figure 13..Make Unit Dialog
This window presents a table of items, the internal units used for each item, a conversion
factor, and the user linits. The conversion factor is used to obtain the user units from the
internal units. The lip and down arrow keys can be used to move lhe selection to the
desired item. If a desired unit conversion is not available as a default program selection, it
can be entered manually by typing it in. Ensure that your conversion constants arc correct
and that your labels go with the constants. Once all units have been set, press OK to exit
310 Using the Program The Main Menu
Pressure Vessel Design ;lnd Analysis  Seminar Notes Toob Menu
this screen and save the new units file. A safe place to save it would be in the system sub
directory where Ihe supplied units files arc stored.
After you have saved the new units file, you will need to overlay the current units in your
job file with Ihe new units. This option is Ihe Set Unit option. After you sel your file with
the new units, all of the entered data will be converted into the new set of units immedi
alely.
Calculator
This option allows the user to perform simple calculations and paste the results in the input
field in which the cursor resides. .
Figure 14The Calculator Option
You can use the calculator to compute a number and transfer that number into CodeCalc
by using the Edil, Copy fealure. From the desired field, right click and choose the Paste
option. Before pasting, ensure that the field's current contents have been removed.
Import Nozzle Dala  Imports nozzle information from a PVElilc inpul file (.pvi) for
use in the WRC 107 Module.
Edit!Add Materials  This opliou allows the user to add materials 10 Ihe COADE
Material dalabase. The screen appears as follows:
Edit/Add Materials Dialog
To use this processor, fill in all of the values in all cells. If more than one material is to be
entered, usc the Next button to enter the new material. After all materials have been
Using the Program The Main Menu 311
Tools Mellu
3t2
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
entered, save the file with the Save button. Finally, press the Merge key to join the user
defined material database with the supplied material database.
xl
Figure 15Ma/erial Editor
Using the Program The Main Menu
"
Pressurc Vessel Design ;lIId Analysis. Scminar Noles
DIAGNOSTICS MENU
The Diagnostics Menu helps to troubleshoot problem installations.
e'''''j...''iliji'.I:!liWj4f.!"l.!M\i fI"i,I,,_,!
Dillgnostics Menu
CRC Check
!
Shel HEAD
Figure 16Diagnoslics Menu
)
Performs a cyelic redundancy check (CRC) on each of the supplied CodeCale files.
Build Version Check
Checks the revision level of the CodeCalc executablc files.
DLL Version Check
Checks to make sure thc CodcCale .DLL files are currcnl.
Note If the DLLs are not current, the program may behave in an unusual manner or may
not mn at all.
Using the Progralll The Main Menu 313
View Menu
VIEW MENU
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes
The View Menu allows the user to specify the tool bars to be displayed.
.
. ,
Figure 17The View Menu
The following options are available:
File Toolb.r
Figure 18File Toolbar
Analysis Toolbar
Figure 19Analysis Toolbar
Status Bar
)
314

Figure 208ta/us Bar (a/ the bottom of/he screen)
Using the Program The Main Menu
;
;
Pressure Vessel Design lind Analysis  Seminar Notes
ESL MENU
E51 Menu
The ESL Menu provides utilities lhal interact with the Extenlal SoOw",e Lock (ESL).
e .. U1J ....\IlIju.':M,'lj.J.!1 1.!@4f.!li',.HI
y_ l:itb
1'.:....=,'.:....'4l Fa:<
Figure 21ESL Menu
Phone Update
Allows update authorization information or other ESL changes to be obtained over the
phone.
Generate Fax Codes
Provides the uscr with access codes for rcmote ESL updating. These access codes should
be sent to COADE for authorization codes.
Receive and Enter Fax Codes
Allows yOll to enter the remole authorization codes you receivcd from COADE. Each set
of four codes will make one change to the data stored on your ESL.
View ESL Information
Displays the data stored on the ESL.
Using the Program The Main Menu 315
Ilclp Menu
HELP MENU
Pressure Vessel Design and Antilysis Seminar Noles
f'lB, 01 3 _ Sho!tuO'Hkadl
316
The Ilelp Menu displays online Help and infonnation on how to obtain technical support
for CodeCale.
II I
. tcir lY",*e QoJpA. IIX4 Y1m1 1 .'
6 IiH/'f 1 + ... _" I A.MUf.! pC
1 Ti?cJIt.eOillY_
.r
f!:l:nJ.axiECAl.C_
H=t:{urbtf: 1100').) .............. oiI.
Figure 22Help Menu
Contents
Starts the Help facility.
Tip of the Day
Provides tips for running CodeCale.
Info
Provides information on the best ways to contact COADE personnel for teclmical support,
and provides a link to COADE's website.
Using thc Progmm Thc Main MCllu
Pressure Vcssel Design and Analysis  Scmin:lr NOlcs
Chapter 4:
Example Problem 1
A Simple Drum
PROBLEM
The drawing on the following page shows a simple horizontal pressure vessel that we will
use for our first example problem. In this case the preliminary sizing of the vessel and its
attachments has been completed, and we are asked I) to select thicknesses for the pressure
components, nozzles, and reinforcemcnt, and 2) to check the vessel for stresses when it is
full of liquid.
SPECIFICATIONS
Design conditions, as shown on the drawing, arc 230 psig (1.586 N/1l1l11
2
) ii;ternal pressure
and fnll vacuum at 450F (232C). Materials arc carbon stecl, SA516, 70, Nonnalized.
The vessel is subject to full radiography, and has a 1/8in. (3.175 mm) corrosion allow
ance.
The length of the vessel is 244 in. (6198 mm) between langent lines (the heads have a 2in.
(51 mm) straight flange, making the weldtoweld length of the vessel 240 in. (6096 mm)).
We will require the following programs in this analysis:
Internal pressure on shells and heads  SHELL program,
External pressure on shells and heads  SHELL program.
Nozzle thickness and reinforcement  NOZZLE program.
Follow these steps to complete this first example problem:
I. Analyze the cylindrical shell under internal pressure, and pick a design thickness for
it. Next analyze the 2: I elliptical head, using the same basic thickness.
2. Analyze the cylinder under full vacuum conditions. Also,. analyze the heads for exter
nal pressure.
3. Analyze the nozzle reinforcement using the NOZZLE program. Select appropriate
reinforcing pads for each nozzle.
4. After the entire vessel has been analyzed using CodeCale, model the same vessel
under PYElite and review the results.
Example Problem 1 A Simple Dnllll 41
i
144.0'10
= F
~ J _____i 0
I _ .
REINFORCING
nn,..c:
ni
lU
~ ~
.......... II'o'I<.l'C
NOZZLE SCH!:DULE
OTY. SIZE AND SCHED. TYPE RTG.
120.0' RF 388:
,
..
..
MK. :l
N1
,
N ~
192"
230 PSIG & Full Vacuum
Design Temperature: 450 F
0101 hp Knockout Drum
~ ........
Pressure Vessel Design and Allalysis Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
D101 Cylindrical Shell:
Specillcnlions
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Material
Joint Efficiency
Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness?
What thickness will you usc?
230 psi (1.586 N/nlln
2
)
450F (232C)
SA 516,70
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problcm 1 A Simplc Drum 43
Spcciliclllions Pressure Vt:sscl Design nnd Annlysis Scminllr Noles
COAoE Engineering Soft.ware
pVEl i t.e 4 . 00 Licensee: COADE I llC., l.oca 1 Hhj te Lock
PileName : Seminar  .  ...  . Page 2
Shell Analysis: 0101 CYLINDER Item: 1 9:51il Sep 21,2000
,
i
Input Echo, Component
"
Description: 0101 CYLINDER
Include Hydrostatic Ilead Components
flinimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Design Internal Pressure
l'empen\ture for Internal Pressure
I'laterial Specification (Normalized)
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency [or Shell Joint
230.00 psig
450.00
p
NO
SA516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
D
1. 00
244.0000 in.
244.0000 in.
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.1250 in.
g
p
S
SA
T
CA
L
CYLLEN
[)
Length of Section
of Cylinder [or Volume Cales.
Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Design
Length
Inside
Type of Element: Cylindrical Shell
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUIIBER 1, Dese.: 0101 CYLINDER
ASHE Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*(D/2.. CA)/(S*E0.6*P) per UG27 (c) (1)
(230.00*(144.0000/2.. 0.1250))/(20000.00"1.000.6*230.00)
0.8352 in.
.>'
Nax. All. working Pressure at Given Thickness (HAI1P);
(S*E* (TCA) 1(D/2+CA) +0. 6* (TCA)) per UG27 (c) (1)
(20000.00*1.00*(0.8750))/144.0000/2+0,1250)+0.6*0.8750)
240.88 psig
"laximum Allowable Pressure, New and cold Uo1l\PNC):
(SA*EIT)/(D/2.0.6*T) per UG27 (e) (1)
(20000.00*1.00*1.0000)/(144.0000/2tO.6*1.0000)
275.48 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(p* ((0/2tCA) to. 6" (TCA)) 1 (E (TCA
(230.00'(144.0000/2+0.1250).0.6*(0.8750))/(1.00*(0 8750)
19096.57 pai
SUJoIlo1ARY OP INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
'lAWP
P
0.9602 in.
1.0000 in.
240.88 psig
2]0.00 psig
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( fleasurcd at High Point ):
44 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Speci ficilliol1s
eOADE Engineering Software
PVE) ite 4.00 Licensee: eOADE Inc., Local Lock
PileName Seminar   page)
Shell Analysis: 0101 CYLINDER Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Hydro. per UG99Ibl; 1.3 HAWP SalS 313.15 psig
Hydro. per UG 991el ; 1.3 r1APNC 358.13
P
S1
9
Hin. fletal Temp. wlo impact per Pig. UeS66 30
p
IHn. fletal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per ues 66.1) 35 F
IHn. fletal Temp. wlo impact per UG20 (f) 20
,
WEIGHT and VOLUNE RESULTS, ORIGINI\L THICKNESS:
Volume of Shell Component VOLIlET 111149.8
\'/eight of Shell Component Wf1ET 31455.4 lb.
Inside Volume of Component VOLIO 3973788.0 in. "'3
I'/eight of I'latel in Component ImAT 143497.9 lb.
lb.
in. 3
lb.
in .
97339.7
27547.1
3987598.0
14]996.6
CORRODED THICKNESS:
Corroded VOLNETCA
Corroded 1'111ETCA
Corroded VOLIDCA
Corroded HHATCA
AND VOLW1E RESULTS,
of Shell Component,
of Shell Component,
Volume of Component,
of l'later in Component,
I'/EIGHT
Volume
I'leight
Inside
The PV Elite Program, Ie) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum 45
zo;
;
"
Pressure Vesscl Design anti Analysis  Scminar Notes
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Specifications
D101 Elliptical Hcad:
Starting from the cylinder analysis, design an elliptica' head for the dnnl1.
Notes:
Qnestions:
WhHt is the aspect ratio of the head?
What is the required thickness?
What thickness will you usc?
As the pressure increases, the required thickness increases:
Linearly Almost linearly As the square
DO NOT TURN THE I'AGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum 47
Specifications Pressure Vcssel Design and Analysis  Scminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElitc 01.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., i.ocal \'Ihite Lock
FileName: Seminar . ... . ..  Page 01
Shell Analysis: DIOI ELLIPTICAL ltem: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
"
j
Input Echo, Component 2, Description: 0101 ELLIPTICAl,
Design Internal Pressure
Temperat\lre for Internal Pressure
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
"laterial Specification (Normalized)
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name for Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Head Joint
Inside Diameter of Elliptical Head
flinimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Aspect Ratio
i.ength of Straight Flange
p
S
SA
E
o
','
eA
AR
S1'RTFLG
230.00 psig
450.00 F
NO
SA516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
0
1.00
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.1250 in.
2.0000
2.0000 in.
Type of Element: Elliptical Head
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUIIBER 2, Dese.: 0101 ELLIPTICAl.
Asr1E Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, 1\99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P' (D.2
l
eAl lK)/ (2S'EO.2'P) Appendix 14 (c)
(230.00' (144.000012'0.1250)1.00)/(220000.00'1.000.2'230.00)
0.B304 in.
All. l'lorking Pressure at Given Thickness (tIAWP):
(2SE (TCA)) /(K' (Ot2'C/\) +0.2' (TCA)) per Appendix 14 (c)
(2.20000.001.00(0.8750))/(1.00(144.0000+2'0.1250)+0.2'(0.8750))
242.34 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (It1\PNC):
(2SAET)/(K*O.0.2T) per Appendix 14 (c)
(220000.001.001.0000)/(1.00144.0000tO.21.0000)
277.39 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(P' (K (O.2
l
CA).0. 2' (TCAl) ) / (2E (TCAl)
(230.00*(1.00(144.0000t20.1250).0.2(0.8750)/(2*1.00(0.8750
18981.57 psi
OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
I>1AWP
P
0.9554
1.0000
242.34
230.00
in.
in.
psig
psig
48 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Anillysis  Seminar Notes Specificiltions
COI\DE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local \'Illite Lock
FileName: Seminar Page 5
Shell Analysis: 0101 Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES
Hydro. per UG991b); 1.3
Hydro. pel' UG99(c); 1.3'
( t,leasured at
f1A11P , sals
f1APNC
High Point I,
315.04
360.61
psi9
psig
Nin. Iletal Temp. wlo impact per UCS66
Nin. loIetal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
IUn. "'etal Temp. wlo impact per UG20(f)
30 F
35 F
20 F
\'IEIGllT and VOLUHE RESULTS, ORIGINAL
Volume of Shell Component
Weight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
Weight of \1atcr in Component
Inside vol. of 2.00 in. Straight
Total Volume for Head I Straight
THICKNESS:
VOLI1ET
Wt'lET
VOLID
\'11'11\1'
VOLSCA
VOLTOT
26074.9
7379.2
390864,4
14114.5
32572.0
423436.4
in.")
lb.
in.
t
')
lb.
in.")
in.")
WEIGHT /\NO VOLU11E RESULTS, CORRODED THICKNESS:
Volume of Shell Component, Corroded VOLI,lETCA
weight of Shell Component, CO)"roded I'.'NETCI\
Inside Volume of Component, Corroded VOLIDCA
\'Ieight of Water in Component, Corroded WNATCA
Inside Vol. of 2.00 in. Straight, Carr. VOLSCA
Total volume for Head Straight Corroded VOLTCA
22815.5
6456.8
392903.7
14188.2
32685,2
425588.9
in. ,*)
lb.
in. '*3
lb.
in." )
in.*')
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem 1 A Simple Dnlln 49
r i l l l ~ fracture  Minimulll Design f\'lclnl Temperalure Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Semillnr Noles
BRITTLE FRACTURE  MINIMUM DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE )
New niles in Ihe 1987 Addenda to the Code make il imperalive 10 uuderstand brittle frac
ture and its relationship to material selection.
What is brill/efractllre? It is a sudden and ealastrophie growth of cracks in sleel.
How does brittle/roc/lire occllr? The stress at the tip ofa discontinuity in the stcel (crack,
inclusion, weld, cte.) reaches a critiefll valuc and the crack begins to propagatc. The total
energy ofpropagalion exceeds the energy absorbing capability of the sleel. The crack con
tinues to grow at the speed of sound.
The requirements for brittle fracture are low toughness, high stress, and a discontinuity.
Carbon and Low Alloy sleels exhibillow toughness allow lemperalure. AI higher lemper
atures the toughness improves dramatically.
Charpy impact tests arc one way to measure the fracture toughness of steels. Thc follow
ing chart shows a typical variation of impact energy with tcmperature.
00. 1
~ .....? I
~
l.\:IlEr sre
40 f .... /....
,;
W
w
::1)'...
u
I 20 1...../..... ....
101. ../........ .. ..... 
00
fi)
40 20 o
TerpEi"Olu'e. De;roos F
20
0
1 I aWEooor I
I I I I I
40
Figure 1 Typical Variation of Impacl Energy with Tempera/ure
As a function of the grain fineness of the steel, fracture toughness also increases dramati
cally wilh reduced size of the plale.
i\SME has applied Ihesc general principles 10 the impact requiremenls of carbon sleels
using a Minimum Design Metal Tcmperature approach:
The Minimum Design Metal Tcmperature is the lowest design temperature at which a
given steel can be used to construct [\ pressure vessel without impact testing the steel.
Figure UCS66 shows the variation of minimum design temperatUl'e with plate thick
ness and material. Each of the four curves (A, B, C, D) correspond to several materi
als.
,
t
410 Example Problelll 1 A Simple DnJlll
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Brillic FraclUre  Minimulll Design Mel;!1 TemperalUl'C
For a givclll1latcrial, lhe bnsic MDMT is a function only ofthickncss. Howevcf, the
MDMT can be rcduccd drnmatically by nOfmalizing or normalizing and tempering
many of the carbon stecl materials. (Toughness is rclated to grain size).
The MDMT can be red need if the slress in the malerial is lower than thc allowable
slress. (Remember, briltle fracture requires a certain energy leveL) Usc figure UCS
66.1 to calculatc the reduction in Minimum Design Metal Tcmperatufe for a givcn
stress level. Most carboll steels lip to I in. are exempt from impact testing down to
20F. When impact testing is needed, used UG84 10 delermine the required energy
levels.
Hydrostatic tesling ofa pressure vessel is Ihe best available method for determining maxi
mum tolerable defect size. If a thick pressure vesscl is hydrotested al a prcssure that is
50% greater than the design prcssure, the critical KI (fracturc toughncss) is
KIC=sF, whcrc F is a CHICk shape factor
Assuming an intemal circular naw of dimcnsion 3, the maximum KIC immedintely aftcr
successful hydrotesting is
KIC 1.5*Sm*(2*SQRT(a/pi
Maximum defect size x at the design prcssure is given by
1.5*Sm*(2*SQRT(a/pi)) = Sm*(2*SQRT(x/pi
or
x =2.25a
Hence, a crack that is discovcrcd after hydrotesting can grow 2.25 times its original size
before causing failure. This fact illustrates the importance of hydrotesting and is based on
a hydrostatic temperature that is the same as the lowest opcrating temperature of the ves
sel.
EXllmplc Problcm 1 A Simple Dnnll 411
Brillic Fracture Minimum Design Metal Temperature Pressure Vessel Design and Allalysis  Seminar Notes
,
}
6
,
3 2 0.39<1
I
) !
I
! 1 _
I ...... ~
I V . ~
I A/ __ _
I / ~
I /  f
I / V cj.
I / ~ ~
! V Vr D b : : : ~
~ L .... __
~ I / /V V
i / V
r
J L ./
iV V
I /_
.r.
V
_ t= t....  
r ; '1
PK
"T' "q"IT
I
o
20
60
'0
'0
140
120
100
 '0
 20
65
60
_ 60
:;
>!
..
~
E
~
C
~
g.
~
,
!
Nomlll.1 Thlckllo.IIl.
Illmll0d 10 .. Ill. for Woldod Consltuclton)
Gonenl Not,s and Nolos tollV'N on nell1 pago
FIG. UCS66 IMPACT TEST EXEMPTION CURVES [SEE NOTES (1) ANO (2ll [SEE UCS66(a))
Figure 21998 Section VIII, Division 1
.'
412 Example Problem I ~ A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Annlysis  Seminnr Noles I3rillle Fracture  Minimum Design Mewl TcmpcrallJrc
FIG. UCS66 (CONT'OJ
GENERAL NOTES ON ASSIGNMENT or MATERIALS TO CURVES:
(a) Curve A applies to:
(1) all carbon and all low alloy steel plates, structural shapes, and bars not listed In Curves B, C, and 0 below;
(2) SA21b Grades WCB and WCC if normalized and tempered or waterquenched and tempered; SA217 Grade WCb if
normalized and tempered or walerquenched and tempered.
(bl Curve 0 applies to:
(1) SA21b Grade WCA if normalized and tenlpered or water quenched and tempered
511.216 Grades WCD and WCC for thicknesses not exceeding 2 In., If produced to fine grain practice and waterquenched
and tempered
511.217 Grade WC9 if normalized and tempered
511.205 Grades A and 0
511.414 Grade A
SASIS Grade 60
511.516 Grades b5 and 70 if not normalized
511.612 If 1I0t normalized
SAb62 Grade B if not normalized;
(Zl except fOr cast steels, alt materials of Curve A if produced to fine grain practice and nOrmalized which are not listed In
Curves C and 0 below;
(3l aU pipe, fittings, forglrl9s and tubing not listed fOr Curves C and 0 below;
(4) parts permitted under UGll shall be Included In Curve 8 even when fabricated from plate that otherwise would be assigned
to a different curve.
(c) Curve C
(1) SA182 Grades 21 and 22 If normalized and tempered
511.302 Grades C and 0
511.336 F21 and F22 if normalized and tempered
511.307 Grades 21 and 22 if normalized and tempered
511.516 Grades 55 and 60 if not nOrmalized
511.533 Grades Band C
SA6b2 Grade A;
(2l all material of Curve B If produced to fine grain practice and normalized and not listed for Curve 0 below.
(d) Curve 0
511.203
511.500 Grade 1
511.516 If normalized
511.524 Classes 1 and 2
511.537 Classes 1, 2, and 3
SAbl2 If normalized
SAbb2 If nOrmalized
SAnO Grade A
(e) For bolting and nuts, the following Impact lest exemption temperature shaH apply:
Bolting
Spec. No.
SA193
511.193
SA193
511.193
SA307
511.320
SA325
511.354
SA354
511.449
51\540
Grade
85
07 (2
1
/
2
In. dla. and under)
(Over 2
1
/
2
In. to 7 In., IncU
87M
016
o
L7, L7A, L7M, L43
1, 2
oe
00
023n4
Impact Test
Exemptlon Temperature, F
20
55
40
55
20
20
Impact tested
20
o
.20
20
.10
GMeral Notes ilnd !loin conl/nue on ned ~
Figure 3General notes on assignment of materials to cUlYes
EXntllplc Problcm 1 A Simplc Dnllll 413
Briltle fracture Minimulll Design Metal Temperature Pressure Vessel Design fmd Analysis  Seminar Notes
..
1001< I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
.g
cc
0.80
E
.1!
<l;
.2
;;
0.80,
u
c
E
0
z
Ul
<;
0.40 '
I
0.35
'"
.
.2 0.20 .
;;
cc
.,i
140 120 100 60 80
'F ISee UCS66(bjJ
0.00 CCC( r (o? ({(CCA c/(.. (v(( (r(//l (((r(( (4((/6
o 20 40
c
E'
AHcrnalive Ratio
Nomenclaturo (Note references to General Notes of Fig. UCS66.2.)
t
r
:< required thickness of the component under consideralion In the corroded
condition for ell applicable loadings IGeneral Note (21J. based on tho
applicable joint efficiency EIGeneral Note (311. in.
t
n
'" nominal thickness of the component under consideration before corrosion
allowance Is deducted. in.
corrosion allowance. in.
as defined in General Note (3).
S E* divided by the product ollhe maximum allowable stress value
from Table UCS23 times E. whore S is tho applied genoral
primary membrane tensile stress and Eand E are as definod in General
N01e(3).
FIG. UCS66.1 REDUCTION IN MINIMUM DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE WITHOUT IMPACT TESTING
Figure 4Reduction in Minimum Design Me/ai Tempera/ure
1
.'
414 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NOles Brillle fmClure  Minimum Design Melal Temperature
Stop 1
StOll 2
StOll 3
Stop 4
Stop 5
Stop 6
ESlablish nominallhicknt'lsscs (General Note (111 of welded par1s, nonwelded parts, and allachments
under consideration both before and after corrosion allowance is deducted (In and t
n
 c, respectively), and
other pertinent data applicable to tho nominal thicknesses such as:
All i1pplicable loadings (General Nolo (2)) and coincident minimum design melal
temperature (MDMTI
Materials of construction
E .. joint etriciency IGoneral Nolo (3)J
"
.. nominal noncorrodcd thickness IGeneral Note (1)1. in.
"
required thickness in corroded condition for all applicable loadings IGeneral Noto (2)1,
based on the applicable joint eU;ciency IGenaral NOle f311, in.
Applicable curve(s) 01 Fig, UCS66
c .. corrosion allowance, in.
l
Select MDMT from Fig, UCS66 (Genoral Note (4)1 ror each
nominal noncorrodod thickness lGeneral Note (5)).
r ' ,
'I Determine Ratio: t,P II
tnc
I IGeneral Noles 13>, f6), (7), and (8)) J
I Using Ratio from Step 3 to cnler ordinate I
I of Fig. UCS66.1, determine reduction in Slep I
I 2 MDMT IGenr.rel NolO (9)1. I
r ,
I Delormine adjusted MOMT for governing :
I Ihickness under consideration. I
Repest for all governing thicknesses [General Note 1511 and
take warmestvaluo as the lowest allowable MOMT to be
marked on nameplate for Iho zono under consideration
{General Note 11011. Sec UG116.
See UG99 Ih) for coldest recommended met'll temperature
during hydrostatic testlGonoral Note (611.
Sec UG100(c) for coldost motal temperature permitted
during pneumatic tcstlGencral Notc 1611.
legend
I IRequirement
rl Optional
, .

General Not6S foflow on noxt pago
FIG. UCS66.2 DIAGRAM OF UCS66 RULES FOR DETERMINING LOWEST MINIMUM DESIGN METAL
TEMPERATURE IMDMT) WITHOUT IMPACT TESTING
Figure 5Diagram of UGS66 RlIles for Determining Lowest Minimllm
Design Me/al Tempera/lire (MDMT) Wi/holl/lmpac/ Testing
Example Problem 1 A Simple Dnml 415
Brittle Fracturc  Minimulll Design Mclal Tcmperallll"c Prcssme Vcsscl Dcsign and Analysis  Scminar Notes
"
i
Fig. UCS66.2 1998 SECfION VIU  DIVISION 1
FIG. UCS66.2 (CONT'O)
GENERAL tWTES:
11) For pipe where a mill undertolerance Is allowed by the material specifIcation, the thickness after mill undertolerance has been deducted
shall Ix> taken as the noncorroded nominal thickness tit for determination of the MDt.n to be stamped on the nanwplate. LIkewise, for
formed heads, the minimum specified thickness after forming shall be used as I".
(2) loadings, Including those listed In UG22, which result in general primary membrane tensile stress at the o n l ~ n t MOMT.
()) E is the joint efficiency (Table UWl2) used In the calculation of t
f
; e has a value equal to Eexceplthat E" shall not be less than 0.60.
For castings, use quality 'ador or Joint efficiency EYAlichevtr governs design.
(4) The construction of Fig. UCS'66Is such that the MDMT so selected Is considered to occur coincidentally wilh an applied qeoeral primary
membrane tensile stress at the maximum allowable .stress value In tension from Table IA of Section II Part 0, Tabular values for Fig.
UCSM are shown In Table UCS6b.
(5) See UCSbMa)(I), (2), and 0) for definitions of governing thickness.
(6) If the basis for calculated test pressure Is greater than the design pressure (UG99(c) test], a Ratio based on the I, determined from the
basis for calculated test pressure and associated appropriate value of '"  c shall be used to determine the recommended coldest metal
temperature during hydrost.1tlc tut and the coldest metal temprrature permitled during the pneumatic test. See UGQ9(h) and UG100{c).
(7) Alternathely, a Ratio of S' ~ divided by the produ<.t of the maximum allowable stress value in tension from Table IA of Section 11 Part
o times E may be used, where ~ is the applied qeneral primary membrane tensile stress and Eand e are as defined in General Note (31.
(8) For UCS6b(b)(IHb) and (1)(2), a ratio of the maximum design pressure at the MOMT to the maKimum allowable pressure (MAP) at
the MOMT shall be used. The MAP 15 defined as the hignest permissible pressute as determined by the design formulas for a component
using the nominal thickness less cOrloslon allowance and the maKlmum allowable stress value from the Table lA of Section II, Part 0
at the MDMT. For ferrille Sleel flanges defined In UCS6b(c), the flange rating at the warmer of the MOMT or 100"F may be used as
the MAP.
(9) For reductions In MOMT up to and Including 40"F, the reduction can be determined by; reduction in MDMT t= 11  Ratlo)lOO"F.
no) Acolder MDMT may be obtained by selective use of impact tested materials as appropriate lo the llCed (see UG8tll. See also UCS6B(c).
Figure 6..General Noles (or Fig. UGS66.2
}
,
,
,
416 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ;md Analysis  Seminar Notes 13rillle fracllIrc  Minimum Design Metal Temperature
! I
0.39'1 In.
I
i
I
I
I
I
Minimum specilied
I
ylald J1ranglh
I
65 ksi
r
,
/
! /' 55 ksi
I
,/"
/
I ./
60 ks,
I
/""
0 ~
45 ksl
! ./ ./
l:::::::
~
< 38 ksi
I
t. I
~
I
!
i
r
,
:
Fig. UG84.1
50
40
:!
30
l'
'0
1
"
,
"'
'0
:>
u
15
'0
o 1.0
1998 SECTION VIn  OJVISION 1
'_0 ;> 3.0
Mallimum Nomlnel Thickness of l ~ r l e l or Weld. In.
GENERAL NOTES:
Cal Inlarpolallon batwean yield stHlngths shown i, permlltod.
Cbl The minimuM Implcl enolgy for ono spacimon shall nol ba less lhan '1J3 of lhe average energy requlled fOI
th,oo spoclmans.
(cl Malarlals produced and IMpacl tested In accordanco with $A320. SA333. SA334. SA350, SA351, SA,nO
and SA165 do not havo 10 satisfy lhose onergy valuel. Thoy ara acceptable for use al minimum design motal
tomperalure not colder than lha lest temperatura when lho anergy values loqulred by tho applicablo
spflciflcatlon .ra sllllsliod,
ldl For matorlalJ having I spaclfied mInimum tllnsllo slrength of 95 ksl or more. soe UGa4IcU'llbl.
FlG_ UG84_1 CHARPY VNOTCH IMPACT TEST REQUIREMENTS fOR fULL SIZE SPECIMENS fOR CARBON
ANO LOW ALLOY STEELS, IIAVING A SPECIFIED MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH Of LESS TIIAN 95 ks;,
LISTED IN TABLE UCS23
Figure 7Charpy VNotch Impact Test Requirements _
Example Problem 1 A Simple DnUll 417
;
f
.
,
.
.
,
'
"
C
o
3
<
"
C
V
.
;
;

v
.
:
r
0
0
c

o
"
v
.
I
c
.
.
>
>
<
r
.

5
.
:
;
:
'
A
;
;

:
;
:
;
.
0
<
r
.
2
g
3
z0;
;
v
.
Prcssure Vessel Dcsign and AUillysis  Scminar Noles nrillic Fracture  Minimulll Design Metal Temperature
Pressurc Vessel Design <lnd Analysis Scminar
Component Design Problcm
Minimum Design Met<ll Temperature
Determine the Minimum Design Metal temperature for the vessel in problem I:
MOMT of Cylinder 
MOMT of Ellipse 
What is Ihe MOMT if the sleel is nol normalized?
MOMT of Cylinder 
MOMT of Ellipse
DO NOT TURN THE I'AGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
EXill1lplc Problem 1 A Simple Drum 4t9
OrilLl!.: FrnClure  Minimulll Design Ivklal Temperature
Answers:
Pressure Vessel Dcsign "lid Analysis. Scminar Notes
420
Iill. SI\516,70, Ilormolized, MOMT =30 F (34 C) Curve 0
Iill. SI\516,70, lIollllormolized, MOMT = 30 F Curve 13
bllt per UG20, this COil be 20 F (29 C)
Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Scminar Noles Extern;}1 Pressure on :,hdls and hcnds
EXTERNAL PRESSURE ON SHELLS AND HEADS
Pressure vessels under extern'll pressure buckle r'lther than deforming elastically or yield
mg.
A cylinder deforms into lobed shapes as shown in Figure 9.
Buckling
0 0
CJ
Mode
, '
0
f \
, 
I I . ,
' ,
\ J
, , .
, '
'
.... , _ .. I 
k Number of lobes (k is the
I 2 3 4
number 01 lull sine waves eround
(he periphery)
Pc" Crilical prenure lhe elallic 0 3Et 8Et 15EI
buckling or (No elastic buckling
7 7 ;>
OCCUrl. only side'wile
dilpJacemenlof
undislorloo drciel
Fig. 8.2. Buckling or of Cylindriaal Rin.!: Under EXlernal PrCHU[C Showing Various Modes
Figure BBuckling or Collapse of Cylindrical Ring
The buckling of a cylinder can be predicted based on the strain due to external pressure. A
given thickness, length, and diameter will buckle at a predictable strain.
With an appropriate factor of safety, the Code uses this strain to calculatc the allowable
stress under external pressure.
The Code calls the critical strain factor 'N and the allowable stress 'B'.
For heads or for allowable compressive stresses in shells, A is a function only of the thick
ness and diameter.
The geometry chIlli in the Codc is derived from the theorctical buckling strain.
Above a certain length/diamcter ratio (typically 10), the result of the buckling calculation
is independent of the Icngth of the cylinder. Thus, decreasing the free length of a cylinder
docs not begin to increase the allowable pressure until the free rength is less than 10 times
the diameter.
Example Problem 1 A Simple Dnnl1 421
External Pressure on shells and heads Pressure Vcssel Design alUl Analysis  Scminar Noles
.
M
N
Il'
M
N
<
III a
0
"
u
, <
"
M
N
M
N
owoo. N
N": ..: ..: ..:
"
0. II! C!
M M :;l
C! 0.
'l: 0. C!
0" I r 4
0" ,l
o
0" 1 f 5
y'r':
____ o
Do /t 6
V
1/
/
I' I,
V
V
o I" 10
I'
V
v
V
00 1/ IS
I I I /
D: ,,'.,),
/
V
:/
V
"
D:/,',l
V / /
V
'"
"
"
f D:"'. JO
L../
V
V V
"
I I I /
0/r.40
I 0
9
11 50
V V /
Oolf 60
l
V / /
V
V
V V l.
f
V
'"
V
V
0
0
1/ .100
V
V
V
",V V
I/
00lt
o
l25
L
1
f V
,&,
L. V
V
/'
V
i"
/ 1/
,:" 001 001 0
0
0
01

g
0
/7 .. maW9!O 0PISlno ... lll6u81
Figure gGeometric Chart for Factor A
422 Examplc Problcm J A Simplc Drum
Pressure Vessel Dcsign and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Extern<ll Pressure on shells <ll1d hC<lds
"
C7>
m U
0'
: : .... q :1
N
):
<
<
::...t 1\ \
1\:,A,\* \\* 1\* 1\* \\* \\* .:J
pO
ol
0/ 0' QO \\ * I
,
V 1/ '/
,
.. /
V '/ / / 1/ V 1/10'"
w
7 1...
./ ./ QO\\ ,4';
<
,
V V V /' V
V V
0' d'
.
l... v"" VVV /VV' V :M
0' <
<
,
... V V 1\*/
,
V
V V o'j 'd'
V
l...
V ... V l/ ... ,
1/ 0'. ;p;
.. V
V
,
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V
V V / Y V
V
V
V
yl/v
VV
V VrrM
0
0
*
<
<
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,
/
,
... /' /
.
/
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,
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.2
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0/ 1 .. JalawgrO BPIslnO + 416u'll
Figure 10Geometric ClJart for Components under External or Compressive Loadings
Since B is the stress associated with the strain A for a given material, the materials charts
in the external pressure section (ASME, 1992, Section II, Parl D, Subpart 3) are really
just stress strain diagrams for a given material, adjusted to reflect a specific factor of
safety against buckling.
The Code has also provided a tabular form for the charts in Subpart 3.
Example Problcm 1 A Simple Drum
423
External Pressure Ull shells aud heads Pressure Vessel Design and Analysi:,  Seminar Nute:,
The external pressure charts have a straight section which corresponds to the clastic por
tion of the stress strain curve. Inlhis straight section, B is always equal to AE/2 where A is
lhc strain and E is Young's modulus for the material.
""
_,CY.Jl
""
OCO:u
""' .1.")
I,(m
1,1'"
w...
""00
11(;
&,(IoXl
,
3 456/111
"
3 4 5 6 18'
""
,,,crOll "
3 4 5 6 1 III
..",
GENERAL NOTE; See Tablo CS2101 tGbulil ... 31 Ullt,
J,,': J,!
1
,
t!.Ou'
,
1 I
,
L
.",
. ,
V
I /
.. ,

.
V

.
. 
_. 
t=
f=
:e. . 

1
.

 1 /l!Jf .
1190 .. 10'
f' II/II
 l
I" 110. 10( . .

t" n,,, 111
1
71///
rmi'"
 _.
IiSfVI
.
"""
FIG. CS2 WART FOR DETERMINING SUEll TlUCI<NESS OF COMPONENTS UtlDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
WilEN CONSTRUCTED OF CARBON OR lOW AllOY STEELS (Specified Minimum Yield Strength :30,000 and
Over Except for Materials Within ThIs Rarlge Where Olher Specific Chnts Ate Referenced) AND TYPE 405 AtlD
TYPE 410 STAINLESS STEELS [Noll.' (1))
Figure 11 Typical Materials Chart for Factor B
New Name
CSI
CS2
CS3
CS4
CS5
CS6
Up untillhe 1992 edition of the Code, external pressure charts (and Ihe tabular form) were
in Appendix 5 of Section VllI, Division I, In 1992 these were moved to Part D of Seelion
II (Malerials). They are found in Subparl 3 of Part D. At the same time Ihe names of the
charts were changed. The following table shows the new names, the old names, and all
abbreviated title for each chart:
TableGarboll Steel Materials
Old Name Title
UCS28.1 Carbon and Low Alloy, Sy<30000
UCS28.2 Carbon and Low Alloy, Sy>30000
UCS28,3 Carbon and Low Alloy, Sy>38000.
UCS28.4 SA537
UCS28.5 SA508, SA533, SA54 I
UCS28.6 SA562 or SA620
New Name
HT1
HT2
Table...J4eatTI'eated Materials
Old Name Title
UHT28.1 SA517 and SA592 A, E, and f
UHT28.2 SA508 Cl. 4a, SA543,13,C
New Name
Table8lainless Steel (High Alloy) Materials
Old Name Title
424 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ,1Ild Analysis  Scminnr Notes External Pressure 011 shells ,11ld heads
HAI
HA2
IIA3
HAA
HA5
UIIA28.1
UIIA28.2
UHA28.3
UHA28.4
UIIA28.5
Type 304
Type 3 16, 321, 347, 309, 310, 430B
Type 304L
Type 316L, 317L
Alloy S31500
New Name
Tablel'/{)n Ferrons Materials
Old Name Title
NFAI
NFA2
NFA3
NFA4
NFA5
NFA6
NFA7
NFA8
NFA9
NFAIO
NFAII
NFA12
NFA13
NFA14
NFCI
NFC2
NFC3
NFC4
NFC5
NFC6
NFNI
NFN2
NFN3
NFN4
NFN5
NFN6
NFN7
NFN8
NFN9
NFNIO
NFNII
NFN12
NFN13
NFN14
NFN15
NFN16
NFN17
NFN18
NFN19
Example Problem 1 A Simple DnllTI
UNF28.2
UNF28.J
UNF28.4
UNF28.5
UNF28.IJ
UNF28.14
UNF28.17
UNF28.18
UNF28.19
UNF28.20
UNF28.2J
UNF28.JO
UNF28.J I
UNF28.J2
UNF28.9
UNF28.10
UNF28.11
UNF28.12
UNF28.4J
UNF28.48
UNF28.1
UNF28.6
UNF28.7
UNF28.8
UNF28.15
UNF28.24
UNF28.25
UNF28.27
UNF28.29
UNF28.JJ
UNF28.34
UNF28.J6
UNF28.J7
UNF28.J8
UNF28.J9
UNF28.40
UNF28.44
UNF28.45
UNF28.46
ALJ003,0 and HI 12
ALJ003, HJ4
ALJ004, 0 and H112
ALJ004, 1134
AL5154,0 and H112
C61400 (Aluminum Bronze)
ALl060,0
AL5052,0 and HI 12
AL5086, 0 and H112
AL5456,0
AL5083, 0 and H112
AL6061, T6, T65 I, T65 10 and T6511
AL6061, T4, T451, T4510 and T4511
AL5454, 0 and H J12
Annealed Copper
CopperSilicon A and C
Annealed 9010 Copper Nickel
Annealed 7030 Copper Nickel
Welded Copper Iron Alloy Tube
SB75 and SBIll Copper Tube
Low Carbon Niekcl
Ni
Ni Cu Alloy
Annealed Ni Cr Fe
Ni Mo Alloy B
Ni Mo Cr Fe
Ni Mo Cr Fe Cu
Ni Fe Cr Alloy 800 .
Ni Fe Cr Alloy 800H
Ni Moly Chrome Alloy NI0276
Ni Cr Fe Mo Cu Alloys G and G2
Cr Ni Fe Mo Cu Co, SB462, 463, etc.
Ni Fe Cr Si Alloy 330
Ni Cr Mo Grade C4
Ni Mo Alloy X
Ni Mo Alloy B2
Ni Cr Mo Co N06625 (Alloy 625)
Ni Mo Cr Fe Cn (Grade G3)
Ni Mo Cr Pe Cu (Grade G3, >3/4)
425
E.\lt:rnal Pressure 011 shells alld hcruls Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis St:lllinar Notes
NFN20
NITI
NFT2
NFT3
NFZI
NFZ2
UNF28.47
UNF28.22
UNF28.28
UNF28.42
UNF28.35
UNF28.41
Work Hanlcncd Nickel
Unalloyed Titaniulll, Grnde I
Unalloyed Titanium, Grade 2
Til"nium, Gradc I
Zirconium, Alloy 702
Zirconium, Alloy 705
h/3
t
L +
1113
h a depth 01 hcad!4, ..j
L .;.. L
Moment axis of ring ~ ~ ~
1'
00
I
L ~ L
I I
Ih L ,J., Lil
I
I L
r
,
Do
,
Figure 12Typical Geometry showing variables used for External Pressure Analysis
426 EXClIllJllc Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design rllld Annlysis  Seminar Noles Stiffening
STIFFENING
/\ section ora vcsscl held ill a circular shape by a stifTening ring will not buckle into lobes,
and will prevent the sections ncar it on either side frolll buckling into lobes.
for a given length of cylinder, the Code requires that the stiffener have a known moment
of incrtia, to cnsure that it will hold the section round for the calculated external load.
The reinforcement required in a stiffener increases as a function of the length between
stiffeners. However, increasing a stiffener size does not change the maximum length
between stiffeners at all.
When calculating available stiffener moment of inertia, the Code allows you to decide
whether or not to take the shell into account in your calculation.
Thc Codc allows you to include a width of shell in the calcutation cqual to
1.1 * SQRT(Do*t). This is the dccay length of the cylinder.
2.00
Decay Length:!: 1,56SQRT{rl)
0.00
1
0.'
0.0
0.7
0.6
0.'
0.'
0.'
0.2
_ : : ~ H ~ ~ ==+;' I
0.2
0.3
~ O 4
O.!l
0.6
0.7
0.6
0
~ I I I I '=...",/ I I I
04.00 6,00
o (Xp(eX) x COS(BX)
v EXP(BX)'COS(8X)
Figure 13Decay Length for Cylinder Local Bending
The required value of the moment of inertia will be higher when you include the shell in
your actual moment ofincrtia.ln cffect the Code credits something for the shell when you
chose not to use it in your calculation.
Example Problem 1 A Simple DnllJl 427
Stifrening Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
r1rY' i
T
,"
l{J i j
L
1_
l, ,
I 'l'
.  21 Ibl 111
I NOIII (II .nd (:Ill Irlol.1311
l
T r
iLL
L L
1,
J
'lc  tI Ie  21
[Notu OJ 3M l:lll
'Cdl
'.1
INoI. (3))
'"
INotll (3)\
'NOTES:
C11 VlII.n 1"' conl.tocv'inder Of' thl Junction I. not, line ollUpport. tho nomln,l thlcknell of Ihe cone.
knuckle. 01 1000ieonlc.t uetlon lh.1I not be 111I1han Ih. minimum reQulred thlckneu of Ih. adiKllnl evllndlle.1 ,hill.
121 Calculetlon, ch,U be made u,lng tho dllmeter end cOHupandlrog thlcknen of nch ,ectlon ..,llh dlmen.lon L III 'hown.
IJI Vlhln \h. con..to<Vllnder or Ihe knueklotoeylindef junction II' line of .uPpor(. th' momlnt of Inertl' ,h. II 1.>"
pt'ovldloJ In llGCOrd,nCl with 18.
Figure 14Geometry Showing Design Length for External Pressure for Cylinders
What do you need to know to analyze cylinders and heads for external pres
sure?
External Pressure Chart
The tables of allowable tensile stress fol' materials also give the name of the external pres
sure c1wrt to use for the analysis. Many external pressure charts have both lower and upper
limits on temperature. If your design temperature is below the lower limit, use values cho
sen at thc lower limit. If your temperature is above the upper limit thc component should
not be designcd for vacuum conditions.
Diameter
Thc diamclcr for external pressure considcrations is ;]Iways the ollis ide diamcter.
428 Example Problem 1/\ Simple Drum
Pressurc Vcssel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes SlilTcning
Actual (or assumed) Thickness
The strain factor is based on the ratio of diameter to thickness. Therefore to find the
required thickness for a given pressure, you have to guess a thickness, calculate the allow
able pressure associated with that thickness, and keep modifying it until the allowable
pressure is equal to the desired pressure.
Design Length for the Vessel or Vessel Segment
The design length orthe section is typically the length orthe vessel pills one third the
depth of the heads or, alternately, the distance between stinening rings.
For a vessel with 2 elliptical heads nnd no intermediate stiffeners, the design length is the
tangent length plus the diameter/G.
for a vessel with 2 spherical hcads and no intermediate stiffencrs, the design length is the
tangent length plus the diametcr!3.
For a vessel with 2 flanged and dishcd heads and no intermediate stiffeners, the design
length is the tangent length pills the diameterl9.
Width and Thickness of Reinforcing Rings.
Most external pressure stiffcning rings arc a simple flat plate cut (or rolled the hard way)
into the shnpe of a donut. Calculate the momcnt of inertia of the flat plate by combining it
with the shell section.
You can also combine the moment of inertia of a beam section with the shell contribution
using thc parallcl axis transfer theorem.
Example Problem A Simple Drum 429
.
.
.
wo
~n
~
n<gn
r
n
C
~
n"

c
~
;
;


0
;
:
;
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:

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;
;

;
;
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I
"
"
,
.
.
>
c
r
.
~
g

c;
;

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~
z9

n"
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
0101 Shell and Heads  Extemal Pressure:
Stiffening
Using the gCOIllCtlY defined for internal pressurc, eheck the shell and heads for full vac
UUIll.
Notes:
Questions:
\Vhat is the rcquircd thickness?
Whatthiekness will you use?
What is the M.A. w.p for the Shell?
What is the M.A. w.p. for the Head?
Why are the M.A.W.p for the shell and the head so different?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum 431
Stiffening Pressurc Vessel Design ,111(\ Analysis  Seminar Notcs
CQADE Engineering Software
PVEI i te 4 . 00 Li censee: COADE Inc., Loca 1 \'/hi te Lock
F'ileName : Seminar  P<lgc 6
Shell Analysis: 0101 EXTERNAL Item: 3 9:51<1 Scp "1,2000
Input Echo, Component 3. Description: 0101 EXTERNAL
Include Hydrostatic lIead Components
l1inimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Design External Pressure
Temperature for External Pressure
External Pressure Chart Name
Ilatedal Specification (Normalized)
Allow<lble Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Curve Name [or Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency for Shell Joint
15.00 psig
450.00 P
CS2
NO
SI\516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
D
.00
268.0000 in.
244.0000 in.
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
o . 1250 in.
S
SA
T
CA
E
PF.:XT
L
CYLLEN
D
~ n g t h of Section
of Cylinder for Volume Cales.
Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Design
I,ength
Inside
Type o[ Element: Cylindrical Shell
WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, ORIGINAL
Volume of Shell Component
weight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
~ i g h t of Water in Component
THICKNESS:
VOLI1BT
Wl1ET
VOLID
\'111AT
111149.8
31455.4
3973'188.0
143497.9
in . , 3
lb.
in. "3
lb.
lb.
in. "3
lb.
in." 3 97339.7
27547.1
3987598.0
143996.6
CORRODED THICKNESS:
Corroded VOWETCA
Corroded Wl1ETCA
Corroded VOLIDCA
Corroded WWATCA
AND VOLUME RESULTS,
of Shell Component,
of Shell Component,
Volume of Component,
of l1ater in Component,
WEIGHT
Volume
Height
Inside
Weight
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUI18BR 3, Desc.; 0101 EXTERNAL
ASf.lB Code. Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99
External Pressure Chart CS2
Elastic "lodulus for Material
at 450.00 F
27500000.00 psi
Results for tlax. Allowable External Pl"essute (Emawp):
Corroded Thickness of Shell TCA 0.8750
Outside Diameter of Shell 00 146.0000
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone SLEN 268.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio (0/1') 166.8571
Length / Diameter Ratio LD 1.8356
Geometly Factor, A f(DT,LD) l\ 0.0003286
flaterials Factor, B, f(A, Chart) B 4518.0068
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure 36.10
Ef.lA\'IP .. (4'B)/(3'(D/T)1 """ (4 ' 4518.0068 1/( 3' 166.8571 )
in.
in.
in.
psi
psig
.. 36.1028
Results fOl" Reqd Thickness for Ext. Pressure (Tca)
432 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressurc Vcssel Design and Analysis  SCml1l<lr Noles Stiffcning
COADE Engineering
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local I'lhite Lock
rileName Seminar   Page 7
Shell Analysis 0101 EXTERNAL Item; 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Corroded Thickness of Shell TCA 0,6158
Outside Diameter of Shell 00 146.0000
Design Length of cylinder or Cone SLEN 268.0000
Diameter / Thickness Ratio (0/1') 237.0924
Length / Diameter Ratio I,D 1.8356
Geometry F'actor, A f(DT,LD) A 0.0001940
rlaterials F'actor, B, f(A, Chart) B 2667.3970
rlaximum \'larking Pressure 15.00
EI1l\\'/P = (4*S)/D*(O/T)) = ( 'I * 2667.3970 )/( 3 * 237.0924 )
in.
in.
in.
psi
psig
= 15.0006
in.
in.
in.
psi
psig
= 15.0013
0.8750
146.0000
6'1'1.9812
166.8571
4.4177
0.0001365
1877.3041
15.00
166.8571 )
TeA
00
SLEN
(0/1')
LD
A
B
Results for Jlaximum Length Bet"'Jeen Stiffeners (Slenl
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry F'actor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials F'actor, B, f(A, Chart)
rlaximuffi Allowable l'larking Pressure
EHA1'IP", (4*8)/(3*(0/1')) '" (41877.304) l/( 3
(
36.10 psig
15.00 psig
0.7408 in.
1.0000 in.
644.981 in.
268.00 in.
SUI1I1ARY of EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Required Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
rlaximum Length for Thickness and Pressure
Actual Length as entered by User
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum 433
Stilfenlng Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
e01\DE Engineering Sofl""'are
i t.e 4. 00 Li censee: COAOE r nc ., Loca I \'/hi te Lock
FileName: Seminar ..  rage 8
Shell 1\rwlysis : 0101 EXT HE1\D Item; 4 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Component 4. Description: 0101 EXT HEAD
Design Ext.ernal Pressure
Temperat.ure for f:o:xtel'nal Pressure
External Pressure Chart. Name
Include Hydrostatic !lead Components
!latel'ial Specification (Normalized)
1\llowable Stress 1\t Temperature
Allowable Stress At AMbient
Curve Name [or Chart UCS 66
Joint efficiency [or Head Joint
Inside Diameter of Elliptical Head
rlinimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
lI.spect Ratio
Length o[ Straight Flal:ge
PEXT
S
SA
r.
D
T
CA
AR
STRTFLG
15.00 psig
450.00
,.
CS2
NO
SA516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
0
1.00
144.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.1250 in.
2.0000
2.0000 in.
Type of Element.:
WEIGHT and VOLW1E RESULTS, ORIGINAL
Volume of Shell Component
\'leight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
weight of IIater in Component
Inside Vol. of 2.00 in. Straight
Total Volume for Ilcad ... Straight
Elliptical Head
THICKNESS:
VOLt1ET 26074.9 in. H3
wtIET 7379.2 lb.
vaLID 390864.4 in. * 03
WII1\T 14114.5 lb.
VOLSCA 32572.0 in. * 03
VOLTaT 423436.4 in.' 03
WEIGHT AND RESULTS, CORRODED TIIICKNESS:
Volume of Shell Component, Corroded VQUoIETCA 22815.5 in. "3
Weight of Shell component, Corroded WIIETCA 6456.8 lb.
Inside Volume of Component, Corroded VOLIDC1\ 392903.7 in.' 03
Weight of NateI' in Component, Corroded I'lWATCA 14188.2 lb.
Inside Vol. ot 2.00 in. Straight, Carr. VOLSCA )2685.2 in ... )
Total Volume for Head * Straight Corroded VaLTCA 425588.9 in.' 03
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUtmER 4, Desc.; 0101 EXT HEAD
Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99
External Pressure Chart CS2
Elastic 1lodulu5 for 1laterial
at 450.00 F
27500000.00 psi
Pressure (Emawp) Results for 11ax. Allowable External
Corroded Thickness of
Outside Diameter o[ Shell
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f{DT,LD)
rlaterials Factor, B, f (A, Chart)
rlaximum 1\llo.... able IIorking Pressure
TCA
OD
(O/T)
A
"
0.8750
146.0000
166.8571
0.0008324
10051.5:;n3
66.93
in.
in.
psi
p5ig
434 Example Problem 1 A Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
eOADE Engineering Software
PVF.lite <1.00 Licensee: eOADE fnc., Local l'lllite Lock
PileName : Seminar                       Page 9
Shell Analysis 0101 EXT HEAD Item: 4 9:51a Sep 21,2000
EHANP B K O ~ (O/T)) = 10051.5273/( 0.9000 166.8571 I = 66.9337
0.3882 in.
Pressure (Tca):
TeA
on
(0/1')
A
B
146.0000 in.
376.0957
0.0003693
5077.7563 psi
15.00 psig
0.9000' 376.0957) = 15.0014
Results for Reqd Thickness for Ext.
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Diameter / Thickness Ratio
Geometry Pactor, A [(DT ,I,D)
'laterials PactaI', B, f(A, Chart I
Ilaximum Allowable l'lorking Pressure
EftM1P = B/ (KO (0/1')) = 5077.7563/ (
(
SI.RolfIJ\RY of EXTERNAl. PRESSURE RESULTS:
Allowable Pressure at Corroded thickness
Required Pressure as entered by User
Reguired Thickness including Corrosion all.
Actual Thickness as entered by User
66.93
15.00
0.5132
1.0000
psig
psig
in.
in.
The PV Elite Program, (cl 19892000 by COAOE Engineering Software
Examplc Problcm IA Simple DnUll 435
Nozzle Reinrorccmcnl 'Illd Failure P"th C:llculations Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT AND FAILURE PATH CALCULATIONS
The Code implements an "area replacement" concept: Near an opening there should be
"extra" metal equal to the area of required metal missing due to the presence of the open
ing.
This area needs to be replaced because of stress intensification at the hole. A hole in a
fairly large cylinder is roughly the same as a hole ill a flat plate loaded in plane. Stress
intensification factors for this case arc
Axial Load Only 3.00
Cylinder 2.50
Sphere 2.00
Asecond consideration in the design of the nozzle is making the connection strong enough
so that pressure loads will not pop the nozzle off the vessel.
The Code rules for nozzle reinforcement and failure path calculations arc found in para
graphs UG37 to UG41. The Code takes into account the differing strengths of different
materials (i.e. the nozzle, the reinforcing plate, the shell) by using strength reduction fac
tors on any area where the material used has a lesser strength thnn the basic shell material.
All vessel and nozzle thickness calculations arc based on seamless components  Eis
always equal to I.
If the opening is ill the spherical portion of a torispherical head, the required thickness
is based on a torispherical head with M= 1. This is a result of the lower stress in the
central portion of a head, and the lower stress intensity at a hole in a sphere.
If the opening is in an elliptical head and is inside a circle based on 80% of the diame
ter, the required thickness is based on a seamless sphere with a radius of90 percent of
the vessel diameter.
For external pressure, the Code requires that only one half of the required area removed be
replaced. The required area is based on the niles for external pressure.
For nat heads (Paragraph UG39), the Code requires that only one half of the required area
removed be replaced, because the head is loaded in bending rather than in tension.
Limits of reinforcement (Paragraph UG40) are intended to assure that the metal used to
replace missing metal is close enough to the hole to be effective. They arc based on the
characteristic length, or decay length of the vessel:
1.56 * SQRT(R*t)
This is an extremely eomlllon expression in pressurevessel design; it describes the dis
tance along a vessel shell in which the efTeet of any load will be felt. Beyond this distance,
the effcct of the load has decayed to ncar zero.
The Code approxilnatcs this distance as 2x the corroded inside diameter orthe hole along
the shell, and 2.5 times the thickness of the nozzle radial to the shell (based on rlt 10).
Small openings (Paragraph UG36) arc exempt from reinforcement requirements:
if t<=3/8, 3 in. and smaller are exempt
if t> 3/8, 2 in. and smaller are exernpt
436 Example Problem IA Simple Drulll
Pressure Vessel Design nile! Allnlysis * Seminar Notes Nozzle Reinforcement nile! Fnilure Pnlh Calculntiolls
Large openings have special niles which are located in Appendix 17. These rulcs required
that more oCthe reinCoreement be placed close to the opening. They apply when one oCthe
Collowing statemenls is tme:
The diameter oClhe nozzle is greater than 20 ill. or greater than D/2 when the vessel is
60 in. or less.
The diameter of the nozzle is greater than 40 in. or greater than D/3 when the vesscl is
more than 60 in.
Bendingend membrane stresses are computed Cor some "large" nozzles per 17.
Strength of reinforcement and failure path calculations arc found in paragraphs UG41,
UW15, UW16. The Code requires that the strength of any failure path through the nozzle
and its reinCorcement be grcater than the strength oCa Cailure path through the vessel shell.
There arc two basic placements oC nozzles Cor which the Cailure path becomes an issue: I)
inserted through the shell wall and 2) abUlting the shell wall. Area of reinforcement calcu
lations arc diITerent Cor the two cases.
Paragraph UWI 5 (b) exempts many of Ihe commonly used nozzle attachment geometries
Crom strength calculations.
Example Problem IA Simple Drum 437
Nozzle Reinforccment ma\ Fnilurc Pouh Calculnliulls Pressure Vessel Design and Annlysis  Seminar Notes
11.2 STRESSES AND LOADINGS AT OPENINGS 337
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Figure toStress Intensification at a Hole
in a Flat Plate under Various Loadings
438 Example Problcm IA Simple Drum
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Nozzle Reinforccment and Failure Path Calculations Pressun: Vessel Dcsign ;llld Analysis  Scminar Notes
PART UG  GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Fig. UGn.l
U lOIOff v.l.... V.. Ill\'l'f walue
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HOTE:
(" Thl, 100m.l. h lot 'K""Vulo,0.....100'ol .r'W>fIl' .,.., 10'...i\hi<> .". 1m", ., ,.inlot..",onl
FIG. UG)7.1 fWMENCLATURE AfW rORMULA$ FOR REINFORCED OPENltlG$
!This Flgurt IIlustrales a Common tlOlllt Confi9uraUon and Is Ilot
Intended to PIohlblt Other Confi9uratlons Permitted by Code.>
Figure 5Area Replacement Calculations for Typical Nozzle Configurations
Exmnplc Problem IA Simple Drul1l
Prc:surc Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Nozzle Rcinforn:nu:n( and Failure Path Calculations
PART UO  GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
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FIG. UG41.1 NOZZLE ATTACHMENT WElD LOADS APID WElD STRENGTH PATHS TO BE COIlSJOEREO
Figure 6Failure Paths (or Typical Nozzle Configurations
Example Problem IA Simple Drum 443
Nozzle Rcinfon:emcnt and Failure Path C<llculnlions Prc,:.;surc Vt:ssel Design ami Annlysis  Scminar Notes
Fig. UG41.1 1998 SECfION vm  DIVISION I
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'IM D.pict. TypiClI Nonl' 0.1111 With Nick Abutting lhe Vossel Well
FIG. UG41.1 NOZZLE ATTACHMENT WELD LOADS AND WELD STRENGTH PATHS TO BE CONSIDERED
lCDNI'D)
Figure TFailure Paths for Typical Nozzle Configurations (continued)
Example Problem I ~ Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Scminar Notes
HILLSIDE AND OFFANGLE NOZZLE ANGLES
Hillside and OrrAngle Nozzk Anglcs
There are two main categories of ofTangIe vessel nozzles: those which are offangle in the
longitudinal planc of the cylinder (Yangle nozzles, Figure 23), and those which are orr
angle in the circumferential plane ofa cylinder, or in a head (Hillside nozzles, Figure 24).
In order to analyze these kinds of nozzles, CodcCalc asks the user for the angle between
the nozzle centerline and a tangent to the vessel mean radius, as also showll in Figures 23
and 24. However, for hillside nozzles, the determination of this angle can be difficult. This
section provides a few simple equations that can help the user determine the nozzle angle.
The overall goal of this calculation is simple: to find an angle that will make the finished
diameter of the hole fit perfectly within the nozzle. The finished diameter is the dimension
d in Figures 23 and 24, which is called DLII in the CodeCalc printouts. Ifwe had the
nozzle in front orus and could measure d, thcn we could calculate the input angle vcry
simply lIsing the following equation:
where dn:=: inside diameter of nozzle
d DLR finished diameter of holc
sinn:=: sine of angle betweellllozzic and vessel
Whcn we analyze Yangle nozzles, this is really all the information we need: the angle is
known and the result is exact:
d DLR !."
SInn
However, when we analyze hillside nozzles, as shown in Figure 2, the angle is usually not
known. Instead, we may know the offset distance for the nozzle. This distance (L) is the
distance between the centerline of the cylinder or head, and the centerline of the nozzle. A
first approximation to the angle would take thc cosine of the angle as L I rm, where nll is
the mean cylinder or head radius at the point of attachment. However, this approximation
turns out to be too inaccurate for practical use.
The ASME Code has a sample problem (L7.7) that shows what their preferred method
appears to be. They do not explicitly address this offanglc problcm in the body of the
Code. Figure 3, taken from ASME (Section VIII, Division I, Addenda An, Page 512),
shows their sample problem. The key to their approacli is the calculation of two angles, al
and a2, and then the calculation of the finished diameter from the difference between these
two angles. You can follow their calculation on Page 512 aml513 of the Code. For our
purposes, we do not need to eany the calculation that far. The angle we are looking for, a
isjust the average of the two Code angles as calculated previously. The following equa
tions show how to calculate this angle:
(
L  r,,)
a 0: arccos __
I r
"'
(
L + ,. )
U
J
= arccos "
 ,.
'"
a
l
+ a
2
n = arccos
2
Examplc Problcm IA Simple DIlJlll 445
Hillside ami On'Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure V l ~ e Design and Annlysis  Semil1nr Noles
Where L ~ offsct distancc cylinder / head ccnterline
rn = inside nozzle radius
rill = mean vessel radius
These three equations can be used without any further information for any hillside nozzle
in a cylinder. However, you need to apply thcm carefully to hillside nozzles in heads.
When a hillside nozzle is in an elliptical or torispherical head, the nozzle may be located in
thc spherical portion of the hcad, the toroidal portion of the hcad, or it may straddle the
two portions. This is shown in Figure 4. Each of these cases requires a slightly different L
and I'm to be used in equations.
When the nozzle lies entircly within the spherical portion of the head (Figure 4(a)), L is
simply the offset from the head ccnterline, and I'm is the spherical radius of the head. For
spherical or torispherical heads, this should be a known radius (Code dimension L in Fig
ure 14 of Appendix I, for example).
Note The Code uses inconsistent terms herc.
For elliptical heads, the spherical portion is taken to be a circle drawn on the head with a
diametcr of 80 percent of the head diameter. The radius of the spherical portion is taken to
be 0,90 times the head diameter. The nozzle offset from the vessel centerline should be
known fr0111 the vessel drawings.
The nozzle can also lie entirely in the knnckle portion of the head (Figure 4(c)). The mean
radius (1'",) is the mean knuckle radius, and the offset (L) is distance from the origin of the
knuckle radius to the centerline of the nozzle. Note that for an elliptical head, the knuckle
is defined as anything outside a circle drawn on the head with a diamcter of 80 percent of
the head diameter. The knuckle radius is 0.17 times the vessel diameter.
Finally, the nozzle may be located so that parI of the nozzle is in the spherical portion, and
part in the knuckle (Figure 4(b)). In this case, the angle at the part of the nozzle in the
spherical portion should be caleulated as described for Figure 4(a), and the angle at the
part in the knuckle portion should be caleulatcd as described for Figure 4(c). That is, cal
culate the inside angle using the spherical radius of the head and olTset from the ccnterline.
446 Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design <Inti All<llysis  Seminar Notes Ilillside and OffAngle Nuzzle Angles
Calcultlte the outside angle using the mean radius of the knuckle and the offset from the
knuckle origin.
Figure 8 Yangle Nozzle: Nozzle angled in the longitudinal plane 01 a cylinder
Example Problem IA Simple Drum 447
Ililiside ant! Olrl\nglc Nozzle Angles Prc:;surc Vessel Design ,lilt! AlI:tlysis  Seminar NOles
L = Offset Dislonce
Figure 9Hillside Nozzle
In in.
...."'r:
,7
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! /
Rn=2in. ./
./
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I
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/
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r7'77"?/"
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Figure 10ASME Code Figure L7.7, Example of Reinforced Opening
448 Example Problem IA Simple Drulll
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis .. Scminar Noles Ililiside anti OlrAngle Nozzlc Angles
I Lo _. \29
~ r l l
Tordial
P0I1ioll
rLl
A'
I ' \
';i< I II Spherical 1'0l1ion
fI ~ Knuckle \
{'.L1 Radius \ Spherical Radius
Examplc Problcm IA Simple Drum 449
Hillside and O r r n g l ~ Nozzlc Angles
___ I
'I' "'1' oruw
Portion
Pressure Vcssel Design lind Analysis Scminar Notcs
r
L
Figure l1Hiflside nozzles in /leads
450
What do you need to know to perform nozzle reinforcement calculations?
Required Thickness of Head or Shell and Nozzle
The thickness of an elliptical head is analyzed as "n equivalent spherical head, as speci fied
in the Code, paragraph UG37 (a), SimilarlY,thc thickness of the spherical portion ofa
torispherical head is analyzed using the same method and code reference.
If your nozzle is outside 80% of the diameter of an elliptical head, or in the toroidal por
lion of a torispherical head, you must calculate the required IhickJless using the rules of
UG32 rather than the I1Iles described above (but wilh E=1.0 in all cases).
You must also calculate the required thickness for a flat head. However, you may reduce
the required area of reinforcement by 50% for a Oat head.
For external pressure, you must calculate the required thickness using the guidelines in
Paragraph UG28 for cylinders and UG33 for heads. Once again, however, you may
reduce the required area ofreinforeement by 50 percent for external pressure.
Geometry of Nozzle and Shell
You must know the diameters, thicknesses, and corrosion allowances for both the shell
component (cylinder or head) and the nozzle. Most nozzles are constnicted from pipe or
long weld neck Oanges, bUI occasionally from plate (for large nozzles) or from integrally
reinforced inserts.
The Code slates that metal usually associated with the pipe fabrication tolerance (mill
undertolerance) may be included in lhe calculation of the available area in a nozzle. Sec
paragraph UG16(b),
The nozzle may be inserted through the vessel wall. Ifso, any metal in the insert, less cor
rosion, is available for reinforcement.
Example Problcm IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Diameter Limit, Thickness Limit
lIillside and Orr.Anglc Nozzle Angles
Thc diamcter limit is the maximum distance, frolll the centerline of the nozzle along the
vessel wall, that can be calculated to delermine available areas in the shell or a pad. The
Code calculates this limit based 011 the corroded ID oflhe nozzle or the inside radius of the
nozzle plus the shell thickness plus the pad thickness. YOlllllust be conscious orallY phys
ical obstmctions (other nozzles, welds, the end of the vessel, ctc.) which would prevent the
nozzle from making usc of reinforcement out to this diameter.
The thickness limit is the distance, from the vessel surface along the nozzle axis, that can
be taken credit for when calculating the areas available in the nozzle wall and the pad. The
Code calculates Ihis limit based on the thickness of the shell and pad or the nozzle wall.
You must be conscious of any physical obstnlctions (no insert, studding pad, welding out
lei, etc.) that would prevent the nozzle from making use of reinforcement out to this thick
ness.
Is the Nozzle in a Seam?
Ifso, the seam emcicncy is used in the "area available" calculations to reduce the area
available in the shell. However, for the shell thickness calculations themselves, the seam
efficiency is always 1.0.
Details of Nozzle Welds
The welds that attach the nozzle and the reinforcing pad to the shell are important because
thcy contribute to the arca available for reinforccment and because they frequently control
the failure path calculations. Most nozzles arc attached with full penetration groove welds,
plus required fillet welds. Some of these geometries arc exempt from failure path calcula
tions. Specifically, UW15(b) indicates that no strength calculations for nozzle allachment
welds are required for figure UW16.I, sketches (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (fI), (f2), (f3),
(f4), (g), (xI), (yI), and (zI).
Nozzle weld thicknesses are based on Figure UW16. I. The outward nozzle weld is com
pared to the cover weld required by the Code. Note that the mii,imum dimension of a weld
is 0.7 times its leg dimension. Note also thaI for cover welds the maximum weld the Code
requires is 0.25 in. The pad weld requirement is typically at least one half of the element
thickness. In addition to the cover welds, the total groove weld plus cover weld for
inserted nozzles must bc at least 1.25 timcs thc minimum c1emcnt thickness.
Large Nozzle Considerations
For large diameter nozzles, the rules of Appendix 17 rcquire that twothirds of the rein
forccmcnt be within 0.75 of the natural diameter limit for the nozzle. If the calculated
value of the percent within this limit is greater than 66%, the nozzle is adequately rein
forced for the large diameter rules.
Manway or Access Opening
If this nozzle is a manway or access opening, the code docs not require the minimum noz
zle ncck thickness calculations per UG45 be performed.
Example Problcm IA Simplc Dnllll 451
Ilillside and OlrAngle Nozzle
452
Vessel Design <lnd All<llysis .. Scmil1<lr Nutes
Examplc Problcm IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ;'Iud An;llysis  Seminar Notes Ililiside mul On.... 1\ngle Nozzle Angles
Pressure Vesscl Design and Analysis Scminar
Component Design Problem
DIOI Nozzle A:
Location
Size
Material
Thickness
Flange Class
Flange Material
Cylinder
12 in. (300 NS)
SA 106, C
Schedule 80
300
1.1
The Nozzle is inserted into the vessel wall.
There is a .687in. (17.45 mm) partial penetration groove weld
between the vessel wall and the nozzle neck.
Nozzle Outside Projection is 8.0 in. (203 nun)
No Internal Projections arc allowed in this vessel.
There is a 22in. (559 mm) diameter reinforcing pad
The Pad material is the same as the Shell material.
There is a full penetration weld between the pad and the nozzlc ncck.
There is a 0.375in.(9.55 mm) cover weld between the pad and the nozzle
neck.
There is a 0.625in. (16 mm) weld between the OD of the pad and the vessel.
Notes:
Questions:
What pad thickness (ifany) will you use?
What is the M.A.W.P. for the assembly?
Docs this nozzle limit the M.A. w.P. for the vessel? _
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMI'LETED YOUR ANALYSIS
EX,Hllpic Problem IA Simple Dnull 453
Ilillside OrrAngle Nozzle Angles Vessel Design Anillysis  Seminar Noles
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
PVElite 4.00 COADE Inc., Local \'lhite Lock
FileName; Seminar  ... . Page 14
Nozzle Analysis; 0101 Nozzle A Item; 9;Sla Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Nozzle Item Description: 0101 Nozzle A
Haterial (Not Normalized or NI\)
Allowable Stress at Temperature SN
Nozzle Allowable Stress At Ambient SNA
Insert or Abutting Nozzle Type
Outward Projection of Nozzle
Weld leg size between Nozzle and Pad/Shell
Groove weld depth between Nozzle and Vessel
Angle between Nozzle and Shell or Head
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Diameter of Nozzle
230.00 psig
450.00 F
SI\516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
144.0000 in.
1. 0000 in.
0.1250 in.
90.00 Degrees
SAI06 C
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
00
12 . 0000 in .
Nominal
SCH 80
0.1250 in.
1.00
1.00
Insert
8.0000 in.
0.3750 in.
0.6870 in.
o
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DIA
DBN
THKNOil
CAN
ES
EN
(Normalized)
Stress at Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Haterial
Allowable
Allowable
Design Internal Pressure Case
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell
Shell
Shell
Inside Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Actual Thickness of Shell or Head
Corrosion Allowance for Shell or Head
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis
Thickness of Nozzle
corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam at Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck
Pad tlaterial (Not Normalized or NA) SA516 70
Pad Allowable Stress at Temperature SN 20000.00 psi
Pad Allowable Stress At Ambient SNA 20000.00 psi
Diamet.er of Pad along vessel surface DP 22.0000 in.
Thickness of Pad TP 0.7500 in.
Weld leg size between Pad and Shell >lP 0.6'50 in.
Groove weld depth between Pad and Nozzle Io'IGPN 0.7500 in.
Is this is 'lanway/Access/Inspection Opening
Skip Iterative Failure Thickness calculations
No
Yes
NOZZLE CALCULATION, NOZZLE NUIlBER 1, Description: 0101 Nozzle A
ASf1E Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99, UG37 to UG45
Actual Nozzle Diameter used in calculation
Actual Nozzle Thickness Used in Calculation
12.750 in.
0.687 in.
Internal Pressure Results {or SHELL/HEAD
454 Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Ilressurc Vcsscl Design owl! Analysis  Seminar Noles Ilillside and OlT.Angle Nozzlc Angles
COAOE Engineering SO[Lware
PVElite 4.00 I.icensee: COAOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar . _.          .        Page IS
Nozzle /\nalysis 0101 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Required thickness per UGH(a) o[ Cylindrical Shell, Tr
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
lP(D/2tCA/(S'E0.6'P) per UG27 (c) (1)
(230.00
t
(144.0000/2tO.1250/(20000.00
t
l.000.6
t
230.00)
0.8352 in.
InLernal Pressure Results for NOZZLE :
Required thickness per UG37(a) of Nozzle Wall, Tr
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TRI:
(P'D/21/(S'EtO.4
t
P) per Appendix 11 (a) 01
(230.00'12.7500/2)/(20000.00"1.0010.4*230.00)
0.0730 in.
CASE 1
CASE 1
UG40, Thickness and Diameter Limit Results
,
CASE
Effective material diameter limit, DL 2) . 2520 in .
Effective mat.erial t.hickness limit, no pad TLNP 1 .4050 in.
Effective material thickness limit, pad side TLI'/P 2. 1550 in.
RESULTS of NOZZLE REINFORCErIENT AREA CAl,CUl,ATIONS:
AREA AVAILABLE, A1 t.o A5 Design External r'lapnc
Area Required AR 9.710 NA NA in
Area in Shell A1 0.463 NA NA in
Area in Nozzle 1'laiI A2 2.108 NA NA in
Area in Inward Nozzle A) 0.000 NA NA in
Area in Helds A4 0.531 NA NA in
Area in Pad AS 6.938 NA NA in
TOTAL AREA AVAILABLE ATOT 10.039 NA NA in
Pressure Case 1 Governs the Analysis
Nozzle Angle Used in Area Calculations
The area available without a pad is Insufficient.
The area available with the given pad is Sufficient.
90.00 Oegs.
SELECTION OF POSSIBLE REINFORCING PADS: Diameter Thickness
Based on given Pad Thickness: 21.6250 0.7500 in.
Based on given Pad Diameter: 22.0000 0.7500 in.
Based on Shell or Nozzle Thickness: 22.3750 0.6875 in.
Reinforcement Area Required for Nozzle:
AR (DLR'TRt2THKTR'OFFR1)l UG37(cl or UG39
AR (11.6260"0.8352.2*(0.68700.1250)0.8352(1.01.00)
AR 9.710 in
Areas per UG37.1 but with DL = Diameter Limit, DLR = Corroded 10:
Area Available in Shell (Al):
Al (DLDLRI (r:S' (TCAS) TRI2* (THKCAN) * (ES (TCASITR)*l1FFRl)
1\1 '" (23.25211.626)' 0.00' (l .00000.125) 0.835) 2. (0.6870.125)
n.oo' 0.00000.1250) 0.8352)' (l.01.00)
Example Problcm IA Simple Dnull 455
llillside ;lnd Orr.. Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vessel Design ;lnd Analysis .. Seminar NOles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COAOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar    Pilge 16
Nozzle Analysis: DI01 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Al = 0.463 in
Area
A2NP
fl2NP
A2NP
Area
A211P
A21'IP
A2\'IP
Available in Nozzle Hall, no Pad;
( 2 tHN (TLNP, 110) ) (THK CAN
( 2 1.4050 ) ( 0.6870 .. 0.1250
1.3"/4 in
Available in Nozzle Hall, with Pad:
(2'llIN(TLWP,HO))' (THK"CAN.. TRN) 'PFR2
( 2 2.1550 ) , ( 0.6870 .. 0.1250 
2.108 in
TRN ) " FFR2
0.0730 ) , 1.00
0.07301 ' 1.00 )
Area
MNP
MNP
A4NP
Area
A4HP
A4HP
A4\'JP
Available in Welds, no Pad:
\'IO"'2'FF'R2 t ( 1'/I .. CAN/0.707 )"'2'FFR2
0.3750"'2 1. 0000 t ( 0.0000 )"'2 1. 0000
0.141 in
Available in welds, with Pad:
... 2FFR3t(WI .. CAN/0.707) ... 2FFR2tWP... 2FFR4
0.37502 1.00 ( 0.0000 )2 1.00 t 0.62502 1.00
0.53} in
Area Available in Pad:
AS (lH N(DP, OL) .. (OIlH 2 'TIlK) ) " (Hi n (TP, TLI'IP, TE) ) 'FF'R4
AS (22.0000" 12.7500 ) 0.7500 ' 1. 00
A5 6.938 in
UG45 Hinimum Nozzle Neck Thickness Requirement:
'" tlax (t.Jin (Hax (/lax (UG4 S81, UG16B) ,Hax (UG4582, VG168) ) , VG4 584) , VG4 sA)
f.lax(tlin(Nax(flax( 0.9602, 0.1875),'lax( 0.1250,0.1875),0.4531),0.1980)
0.4531 < Minimum Nozzle Thickness 0.6011 in. OK
lI.A.W.P. RESULTS FOR THIS NOZZLE GEOHETRY
Approximate f<l.A.W.P. for given geometry AHAP 233.8 psig
Weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Vncorroded 119.90 lb.
Weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Corroded 106.49 lb.
/1 INIf.\UH DESIGN tlETAL TEIlPERATURE RESULTS: Nozzle Shell Pad
Hinimum Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS66 11 30 16 F
rHnimurn Temp. at operating stress 129 35 12
,.
/Hnimum Temp. w/o impact per OO .. 20(f) 20 20 20 F
Nozzle HOHT Thickness Calc. per UCS66 l(b),
IHn. J.letal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS .. 66
Ilin. "'etal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
llin. fletal Temp. w/o impact per UG .. 20(f)
HIN(tn,t,te)
11
129
20
P
F
F
WELD SIZE CALCULATIONS, NOZZLE Nrn.JBER 1, Desc. 0101 Nozzle A
456
llinimum thickness for nozzle/shell welds Tmin
Ilinimum thickness for pad/shell welds TminPad
0.5620 in.
0.7500 in.
Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design ;md A1l3lysis. Seminar Noles Ilillsidt' anti Orr.. Anglc Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., i'lhite Lock
PileName Seminar ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ....  Page 17
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Scp 21,2000
Results Per UH16.I,
Nozzle Held
Pad weld
Required Thickness
0.2500 !lin per Code
0.3750 ::: 0.5'TNINPAD
Actual Thickness
0.2625 0 .. 7 WO
0.4375 = 0.7 ' WP
ill.
in.
HELD STRENGTH AND \'IELD LOADS PER UG41.1, (al OR (bl
W (ARAl+2* ITHKCAN) 'PPR1'(El(TCASI .. TR)'S
1"1 19.7100  0.4627 t 2 ' 10.6870  0.1250 I ' 1.0000
I 1.00 ' ( 1.0000  0.1250) .. 0.8352 I I ' 20000
\1 185841 .. lb.
\11 IA2tA5tA4(WIICAN/.707)A2 *PPR2)"5
WI (2.1077 t 6.9375 1 0.5312 .. 0.0313 ' 1.00 I ' 20000
m 190904. lb.
W2 (A2tA3tA4t(2'(THKCAN)'(TCAS)'Prl)'S
(2.1077 t 0.0000 t 0.1406 .. 0.9835 ) 20000
1'/2 64636. lb.
In (A2IA3+A4tA5, (2' (THKCAN)' (TCASI'Prll) '5
1'13 (2.1077 t 0.0000 .. 6.93"'5 I 0.5312 .. 0.9835 ) 20000
1'/3 211199. lb.
STREN"GTll OF CONNECTION ELE11ENTS FOR PAl LURE PATH ANAl.YSIS
SHEAR, OUTI'IARD NOZZLE \'IELD:
SONI'I (PI/2)
SON\'/ (].1416 / 2.0 ) , 12.7500 0.3750 ' 0.49' 20000
SONW 13602. lb.
SllEAR, PAD ELEIIENT \'IELD:
SPEH (PI/2)*OP'WP*0.49*SEW
(3.1416 I 2.0 ) , 22.0000 ' 0.6250 ' 0.49 ' 20000
SPEW 211665. lb.
SHEAR, NOZZLE WALL:
SNW IPI'(DLRtDLO)/4.0) '(THKCANI '0.7'SN
13.1416 * 6.0940) , ( 0.6870  0.1250 I ' 0 .. 7 ' 20000
150632. lb.
TENSION, PAD GROOVE WELD:
TPGW (PI/2.0) 'DLO'WGPN'O. 74'5EG
(3.1416/2.0)' 12.7500 ' 0.7500 ' 0.74 * 20000
TPGW 222307. lb.
TENSION, NOZZLE GROOVE WELD:
TNGW (PI/2)'DLO*(WGNVICASI*0.74'SNG
TNml (3.1416 I 2.0 I ' 12.7500 ' 10.6870  0.1250) , 0.74 ' 20000
TNGW 166582. lb.
STRENGTH OF FAILURE PATHS:
PATH11 (SPEI1. SNW 1 '" ( 211664 of 150631 I " 362296 lb.
PATH22 t TPGW of TNGW f SINN I
( 7]601 t 222306 t 166582 .. 0 I " 462490 lb.
PATIO3 (SPEI'1 t TNGWt SINlrl I
( 211664 t 166582 0 I = 318246 lb.
Examplc Problcm IA Simple Dnllll 457
Ilillside tlnd Orr.Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering soft.ware
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local \/hit.e Lock
FileName Seminar . Page 18
Nozzle Analysis: 0101 Nozzle A Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
SUHt1ARY OF FAILURE PATH CALCULflTJONS:
Path 1 1 362297. lb. , must exceed
Ij 185841. lb. 0<
'"
190904. lb.
Path 22 462491. lb . must exceed I'j 185841. lb. 0< 112 64636. lb.
Path 33 318247. lb. must exceed I'j 185841. lb. 0< 113 211199. lb.
The PV Elite Program, (e) 19892000 by COAOE Engineering Software
458 Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Dcsign and Analysis  Scmilltlf Nolcs Ilillside nnd OffAngle Nozzlc Angles
Pressure Vessel Design .11)(1 Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
0101 Nozzle B:
Location
Size
Material
Thickness
Flange Class
Flange Material
Cylinder
8 in. (200 NS)
SA 106, C
Schedule 80
300
1.1
The Nozzle is inserted into the vessel wall.
There is a .500in. (12.7 mm) partial penetration groove weld
between the vessel wall and the nozzle neck.
Nozzle Outside Projection is 8.0 in. (203 mm)
No Intemal Projections are allowed in this vessel.
There is a 0.75in. (19 mm) thick reinforcing pad
The Pad material is the same as the Shell material.
There is a full penetration weld bel ween the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.375in. (9.5 mm) cover weld between the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.625in.(l6 mm) weld between the 00 of the pad and the vessel.
Notes:
Questions:
What pad diameter (if any) will you use? _
What is the M.A.W.P. for the assembly?
DO NOT TUlm THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
EXl1ll1plc Problcm IA Simple Drulll 459
Hillside tllH..I On.Anglc Noule Angles Pressure Vessel Design <lnd Analysis  Seminar Notes
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local \'lhite Lock
FileName: Seminar _... Page 19
Nozzle Analysis: 0101 Nozzle B Item: 2 9:S1a Scp 21,2000
Input Echo, Nozzle Item 2, Description: 0101 Nozzle 13
Nozzle rlatedal (Not Normalized or NA)
Nozzle Allowable Stress at Temperature SN
Nozzle Allowable Stress At Ambient SNA
Insert or Abutting Nozzle Type
Outward projection of Nozzle
Neld leg size between Nozzle and Pad/Shell
Groove weld depth between Nozzle and vessel
Angle between Nozzle and Shell or Head
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Diameter of Nozzle
230.00 psig
450.00 F
$A516 7.
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
144.0000 in.
1. 0000 in.
0.1250 in.
90.00 Degrees
SA51G 7.
20000.00 psi
7.0000.00 psi
OD
8.0000 in.
Nominal
SCH 8.
0.1250 in.
1.00
1.00
Insert
8.0000 in.
0.3750 in.
0.5000 in.
S
SA
D
T
CAS
NTYP
HO
110
\'IGNV
P
TEf1P
ANGLE
BASISN
DlA
DBN
THKNO:1
CAN
ES
EN
(Not Normalized or NAJ
Stress at Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Shell Haterial
Shell Allowable
Shell Allowable
Design Internal Pressure Case
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Inside Diameter of Cylindrical Shell
Actual Thickness of Shell or Head
Corrosion Allowance for Shell or !lead
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis
Nominal Thickness of Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam at Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck
Pad Haterial (Not Normalized or NA)
Pad Allowable Stress at Temperature
Pad Allowable Stress At Ambient
Diameter of Pad along vessel surface
Thickness of Pad
Weld leg size between Pad and Shell
Groove weld depth between Pad and Nozzle
AS1IE Code Weld Type per
SN
SNA
DP
TP
I1P
I'IGPN
70
20000 _00 psi
20000.00 psi
15.5000 in.
0.7500 in.
0.6250 in.
0.7500 in.
A
Is this is Hanway/Access/Inspection Opening
Skip Iterative Failure Thickness Calculations
No
Yes
NOZZLE CALCULATION, NOZZLE 2, Description: 0101 Nozzle B
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99, UG37 to UG45
Actual Nozzle Diameter Used in Calculation
Actual Nozzle Thickness Used in Calculation
8.625 in.
0.500 in.
Internal Pressure Results for SHELL/HEAD
460 Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Ilil1sidc and OITAngle Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COhDE Inc., Local \'Ihite Lock
PileName Seminar  .. 
Nozzle Analysis D101 Nozzle B Item: 2
Page 20
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Required thickness per UG]7(a) of Cylindrical Shell, 1'1'
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR);
(P*(D/2+CA))/(S*E0.G*P) per UG?? (c) (1)
(2]0.00*(144.0000/2+0.1250))/(20000.00*1.000.6*2]0.00)
0.8]52 in.
Internal Pressure Results for NOZ:t,I... E :
Required thickness per VG)7(a) of Nozzle \'Iall, 1'1'
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*D/2)/(S*EI0.4*P) per Appendix 11 (a) (1)
(230.00'8.6250/2)/(20000.00*1.00+0.4*230.00)
0.0491 in.
CASE 1
CASE 1
UG40, Thickness and Diameter Limit Results
,
CASE
Effective material diameter limit, DL 15 .7500 in.
Effective material thickness limit, no pad TLNP 0 .9375 in.
Effective material thickness limit, pad side TLI'IP 1 .6875 in.
RESULTS of NOZZI,E REINFORCEllENT AREA CALCULATIONS:
AREA AVAILABLE, A1 to AS Design External flapnc
Area Required AR 6.577 NA NA in
Area in Shell AI 0.313 NA NA in
Area in Nozzle 11 A2 1.099 NA NA in
Area in Inward Nozzle A3 0.000 NA NA in
Area in M 0.281 NA NA in
Area in Pad A5 5.156 NA NA in
TOTAL AREA AVAILABLE ATOT 6.850 NA NA in
Pressure Case 1 Governs the Analysis
Nozzle Angle Used in Area Calculations
The area available without a pad is Insufficient.
The area available with the given pad is Sufficient.
90.00 Degs.
SELECTION OF POSSIBLE REINFORCING PADS: Diameter Thickness
Based on given Pad Thickness: 15.2500 0 .7500 in.
Based on given Pad Diameter: 15.5000 0 .7500 in.
Based on the estimated Diameter Limit: 15.6250 0 .7500 in.
Reinforcement Area Required for Nozzle:
AR (DLR'TR+2'THK*TR'(IPPR1)) UG37(c) or UG39
AR ('l. 8'150'0.8352+2' (0.50000.1250) '0.8352* (1.01.00) )
AR 6.577 in
Areas
Area
A1
Al '"
per UG37.1 but with DL '" Diameter r.imit, DLR'" Corroded ID:
Available in Shell (AI):
(DJ, DLR) (ES' (1' CAS) TR) .. 2' (THK CAN) , (ES (TCAS) TR) * (1  FPRl )
(15.7507.875) * (1.00' (1.00000.125) 0.835) .. 2* (0.5000.125)
Example Problem Simple Dnlln 461
I lil1sick alld On'Angle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
(OADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Local Lock
FileName Seminar .
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle B Item: 7.
0.00' n.00000.1250) 0.8352) 'n. 01.00)
Al = 0.313 in
Page 7.1
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Area Available in Nozzle NaIl, no Pad:
A2NP I 2
.
tuN (TLNP, HO)
I I TIIK  CAN TRN I FFR2
A2Np ( 2
.
0.9375 I
.
( 0.5000  0.1250 0.0494 I l. 00 I
A2NP 0.611 in
Area
A2\'/P
A2NP
A2\'/P
Area
MNP
MNP
MNP
Available in Nozzle NaIl, with Pad:
(2'IUN(TLI'IP,HO' (TIlKCANTRN) 'FFR2
( 2 1.6875 ) ' ( 0.5000  0.1250  0.0494 ) , 1.00 )
1.099 in
Available in \'/elds, no Pad:
\':O"'2'FfR2 .. ( WICAN/O. 707 ) ""2'FFR2
0.3750"'2 ' 1.0000 + ( 0.0000 )"'2 1.0000
0.141 in
Area
A'1\'lP
A'1WP
A4rlP
Available in Nelds, with Pad:
FFR3 .. (m CANtO . 707) '"'2' F'FR2+Trap' F'F'R4
0.)750"'2 ' l.00 .. ( 0.0000 )"'2 ' 1.00 .. 0.1406
0.281 in
, 1.00
Area Available in Pad:
A5 (lUN (op, DL)  (OIA. 2 'THK) ) , (flin (TP, TL\'/P, TE) ) FFR'1
A5 (15_5000  8.6250 I ' 0.7500 .. 1.00
AS 5.156 in
UG'15 IHnimum Nozzle Neck Thickness Requirement:
.. !lax (Min (t,lax (Hax (UG4 581, UGl68) ,!lax (UG4SB2, UGI6B) ) ,UG4SB<l) ,UG4 SA)
1laxIHinll>lax(Hax( 0.9602, 0.187S),t1ax( 0.1250, 0.1875, 0,4068), 0.1744)
0.4068 < Hinimum Nozzle Thickness 0.4)75 in. OK
M .A.W,P. RESULTS FOR THIS NOZZLE GEOHETRY
Approximate M.A.ILP. for given geometry A/otAP 234.7 psig
\'Ieight of Nozzle, with Pad, Uncorroded 60.16 lb.
Height
0'
Nozzle, with Pad, Corroded 51.13 lb.
NINIHUM DESIGN HETAL TEt1PERATURE RESULTS: Nozzle Shell Pad
Hinimum Temp. wlo impact per Fig. UCS66
.
31
,.
F
Ninimum Temp. at operating stress 146 2. 12 F
Hinimum Temp. wlo impact per UG20(f) 20 20 20 F
Nozzle Thickness Calc. per UCS66 l(b),
llin. l1etal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS66
rHn. Netal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per ucs 66.1)
r,Hn. !letal Temp. w/o impact per UG20(f)
IUN(tn,t,te)
.
146
20
F
F
F
HELD SIZE CALCULATIONS, NOZZLE Nm1BER 2, oesc.: 0101 Nozzle B
462
IHnimum thickness for nozzle/shell welds Tmin
Ninimum thickness for pad/shell welds TminPad
0.3750 in.
0.7500 in.
Example Problcm IA Simplc Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Hillside and OrrAngle Noah: Angles
COl\DE Engineel"ing Softwale
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc. Local ~ h i t Lock
FileName Seminar
Nozzle Analysis DIOI Nozzle B Item: 2
Page 22
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Results Per V\116.1,
Nozzle \'Ield
Pad \'Ield
Required Thickness
0.2500 Ilin per Code
0.3'/50 = O.STIUNPAD
Actual Thickness
0.2625 0.7 NO
0.4375 = 0.1 NP
in.
in.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Example Problem IA Simple DnHn 463
Ilillsidc tint! OrfAngle Nozzle Anglcs
464
Pressure Vessel Design tint! Antilysis  Scmintlr Notes
Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles lIillside and Oll.. Angle Nozzle Angles
Pressure Vessel Design alld Analysis Seminar
Component Design I)roblem
DI 0 I Nozzle C:
Location
Size
Material
Thickness
Flange Class
Flange Material
Elliptical Head
20 in. (500 NS)
SA 516, 70 rolled plate
.75 (19 mm)
300
1.1
The nozzle is inserted into the vessel wall.
There is a .500in. (12.7 mm )parlial penetration groove weld
betwecn thc vessel wall and the nozzle neck.
Nozzle outside projection is 8.0 in. (203 mm)
No Internal Projections arc allowed in this vessel.
There is a 0.75in. (19 mm) thick reinforcing pad.
The pad material is the same as the shell material.
There is a full penetration weld between the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.375in.(9.5 mm) cover weld between the pad and the nozzle neck.
There is a 0.625in. (16 mm) weld between the 00 of the pad and the vessel.
Notes:
Questions:
Why is the required shell thickness different than previously calculated?
What pad diameter (if any) will you use?
What is the M.A.W.P. for the assembly?
Docs this nozzle limitlhe M.A.W.P. for the vessel? _
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Example Problem IA Simple DnJlll 465
I lillsidc and OffAngle Nozzle Angles Pressure Vcssd Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COf\DE Inc., Local I"lhite Lock
PileName : Seminar . .. ~ ...  .. . Page 23
Nozzle Analysis: 0101 Nozzle C Item: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Nozzle Item 3, Description: 0101 Nozzle C
Design Internal Pl'essure Case
Temperature for Internal Pressure
P
TEr1P
230.00
450.00
psig
p
Shell J.laterial
Shell Allowable
Shell Allowable
(Not Normalized or Nf\)
Stress at Temperature
Stress At Ambient
5
5A
SA516 70
20000.00
20000.00
psi
psi
Inside Diameter of Elliptical Ilead
Aspect Ratio of Elliptical Head
Actual Thickness of Shell or Head
Corrosion Allowance for Shell or Head
Angle between Nozzle and Shell or Head
D
AR
T
CAS
ANGLE
144.0000 in.
2.00
1. 0000 in.
0.1250 in.
90.00 Degrees
Is the Nozzle Outside the 80\ diameter Limit
Nozzle Material (Not Normalized or NA)
Nozzle Allowable Stress at Temperature
Nozzle Allowable Stress At Ambient
5N
5NA
NO
S A ~ S 6 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Diameter of Nozzle
BASISN
DIA
OD
7.0.0000 in,
Nozzle Size and Thickness Basis
Actual Thickness of Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Shell Seam at Nozzle
Joint Efficiency of Nozzle Neck
Insert or Abutting Nozzle Type
Outward Projection of Nozzle
Weld leg size between Nozzle and Pad/Shell
Groove weld depth between Nozzle and Vessel
DBN
THK
CAN
E5
EN
NT'fP
HO
HO
HGNV
Actual
0.7500
0.1250
1.00
1. 00
Insert
8.0000
0.3750
0.5000
in,
in.
in.
in.
in.
Pad 'laterial (Not Normalized or NA)
Pad Allowable Stress at Temperature
Pad Allowable Stress At Ambient
Diameter of Pad along vessel surface
Thickness of Pad
Weld leg size between Pad and Shell
Groove weld depth between Pad and Nozzle
ASME Code Weld Type per UW16.1
5N
5NA
DP
TP
HP
WGPN
S A ~ 516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
32.0000 in.
0.7500in.
0.6250 in.
0.7500 in.
A
Is this is Hanway/Access/Inspection Opening
Skip Iterative Failure Thickness Calculations
No
Yes
NOZZLE CALCULATION, NOZZLE NUtlBER 3, Description: 0101 Nozzle C
Asr1E Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, 11..99, UG37 to UG<l5
466
Aclllal No%%le Diameter used in Calculation 20.000 in.
Example Problem IA Simple Drum
PreliSlIrt; Vcsscl Design and Analysis Seminar Notes Ilillsidc and OrrAngle Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering So[tl"are
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FileName Seminar 
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle C I tern; )
Page 24
9:51a Sep 21,2000
Actual Nozzle Thickness Used in Calculation
Internal Pressure Results for SHELL/HEAD :
Required thickness per UG37 (a) of Elliptical Head, TR,
0.750 in.
CASE 1
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR);
(P'(D+2'CAj'K)/(2'S*E0.2'P) Appendix l<1(c)
(230.00'(14<1.0000t2'0.1250)'0.90)/(2'20000.00'1.000.2'230.00)
0.7474 in.
Internal Pressure Results for NOZZLE
Required thickness per UG37(aj of Nozzle l'lall, Tr
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P'O/2)/(S'EtO.<1'P) per Appendix 11 (al (1)
(230.00'20.0000/2)/(20000.00'1.00tO.4'230.00)
0.1145 in.
CASE 1
UG<10, Thickness and Diameter Limit Results
,
CASE
Effective material diameter limit, DL 3".5000 ill.
Effective material thickness limit. no pad TI,NP 1.5625 in.
Effective material thickness I imi t. pad side TLI'IP 2.1875 in.
RESULTS oE NOZZLE REINFORCEIlENT AREA CALCULATIONS;
AREA AVAILABLE, A1 to A5 Design External /olapnc
At:ea Required AR 14.013 NA NA in
Area in Shell A1 2.393 NA NA in
Area in Nozzle Wall A2 2.23<1 NA NA in
Area in Inward Nozzle A3 O. (100 NA NA in
Area in l'Ields A4 0.531 NA NA in
Area in Pad AS 9. (100 NA NA in
TOTAL AREA AVAILABLE ATOT 14.158 NA
. NA
in
Pressure Case 1 Governs the Analysis
Nozzle Angle Used in Area Calculations
The area available without a pad is Insufficient.
The area available with the given pad is Sufficient.
90.00 Degs.
SELECTION oe POSSIBLE REINF'ORCING PADS: Diameter Thickness
Based on given Pad Thickness: 31. 8750 0.7500 in.
Based on given Pad Diameter: 32.0000 0.7500 in.
Based on Shell or Nozzle Thickness: 31.8750 0.7500 in.
Reinforcement Area Required for Nozzle:
AR (OLR'TR+2'THK'TR' (1FFRll) UG37 (c) or UG39
AR (18.7500*0.7<174 t2' (0.75000.1250) '0 . .,474' (l. 0 1.00) j
AR 1<1.013 in
Areas per UG 37.1 but wi th DL
Example Problem IA Simple Dnnll
Diameter Limit, DLR Corroded ID;
467
Ilillside lllld OrrAngle Nozzle Angles
COADE Engineering Software
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FileName: Seminar 
Nozzle Analysis 0101 Nozzle C
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Local White Lock
. Page 25
Item: 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Area Available in Shell (All:
I'll (DLDLR)(ES{TCAS)TR)2{THKCAN)'(ES(TCAS)TR)(1FFR1)
I'll
(1.00 11.00000.1250) 0.74'/4)" (l.01.00)
I'll 2.393 in
Area
A2NP
A2NP
A2NP
Area
A21'IP
Available in Nozzle Wall, no Pad:
( 2 ' tlIN{TLNP,HO) ) ( THK  CAN
( 2 1.5625 ) ( 0.1500  0.1250
1. 595 in
Available in Nozzle l'Iall, with Pad:
(2rlIN(TUIP,1I0) (THKCANTRN) 'FFR2
( 2 2.1815 ) ( 0.1500  0.1250 
2.234 in
TRN ) ,. FFR2
0.1145 ) 1.00 )
0.1145 ) 1.00 )
Area
MNP
MNP
MNP
Area
MHP
MWP
Available in Welds, no Pad:
I'IO"2FFR2 t ( I'IICAN/0.70'! ' .... 2FFR2
0.3750"2 1.0000 ( 0.0000 )A2 1.0000
0.141 in
Available in Welds, with Pad:
1'I0
A
2' FFR3 t (\'/I CAN/a. 707' "2' FFR2t\'/P"2' FFR4
0.3150"2 1.00 t ( 0.0000 )A 2 ,. 1.00 t 0.6250"2
0.531 in
1.00
Area Available in Pad:
AS <rUN (DP, DL)  (01 Aof 2 'THK) ) {tolin (TP, TLWP, TE) ) ,. FFR4
1'15 (32.0000  20.0000 ) 0.7500 1.00
AS 9.000 in
UG45 rHnimum Nozzle Neck Thickness Requirement:
Nax U1in (Hax (Hax (UG4 581, UG16B) ,"'ax (UG4 582, UG168) ) ,UG4 584) ,UG4 5A)
l1ax(rlin(Hax{Max( 0.9554, 0.1875),Itax( 0.1250, 0.187S), 0.4531), 0.2395)
0.4531 < Minimum Nozzle Thickness 0.7500 in. OK
rl.A. W. P. RESUI,TS FOR THIS NOZZLE GEONETRY
Approximate '1.A. \'1. P. (or given geometry AHAP 231. 2 psig
Weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Uncorroded 219.54 lb.
weight of Nozzle, with Pad, Corroded 198.15 lb.
rHNIHUN DESIGN r1ETAL TEr1PERATURE RESULTS: Nozzle Shell Pad
Hinimum Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS66 I. II 1. P
Hinimum Temp. at operating stress 124 1. 2
,.
Ninimum Temp. w/o impact per UG20(f) 2. 2. 2. F
Nozzle f1D/olT Thickness Calc. per UCS66 1 (b) ,
rolin. f.letal Temp. w/o impact per Fig. UCS66
Itin. f.letal Temp. at Req'd thk. (per UCS 66.1)
'Iin. Netal Temp. w/o impact per UG20(f)
mN(tn,t,te)
,.
124
20
p
P
F
468
WELD S1 ZE CALCULATIONS, NOZ7,LE NUIIAER 3, Desc. 0101 Nozzle C
Example Problem IA Simple Drum
Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Ililisidc <lnd Angles
COADE Engineering Software
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FileName: Seminar . Page 26
Nozzle Analysis; 0101 Nozzle C ILem: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
fOlinimum thickness for nozzle/shell welds Tmin
flinimum thickness fOl
o
pad/shell welds TminPad
0.6250 in.
0.7500 in.
Results Pel UN16.1,
Nozzle \\'eld
Pad weld
Requiled Thickness
0.2500 /lin per Code
0.3750 = O.5T1UNPAD
Actual Thickness
0.2625 0.7 \/0
0.4375 = 0.7 WP
in.
in.
The PV Elite Program, Ie) 19892000 by CQADE Engineering Software
Example Problem IA Simple Drum 469
Ilillside ilnd OrrAngle Nozzle Anglcs
470
Prcssurc Vesscl Design and n ~ l y s s * SCl1linar Notes
Example Problcm IA Simplc Drum
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Chapter 5: Cones
and Conical Sections
Cones combine all of the analysis techniques we learned for internal and external pressure.
(
GUIDELINES FOR CONES
The required thickness of a cone for internal pressure (Paragraph UG32) is based on the
same design formulas used for cylinders, taking into account the inclination of the cone:
I = PD 0; P = 2SEtcosa
2cosa(SE O.6P) D + 1.2/cosa
The external pressure calculations for cones (Paragraph UG33) arc also based on the cyl
inder analysis, but with adjustments to the thickness and effective length to account for the
inclination of the cone. The effective length for toriconica! sections is adjusted to include a
fraction of the knuckle in the design length.
Cones are required to have reinforcement at the large and small ends under internal pres
sure (Appendix 15) because of the tendency of the cone/cylinder junction to buckle under
the radial load developed in the cone.
The Code calculates the maximum angle below which buckling will not occur as a func
tion of the design pressure and allowable stress. This ratio is used because it is an accurate
indication of the diameter thickness ratio for the cylinder, and takes into account the
strength of the material. This approach has the odd effect that when you increase the
allowable stress you decrease the allowable cone angle. However, you will nonnally find
that for a given thickness this effect is offset by the increased area available in the cone for
reinforcement.
Given that reinforcement is required, the required area is a function of the radius divided
by the allowable stress. Area available in the shell within one decay length may be
included in the area available for stiffening.
Cones are required to have reinforcement at the large and small ends under external pres
sure (Appendix 17) because of the tendency to buckle under axial external loads.
At both the large and small ends there are requirements for area ofreinforcement and
moment of inertia of the reinforcement. The area of reinforcement is based on consider
ations similar to those described for internal pressure. The required moment of inertia of
the reinforcement is a function of the strain in the ring at the cone/shell junction, which is
in turn calculated using the Code materials chart from the stress in the ring. See the com
ments on stiffening rings in the external pressure section for further insight.
Cones <:Ind Conical Sections 51
Typical Geometry for a Simple Cone
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Semiuar NoLes
TYPICAL GEOMETRY FOR A SIMPLE CONE
The following four figures arc provided as examples of simple cones.
r FLAT HEAD
HALF" APEX ANGLE
CRO\v'N RADIUS
CYLINDER
CORROSION ALLOVANCE
ACTUAL THICKNESS
TORISPHERICAL HEAD
<OR ELLIPTleAl)
<OR HEMISPHERICAl)
Figure 1Typical Conical Vessel
(
THICKNESS Of
REINfURCING RIIlG
_
.:u..;=::T
THlCKNESS Of
LARGE END
'WIDTH OF
LENGTH Of 
LARGE END

DIAMETER OF
LENGTH OF
SHALL END
SMAll END THICKNESS or
SMALL END

I
THICKNESS or
HALF APEX I
CONE
LENGTH OF
I
ANGLE
r
COOE
I
REINFORCING RING
Figure 2Typical Geometry for a Reinforced Cone
tana = Opposite
Adjacent
(D,D
S
)
Opposite = . 2
Adjacellt := L
(D
L
 D
s
)/2
a = a1"C lanl";L"
52
Cones and Conical Sections
(
Pressure Vessel Dcsign and An<tlysis  Scminar Noles Typical Geometry for a Simplc Cone
(
Os
\ I
\ I
\ ex /
\ ' I
\17
\ I
" 1 /
\I
L
(
(
Cones and Conical Sections
Figure 3Half Apex Angle Calculation
53
Typical Geometry [or a Simple COlle Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NoLes
:...t ~ __ ~
v
t ~
.=
54
Figure 4Free Body Diagram
Cones and Conical SecLions
Pressure Vessel Design <lnd Analysis  Seminar Noles Whal do you need to know to perform cOile calculations?
(
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW TO PERFORM CONE CALCULATIONS?
Dimensions of the Cone and the Cylinders at Either End
The Code calculates areas available not only in the cone itself, but in the cylinders
attaehed to either end of the Cone. If you have no cylinders (i.e. a cone with flanges on
either end) you must make an approximation concerning how much area is available at
either end.
Dimensions of Transition Knuckles (if any exist)
If the cone has a knuckle at the large end and a flare at the small end, area ofreinforcement
and moment ofinertia calculations are not required. However, the thickness ofthe knuckle
and flare must meet the requirements for toriconical sections in Appendix 14.
Half Apex Angle of the Cone
For internal pressure calculations without a knuckle or a flare, the half apex angle should
not be greater than 30 degrees. When there is a knuckle or a flare the calculations can be
used up to 60 degrees.
For external pressure calculations the half apex angle must not be greater than 60 degrees.
Some vessel, such (IS reboilers, have two different angles associated with the conc. In other
words, the cone is eccentric rather than concentric. For Code analysis, we recommend that
the half apex angle chosen be the larger of the two angles.
Axial Forces on the Cone
The axial force can be either positive or negative. Positive values cause additional com
pression at the cone/cylinder intersection. Negative values reduce the eompression at the
intersection. Determine the sign for your loading by drawing a free body diagram.
Width and Thickness of Cone Reinforcement
Cone reinforcement is usually a simple flat plate cut in the shape of a donut. The width
and thickness of the flat plate are used to calculate a combined m9ment of inertia for the
plate/shell section. The Code rules specifY how to include the shell in the calculations,
since the conical part ofthe shell is inclined.
Cones and Conical Sections 55
What do you need lo know 10 perfonn cone calculalions?
56
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles What do you need 10 know 10 pcrronn cone calculations?
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
DI02 Transition Cone:
The vessel shown on page 74 has the following dimensions:
Lower cylinder ID =42 in. (1067 mm), thickness 0.375 in. (9.5 mm), length
42 in. (1067 mm)
Upper cylinder ID = 18 in. (457 mm), thickness 0.375 in.(9.5 mm), length 18
in. (457 mm)
Cone thickness 0.375 in. (9.5 mm), length = 30 in.(762 mm)
Design pressure 125 psi (.862 N/mm
2
), Design temperature 300F (149C)
All materials arc SS316 with zero corrosion allowance.
Use higher allowable stresses and 100% radiography
Do this analysis for internal pressure only using the SHELL program.
Then do the full analysis including full vacuum at 300F using the
CONICAL program.
For the full analysis, include reinforcing rings of316SS on the shells at both the large and
small ends. Suggested dimensions for the rings are 2 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick.
Notes:
Questions:
What is the half apex angle?
What is the M.A. w.P. for the Cone?
Are the reinforcing rings adequate?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
(
Cones and Conical Sections 57
What do you need 10 know to perform cone calculations'!
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 10
Shell Analysis: DI02 Cone Item: 5 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Component 5, Description: DI02 Cone
Design Internal Pressure
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
Material Specification
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Joint efficiency for Head Joint
Inside Diameter of Conical Head
Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
Cone 1/2 Apex Angle
P
S
SA
E
D
T
CA
ALPHA
125.00 psig
300.00 F
NO
SA240 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
1.00
'2
.0000 in.
0.3750 in.
0.0000 in.
21. 8000 degrees
Type of Element: Conical Head or Shell
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER 5, Dese.: 0102 Cone
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I, 1998, A99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P(D+2*CA/(2*Coslalpha)*(S*E0.6*P) per Appendix 14 (e)
(125.00+(42.0000+2*0.0000)/(2*0.9285*(20000.00*1.000.6*125.00))
0.1419 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(2*S*E*(TCA)*COSA)/(D+2*CA)+1.2*(TCA)*COSA) per App 14(e)
(2*20000.00*1.0010.3750)*0.9285)/(42.0000+2*0.0000)+1.2*(0.3750)*0.9285
328.34 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
(2*SA*E*T*Cos(alpha/(D+I.2*T*Cos(alpha) per App 14(e)
(2*20000.00*1.000.3750*0.9285)/{42.0000+1.2*0.3750*0.9285)
328.34 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(P*(ID+2*CA)+1.2*(TCA)*Cos(alpha)/(2*E*{TCA)*Cos(alpha
(125.00*({42.0000+2*0.0000)+1.2*(0.3750)*0.9285)/(2*1.00*(0.3750)*0.9285
7614.16 psi
SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
MAWP
P
0.1419
0.3750
328.34
125.00
in.
in.
psig
psig
58
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( Measured at High Point J:
Hydro. per UG99(b); 1.3 * MAWP * Sa/S 426.84 psig
Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles What do yOlI need to know 10 perfonn COlle calculations?
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Shell Analysis: 0102 Cone Item: 5 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Hydro. per UG99{c) i 1.3 .. MAPNC
WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, NO C.A.
Volume of Shell Component
Weight of Shell Component
Inside Volume of Component
Weight of Water in Component
426.84 psig
VOLMET 1073.6 in.**3
WMET 300.6 lb.
VOLID 22337.8 in ..... 3
WWAT 806.6 lb.
(
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Cones and Conical Sections 59
What do you need fo kllow lo perronn cone calculatIOns? Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
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Conical Analysis; D102 Cone Item: 1 9:s1a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Cone Item 1,
Design Internal Pressure
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Design External Pressure
Temperature for External Pressure
Take Cone as Line of Support for External
Cone Material
Cone Allowable Stress at Temperature
Cone Allowable Stress At Ambient
Longitudinal Joint Efficiency of Cone
Circumferential Joint Efficiency of Cone
Actual Thickness of Cone
Corrosion Allowance for Cone
Diameter Basis for Cone and Cylinders
Diameter of Small End of Cone
Diameter of Large End of Cone
Half Apex Angle for Cone
Axial Length of Cone
Description: D102 Cone
PINT 125.00 psig
TEMPIN )00.00 F
PEXT 15.00 psig
TEMPEX 300.00 F
Pressure; Yes
SA240 316H
SAC 20000.00 psi
SOC 20000.00 psi
EC 1.0000
ECC 1.0000
TC 0.3750 in.
CAC 0.0000 in.
BASIS ID
DS 18.0000 in.
DL 42.0000 in.
ANGLE 21.80 degrees
LC 30.0000 in.
Small End Cylinder Material SA240 316H
Small Cylinder Allowable Stress at Operating SAS 20000.00 psi
Small Cylinder Allowable Stress At Ambient SOS 20000.00 psi
Joint Efficiency of Small Cylinder ES 1. 0000
Actual Thickness of Small Cylinder TS 0.3750 in.
Corrosion Allowance for Small Cylinder CAS 0.0000 in.
Axial Length of Small Cylinder LS 18.0000 in.
Large End Cylinder Material SA240 316H
Large Cylinder Allowable Stress at Operating SAL 20000.00 psi
Large Cylinder Allowable Stress At Ambient SOL 20000.00 psi
Joint Efficiency of Large Cylinder EL 1.0000
Actual Thickness of Large Cylinder TL 0.3756 in.
Corrosion Allowance for Large Cylinder CAL 0.0000 in.
Axial Length of Large Cylinder LL 42.0000 in.
Type of Reinforcement at Large End of Cone:
Large End Reinforcing/Knuckle Material
Large Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Operating
Large Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Ambient
Location of Reinforcement at Large End of Cone:
Radial width of Reinforcing Bar{Large End) RWLB
Axial Thickness of Reinforcing Bar RTLB
Type of Reinforcement at Small End of Cone:
Small End Reinforcing/Knuckle Material
Small Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Operating
Small Reinforcing/Knuckle Allowable, Ambient
Bar
SA240 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
Shell
2.0000 in.
0.5000 in.
Bar
S A ~ 2 4 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
510 Cones and Conical Sections
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Conical Analysis; DI02 Cone Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Location of Reinforcement at Small End of
Radial width of Reinforcing Bar(Small End)
Axial Thickness of Reinforcing Bar
Cone:
RWSB
RTSB
Shell
2.0'000
0.5000
in.
in.
(
(
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, CONE NUMBER I, Description: DI02 Cone
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99
INTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for CONE:
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*(D+2*CA))/(2*Cos(alpha)*(S*E0.6*P)) per Appendix 14 (e)
(125.00+(42.0000+2*0.0000)/(2*0.9285*(20000.00*1.000.6*125.00
0.1419 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(2*S*E*(TCA)*COSA)/((D+2*CA)+1.2*(TCA)*COSA) per App 1 ~ 4 e
(2*20000.00*1.00*(0.3750)*0.9285)/{(42.0000+2*0.0000)+1.2*(0.3750)*0.9285
328.34 psig
INTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for SMALL CYLINDER:
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(P*(D/2+CA))/(S*E0.6*P) per UG27 (c) (1)
(125.00*(18.0000/2+0.0000)/(20000.00*1.000.6*125.00)
0.0565 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(S*E*(TCA)/(D/2+CA)+0.6*'(TCA per UG27 (c) (1)
(20000.00*1.00*(0.3750)/(18.0000/2+0.0000)+0.6*0.3750)
813.01 psig
INTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for LARGE CYLINDER:
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(p* (D/2+CA / (S*'EO. 6*P) per UG27 (c) (1)
(125.00*(42.0000/2+0.0000)/(20000.00*'1.000.6*125.00)
0.1317 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(S*'E*'(TCA/(D/2+CA)+0.6*(TCA per UG27 (c)(I)
(20000.00*1.00*'{0.3750/(42.0000/2+0.0000)+0.6*0.3750)
353.36 psig
SUMMARY of INT. PRESSURE RESULTS: Small Cyl Cone Large Cyl
Required Thickness plus CA 0.0565 0.1419 0.1317 in.
Actual Given Thickness 0.3750 0.3750 0.3750 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure 813.01 328.34 353.36 psig
Design Pressure as Given 125.00 125.00 125.00 psig
EXTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, CONE NUMBER 1, Description: DI02 Cone
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division I, 1998, A99
Cones and Conical Sections 511
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Conical Analysis: DI02 Cone Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
j
EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for O N ~
External Pressure Chart HA2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
26600000.00 psi
0.3750 in.
42.7500 in.
21.58 in.
122.7805
0.5048
0.0019588
10835.5977 psi
117.67 psig
122.7805 } '" 117.6690
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f{DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = (4*Bl/{3*DT) '" { 4 * 10835.598 )/( 3
0.1158 in.
42.7500 in.
21.58 in.
397.5126
0.5048
0.0003363
4472.1846 psi
15.00 psig
) '" 15.0006
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Required Thickness for External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart}
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP", (4*B)/{3*DT) '" ( 4 * 4472.185 )/( 3 * 397.5126
EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for SMALL CYLINDER:
External Pressure Chart HA2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
26600000.00 psi
(
0.3750 in.
18.7500 in.
18.00 in.
50.0000
0.9600
0.0038380
12093.H26 psi
322.48 psig
50.0000 ) '" 322.4838
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = {4*Bl/{3*DTl '" ( 4 * 12093.143 )/( 3 *
in.
in.
in.
_0.0618
18.7500
18.00
303.4573
0.9600
0.0002567
3414.0022 psi
15.00 psig
303.4573) '" 15.0005
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Required Thickness for External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP ~ (4*Bl/{3*DT) '" ( 4 * 3414.002 )/( 3 ~
512 Cones and Conical Sections
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EXTERNAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS for LARGE CYLINDER:
External Pressure Chart HA2
Elastic Modulus for Material
at 300.00 F
26600000.00 psi
0.3750 in.
42.7500 in.
42.00 in.
114.0000
0.9825
0.0010881
9549.2256 psi
111.69 psig
114.0000 ) = 111.6869
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Maximum Allowable External Pressure:
Corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, B, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable working Pressure
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*DT) = ( 4 * 9549.226 l/( 3 *
Pressure:
0.1423 in.
42.7500 in.
42.00 in.
300.5217
0.9825
0.0002542
3381.0564 psi
15.00 psig
3 * 300.5217 ) = 15.0008 lI(
External
TCA
OD
SLEN
DT
LD
A
B
Results for Required Thickness for
corroded Thickness of Shell
Outside Diameter of Shell
Design Length of Cylinder or Cone
Diameter I Thickness Ratio
Length I Diameter Ratio
Geometry Factor, A f(DT,LD)
Materials Factor, 8, f(A, Chart)
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
EMAWP = (4*B)/(3*DT) = ( 4 * 3381.056
External Pressure Chart HA2 at 300.00 F
Elastic Modulus for Large End Reinforcement 26600000.00 psi
External Pressure Chart HA2 at 300.00 F
Elastic Modulus for Small End Reinforcement 26600000.00 psi
(
SUMMARY of EXT. PRESSURE RESULTS: Small Cyl Cone Large Cyl
Reqd. Thickness + CA 0.0618 0.1158 0.1423 in.
Actual Given Thickness 0.3750 0.3750 0.3750 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure 322.48 117.67 111.69 psig
Design Pressure as Given 15.00 15.00 15.00 psig
REINFORCEMENT CALCULATIONS for CONE
/ LARGE CYLINDER:
degrees
degrees
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for LARGE END UNDER
Large end ratio of pressure to allowable stress
Large end max. half apex angle w/o reinforcement
Large end actual half apex angle
INTERNAL PRESSURE
0.00625
25.500
21.800
degrees
degrees
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for LARGE END UNDER
Large end ratio of pressure to allowable stress
Large end max. half apex angle w/o reinforcement
Large end actual half apex angle
EXTERNAL PRESSURE
0.00075
1.875
21.800
Area of Reinforcement Required in Large End Shell:
Cones and Conical Sections 513
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ARLE (RKLE*QL*RCLQ*TAN(Alpha)*/(SOL*EL))*
(1.00.25* ((PEXT*RCLOQL)/QL)* (Delta/Angle)
ARLE (1.0000 * 160.3125 ,., 21.3750 ,., 0.400/( 20000 * 1.00 )) *
( 1.0  0.25 * ( 15.00 ,., 21.3750  160.3125 ) I 160.3125 ) *
( 1.8750 I 21.8000 )
ARLE = 0.0671 in
AREA
AeL
AeL
AeL
of REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE in LARGE END
.55*( Dl*ts ,., ( ts + tc/CoslAlphal
.55 * ( 4.2.750 * 0.375 )" * ( 0.375 +
1.7152 in
SHELL:
)
0.375/ 0.928 )
SUMMARY of REINFORCEMENT AREA, LARGE END, EXTERNAL
Area of reinforcement required per App. 18(1)
Area of reinforcement in shell per App. 18(2)
Area of reinforcement in stiffening ring
Additional Area needed to satisfy requirements
PRESSURE:
0.0671
1.7152
1. 0000
0.0000
in
in
in
in
REQUIRED MOMENT of INERTIA, LARGE END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
Area Available in Cone, Shell, and Reinforcement 14.87 in
Force per Unit Length on Shell/Cone Junction 466.68 lb./in.
Actual Buckling Stress associated with this Force 1005.92 psi
Material Strain associated with this stress 0.000076
REQUIRED
ISL
ISL
ISL
MOMENT of INERTIA,
AL * DCLO * DCLO *
0.000076 * 42.7500
0.19 in.**4
LARGE END, EXTERNAL
ATL / 10.9
* 42.7500 * 14.87 /
PRESSURE:
10.9
AVAILABLE MOMENT of INERTIA, LARGE END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
Area Centroid Ar*Ce Dist I
Shi 0.826 0.0000 0.000 0.2931 0.010
Can 0.889 0.4'104 0.392 0.1335 0.070
Sec 1.000 1.1875 1.188 0.8944 0.333
TOT 2.715 0.796 0.413
Centroid of Section 0.2931 Moment of Inertia
Ar*Di
A
2
0.1
0.5
0.8
1.3
1. 76
SUMMARY of LARGE END INERTIA CALCULATIONS
Available Moment of Inertia ( Large End )
Required Moment of Inertia ( Large End )
REINFORCEMENT CALCULATIONS for CONE / SMALL CYLINDER:
1.762
0.189
(
degrees
degrees
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for SMALL END under
Small end ratio of pressure to allowable stress
Small end max. half apex angle w/o reinforcement
Small end actual half apex angle
INTERNAL PRESSURE
0.00625
6.750
21.800
REQUIRED
ARS
ARS
ARS
AREA of REINFORCEMENT, SMALL END, INTERNAL:
( RKS * QS *" ReSI / ( SAS *" ES ) ) *" {I DELTA/ANGLE
( 1.00 *" 562 9.0000/ ( 20000 * 1.00 ) ) *"
( 1.0  6.75/21.80) * 0.4000
0.0699 in
) *" TanAlpha
514
Cones and Conical Sections
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
\Vha! do you need 10 know lo perfonn cone calculalions?
COADE Engineering Software
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Conical Analysis: 0102 Cone Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21.2000
AREA of REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE in SMALL END SHELL;
Aes .78. (Rs.Ts) .... Tst) + (TcTr) /Cos (alpha) ) A
Aes .78+{ 9.000* 0.375) .... ( 0.375 0.056 )+( 0.375 0.061 )/ 0.93 )
Aes 0.9413 in
SUMMARY of REINFORMENT AREA, SMALL END, INTERNAL
Area of reinforcement required per App. 15(3)
Area of reinforcement in shell per App. 15(4)
Area of reinforcement in stiffening ring
Additional Area needed to satisfy requirements
PRESSURE:
0.0699
0.9413
1.0000
0.0000
in
in
in
in
REQUIRED AREA of REINFORCEMENT for SMALL END under EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Area of Reinforcement Required in Small End Shell:
ARSE (RKSE QS RCSI * Tan( Alpha) / (SOS*ES)
ARSE (1.000070.3125*9.3750*0.4000/(20000+1.00)
ARSE 0.0132 in
AREA of REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE in SMALL END SHELL:
Aes .SS"'(Ds"'ts)A*[(tst)+(tctr)/Cos(angle))]
Aes .55*( 18.750* 0.375)"'*[( 0.375 0.062)+( 0.375 0.070)/ 0.928 )
Aes 0.9361 in
SUMMARY of REINFORCEMENT AREA, SMALL END, EXTERNAL
Area of reinforcement required per App. 18(1)
Area of reinforcement in shell per App. 18(2)
Area of reinforcement in stiffening ring
Additional Area needed to satisfy requirements
PRESSURE:
0.0132
0.9361
1.0000
0.0000
in
in
in
in
REQUIRED MOMENT of INERTIA , SMALL END, EXTERNAL
Area Available in Cone, Shell, and
Force per Unit Length on Shell/Cone Junction
Actual Buckling Stress associated with this Force
Material Strain associated with this stress
PRESSURE:
10.37
409.14
554.56
0.000042
in
lb./in.
psi
(
REQUIRED
ISS
ISS
ISS
MOMENT of INERTIA , SMALL END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE:
AS DCSO * DCSO * ATS / 10.9
0.000042 * 18.7500 * 18.7500 + 10.37 / 10.9
0.01 in.*4
AVAILABLE MOMENT of INERTIA, SMALL END, EXTERNAL PRESSURE':'
Area Centroid Ar*Ce Dist I Ar*Di "'2
Shl 0.547 0.0000 0.000 0.6364 0.006 0.221
Can 0.589 0.2916 0.172 .0.3447 0.025 0.070
Sec 1. 000 1.1875 1.188 0.5511 0.333 0.304
TOT 2.136 1. 359 0.364 0.595
Centroid of Section 0.6364 Moment of Inertia 0.96
(
SUMMARY of SMALL END INERTIA CALCULATIONS
Available Moment of Inertia ( Small End )
Required Moment of Inertia ( Small End )
Cones and Conical Sections
0.960 in**4
0.014 in**4
515
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Results for Discontinuity Stresses per Bednar p. 236 2nd Edition
Stress Type Stress Allowable Location

Tensile Stress 5004 _14 80000.00 Small Cyl. Long.
Compres. Stress 1941.64 80000.00 Small Cyl. Long.
Membrane Stress 4974.11 30000.00 Small End Tang.
Tensile Stress 5122.08 80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Compres. Stress 1823.70 80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Tensile Stress 5210.00 30000.00 Cone Tangential
Tensile Stress 15693.52 80000.00 Large Cyl. Long.
Compres. Stress 8631.02 80000.00 Large Cyl. Long.
Membrane Stress 367.91 30000.00 Large End Tang.
Tensile Stress 15965.51 80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Compres. Stress 8359.04 80000.00 Cone Longitudinal
Tensile Stress 911.88 30000.00 Cone Tangential
(
The PV Elite Program, (e) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Cones and Conical Sections
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Chapter 6:
Welded Flat Heads
Welded flat heads are analyzed as flat plates under unifonn loading.
GUIDELINES FOR WELDED FLAT HEADS
The Code fonnula for welded flat plates is
t dJzCPlSE
Z, a factor accounting for noncircularity of the plate, is based on the ratio of the large and
small diameters. Lowercase d is the small diameter, and z ranges from 1.0 for circular
plates to 3.4 for plates with very large ratios of Did:
Z 34 2.4d
. D
C is an attachment factor that ranges from 0.17 for configurations that closely approximate
fixedend conditions to 0.50 for plates that are simply supported. A typical value of Cis
0.3. For the special CaSe of a formed flat head with a straight flange, C can go as low as
0.100. In this case, the Code has taken into account the smaller effective diameter of the
flat plate due to the bend radius at the edges.
The C factor has a multiplier of 1.5 built into it because the stress in a flat head is bending,
not membrane, and the allowable stress in bending is nonnally 1.5 times higher than the
allowable stress in tension. Notice how the Code factors compare to those in theoretical
solutions of the flat plate problem:
Welded Flal Heads 61
Guidelines for Welded FlaL Heads
SIMPLY SUPPORTED
" ~ O.309p(dlt)'
Code (Max C ~ O 3 3
" ~ d'CPISE
SE ~ CP(dllJ'
SE ~ O.33P(dll)'
1.5SE ~ O.50P(dlt)'
(conservative)
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
FIXED EDGE
Il1c!m'
" ~ O.188p(dlt)'
Code (Min C ~ O 1 3
" ~ d'CPlSE
SE ~ CP(dll)'
SE ~ O.13P(dlt)'
I.5SE ~ O.20P(dlt)'
(conservative)
62
The thickness is linear with the diameter, but is a function of the square root of the pres
sure (and the attachment factor). This means that as you increase the thickness, you dra
matically increase the M.A.W.P.
Welded Flal Heads
Pressure Vessel Design alld Analysis  Seminar NoLes
Guidelines Cor Welded Flat Ileads
PART UG _ GENERAL REQ1..IIR.HMENTS
',m'...  2'. L
'., .,o,rnl.. o.376In.
ttm
.100 '. 0< ''/2 In"
,3,
.... "". . ,.  3., d . 'mIn." 0..2.'.10'
1"':\iJ=t ." min. '. > I.in In.
 .  _ bul'nota,. __
c" 0.17 CO.33Ih ",.,,3/41".
C ......... O.20
1b2)
t. c.n\.r of I"",
,
T . ,3,
., __ ." m'n.
C .. 0.30
C" 0.20 w"O. 13
...
c.,
n
'"" '''In.
d  ,
 .. 
C 0.'3
,.,
'"
c.,
IU", Eq, !:II 0' (6))
'"
r
. d
. I
CO.3
(
s.. Fig. UW13.:I.ku"t e.) (0 CIII.
Indu....... for doI_n. of 'dMI1o.m
I...... t 1.215',
' j
..:rr:m
C"O.33
c",
..... Flo UW13.2 ..... I.) 10 C111.
, ............ lor doIteJl 01 ouuldoo
__Iolon
eo.:",
C mlo>.  0.20
"0
dJ
eO.3
IU.. Eq. (2) 0' Jell
C",
CO.:JO
c.,
...... "',,,.
, t .+.. O.Br.mln.
mln.r'l".or... J
.. .. ., r.
Coo 0.;J3
c" 0.33
'"
C 0.30
c_,
R'h'nl"'il ""II
CO.30
,,
e_O..,6
NOTE'Wh... plpo!lh.....,._
u...,. _ T_ UG43
'0>
FIG. UG34 SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF UNSTAYED FLAT HEAPS AND COVERS
The Above IlIllStraUons Diagrammatic: Only. Other Designs Thai Meet.
Ute kequlremenb of UG34 Are AoeepLable.
C ..
IpJ
Figure 1Typical Flat Head Atlachment Delails and C Values
(
Welded Flal Heads
63
Whm do yOll need 10 know la anf1lyzc welded Oal heads? Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW TO ANALYZE WELDED FLAT HEADS?
Attachment Details
Figure UG34 shows typical head attachment delails, characteristic diameters, and values
of the attachment factor.
Required and Actual Thickness of the Shell
C is frequently a function of 01, the ratio of required to aclual shell thickness.
C = 0.33 but not less than 0.20
tr
m=
ts
Ir Required thickness of seamless shell (E = 1.0)
ts Actual thickness of shell, exclusive of corrosion allowance
Large and Small Dimensions for the Head
If the head is noncircular yon need to know both the large and the small dimensions of the
head in order to calculate Z.
(
64 Welded Ftat Heads
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NoLes What do you need 10 know to analyze welded nat heads?
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
D102 Flat Head:
The vessel shown on Page 52 and analyzed in the previous examplc also has an
inserted flat head in the upper cylinder. The head is welded with a fillet weld
above and below the head. What is the required thickness of this head?
Upper cylinder 1D ~ 18 in. (457 mm), thickness ~ 0.375 in. (9.5 mm), length = 18
in. (457 mm)
Design pressure ~ 125 psi .862 (N/mm
2
), Design temperature ~ 300F (149C)
All materials arc SS316 with zero corrosion allowance.
Use higher allowable stresses and 100% radiography.
Do this analysis for internal pressure only using the SHELL program.
Notes:
Questions:
How do you calculate C ~ F ?
What is the required thickness?
What is the MAWP for External Pressure?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
(
Welded Flat Heads 65
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Shell Analysis: 0102 Flat Item: 6 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Component 6, Description; 0102 Flat
Design Internal Pressure
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Include Hydrostatic Head Components
Material Specification
Allowable Stress At Temperature
Allowable Stress At Ambient
Joint efficiency for Head Joint
Diameter of Flat Head
Minimum Thickness of Pipe or Plate
Corrosion Allowance
p
S
SA
E
D
T
CA
125.00 psig
300.00 F
NO
SA.240 316H
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
1.00
18.0000 in.
1.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
Attachment Factor
Large Diameter of Flat Head
Type of Element:
CF
DL
Flat Head
0.2000
0_0000 in.
(
INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS, SHELL NUMBER 6, Desc.; 0102 Flat
ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, 1998, A99
Thickness Due to Internal Pressure (TR):
(D+2eiCA) *SQRT(ZeiCFeip/ (S*E)) per UG34 Ie) (3)
(18.0000+2*0.0000)*SQRT(1.00*0.20*125.00/120000.00*1.00))
0.6364 in.
Max. All. Working Pressure at Given Thickness (MAWP):
(TCA) / (D+2:lCA) ) "'2* ((SE) / ICP*Z per UG34 (c) (3)
(1.0000)/(18.0000+2*O.0000))*ei2*((20000.00*1.00)/(0.20*1.00))
308.64 psig
Maximum Allowable Pressure, New and Cold (MAPNC):
IT/D) "'2* ((S*E) / (Cp*Z) per UG34 Ie) (3)
(1.0000/18.0000)772*((20000.00*1.00)/(0.20*1.00)
308.64 psig
Actual stress at given pressure and thickness (Sact):
(Z*CPP) / ( ( ( (TCA) / (D+2*CA) ) .... 2) *E)
(1.00*0.20125.00)/((1.0000)/(18.0000+2*0.0000)**2)*1.00)
8100.00 psi
SUMMARY OF INTERNAL PRESSURE RESULTS:
Required Thickness plus Corrosion Allowance,
Actual Thickness as Given in Input
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Design Pressure as Given in Input
Trca
MAWP
P
0.6364
1.0000
308.64
125.00
in.
in.
psig
psig
66
HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURES ( Measured at High Point );
Welded Fla' Heads
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(
(
(
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Hydro. per UG99 (bl : 1.3 * MAWP It Sa/S 401.23 psig
Hydro. per UG 99 (c) i 1.3
MAPNC 401.23 psig
WEIGHT and VOLUME RESULTS, NO C.A.
Volume of Shell Component VOLMET 254.5 in.**3
Weight of Shell Component WMET 71.3 lb.
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Welded Flal Heads
67
What do yOll need to know to analyze welded flal heads?
68
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes
Welded Flat Heads
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Chapter 7:
HalfPipe Jackets
Halfpipe jackets are frequently used on vessels as heating or cooling coils around the out
side of a cylindrical shel1, as shown in Figurc I.
GUIDELINES FOR HALFPIPE JACKETS
Appendix EE of the Code gives rules for the required thickness of the jacket and the
required thickness of the shel1 under the combination of internal pressure and shel1 pres
sure.
R
HalfPipe laekets
Figure 1HalfPipe Jacket
The required thickness of the shen is first calculated using the normal rules ofUG27(b).
A halfpipe jacket introduces bending stresses in the shen in the longitudinal direction.
Therefore, the anowable stress for the additional pressure in the jacket is
where S' is the actual longitudinal stress due to internal pressure:
S' Pr/2t
The Code does not givc an explicit formula for the actual bending stress in the shen due to
internal pressure. Instead, it includes three graphs (EEl, EE2, and EE3) that plot the
stress factor (stress/unit pressure) as a function of the shen diameter. Thus the anowable
pressure in the jacket as limited by shen bending is the anowable stress (F) divided by the
stress factor (K).
The required thickness of the halfpipe jacket is calculated from the standard internal pres
sure formula for a cylinder, but taking E =0.85.
The finet weld attaching the halfpipe jacket to the vessel shan have a throat thickness not
less than the smaner of thc jacket or shell thickness. When a vessel is in cyclic service, a
penetration weld plus a fil1et weld should be used to attach the jacket to the vessel.
71
Guidelines for Half Pipe Jackcls
72
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
HalfPipe lackets
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Guidelines for HalfPipe Jackels
(
HalfPipe Jackels
Pressure Vessel Design and Anal)'sis Seminar
Componenl Design Problem
Half Pipe Jacket:
What is the required thickness of a cylindrical shell subjected to an inside pressure of
190 psi (UI N/mm
2
)and a halfpipe jacket pressure of300 psi (2.06 N/mm
2
)?
The jacket is in noncyclic service.
J.D. of shell =40 in. (1016 mm)
Allowable stress of shell = 16,000 psi (110.316 N/mm
2
)
Joint efficiency of shell 1.0
Halfpipe jacket is NPS 3
Allowable stress ofjacket material 12,000 psi (83 N/mm
2
)
Corrosion allowance = 0.0
Using the HALFPIPE program, do this analysis for internal pressure only.
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness of the shell?
What is the required thickness of the jacket?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
73
Guidelines for HalfPipe Jackets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
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Half Pipe Analysis; JACKETED Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, HalfPipe Item I, JACKETED
Inside Diameter of Shell
Thickness of Shell
Internal Pressure in Shell
Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell Section Material
Shell Allowable Stress, Design Temp
Shell Allowable Stress, Ambient
Corrosion Allowance of Shell
Joint efficiency for Shell Joint
Nominal Pipe Size of HalfPipe Jacket
Minimum Thickness of HalfPipe Jacket
Design Pressure in Jacket
Design Temperature for Jacket
Jacket Material Name
Jacket Allowable Stress, Design Temp
Jacket Allowable Stress, Ambient
Corrosion Allowance of Jacket
DIN
TS
P
S
SA
CA
E
NPS
TJCK
PI
Sl
SIA
CM
40.0000
0.3125
190.00
300.00
SA516 65
18600.00
18600.00
0.0000
1.00
3.0000
1. 0000
300.00
300.00
SA53 S/A
13'700.00
13700.00
0.0000
in.
in.
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
74
HalfPipe Jacket Results per ASME App. EE, 1998, A99
SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATIONS:
Required Thickness of Shell per UG27 Eqn(l) (Includes CA);
Tr (P '" R ) / ( S '" E  0.6 ... P ) + ( CA + CAJ )
Tr (190.00'" 20.000 )/( 18600.00 '" 1.00  0.6 '" 190.00 ) + 0.000
Tr 0.2056 in.
Required Thickness of Shell to Withstand Jacket Pressure:
Trj = 0.2500 in.
PRESSURE CALCULATIONS FOR INPUT SHELL THICKNESS:
Input Value of Shell Thickness:
Ts = 0.3125 in.
Chart Used to Find the KFactor:
FIG. EE 2
KFactor Read from Chart:
K = 46.5000
Longitudinal Stress in Shell due to Internal Pressure (Includes CAl:
SPrime (P '" R ) / ( 2 '" Ts )
Sprime (190.0000 * 20.0000 ) / ( 2 ... 0.3125 )
Sprime 6080.0000 psi
Permissible Jacket Pressure per Appendix EEl, Equation {Il:
Pprime 0= ( 1.5 * S  Sprime ). I K
HalfPipe Jackels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Scminar Nolcs Guidelines for HalfPipe Jackets
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Pprime
Pprime
( 1.5 ~ 18600.00
469.2473 psig
6080.0000 ) / 46.50
HALFPIPE JACKET THICKNESS CALCULATIONS:
Input HalfPipe Jacket Thickness:
Tj '" 1.0000 in.
Req'd HalfPipe Jacket Thickness per App. EEl, Eqn. (2) {Includes CAl:
T (PI '" R ) / ( . 85 ~ SI .6 '" PI 1 + CAJ
T {300. 0000 * 0.7500 1 / ( .85 '" 13700.00  .6 ,. 300.0000 ) + 0.0000
T 0.0196 in.
MINIMUM FILLET WELD SIZE CALCULATIONS:
Minimum Fillet Weld Size (Based on Shell Thickness) :
Fillet Ts 1.414
Fillet 0.3125 * 1.414
Fillet 0.4419 in.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS;
Input Thickness of Shell
Req.d Thickness of Shell due to Internal P.
Req.d Thickness of Shell due to Jacket P.
Pressure Used for Jacket Design
M.A.W.P. of Jacket for Input Thickness
M.A.W.P. of Jacket for Required Thickness
Input Thickness of HalfPipe Jacket
Required Thickness of HalfPipe Jacket
Minimum Acceptable Fillet Weld Size
0.3125 in.
0.2056 in.
0.2500 in.
300.0000 psig
469.2473 psig
338.3333 psig
1.0000 in.
0.0196 in.
0.4419 in.
(
HalfPipe Jackets
The PV Elite Program, (e) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
75
Guidelines for HalfPipe Jackets Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COVER
TATIONARY TUBEFRONT
SHELL FLANGE
CHANNEL COVER
TINGTUBESHEET
TINGHEAD
FIXED TUBESHEET
ERHASTWO
NARYENDS
TINO TIlBESIIEEl)
HANNEL
r
      
I
:
I
I
I
L_
"r
I
S
I I
CHANNEL ill OR
I

C
ESIDE
,
MEAN GASKETDIA.
I
,
ORROSION
IJ r I
LOWANCE
:
I /
I I I I
,
I
I I I I
l'

.< S
I I I I
I II \,lWJ
\
SHELL GASKETDIA.
X ,
/\
HELL L
DOLT CIRCLE
CKNESS f
DIAMETER
SHELL
HELLSIDE I
RROSION _
f
f
I
LOWANCE
NOTRA
,
EXCIIANG
STATIO
(NOFLOA
,
I
,
!
!
!
I
,
: I
I
I
FLOA
..J l
FLOA
\
/1
"/ .
SHELL
S
CO
AL
TIlB
C
AL
S
TID
CHANNE
TIllCKNES
Figure 2Typical Geometry for a TEMA Heat Exchanger
76
HalfPipe Jackets
Pressure Vessel Design Clnd Analysis  Seminar Noles
FLANGE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS
Fl,mgc Design and Analysis
(
(
Flange design rules were first published by Taylor Forge in 1937. These nt les were
included in Ihe Code in 1942 and are essenlially unchanged. They are found in Appendix
2. The Taylor Forge bulletin is also still available, and is still one oflhe most uscfullools
for flange analysis. The flange design sheels in Ihis section arc modeled after Ihe Taylor
Forge analysis. .
Gaskets
A key eomponenl in Ihe design and practical applicalion of flanges is Ihe gasket. There are
many differenllypes of gaskel malerials, useful in differenl services and al differenllem
peralures.
The Code defines Iwo gasket factors:
y Gasket seating stress, minimum stress 10 seat the gasket
m = Multiple of pressure needed as a slress on the gasket surface to keep it from
leaking
Unfortunately, these factors are not reliable as measures of gasket behavior. First of all,
they arc not constant; they vary with such Ihings as applied load, temperature, leakage
rate, and size. Second, they do not by themselves adequately predict leakage rate for a
flanged joint. The Pressure Vessel Research Council is working on improving these design
factors, and has published preliminary findings for the past two years at the annual piping
and pressure vessel conference.
Gasket types and their associated m and y factors are found in Table 25.1, shown on the
following two pages. Some typical dimensions for gaskets are also shown on Ihe follow
ing two pages.
In some cases additional gaskel material is used 10 seal partilions. These partition gaskets
are used for channel flanges and also for channel covers, which seal a channel partition.
Include Ihe area of Ihe gasketed partitions in caleulalions for seating forces and overall
loads.
HalfPipe Jackets 77
Flange Design <HHJ Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NoLes
Gasket Materials and Gasket Factors
T.ble 25.1 1998 SECTION VIn OlVlSION
TABLE 25.1
GASKET MATERIALS AND CONTACT FACINGSI
Gasket Factors m ror Operaling Condilions and Minimum Design Seating Stress y
Gasket Malerlal
SeIfeMrlllllng typei fO rinlls, metallic, other
gul(el lypes tOMJdtrtd n stlf'Malll19J
Elastomer$ wilhoYl fabric or high perce"l of aweslos fiber:
75A SOOlt Dwomet.er
751>. or higher Sl'>ore Durometer
Asbul.OS with roltablr birder for operalillg cOllditlOfJ':
V.ln. Wcic
V
l6
In. thick
V In.. Ihlck
Elastomer$ WfUl canon fabrk IMtrt.lon
flastonms with .uOeslos labrlc Instr1ron (willi or
without wire relnfon:emtn(J:
o
0.50
1.00
2.00
2.75
3.50
l.25
MIn.
Dellgn
SeaUng
SIIHST,
,,,
o
o
200
11:>00
)100
6500
'00
Skekhes
Fa<:lng Skelth
;lAc! Column
in Table 25.2
lllll,(lbl,llel,(ldl,
141,C5l; Colu,.", II
( la),(lbl,llel,Cld),
141,151; CoIUIIVI II
(lill,() bl,nel,( ldl,
141,(51; Celu,.", II
2ply
Ve9tlable fiber
2.25 2200
2."
2.'100
2.75 )700
1.75 aoo
(la),Ubl,lld,CldJ,
(4),(51; Column II
(laJ,flb),(leI,nd),
f4mli Colllll1l'1 II.
SprralwolHld metal, asbestos filled:
Carbon
Stalo1JtsS, MOt'leI, and nlckelbast
all0)'5
Conug.altd rnffiJJ, a:sbestos Inserted, or torrugaled metal,
Jacketed asbe110$ filltd:
Soft ah,rnll'l\.ltrl
Soft topper 01' bran
Iron or Jlrer
Monel or 4%0% ,hr(llM
Stalnltss steels and nrckelbase aJJOI'S
2.50
'.00
2.50
2.75
'.00
3.25
3.50
10,000
10,00<1
2900
3100
<500
5500
60500
nlll,lIbl; Column II
na),( IbJi CollII'M II
78
Figure 3Gasket Materials and Conlact Facings
HalfPipe Jackets
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Gasket Materials and Gasket Factors (Continued)
APPENDIX 2  MANDATORY
Flange Design and Analysis
TABlE 25.1ICONT'D}
GASKET MATERIAlS AND CONTACT FACINGSl
Gasket Factors n1 for Operallng Condition' and Minimum Design Seating Stress y
Gas\;et MaterIal
Corh/96kd mm.l:
Soft ahllllinurn
Soft or btan
lroo or 50ft stffl
MON!I or 4%6% chrome
Stainless fleels and I\kkelba!oe 11110)"5
Flill metal, Jacketed asbestos filled:
Soft Ill,I1linl.m
SolI copper or btau
tron or soft Sleel
",
4%{)% chrome
Stainless sleels III>d nlchlbase alloys
MI".
Des19"
Gasht Sealing
Fae!"; SktlCh
Factor Stress .r.
and ColllM
,.,
Skelchu In Table 252
2.75 )700
).00 4500
Ual,Ubl,llcl,lldl;
3.25 5500
).50 6500
Colt.m11\ II
).75 7600
3.25 5500
3.50 6500
==
llal,f1b),Ue),l
3.75 7600
3.50 BOOO
<SP
Ild)'!;12J
1
;
3.75 90(>0
Column II
3.75 9000
GroO'o'to mel ..l:
Soft alurnlm,m
Soft copptor' or brass
Iron or soft metal
Monel or 4%6% chrome
Slalnlns sleels and "lckelbase alloys
Solid Rat mnal;
Soft alurnlt'lUm
Soft copper or tnss
Iron Of'" 50ft $letl
MOM! or 4%6% worne
$liI.1n1m aIId nickelbase alloys
3.25 5500
3.50 6500
3.15 noo
3.15
'000
4.25 10,100
'.00 8800
4.75 n,OOO
5." 18,000
'.00 21,800
6.50 26,000
(U),() bJ,()cl,()d),
m,U); Column II
(laJ,()bl,llc),11!fl,
f21,(3),14l,{5J;
COrllllVl1
RIII9 ./OInt:
1rOll or soft steel
Monet or 4%6% chrome
Slalnless and nlckelbase allO)'S'
5.50
6.00
6.50
18,000
21,800
26,000
(61; Colum" I
(
(
HalfPipe Jackels
HOTES:
H) ThIs gives a list of manr convnonlyllsed 9l:et matfrlills .nd conLact liKings V<ltb SIli9fsted cleslgo 01 m ilId y that hal'e
geltfraJly Pl'ovrd saUsfattory I" actual service wnen effective QilIke.l sealll'l9 wldl.h b glytn In Table 2,5.2. Tile desilln yaliles and other
t1tlalls giwn In this Table an only and an not mandalory.
(2) The 01 a lIiIsket havh9 II lap not be against tile rAlbblrt
Figure 4Gasket Materials and Contact Facings (Continued)
79
Fhmgc Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
USEFUL TECHNICAL DATA
BOLTING DATA FOR ASME/ANSI B 16.5 & BS 1560 FLANGES
N...
Class 150 ClassJOO Class 400 Clm600
~
RAN" NO BOLT B.r RAN"
NO BOLT B.r
RAN"
NO BlICY B.r RAN"
NO BOLT B.r
Sil:e llA
0'
llA llA llA
0'
llA IIA llA OF llA llA BIA OF llA llA
BOLll BOLll BOW BOLT<
\\ 3% 4
y,
2\\ 3% 4 Yi 2\\ 3% 4 Yi 2\\ 3% 4
y,
2\\
y,
3Y, 4
V,
2% 3% 4 V, 2% 3% 4 Y, 2% 3% 4
V,
2%
% 3Y. 4
V, 2% 4% 4 % 3\\ 4% 4 % 3\\ 4% 4 % 3\\
1 4V. 4 V, 3V. 4% 4 %
3V, 4% 4 %
3V,
4% 4 % 3V,
IV. 4% 4
V, 3V, 5\\ 4 % 3Y. 5V. 4 % 3% 5\\ 4 % 3Y.
W,
5 4
V,
3Y, 6V. 4 %
4V,
6V. 4 % 4% 6V. 4 % 4%
2 6 4 % 4% 6'(, 8 % 5 6% 8 % 5 6% 8 % 5
2% 7 4 % 5V, 7% 8 %
5Y, 7V, 8 % 5% 7\\ 8 % 5%
3
7V, 4 % 6 8\\ 8 % 6% 8V. 8 % 6% 8\\ 8 % 6%
3Y, 8Y, 8 % 7 9 8 % 7V. 9 8 % 7V. 9 8 Y. 7\\
4 9 8 % 7% 10 8 % 7Y. 10 8 Y, 7% 10% 8 Y, 8V,
5 10 8 % 8% II 8 % 9\\ II 8 % 9V. 13 8 I 10%
6 11 8 % 9% 12% 12 % 10% 12Yi 12 % 10'/, 14 12 1
llY,
8
nv,
8 % 11% 15 12 % 13 15 12 I 13 16V, 12 IV. 13%
10 16 12 Y, 14\\ 17V, 16 1 15\\ 17% 16 IV. 15\\ 20 16 1\\ 17
12 19 12 % 17 20% 16 1% 17% 2OY, 16 1\\ 17% 22 20 IV. 19V.
14 21 12 I 18% 23 20 1% 20v. 23 20 1\\ 20\\ 23% 20 1% 20%
16 23V, 16 I 21V. 25V, 20 1\\ 22V, 25V, 20 Pis 22% 27 20
W,
23%
18 25 16 IV. 22% 28 24 1\\ 24% 28 24 1% 24% 29V. 20 1% 25%
20 27V, 20 1% 25 3OY, 24 IV. 27 3OY, 24 IY, 27 32 24 1% 28V,
24 32 20 1% 29V, 36 24
W,
32 36 24 IV. 32 J7 24 1% 33
.
. Figure 5Bolling Data
710 HalfPipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design rlllrJ Analysis  Seminar Notes
Flange Design ,llld Analysis
(
HalfPipe Jackels
USEFUL TECHNICAL DATA
BOLTING DATA FOR ASME/ANSI B 16.5 & BS 1560 FLANGES
 ~ ~ . _      ~ . ~
  
..
__'N"' ___
   ~ _ . _  ~
NollliAal
Class 900 Class 1500 Class 2500

Pipt n",,,,
NO .ou H
""''''
NO ."', .e. n ...", NO
."',
H
Siu
'"
0'
.u. .u. ou
"
.u. ou. .u
0'
.u.
,u.
."'"
""" """
v,
4% 4
*
3v. 4% 4
*
31' 5!h 4 'I. 3Y2
'I. 5Va 4 'I.
3Y, 5Yo 4
*
31'2 5Y, 4 'I. 3%
Ph Sl'a 4 Y. 4 5V! 4 Y. 4 6Y.i 4 Y. 4y"
1 6Y4 4 V. 4% 6lh 4 V. 4% 7Y4 4 I 51's
lYi 7 4 1 4% 7 4 I 41's 8 4 tva
5*
2 81'2 8 V. W, 8Y, 8 Y. 61'2 9'h 8 I 6'1.
2Y, 9% 8 1 7Y, 9% 8 1 71'2 lOY:! 8 tVa 7%
3 9Y2 8 V. 7Y, 10\12 8 tVa 8 12 8 lY.i 9
4 IlVl 8 JY. 9!1.l 12Y4 8 l!1.i 9Y2 14 8 lY1
lQJ'A
5 13.& 8 llh 11 14% 8
jy, llY2 16Yl 8 1% 120/4
6 15 12 lY. 12 15\12 12 1% 121'2 19 8 2 141'1
8 181'2 12 1% Y, 19 12 1% 15lh 21% 12 2 17Y.&
15
Y,
10 21Y2 16 1% 18 23 12 1% 19 261'2 12 2Y, 21Y4
12 24 20 m Y, 261'2 16 2 22Y2 30 12 2% 24%
14 2jy.,
20 Iv.i 21 29112 16 2y., 25    
16 27% 20 1% 22 321'2 16 21'2 27%  
24
I'
18 31 20 1% 27 36 16 2% 301'2   
20 33% 20 2 29 38% 16 3 32Jh    
24 41 20 2V, Y, 46 16 314 39  
35
Y,
Figure 6 Bolling Data Continued
711
Flange Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Other Gasket Types
The following gasket types arc not pictured in the Code tables, but are also acceptable gas
ket materials and geometries:
rrorJto
Y
CRlng
\'enled
" I '\ . Venl7
I1IJ 1)1IJ
JI
1/ ;I I
'I 1/
J1 J
lens
0'11.
, i
Doubl, Cone
Brldg,"'n
712
Figure 7Olher Gasket Types
Facing Sketches
There are several types of flange facing types. The flange facing is simply the metal sur
face against which the gasket seats. The Code shows several sketches of typical facing
types in Table 25.2. This table also shows how to calculate the basic and effective gasket
seating widths and the diameter of the gasket load reaction.
Two common mistakes in gasket design (and even ill some computer programs we have
seen) are, (I) to use the basic gasket seating width instead of the effective gasket seating
width in the flange calculations, and, (2) 10 use the mean diameter of the gaskel as the
diameter of the gasket load reaction in all cases.
A special type of gaskel geometry, which is not included in the Code sketches, nor even in
the Code design rules, is the flange with a flat face and a gasket that extend from the ID of
the flange to the OD, beyond the bolt circle. The gaskets used with this type of flange are
HalfPipe Jackets
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Flange Design and Analysis
usually quite soft. These flanges can be analyzed using the Taylor Forge calculation
sheets.
Table 25.2 1998 SECTlON vm  DMSION 1
TABLE 25.2
EFFECTIVE GASKET WIDTHl
(
(
HalfPipe Jackels
BAsic Cuket Seating WkIlh b
Q
Facing Skelch
IEu99tr.. ted) Column I Co/umn II
{lal
"'UUe cul' f
vct/
u
"'"
"
"
lIb)
'(
fu
N'<4
'UtUC" ,
, ,
=
=
J>'tN:J';;r
Set! Hote (I)
Uel
:'f:g0i';'
'"t'iijI"
.,"
w+ r (w+ N )
.. T ( .. " )
lId)
'"'5'& r"
,: . m"
,; .m"
=> T
Ste Note III
W<"
,2l
1/... III. nubbin
"W""
wSN/l
'" ',:::[t.., " '"
II... In. IIIJbbln ...
N .
,
wS Nn
,<)
!1'" cry
=
!."
7"
See Note (II ' tN'J
16
'"
"\
=
N
'"
,
See NtJtt UI
'M j 1
...
GMktt Sealing Wi6lh. b
b  b" when b,.s: ".t. in.; b = 0.5 when b. > 1/. In.
LoutJon. of Gasll:tlload Reaction
G h
G
1
" G..,kCl
NOTE:
(11 Whefl! do not V"" In. c1tpthand '/jl In. wldlh 5paCln9, sketches UbI Cld) be used.
(2) Tile: gaSh! factlm listed lmly apply 10 flanged )<lInts in whkh tilt gasket Is (ontalflt(i enUrtly w1lhln the Irroer edges of the bolt Iloles.
J)
Figure BFacing Sketches and Gasket Seating Calculations
Flange Types
There are essentially only two categories of flanges for purposes of analysis. These are
integral type flanges, where the flange and the vessel to which it is attached behave as a
unit, and loose types, where the flange and the vessel do not behave as a unit. Within these
categories, however, there are several additional subdivisions.
713
Flange Design and Analysis Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Weld Neck FJangesThese have a hub that is buttwelded to the vesseL
Slipon FlangesThese have hubs, and are normally analyzed as loose type flanges. To
qualify as integral type flanges they required a penetration weld between the flange and
the vesseL
Ring FlangesThese do not have a hub, though they frequently have a weld at the back of
the flange. They are normally analyzed as loose, but may be analyzed as integral if a pen
elration weld is used between the flange and the vessel.
Lap Joint FlangesThese flanges mayor may not have a hub, but they are completely
disconnected from the vessel, bearing only on a vessel "lap." They are always analyzed as
loose.
Reverse geometry flangeHere the gasket seat is on the inside of the shell diameter.
These use integral flange rules, which arc suitably modified for the reversal of the bending
moments. Sec Appendix 213.
Loosetype flanges, especially Jap joints, may be split. A split is used when it is required to
have the flange completely removable from the vessel. If the flange is split into two pieces
by a single split, the design moment for the flange is mnltiplied by 2.0. If the flange con
sists of two separate split rings, each ring shall be designed as ifit were a solid flange
(without splits) using 0.75 times the design moment. The pair of rings shall be assembled
so that the splits in one ring shall be 90 deg. from the splits in the other.
25 1998 SECTION vm  DIVISION l 15
Slope 1;3 (max.)
L.....ILL:;:r I.S go
(min.)
Slope
1:3 ima>l.l
Whet'& hUb lIop!! adiillC81t
(0 f111'1ge exBdl I :J,
UI. tJ<elehes 1611 or 1Gb)
181
.,12
151
l6bl ......1,i''+I''
0.259
0
but nOt Ius tharI 114 In.. 1hl minimum 
for lither leg. This ,"';!Id mil,!, be mee/'llned
til 8 cOUM!r ,..Jius os petmilled in
sketch (51 in which ease 91 9
0
GENERAL NOTES ILoow lind Integ,.l Type Fr.ngoell:
fll FHle\ flIdiU$ r to be II lean 0.25.91 bUI mit than 3/16 in.
1620
5/16
"
.240 .<>1,
.."
.551
24'
115530
36'
24795
'90
33060
1 118
.963 .728
3"
21840 533 32760 710 '3680
11/4
1.088 92'
"'"
27870 75. 41'805 1000 55740
13/8
K=NB ...
T F,
z v,
1
!lo
V
u
0" 5.
i
'"
w
".. h j.E. +f4Ro .
". .. ..mg;
t
7
STReSS FORMULA FACTORS
,
18.
a.l, + I
,.
T
ofT
I
C.
......
),"'Y.'
1.
... M,IB
I!IG" M;.1B
Hboll. spadng elCO&O(Is 23. +I, rnlltiply
G rno and me n above equlillion by: 28 ... 1
Bolls : Ho
Figure 211. Dimensional data and lorees for a slip.on
lIanga (loose).
8
STRESS CALCULATIONS .
Allowable Sireu Openllng !1ow"I)IeStreM S..llng
1.5s", loIlWfucf1f1ll1 hUb. 1.6 s.. lOOQlludlnll Ixb,
=mJ).g,'
8H _ "'<'Ag,z
s" Retial Aanw,
s" Radial RaIl",
s,,_
s"
........
s"
T........
m,Y/I' Sr maY/l2
s" Gt'88191' 01 + SlIl .. GUlaiet 01 .5(SH +
oc. 5H+S,.)
Adapted Irom laylor Forgo Inlernationill, loc., by perrrus.slon.
Figure 16Type 2: SlipOn Flange Design (Loose)
HalfPipe Jackels 723
flange Stresses Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
TYPE 3: RING FLANGE DESIGN
1
DESIGN CONDITIONS
ptll9SUlli. P AIJoW/lbl. Strlll.lI11
[)e.slgo lempBfal"ne R"",
""""
RatI{Ill malOfie} DeaIgn 'Imp., s.. Desigtllomp. s"
8oI1i1lg rna\Orial Aim. . St. Aim. lernp_. S.
CroslQn a11o'wance
2
OASKET AND FACJNQ DETAILS
Ge$l<lIl rw",
3
TABLES 23 AND 24
4
LOAD AND BOLT CALCULATIONS
N WrrdhG)' A... .. 9'ler of
b H,.=2brllmP
0 H .. G'rP,", ..
,
W.., .H,+H w.. M..... +AtJS.
m
5
MOMENT tALC!JL.ATIONS
...., ,
Lever Arm .
""""',
Hg .. ,BPf4
Ito" .5{C  B) Mo  Hoho
Howm,H hG 0)
H,H
"
tit ,5(1ID+ ho) M, = Hrhl
M"
Slitting
",.W
ha '" .S(C  0) M"
6
SHAPE CONSTANTS
W
K. AlB Y
+
J8oJ1 spIocing h
o
20 .. I
[II
G.
7
FLANGE THICKNESS REQUIREO
I '" gf8lIler 01 H(jl HT
""""'"
ScKlliog , Bolls 1
IA
I ; I
I
T
"'"
I
I.
B
B
B
.7cmin
Figure 213. Various allachmenls of ring flanges. (All olher dimensions and loadings per Figure 211.)
8
NmES
la. <15t.lI'ldh<9 de$Ic)'lllo! IrI!aglIllKg. > 1.$1. &rdh>il". ...
I g, sMh. BIg. s3CKl, j p!!illt>dClWgtl *'1:>. <TCIO". o..q, Il$ ml<q3lorb>lu.
bulro1 loss Ihan In.
724
Figure 17Type 3: Ring Flange Design
HairPipe Jackels
\
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Flange Stresses
TYPE 5: SLIPON FLANGE, FLAT FACE, FULL GASKET
apt y\Ol Forge Int. by pefmlulon
I
DESIGN CONomONS
lIign pressln, P Ioweble Str.....
DeaIgn lempereh"e
,
"" fIange rnalorial ()e$ign temp.. s.. tomp. St.
BolIng material Aim. lOmP. s.. Alm.lelnj)., S.
Cotros;on aIowlll'C9 T
2
GASKET AND FACJHO DETAILS
GB$lI:;eI Facing
3
TABLES AND 24
4
LOAD AND BOLT CAlCULATIONS
G C
""
W...:I.  + HQy A", .. grealCO" or
b
H,. 21numP W,dS. 01 W",,1SD
,
I ..
m H. P/4
W.,_H+H,.+Ht\ H6,v .. (halh6)brGy
5
MOMENT CALCULATIONS
..,..
"",,,Am> .
Momenl
Operallftg
Ho" TB'PJ4 ho .. A +111
Mo" Hollo
HrHHo 1lr.6(AtQ,+11G) IMr _H,h,
..
levlr Arrrl.
"o",(C9X2BtC) hir._l..... CK2A+C)
6(9 +C) 6(C + A'J
Rev&l'loIl Moment
Ha .. WH hO .. hohQ '"G = He.1IG
ha+hG
6
K AND HUB FACTORS
, AlII
"""
Ho
T
"
z V,
1
y
F,
U
g,,.,
". ,mg;
d .. U h"g.,a
i
v,
7
STRESS fORMULA FACTORS
B.
,
Id
h
I 4
0
"+. l,,t'
t
jl .. .(f31e + I m,. M,III
W
,ofT
" bo. IlCeed:s 2a ... I. nVtIpty 4Bo1l $p&Cino
\
4
m" In 1\ equalion by: 2a of t
L
!
Co
B
STRESS CALCuLATIONS
Allowable SIre.. OperlUng
    
.. s" longitvcJ:nalllub.
,
HG tHr Sw EO rnJ),g,Z H'G
s"
. ,
s"

h'o f4 hG
s" Grtlll8r ol.5<Stt +
or.5{s" + Sy
4 Bolls
s"
Radial $(l8M at
boll drc18
"",. 6Mo
Figure Dimensional data and rorces lor a sJipon
"he  nd,) nange. flat face. full gasket.
... od from Ta
(
Figure IBType 5: SlipOn Flange, Flal Face, Full Gasket
HalfPipe Jackels
725
Flange Stresses
726
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
TYPE 4: REVERSE FLANGE DESIGN
1
DESIGN CONOmONS
Design pressue. P Allowable Str","
DesIgo tempetAlu,.
"
""""" Flange mel,riaJ Design tomp., So, Design temp_. s..
Bolting maloriill Aim. temp., Ss. AIm.lemp., S.
Corroalon alCM'anoe
2
OASKET AND FACING DETAILS
Facing
3
TABLES 23 AND 2"
4
lOAD AND BOLT CALCULATIONS
N W,.z .. bl'6), A", .. grealef of
b H,. "" 2/nGmP WrdSa 01 W.,,!St.
G H .. OaT P/4
..
,
W.,.H... +H W.l)(A,.,'tA.)S.
m
5
MOMENT CALCUl...ATtON$
"""
Lever Afm

01
OperllJng
Ho .8 14 hI)" .... Hob,
.., H ha ...5(C  0)
I
..... 
I
Illy  .5(C (8 iO}f2) ,
M, "" Hrllr
Add moment. Ilgabralcalty. "'on UN Ihe absolute voJue 1M,1 in ..1 subsequent caleU'aliorls.
'.... '
....,ng
.... W ho" .5(C  0) 1M;
6
KAND HUB FACTORS
K .. AlB'
"'"
H, W
...
T F
't"':l.
G.
l V
V
,
I"
,
u 8 .. FIh"
.",
d ..
'I
h, .n;g;
.. ORY
UR  "AU
bI
. .,.
c.
_111
'oJ+
<rfl
W
+ rV
L H.
TA_l!...!:.!)...",T
. .. +8.
7
STRESS fORMULA FACTORS
, BoIlS
, a_11d
Q _10+ 1 ). ... 7+6
FIgure 214. DimensIonal dala and forces for a (everse
,8.41'310 + 1
11\0" "VB' Nange.
't afT" ""MOm'
8
STRESS CALCULATIONS
....
H
"
"
j
,
,.
,.
J
,..
"
"
,..
,..
"
'00
D<>lt., P,......
Figure 20Channel Cover Thickness
Note The Seventh Edition ofTEMA also gives recommended deflection as a function
of flange size. The previous editions hid the actual deflection you were working
toward in a thickness equation.
HalfPipe Jackels
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers
740
Pressure Vessel Design and An<llysis  Seminar Noles
HalfPipe Jackels
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Blind Flanges and Chmlllci Covers
(
(
HalfPipe lackets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Channel Cover Design
Analyze a channel cover 10 mate wilh Ihe flange designed in Ihe previous examples.
Geomelry for Ihe channel cover should be as follows;
Thickness ~ 5.0 in. (127 mm)
Outside Diameter ~ 47.375 in. (1203.3 mm)
Diameter of Bolt Circle ~ 45.125 (1146.17)
48 1.125in. (28.5750) diameter bolts
Flange Face 10 ~ 41.5 in. (1054.1 mm)
Flange Face OD ~ 44.0 in. 1117.6 mm)
Gasket 10 = 42.0 in. (1066.8)
Gaskel OD ~ 43.0 in. (1092.2)
Flexitalic Gasket m ~ 3 . 0 0 0 y=IOOOO.O) (68.94 N/mm
2
)
Notes;
Questions;
Whal is the required thickness of the flange?
Why arc the slresses less than the allowable slresses at the required thickness?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
741
Blind Flanges and Channel Covers Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 47
Flange Analysis: EX2 ChannelCV Item: 3 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Flange Item 3, Description: EX2 Channel cv
Bolt Material
Bolt Allowable Stress At Temperature SBO
Bolt Allowable Stress At Ambient SBA
Flange Inside Diameter B
Flange Outside Diameter A
Flange Thickness T
Perform thickness cales. based on rigidity
Channel Cover
Analysis Only
500.00 psig
300.00
p
0.0000 in.
0.0000 in.
47.3750 in.
5.0000 in.
No
SA350 LF2
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
SA193 B7
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
47.3750 in.
47.3750 in.
141.7644 in.
28500000.00 psi
0.0300 in.
p
TEMA
SFO
SFA
FeOR
DL
OS
L
YMOD
CVDLT
(Not Normalized)
Stress At Temperature
Stress At Ambient
Flange Material
Flange Allowable
Flange Allowable
Description of Flange Geometry (Type)
Description of Flange Analysis
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Corrosion Allowance
Diameter of the Load Reaction, Long Span
Diameter of the Load Reaction, short Span
Perimeter along the Center of the Bolts
Youngs Modulus for Blind Flange MatI.
Allowed Channel Cover Deflection
Diameter of Bolt Circle C 45.1250 in.
Nominal Bolt Diameter DB 1.2500 in.
Type of Threads TEMA Thread Series
Number of Bolts
TT
E
L
A
,...
flXD rUBHmn
ONf 'ASS SHnL
UKE STAIIONAIlY HEAD
..__... 
F M
AND REM Aau COVER
e

TWO p.us SHEll
mefO TUBESHUT
liKE nAflONAJiY HAO
WITH lONGITUDINAl aAFflE
ml
8
G
N
flXfD TUUSHEET
LIKE Y S'Al1ON101l'Y HEAD
80NNET (INTEGRAL COVER)
!>f'l.1T F\OW
jP
50"
&
'i
+
I] ,
H
OUTSIN '.0.00 1l0ATlIiG HEAOI
C
:1: .....
DOUBLE SPlIT nOW'
..
T
5
CHANNEl INTEGRAl WITH TUBE
SHEeT AND RfMOVABl COVER
J
flOATING HE100
Q:
WITH IAO:ING D[VlCf
OMOfD flOW
t N
T
r .... Jl.
. ....
POll TtUIOUGH fLOAflN(; HE"'O
K
D
(HANNU INTfGIAL wnH lUU
SHEet AND REMOVABLE (OVER
U
KETTlE TYPE REBOILER
UTUBE BUNDlE
:
X
..
w
"
SPfCIAl HIOH 'RfSSURf: CIOSUIl'
ClOSS flOW
UlUNAUY SfAUO
nOAlING IOBESHUT
Figure 1Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
(
92
One of the most difficult areas of fixed tubesheet design is deciding on the actual metal
temperature for the components.
The most conservative approach is to choose metal temperatures which are based on the
maximum difference belween Ihe shellside and tubeside fluids. For example, if the shell
side fluid enters the exchanger a1450F and leaves Ihe exchanger al 340F, then the shell
side mclaltemperature would be assumed 10 be 450F. Ifthe tubeside fluid enlers at 180F
and leaves al 250F, then the tube metallemperature would be taken at 180F. This would
HeaL Exchanger Tubesheers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles TEMA Tubcsheets
(
result in a 270F temperature difference between the shell and the tubes, which would
almost certainly require an expansion joint.
An approach that is one step Icss conservative takes thc metal temperatures at the mean of
the inlet and outlet temperatures for the fluids. In the case described above, this results in a
shell metal temperature of 395F and a tube metal temperature of 215F.
The best approach is to know something about the actual metal temperatures through heat
transfer considerations. We recommended asking a process engineer what the process
design implies about the metal temperatures. Alternately, if you can find out the approxi
mate shellside and tubeside heat transfer coefficients, you can estimate the tube metal tem
perature using a simple weight average as
HsT
sF
+HrTrF
TrM H +H
s r
In the case above, if the shellside fluid has a heat transfer coefficient that is five times
greater than the tubeside fluid, then, starting from the average temperature for each side,
the tube metal temperature would be 365F. The shell metal temperature would remain
395F. Thus it would be likely that the exchanger could be built with no expansion joint.
Note Typically a metal temperature difference of up to 50F can be tolerated with no
expansion joint. Note also that there may be operating scenarios (such as a loss of
fluid) where the temperature difference is much higher. These must be taken into
account in the design.
TEMA allows differenlial pressure design. The differential pressure is used as the design
pressure on both the tubeside and the shellside. The exception to this rule is fixed
tubesheet exchangers, which have special differential design pressure rules.
When a tubesheet may be controlled by shear stress, TEMA requires the perimeter and
area of the tubesheet for the shear calculation. The perimeter is the distance covered when
stepping around all of the tubes on the periphery of the bundle. The area is the area
enclosed by this process.
It is difficult to empirically evaluate the perimeter and area. You will be conservative if
you overestimate the area and underestimate the perimeter.
TEMA calculates a pressure below which shear calculations need not be considered. How
ever, even above this pressure, bending may control the tubesheet thickness.
Fixed tubesheet heat exchangers frequently require expansion joints. For TEMA evalua
tion, all you need to know about the expansion joint is its spring constant and inside diam
eter. If you have a flanged and flued expansion jointthat is, one that is relatively stiff
you will have to know the exact spring constant. For metal bellows expansion joints you
only need to know that the spring rate is below a certain value prescribed by TEMA.
When a tubesheet is extended as a flange, additional bending moments may be imposed
on the tubesheet. TEMA transforms these moments into an equivalent pressure.
The bending moments on the tubesheet extension are calculated assuming the extension is
a ringtype flange, and using the typical Code flange analysis.
TEMA also provides rules for longitudinal stresses, both in the shell and in the tubes.
You need to know the baille spacing and tube physical and material properties to deter
mine the buckling stress in the tube.
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets 93
TEMA Tubeshects Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
The following table shows lhe tube joinl reliability factor used by TEMA to compare the
actual to the maximum tube pullauI load.
IS98 SECTION VII DIVISION 1
TABLEA2
EFPICIENCIESf
r
94
Dew:iption(l) No...
Heal Ex.changer Tubesheets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Floating TubesllCet Design
TEMA Tubesheels
(
Determine the required thickness for the following floating tubesheet.
Tubesheet type  Floating tubesheet with backing ring, SA105 Forging
Gasket diameter for tubesheet  38 in. (965 mm)
Design pressure  250psi (1.72 N/mm
2
) shell at 480F (249C), 525psi channel at
200F (93C)
3/4in. tubes on 15116 pitch, triangular
Shell: SA516,70, 37in. diameter, 0.5in. thick, 0.125in. CA
Channel: SA5 I 6,70, 37in. diameter, 0.5in. thick, 0.125in. CA
Gasket between Channel and Tubesheet
Flange Face OD 38.5 in. (978 mm)
Flange Face ID 37.5 in. (953 mm)
Gasket OD 38.5 in. (978 mm)
Gasket ID 37.5 in. (953 mm
m 2.75, y = 3700.0psi (2.55 N/mm
2
)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the required thickness of the tubeshect?
What is the maximum pressure allowed on the tubeside
for a 4in.(102 mm) thick tubesheet?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Heal Exchanger Tubeshecls 95
TEMA Tubesheels Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 51
Tubesheet Analysis: EX) Float TS Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, TubeSheet Item 1, Description: EX) Float TS
Shell Design Pressure
Shell Temperature for Internal Pressure
Shell Material
Shell Allowable Stress at Temperature
Shell Allowable Stress at Ambient
Shell Thickness
Shell Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Shell
Channel Design Pressure
Channel Temperature for Internal Pressure
Channel Material
Channel Allowable Stress at Temperature
Channel Allowable Stress at Ambient
Channel Thickness
Channel Corrosion Allowance
Inside Diameter of Channel
TUBESHEET TYPE: Floating, Backing Ring
Tube Outside Diameter
Tube pitch (Center to Center Spacing)
Tube Layout Pattern
Tubesheet Design Metal Temperature
Tubesheet Material (Not Normalized)
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Temperature
Tubesheet Allowable Stress at Ambient
Thickness of Tubesheet
Tubesheet Corr. Allowance (Shell side)
Tubesheet Corr. Allowance (Channel side)
Depth of Groove in Tube Sheet
PS
TEMPS
SOS
SAS
TS
CAS
OS
PC
TEMPC
SOC
SAC
TC
CAC
DC
DT
FT
TEMPTS
SOTS
SATS
TTS
CATS
CATC
GROOVE
250.00
480.00
SA516 70
20000.00
20000.00
0.5000
0.1250
37.0000
525.00
200.00
SA516 70
20000.00
20000.00
0.5000
0.1250
37.000Q
0.7500
0.9380
Triangular
480.00
SAlOS
19680.00
20000.00
4.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
psig
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
F
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
ADDITIONAL DATA FOR GASKETED TUBESHEETS:
Flange Face Outside Diameter
Flange Face Inside Diameter
Flange Facing Sketch
Gasket Outside Diameter
Gasket Inside Diameter
Gasket Factor, m,
Gasket Design Seating Stress
Column for Gasket Seating
Tubesheet Gasket on which Side
FOD
FID
1, Code
GOD
GID
M
y
2, Gode
SIDE
38.5000
37.5000
Sketch la
38.5000
37.5000
2.7500
3700.00
Column II
BOTH
in.
in.
in.
in.
psi
INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS FOR GASKETED TUBESHEETS:
ASME Code, Section VIII, Div. I, 199B, A99 Appendix 2
96
Gasket Contact Width, N
Basic Gasket Width, BO
Effective Gasket Width, BE
Gasket Reaction Diameter, G
(GODGID) I 2
N I 2.0
BO
(GOD+GID) / 2.0
0.500 in.
0.250 in.
0.250 in.
38.000 in.
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes TEMA Tubesheets
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 52
Tubesheet 1\Ilalysis: EX3 Float TS Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
TUBESHEET ANALYSIS, TUBESHEET NUMBER l,Description:EX3 Float TS
TEMA Standards, Eighth Edition, 1999, RCB7 Tubesheets
TEMA RI.131 Minimum Tubesheet Thickness for Rtype:
THIN MAX ( DT, CONST  ( CATS CATC ) )
TMIN =: MAX ( 0.750, 0.750  ( 0.000 + 0.000) )
TMIN = 0.7500 in.
Min. Thickness + CATS + MAX (CATC, GROOVE)
TREQMIN = 0.7500 in.
Shellside Fixity Factor, F, per RCB 7.132 FS 1. 0000
Shellside Effective Diameter, per RCB 7.132 GS 38.0000 in.
Tubeside Fixity Factor, F, per RCB 7.132 FC 1.0000
Tubeside Effective Diameter, per RCB 7.132 GC 38.0000 in.
TEMA Eta factor used in calculation ETA 0.4201
Shells ide Effective Pressure, Bending, PSU 250.0000 psig
Tubeside Effective Pressure, Bending, PTU 525.0000 psig
TEMA RCB7.132 Required Thickness for Shellside Pressure:
TRS FS I GS I SQRT { PSU / ( ETA I SOTS) ) / 3.0
TRS = 1.0000 I 38.0000 I SQRT( 250.00 / ( 0.4201 I 19680 ) ) / 3.0
TRS = 2.2025 in.
TEMA RCB7.132 Required Thickness for Tubeside Pressure:
TRC FC I GC I SQRT { PTU / ( ETA I SOTS) ) / 3.0
TRC = 1.0000 I 38.0000 I SQRT( 525.00 / ( 0.4201 I 19680 ) ) / 3.0
TRC = 3.1918 in.
TEMA RCB7.132 Required Thickness for Bending + CATS + MAX ( CATC,GROOVE):
TREQ = 3.1918 in.
No Shear Calculation, since Pressure is less than 1264.8911 psig
SUMMARY of RESULTS for Tubesheet calculations
Reqd Tubsheet Thk. + CATS + MAX(CATC,GRV)TREQ
Actual Tubsheet Thickness as Given TTS
3.1918 in.
4.0000 in.
(
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Heat Exchanger Tubesheets 97
TEMA Tubeshcets
98
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis. Seminar Notes
Heal Exchanger Tubeshcels
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Fixed tubesheet design
Determine the required thickness for the following fixed tubesheet.
TEMA Tubesheets
(
(
Tubesheettype  SAlOS Forging
Design pressure  250 psi shell at 480F (249C), 525psi channel at 480F (274C)
3/4io.( 19 mm) tubes on 15/16 (24 mm) pitch, triangular
Shell SA516,70  40.5lD (1029 mm) by 0.5 (12.77 mm) thick, 0.125 (3.175 mm)
corrosion allowance
Channel SA516,70  40.5 lD (1029 mm) by 0.5 (12.77 mm) thick, 0.125 (3.175
mm) corrosion allowance
Tubesheet is welded to shell, extended as flange, and gasketed to channel.
aD of extension is 47.65 (1210 mm), thickness of extension is 3.5 in. (89mm)
56 Iin. bolls on 45.5in.(1156 mm) boll circle, SA193, B7
40.5in. (1029 mm) gasket lD, 41.5in. (1054 mm) aD, flexitallic
40.5in. (1029 mm) face lD, 42.5in. (l080 mm) face aD.
Tubes (SA214, allowable ksi (69N/mm
2
), yield=23 ksi (159 N/mm
2
' ,
'"
, , , ,
'"
, ; "':;;"
..
,,,.
,"
FIG. snO.1 DESICH fAll(,UE CURVES fOR CARBON. LOW AllOY, SERIES 4XlC, HleH ALLOY STEELS AHD
HleH TENSILE STEELS FOR NOT EXCEEDINC 100'F
Figure 1Example Fatigue Curve (For Values of Sa)
The equations used in CodeCale to qualify the various stress components can be summa
rized as follows:
Pm(SUS) < Smh
Pm(SUS + acC) < I.2S
mh
Stresses 117
Discussion of Resulls Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pj(SUS + OCC) < 1.5( 1.2)Smh
Pm(SUS +OCC) +NSUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(Sm, + Smh)
J 18
If some of the conditions listed in ASME VIII Div.2 (in which ADI 60 is not satisficd),
you probably need to perfonn the fonnal fatigue analysis. Peak stresses are required to be
calculated or estimated. You may consider using AD560 "Alternative Rules for Nozzle
Design" instead of Article 46 "Stresses in Openings for Fatigue Evaluation" to calculate
the peak pressure stress for the opening.
Ifall conditions of AD560.1 through AD560.6 are satisfied, the stress indices given in
Table AD560.7 may be used. Ifuser says "Yes" to indicate the conditions have been satis
fied, the program will use these pressure stress indices to modify the primary stress due to
internal pressure (hoop and longitudinal stresses). For external loads, the highest peak
stresses are usually localized in fiIlets and transitions. If the user decides to use WRCI07
stress concentration factors (Kn, Kb), the fillet radius between the Vessel and Nozzle is
required. (If a reinforcing pad is used, the program assumes the same pad fillet radius.)
The program will make a crude approximation and use WRCI07 AppendixB equations
(3) and (4) to estimate Kn and Kb. The tension and bending stresses are thus modified
using Kn and Kb respectively. The program outputs the local stresses for 4 pairs of points
(upper and lower) at the intersection.
Note The user should 1101 direct the program to perform the stress summations. Instead
the user should detennine which stresses should be added based on locations in
order to obtain the peak stress level, then use Appendix4 & 5 rules and fatigue
curves depending on operation cycles.
Based on comparisons with finite element analysis, it is known that the top tip of the fiIlet
weld on the nozzle usually experiences the highest peak stress due to external loads. So it
is conservative to add all the peak stresses after including both pressure stress indices and
concentration factors.
Note The stress summation may ollly be used to check stress intensities, not stress !ev
els.
You need the peak stress level to perform fatigue analysis. The current stress summation
routine does not compare stress level with fatigue allowables per Appendix5. However,
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Discussion of Results
you may find the stress summation results useful to compare the combined effect due to
the stress concentration factor and pressure stress indices.
"""'Ll:%'lOITUOIN.'<L
TORSION....L IJOl.1ENT
o
GEOMETRY
POINTS FOR STRESS RECOVERY
(
Stresses
Figure 2Geometry for Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells
119
Discussion ofResulls
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NoLes
I. ""pl ., Lud,' ,. C........ic P.,_OI."
.t.
Ilooli.1 Lood.
,
r __
'b.
'.
,.
"
SI._L""
__I>. , T
SI. .., L... d. __lb,
P
T
f
0. ......",".......,,'.
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O.... ... ftt .140 ....... ', __If_,t
U '" ,
r.,,'....I ...... u,. " _.'I.,';.
\'''1r.T
l. c ",
V I Thlch.... T '" __: ....
V III __ A __: .
I. TMd".... .. __:,.
.......1. lol.uR.d;y., '",= __;f..
..... ,.I.OuIJ;d. Rd;u I.= __i".
.. s"... C... c......II011 Foe, ...
10. '.'
.. ..... I... d.IC.. "' __
b",lin.I..d. llo ... __
"'OTE, I!ftlon IOU Iuoo I..
u....donee <lh "tn II.ft
NOZZLE
Do
DL
HOLLOW ATTACHMENT
R
m
STllESSES _ lilood', .,,..';1. ,h." .t.o ,. , .. ,.. .... c,.... ..h.....1.....1
f;.
.., .1....................1'
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+
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+ + +
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f
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., ., 1'\1'it:i
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II., Il..I :b ( ...
', 01. I .... ...'
"'dd al,"".lcoll, lor __ ...f q ..
IP_I 10
."
. ..
,.
',.
Y,
"(.!'f) " T
'Y'
.
S.o.l '. It
Hr'.,tI;t
Y,
Y,
..
."..[W
IO."L'
..
(II,\IW) ....
Y,'  '
,
II, "V'
H",r.=f"
..
(",,\Ji;"i) .__,,_
Y,
,.." "ya;f
.,'
..
',.yt;T
... al I... I..II, hll .......lIn 01 aJ.
1.. _1 I. 10
COKBINEO STP.E:SS INTmSJrY  S.
11. When '( "I o. s .. laraC!.':t llbsoll.lte 1l\.1'lnltuc1C! of eithC!r
S .. 1/2 [Ox+Oy! {lOll: Oy)2 .. 4Tl)or {(all. 
2) When t O. S .. lIIrqest Abi!;Ol\Ite Illaqnitude of either
S .. 0.:c' 0y or (Ox  a I
7
Figure 3AII Attachments to a Spherical Shell
llJO
Stresses
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NOles
Discussion of Results
p
..
CYLINDRICAL SHELL
.. +
_ "1..4 ..., ....11. ,ht.o.... , ........., .........
... BLc..CLDw
{J tUJSl it ;:
St C , I ..'
.1 .. _\_.1 Ko 
\J \ ...1'", '''1. K\  Om
'HOT(, (", n 10 lwII I.
1 1,10. .1 ,..
..
.... {jt ;;:;.
.."....4_ , ....1.
(..!!2. . ...!... _
P/... ..,
10 ,.., ...
.. !. <
P/.... II.'
u/_1I.a
'.{j ...flr
.. (.!!..). .0=:
. "
..
.., ....1' {jt
,. =1'"
101.", __1... 1",
l1li1.:: __1 1\,
If.:I... I",
v. =__"
VI. : __"
,. _...
'" _..
...:."
COMBINED STRESS INTENSITY  S
No... , ....
" r.." IIl.
so. .
1 V.
.....1 ,1.....  .....
1+ " +_
3(" or ..
"
..,..;
1C1 ..
01' 2e T
..
..
..
..
.......,ll
..
..
IIL/U
,..'
..
= :II_I
"1./"'fJ
.II_'.. 10. __
'l.'....... .,..
J.IlA" n __II_
.,....,;.., , 1'".
1. ",,,11'" 1. ..1.'
iIl.II.. ,.
CI .......
1..",.101_.".
T...I..........,.
Sh... L..
.._I......
2. G_....,
Y.... ....
",,,,,"..1,,,11
Y....l .. ...
,..
............
".
)C or
'!t
=
<C
"b
Ie or
1C1 ..
..
11./ ....

..
..":!
(
"
1.' .... 18
II
= 11.1
JlvfJ
(
1) When T # 0, S ;; largest absolute of either
S;; 1/2 [Ox+04l .,t(Ox  0tP)2 + 4T
2
Jor  0'41)2 +
2) When ;; 0, S = largest absolute magnitude of either
S'D ox' or (ax  41)
Figure 4AII Attachments to a Cylindrical Shell
(
Slresses
1t 11
Discussion of Results
1112
Pressure Vessel Design (lnd Analysis  Seminar Notes
Stresses
(
(
(
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Stresses in a Cylinder due to Loads on a Nozzle
Analyze the cylinder for Drum DIOI under the following loads:
Design pressure is 200 psi (1.378N/mm
2
)
Radial load is 5,400 lbs (24021 N)
Longitudinal shear load is 2, I00 Ibs (9342 N)
Longitudinal bending moment is 3500 ftIbs (4.74e
6
Nmm)
The cylinder is 144 in. (3658 mm) ID and Iin. (25.4 mrn) thick
The attachment is ronnd and has an OD of 12.75 in. (324 mm)
Notes:
Questions:
What is the highest stressed point?
Is the stress at Ihis point acceptable?
Discussion of Results
(
Stresses
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
1113
Discussion of Results Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar NOles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 71
WRCI07 Analysis: Nozzle/Cylinder Item: 1 9;51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, WRC107 Item
"
Description: Nozzle/Cylinder
Diameter Basis for Vessel
Cylindrical or Spherical Vessel
Corrosion Allowance for Vessel
Vessel Diameter
Vessel Thickness
Attachment Type
Diameter Basis for Nozzle
Corrosion Allowance for Nozzle
Nozzle Diameter
Nozzle Thickness
Design Internal Pressure
VBASIS
CYLSPH
CAS
DV
TV
TYPE
N8ASIS
CAN
D"
TN
DP
ID
Cylindrical
0.0000 in.
14<1.000 in.
1.000 in.
Round
ID
0.0000 in.
12.000 in.
1.000 in.
200.00 psig
External Forces and Moments in WRC 107 Convention:
Radial Load P
Circumferential Shear VC
Longitudinal Shear VL
Circumferential Moment MC
Longitudinal Moment ML
Torsional Moment MT
5400.00
0.00
2100.00
0.00
3500.00
0.00
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
n .Ib.
ft.lb.
Compute Maximum Radial Force
Compute Maximum Circumferential Moment
Compute Maximum Longitudinal Moment
Compare Maximum Stress Intensity to
Yes
"0
"0
26250.00 psi
Global Force (SUS) Fx
Global Force (SUS) Fy
Global Force (SUS) Fz
Global Moment (SUS) Mx
Global Moment (SUS) My
Global Moment (SUS) Mz
Internal Pressure (SUS) P
Include Pressure Thrust
LOI
0.00
44.00
44 .00
0.00
0.00
0.00
"0
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft .lb.
fLlb.
psig
Use Interactive Control
WRCI07 Version
INTACT
VERSION
"0
March 1979 ( 81 & B2 )
Include WRC107 SIF(Kn,Kb)concentration factors
Include Pressure Stress Indices per Div. 2
Dimensionless Parameters used: Gamma = 72.50
Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells
"0
No
Curves read for Beta Figure value
1114
N{PHI) / ( P/Rm
M(PHI) / ( P )
0.084
0.084
4C
2C1
12.282
0.078
Slresses
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Discussion ofResulls
COME Engineering Software
PlJElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc. , Local White Lock
FileName
,
Seminar

Page 72
WRC107 Analysis
,
Nozzle/cylinder Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
N(PHI)
I
MC/(Rm**2 Beta) 0.084 3A 2.280
H(PHI)
I
MC/ (Rm Beta) 0.084 1A 0.093
N(PHI)
I ML/(Rm**2 Beta) 0.084 3B 8.115
M(PHI)
I ML! (Rm
Beta) 0.084 1B 0.043
N(x)
I P/Rm ) 0.084 3C 10.437
M(x)
I
p ) 0.084 1C1 0.118
N(x)
I MC!(Rm**2
Beta) 0.084 4A 3.410
M(x)
I MC! (Rm
Beta) 0.084 2A 0.051
N(x)
I ML!(Rm**2 Beta) 0.084 4B 2.289
M(x)
I ML! (Rm Beta) 0.084 2B 0.063
STRESS POINTS C & 0 (MARCH 1979)
N(PHI)
I
( P!Rm ) 0.084 3C 10.437
M{PHI) I
( p ) 0.084 1C 0.115
M(PHI)
I
( ML/ (Rm
. .
. .
(. )
,
d
( b)
..
d
'WL!
fll t i
I C
ICI
Ie
(
/212
Figure 3Neutral Axis Shift
Because the concrete and the steel have different elastic moduli, and because the strain in
the concrete cross section must be equal to the strain in the basering at any specific loca
tion, the neutral axis of the combined bolt/concrete cross section will be shifted in the
direction of the concrete. Several authors, including Jawad & FaIT (pages 428 to 433) and
Megyesy (Pages 70 to 73) have analyzed this phenomenon. In the program, we have used
the formulation of Singh and Soler, Mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers and Pressure
Vessel Components, Pages 957 to 959. This formulation seems to be the most readily
adaptable to computerization, as there are no tabulated constants. Singh and Soler provide
the following description of their method:
In this case a neutral axis parallel to the y axis exists. The location ofthe neutral axis is
identified by the angle a. The object is to determine the peak concrete pressure p and
the angle a.
For narrow base plate rings, an approximate solution may be constructed using numer
ical iteration. It is assumed that the concrete annulus under the base plate may be
trcated as a thin ring of mean diameter c. Assuming the foundation to be linearly elas
tic, and the base plate to be relatively rigid, Brownnell and Young have developed an
approximate solution that can be cast in a form suitable for numerical solution.
Let the total tensile stress area of all foundation bolts be A. Within the limits of accu
racy sought, it is permissible to replace the bolls by a thin shell of thickness f and
mean diameter equal to the bolt circle diameter c, such that t A/ pc. We assume that
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Skirt and BaseRing Design
(
(
the discrete tensile bolt loads, acting around the ring, are replaced by a line load, vary
ing in intensity with the distance from the neutral plane.
Let n bc the ratio of Young's moduli oflhe bolt material to that oflhe concrete; II nor
mally varies bctwcen 10 and 15. Assuming that the concrete can take only comprcs
sian (nonadhesive surface) and that thc bolts are effective only in tension (untapped
holes in base plate), an analysis [similar to that given above) yields the following
results:
2W+ P21ca
p ~ :p',(7:,,_=:., )c
a ~ 2(M Wp,c)
2
P2 P)/C
(
a ~  ex::: cos
a+n
Where:
I, width of basering (similar to I in Jawad & Farr's equations above)
c bolt circle diamctcr
p four constants based on the neutral axis angle, and defined in Singh &
Soler equations 20.3.12 through 20.3.17, not reproduced here.
These equations give the required 7 nonlinear equations to solve for 7 unknowns,
namelyp, s, a, and thc r; (i = 1,4) parameters. The simple iteration scheme described
below converges rapidly. The iterative solution is started with assumed values of sand
p; say So andPo' [the program takes thesc from the approximate analysis it has just per
formed). Then a is determined via the above equation, and then the dimensionless
parameters Tj, T2' T)) and 4 are computed. This enables computation of corrected val
ues ofp and s (say Po' and so'). The next iteration is started with s, andp, where we
choose the following:
l7
1
::; 05 ( l7
0
+ l7n
P, = 05 (PO + pi)
This process is continued until the errors e; and e; at the ith iteration stage are within
specified tolerances, (e; = e; = 0.005 is a practical value), where
Actual numerical tests show that thc convergence is uniform and rapid regardless of
the starting values of So and Po'
(
Tall Vertical Towers 1213
Skin and BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Once the new values of bolt slress and bearing pressure are calculated, the thickness of the
basering is calculated again using the same fonnula given above for the approximate
method.
Thickness of Basering under Tension
On the tensile side, ifthere is no top ring but there are gussets, there is disagreement on
how to do the analysis. For example, Brown & Root does not look at the tensile side at all,
Megyesy uses a "Table F" to calculate an equivalent bending moment, Dennis R. Moss
uses the same approach but gives the table (Page 126129), and Jawad & FaIT use a "yield
line" theory (Page 435436). Since Jawad & FaIT is both accepted and explicit, Ihe pro
gram uses their Equation 12.13:
3.91F
t=
S, 2b + ~  ~ + ..!.)
,,21 ,,2/
Where:
F
a
b
I
d
Boll Load =Allowable Stress * Area
Distance between gussets
Width of base plate that is outside of the skirt
Dislance from skirt to bolt circle
Diameler of bolt hole
Thickness of Top Ring under Tension
Ifthere is a top ring or plate, its thickness is calculated using a simple beam fonnula. Tak
ing the plate to be a beam supported between two gussets with a point load in the middle
equal to the maximum bolt load, we derive the following equation:
t=lM
,7
Where:
M
FI
s
z
z
Bending moment from Megyesy, beams, case II, fixed beam.
2 F, e.
80
Bolt Load ~ Allowable Stress time Area
Allowable stress, 1.5 * plate allowable
Seclion Modulus, from Megyesy, Properties of Seclions
1214
Wt
(
Do _D, _d.)
2 2.
Width of Section
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Skirt and BaseRing Design
(
Required thickness of gussets in tension: Iflhere are gussets, they must be analyzed for
both tension and compression. The stress fonnuJa in tension is just the force over the area,
where the force is taken to be the allowable bolt stress times the boll area, and the area of
the gusset is the thickness of the gusset times one half the width of the gusset (because
gussets normally taper).
. Required thickness of gussets in compression: In compression (as a column) we must iter
atively calculate the required thickness. Taking the actual thickness as the starting point,
we perfonn the calculation in AISC 1.5.1.3. The radius of gyration for the gusset is taken
as 0.289 t per Megyesy (Fifth edition, Page 404). The actual compression is calculated as
described above, then compared to the allowed compression per AISC. The thickness is
then modified and another calculation performed until the actual and allowed compres
sions are within one half of one percent of each other.
Basering Design Selections
Selection of Number of Bolls: This selection is made on the basis of Megyesy's table in
Pressure Vessel Handbook (Table C, Page 67 in the fifth edition). Above the diameter
shown, the selection is made to keep the anchor boll spacing at about 24 in.
Calculation of Load per Boll: This calculation is made per Jawad& Farr, Equation 12.3:
W 2M
p= 
N NR
Where:
W
N
R
M
Weight of vessel
Number of bolls
Radius of boll circle
Bending moment
(
Calculation of Required Area for Each Bolt
This is just the load per boll divided by the allowable stress.
Selection of the Bolt Size
The program has a table of boll areas, and selects smallest boll with area greater than the
area calculated above.
Selection of Preliminary Basering Geometry
The table of bolt areas also contains the required clearances in order to successfully
tighten the selected boll (wrench clearances and edge clearances). The program selects a
preliminarybasering geometry based on these clearances. Values selected at this point arc
the boll circle, basering outside diameter, and basering inside diameter.
Analysis of Preliminary Basering Geometry
Using the methods described above for the analysis section, the program determines the
approximate compressive stress in the concrete for the preliminary geometry.
Selection of Final Basering Geometry
If the compressive stress calculated above is acceptable, then the preliminary geometry
becomes the final geometry. lfnot, then the boll circle and bascring diameters arc scaled
Tall Vertical Towers 1215
Skirt and BttseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
up to the point where the compressive stress will be acceptable. These become the final
basering geometry values.
Analysis of Basering Thicknesses
The analysis then continues through the thickness calculation described above, determin
ing required thicknesses for the basering, top ring, and gussets.
Skirt Thickness Calculations
Basic Skirt Thickness
The required thickness of the skirt under tension and compression loads is determined
using the same formula used for the compressive stress in the concrete, except using the
thickness of the skirt:
W Me
lZ =
, A I
Where:
W
M
A
c
1
Weight of vessel (worst case)
Bending moment on vessel (worst case)
Cross sectional area of skirt
Distance from the center of the basering to the skirt
(radius of skirt)
Moment of inertia of the skirt cross section
In tension this actual stress is simply compared to the allowable stress, and the required
thickness can be calculated directly by solving the formula for t. In compression, the
allowable stress must be calculated from the ASME Code, per paragraph UG23, where
the geometry factor is calculated from the skirt thickness and radius, and the materials fac
tor is found in the Code external pressure charts.
As with all external pressure chart calculations, this is an iterative procedure. A thickness
is selected, the actual stress is calculated, the allowable stress is determined, and the origi
nal thickness is adjusted so that the allowable stress approaches the actual stress.
Stress in Skirt due to Gussets or Top Ring
If there are gussets or gussets and a top ring included in the base plate geometry, there is
an additional load in the skirt. Jawad & Farr have analyzed this load and determined that
the stress in the skirt due to the boll load on the base plate is calculated as follows:
1216
Where:
F
b
Total load in one bolt load on one gusset
Width of the gusset at the base
thickness of the skirt
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Notes Skirt and BaseRing Design
h height of the gusset
Jawad & Farr note that this stress should be combined wilh the axial stress due to weight
and bending moment, and should then be less lhan three times the allowable stress. They
thus categorize this stress as secondary bending. The program performs the calculation of
this stress, and then repeats the iterative procedure described above to determine the
required thickness of the skirt at the lop of the basering.
Generally the skirt/head/shell weld is a noninspectable weld detail. Frequently the joint
efficiency oflhis weld is taken to be as Iowa 0.45, sometimes 0.55 (See UW12). Thus the
skirt thickness may very well be governed by the loads at the top, even though the bending
moment is higher at the bottom.
r
TTA
I
I HG
DS
L
I
I
I I I
DC
rl.
! .. DC
DO
I h ~ B N D
I
I
1=
l I
I
I
I I
I
TGA
Figure 4Geometry for Baserings and Bolt Chairs
(
Tall Vertical Towers 1217
Skirl and BaseRing Design
1218
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Tall Vertical Towers
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles Skirl and BnseRing Design
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Baserings:
Use the Basering program to analyze the support for tower shown on Page 198.
You will need the following additional information:
Basering ID ~ 118 in. (2997 mm.), O D ~ 8 in. (3251 mm.), Thickness ~ I in.
(25.4 mm), SA516 70 at 100F (37.7C)
Top Ring Thickness ~ I in. (25.4 mm), SA193 B7 on a 124 in. (3150 mm) Bolt
Circle
Compressive strength of concrete, 3,000 psi (20.68 N/mm
2
)
Gussets, I in.(25.4 mm) thick by 12 in. (304.8 mm) tall, 2 per bolt. (locate 3 in.
(76.2 mm) to cach side of bolts)
Gussets arc SA516 70 at 100F (37.7C), Elastic Modulus ~ 29,000,000 (19947
N/mm
2
).
Skirt is 0.625 in. (15.9 mm) thick, 121.875 in.(3096 mm) OD, SA 516 70 at
100F (37.7"C)
From PYElite, get the weights and moments for the tower:
(thcse have been increased to make the problem more interesting)
Dead weight ~ 200,000 Ib (839672 N)
Operating weight ~ 250,000 Ib (1.I1e
6
N)
Test weight = 400,000 Ib (1.77e
6
N)
Operating Moment = 1,000,000 ft Ib (1.335e
9
Nmm
2
)
Test Moment ~ 1,000,000 ft Ib (1.335e
9
Nmm
2
)
Notes:
Questions:
Are thc thicknesses chosen adequatc?
Tall Vertical Towers 1219
Skirt and BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 76
Basering Analysis: PVD&A Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Sasering Item 1, Description: PVD&A
Analyze or Design the Sasering
Design Temperature for sasering
Thickness of Sasering
Sasering Material
Sasering Operating Allowable Stress
Sasering Ambient Allowable Stress
Inside Diameter of sasering
Outside Diameter of sasering
Nominal Diameter of Bolts
Bolt Material
Bolt Operating Allowable Stress
Salt Ambient Allowable Stress
Number of Bolts
Diameter of Bolt Circle
Nominal Compressive Stress of Concrete
AORD
RNGTMP
TBA
BASOPE
SASAMB
Dr
DO
BND
SA
SAHAMB
NGIV
DC
FPC
AM
100.00 F
1.0000 in.
8A516 70
20000.00 psi
20000.00 psi
118.0000 in.
128.0000 in.
0.8750 in.
81\193 87
25000.00 psi
25000.00 psi
20
124.0000 in.
3000.0 psi
Thickness of Gusset Plates
Temperature for Gusset plates
Average Width of Gusset Plates
Material for Gussets
Gusset Plate Elastic Modulus
Gusset Plate Yield Stress
Height of Gussets
Distance from Bolts to Gussets
Number of Gussets per bolt
Thickness of TOp Ring/Plate
Radial Width of the Top Ring/Plate
TGA
GUSTMP
AVGWDT
E
SY
HG
CG
NG
TTA
TOPWTH
1.0000
100.0000
2.0000
8A516 70
29000000.0
38000.00
12.0000
3.0000
2
1.2500
4.0000
in.
F
in.
psi
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
External Corrosion Allowance 0.0000 in.
Skirt Thickness
Skirt Temperature
Skirt Material
Skirt Operating Allowable Stress
Skirt Ambient Allowable Stress
Outside Diameter of Skirt at Base
Outside Diameter of Skirt at Bottom Head
Joint Efficiency of Skirt Weld
Dead Weight of Vessel
Operating Weight of Vessel
Test Weight of Vessel
Operating Moment on sasering
Test Moment on Sasering
TS
SKTTEM
SKTOPE
SKTAMB
DS
SKTHED
ARCJNT
DW
ROW
TIl
ROM
TM
0.6250
100.0000
SA516 70
20000.00
20000.00
121. 8750
121.8750
0.7070
200000.0
250000.0
400000.0
1000000.0
1000000.0
in.
p
psi
psi
in.
in.
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
1220
RESULTS FOR BASERING ANALYSIS : ANALYZE OPTION
Tall Vertical Towers
\
Pressure Vessel Design ami Analysis  Seminar Noles Skirl and BnseRing Design
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar  Page 77
Basering Analysis: PVD&A Item: 1 9:51a sep 21,2000
Calculation of Load per Bolt, Dead Weight Condition:
W/Bolt ({ 4 M/De )  W ) / RN per Jawad Farr, Eq. 12.3
W/Bolt ({ 4 * 0.120E+08 / 124.000)  200000 ) / 20
W/Bolt 9354.8389 lb.
Required Area for Each Bolt, Based on Max Load
Area Available in a single Bolt
Area Available in all the Bolts
Bolt Stress Based on Approximate Analysis
Concrete Contact Area of Base Ring
Concrete Contact Section Modulus of Base Ring
0.3742 in
0.4190 in
8.3800 in
22326.58 psi
1932.08
57185.03
(
Calculation of Concrete Load, Test Weight Condition:
SC ((ABT*SA+W)/CA) + M/CZ per Jawad & Farr Eq. 12.1
SC {( 8.3800 25000+ 400000)/ 1932.08) + 0.120E+08/ 57185.03
SC 525.31 psi
Calculation of sasering Thickness, (Simplified):
TB RW * SQRT( 3 SC / S ) + CA per Jawad & Farr Eq. 12.12
TB 3.0625 * SQRT{ 3 525 / 30000 ) + 0.0000
TB 0.7019 in.
Results of Neutral Axis shift Calculation:
Searing Pressure on Concrete
Stress in Bolt
412.50 psi
0.00 psi
Calculation of Sasering Thickness, (N.A. Shift):
TBNA RW * SQRT{ 3 SCNA / S) + CA per Jawad & Farr Eg. 12.12
TBNA 3.0625 * SQRT( 3 412 / 30000 ) + 0.0000
TBNA 0.6220 in.
Required Thickness of Top Ring/Plate in Tension:
(Calculated as a fixed beam per Megyesy)
FT (SA*ABSS) , Bolt Allowable Stress * Area
RM (FT*2.0*CG)/B.0. Bending Moment
SS (1.5*BASOPE), Allowable stress 1.5
WT (TOPWTH BND), Width of Section
T SQRT ( 6 RM / ( SB * WT + CA
T SQRT( 6 .7856 / ( 30000 3.1250 )) + 0.0000
T 0.7091 in.
Required Thickness of Gusset in Tension:
T = ( SA*ABSS )/( NG*S*( AVGWDT ) + CA
Required thickness based on average crosssection
Actual thickness as entered by user
0.1309 in.
1.0000 in.
(
Required Thickness of Gusset in
1. Allowed Compression at Given
Factor KI/r Per E21
Factor Cc Per E21
All. Buckling Str. per E21
Tall Vertical Towers
Compression, per AISC E21 9th Ed.
Thickness:
83.0450
122.7360
15572.10 psi
1221
Skirt ami BaseRing Design Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 78
Sasering Analysis: PVD&A Item: 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Act. Buckling Str. at Given Thickness
Required Gusset thickness, + CA
2. Allowed Compression at Calculated Thickness:
Factor KI/r Per E21
Factor Cc Per E21
All. Buckling Str. per E22
Act. Buckling Str. at Calculated Thickness
SUMMARY OF BASERING THICKNESS CALCULATIONS
Required Basering Thickness (simplfied)
Required Basering Thickness (N.A. Shift)
Actual Basering Thickness as entered by user
Required Top Ring/Plate Thickness as a FixedBeam
Actual Top Ring Thickness as entered by user
Required Gusset thickness, + CA
Actual Gusset Thickness as entered by user
2618.75 psi
0.4931 in.
168.4202
122.7360
5264.57 psi
5310.98 psi
0.7019 in.
0.6220 in.
1. 0000 in.
0.7091 in.
1.2500 in.
0.4931 in.
1. 0000 in.
TENSILE STRESS CALCULATIONS FOR SKIRT AT TOP HEAD:
S
0
Mil PI*R"2*T
I
 F/ (2*PPR*T)
Operating Dead Load Test Load
Skirt Rad. Given by User 60.9375 60.9375 60.9375 in.
Skirt Thkn. Given by User 0.6250 0.6250 0.6250 in.
Bndg. Mom. Given by User 1000000.0 1000000.0 1000000.0 ft. lb.
Axial Force Given by User 250000.0 200000.0 400000.0 lb.
Actual Stress in Skirt 601.1 810.1 25.7 psi
Allowed Stress in Skirt 11312.0 11312.0 16968.0 psi
THICKNESS CALCULATION FOR
Required Thickness
Actual Thickness as Given
SKIRT:
0.0332
0.6250
0.0448
0.6250
N/A in.
0.6250 in.
Skirt Rad. Given by User
Skirt Thkn. Given by User
Bndg. Mom. Given by User
Axial Force Given by User
Actual Stress in Skirt
Allowed Stress in Skirt
COMPRESSIVE STRESS CALCULATIONS AT BASE
S = M/IPIrR"2*T) + F/(2*PIrRrT)
Operating
60.9375
0.6250
1000000.0
250000.0
2690.5
13426.0
OF SKIRT:
Dead Load
60.9375
0.6250
1000000.0
200000.0
2481. 6
13426.0
Test Load
60.9375 in.
0.6250 in.
1000000,0 ft.lb.
400000.0 lb.
3317.4 psi
20139.0 psi
THICKNESS CALCULATION FOR
Required Thickness
Actual Thickness as Given
SKIRT AXIAL
0.2378
0.6250
COMPRESSION:
0.2284
0.6250
0.2156 in.
0.6250 in.
SUMMARY OF SKIRT THICKNESS:
Req. Thickness, Tension
Req. Thickness, Camp.
Actual Thickness as Given
Operating
0.0332
0.2378
0.6250
Dead Load
0.0448
0.2284
0.6250
Test Load
N/A in.
0.2156 in.
0.6250 in.
1222
The PV Elite Program, {cl 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
Tall Vertical Towers
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis Seminar Noles
Chapter 13:
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs,
and Lifting Lugs
These design caleulations are done with simple hand methods. It is useful to review the
origin of the calculations.
VESSEL LEGS
The loading for vessel legs is the weight of the vessel, including operating weight or
weight of water for hydrotest, plus the horizontal shear and overturning moment due to
wind, earthquake, or external loads.
A vessel must have at least three legs. A vessel on two legs develops unacceptably high
bending stresses in the legs under even small horizontal loadings.
For the column furthest away from the neutral bending axis, the axial force in the column
due to these loads, per Jawad & Farr 12.3, is
W 2M
p= 
N NR
Where:
W
N
R
M
Weight of vessel and contents
Number oflegs (columns)
Radius of column circle
Bending moment due to wind or loads
Note Because the bending moment is only effectively carried by legs that are quite far
removed from the neutral axis, the total number of legs is divided by two in this
equation.
To generate the stress in the leg, simply divide the force by the cross sectional area of the
leg.
For the column closest to the neutral axis, the axial force does not contain the bending
moment term. However, the axial load may be increased by crossbracing of the legs.
Cross bracing resolves the shear at the top of the legs into an axial load.
The shear at the top of one leg is the horizontal load divided by the number oflegs which
support the shear load. As implemented in Codecale, the number ofeffective legs for shear
is the integer part of the number of legs divided by two, rounded up. For example, if you
have 4 legs, the number oflegs effective for shear is two, but if you have three legs the
number of effective legs is still two.
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs 131
Vessel Legs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
The axial force can be computed from the horizontal force by resolving the force vectors.
First, the horizontal force, assumed to be tangential to the vessel, is resolved into a force
into the vessel and a force in the plane from one leg to the next. The angle between the two
legs is alpha, and the force X in that plane is
H
X=
sin it
Where:
H
a
a =
Horizontal force at top of one leg
Angle between tangent and next leg
180N 360
2N
This horizontal force in the plane of the legs is further resolved into an axial force in the
cross bracing and an axial force in the leg (F):
X
F=
tantl'
Where:
X
P
Horizontal force in plane of legs
Angle between top and bollom of legs
,.vDIN
atan
L
132
P
D Diameter of leg circle
L Length oflegs
When you have many legs, or if the legs are quite tall, the angle of the cross bracing will
be high, and even a small horizontal load will require a large vertical component in the
brace and leg to resist it.
The leg closest to the neutral axis carries the weight of the vessel and the additional axial
compression caused by the cross bracing:
w
p=p
N
Vessel legs are generally a simple structural shape  an I beam, a channel, an angle, or a
structural tube. Ibeams and channels have a strong and a weak orientation. If the beam is
allached such that the tangent to the vessel is parallel to the beams strong axis use the
strong axis beam properties. Otherwise use the weak axis properties. '
For angles, iflhe angle is allached with one leg welded to the vessel or one flat welded 10
the vessel, use the strong axis properties. If the angle is attached with both legs welded 10
the vessel (like an upside down V), use the properties of the angle in a diagonal direction.
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NoLes Support Lugs
(
These leg loads are compared to the allowable leg comprcssion per the AISC Stcel Con
struction Manual, paragraph 1.5.1.3:
KI
Wmn<C,
r
F. = 5 3( ~ (
+
3 gC, 8C;
Wmre:
C = l,,i'E
, F
>
K Effective length factor
Length
,. Least radius of gyration
E Young's Modulus of column material
F, Yicld strength of column material
If you cross brace the legs, there will be no bending at the bottom. OthelWise the bending
at the bottom will be equal to the length ofthe leg times the shear at the top of the leg clos
est to the neutral axis.
The combination of bending and compressive stress is compared to the allowable per
AISC 1.6.1 (unity check).
SUPPORT LUGS
The lug support point should be set as close to the vesscl OD as possible, to reduce bend
ing moments on the lugs and the vessel.
Most support lug calculations also assume a minimum of three lugs, so that the lugs do not
have to carry a bending moment. However, some vessels are supported on two wide lugs
that can carry transverse bending.
The force on one lug is the weight of the vessel divided by the number oflugs, plus the
bending moment at the lug support point divided by the radius to the lug and the number
of effective lugs. This is thc same fonnula shown above for the force on a leg far away
from the neutral axis of the bending moment.
Most support lugs have two gussets, equally spaced about a bolt hole. The distance
between the gussets is used to calculate the bending in thc support plate.
(
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs t3J
Lining Lugs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
The bending stress in the bottom plate of a vessel support lug is calculated using a simple
beam formula for a beam (the plate) on two simple supports (the gussets):
M
17=
Z
Wmre:
z
2
= W,lf,l
6
F = Force on one lug
D
gp
=Dist.ance between gussets
Wpi = Width of supportlugboLlotn plaLe
f pi =Thicknessof support plaLe
Bending stress in Lhe bottom plate ofa vessel support lug is compared to the AISC allow
able bending stress.
The stress in the gusset is one half the lug force divided by the gusset area. This compres
sion is compared Lo the AISC allowable compression. If the gussets arc angled (as they
would be iffor cases with no top plate), ealeulate the mean gusset widlh and usc that value
in the gusset compression calculations.
Compressive stresses in support lug gussets arc compared to AISC compressive allow
able, which is caleulaled using the same formulas given above for the legs as columns.
The loads on the vessel shell should also be checked. These can be checked using the
WRC I 07 analysis technique.
LIFTING LUGS
There are two orientations of lifting lugs: flat to the vessel and perpendicular to the vessel.
Flat lugs arc generally welded below the top head scam and extend far enough above the
scam for the lifting cables to clear the head and its nozzles. Perpendicular lugs (cars) are
used to clear some obstruction at or ncar the top head (such as a l;>ody flange) by moving
the support point away from the vessel shell. They arc also used as tailing lugs.
Lifting lugs are normally subject to forces that arc "horizontal" in the natural coordinate
system of the vessel during the early part of the lift, and then to purely vertical forces. For
lifting lugs that are flat to the vessel shell, these tangential forces are usually not a prob
lem. However, for lifting lugs that are perpendicular to the shell (ears), these forces can
easily bend the lug, and should be avoided.
Forces normal to (away from) the shell should be avoided on lifting lugs that arc flat to the
shell, since these will tend to peel the lug off the shell. In other words, don't pull on the lug
in its weak direction.
The most significant stresses in the lug usually occur in the welds which attach the lug to
the vessel. You need to know the minimum leg width and the location of these welds.
Then you need to calculate the cross sectional area and the shear stress on the welds that
attach the lug to the vessel. The load for the direct shearing stress may calculated as the
(
134 Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes Lining Lugs
(
square root oflhe squares of all Ihe loads on Ihe lug (W, Nand T). This is only slightly
cOIlservativc.
WeldArea =(2 L\Uld + B
Weld
)( T
wdi
)
Wmre:
LWld =Length of weld on sides of support
B
wl1
= Widlh of weI d on boltom of support
T
Wld
"" Thickness of welds
Load = lw' + N' + T'
Wmre:
W =WeighlLo.d
N =Horizontal force nonn at to the vessel
T = Horizon.tal force tangent to the vessel
In addition to the direct shear stress, the shear stress at the ends of the welds due to the
bending on the lifting lug is must be calculated for each load. First, calculate the section
modulus of the weld group. Then calculate the shear stresses:
Bending Stress Due to Normal Force:
Bending Stress Due to Weight:
Bending Stress Due to Tangential Force:
Hlif Height of Lifting Lug
L,'dd Length of weld on sides of support
O'if Offset vessel OD to center of hole
Z" Section Modulus, Longitudinal Direction
Z/c Section Modulus, Circumferehtial Direction
Tensile, bending and shear loads are combined to calculate the stresses in vessel lifting
lugs. The stresses in the lugs arc compared to ASME allowable for base material shear and
fillet weld shear.
Most lifting lugs have a circular hole located in a semicircular arc of metaI. Shear across
this section may control the lug design.
The bending load on a flat lifting lug is caused by the force N that you entered normal to
the vessel. The bending load on perpendicular lifting lugs is caused by the combination of
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs 135
Lifting Lugs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Ihe vessel weight (W) and Ihe force you entered in Ihe tangential direclion. Nole Ihallhis
combinalion calculates the slress only allhe highest slressed corner of the weld group.
LEGs+<.1
CROSS
Of'S[
SlDEFU..1ET
WELD
flATUFTllm
___'LU'G\ ARC
RADIUS
o
SlRONG.
F'f:RF'ENDlC
LUG
_ / OFFSET OF UFllNGlOO
LEG ORlENTATJON;
__=::: WEAK
Figure 1Geometry for Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
136
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
I.
Pressure Vessel Design find Analysis  Seminar Noles
Pressure Vessel Desigu and Analysis Seminar
Component Design Problem
Vessel Legs
Lining Lugs
(
(
Design vessel support legs for the following vessel:
The design pressure is 200 psi (1.37 N/mm
2
), design temperature is 300F 149C.
The diameter of the vessel is 42 in. (1067 mm)
The height of the vessel itself is about 14.3 ft. (4359 mm)
The weight of the vessel is 30,000 lbs. (133451 N)
The wind load is 40 psf (0.002 N/mm
2
)
The centroid of the vessel area is 10 ft (3048 mm) above grade.
The vessel has 4 legs
Each leg is a W6x25 beam, oriented with the axis in the strong direction.
The leg material is SA285, C
The vessel legs are 5 ft (720 mm) tall and are not crossbraced.
Notes:
Questions:
What is the result of the AISC unity check?
DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED YOUR ANALYSIS
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
137
Lining Lugs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar NoLes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 66
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Legs Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Leg & Lug Item Description: 0102 Legs
Additional Horizontal Force on Vessel FF
Location of Horizontal Force above Base Point FH
Operating weight of Vessel (vertical load ) W
Erection Weight of Vessel (Lifting Analysis) W
Design Internal Pressure
Design Temperature for Attachment
Vessel Outside Diameter
Tangent to Tangent Length of Vessel
Height of Bottom Tangent Above Grade
Force Coefficient
Additional Area
Importance Factor
Wind Velocity
Exposure Catagory
Use ASCE 795 Wind Code
Number of Legs
Length of Legs
Effective Leg End Condition Factor
Material for Legs
Yield Stress of Leg Material
AIse Member Designation
Leg Orientation to vessel Axis
Are the Legs CrossBraced
Occasional Load Factor (AISe A5.2)
TEMP
OD
TANTAN
Cf
I
V
Expcat
NLEG
LLEG
K
ORIENT
XB
OCCFAC
200.00 psig
300.00 F
42.0000 in.
14 .3000 ft.
5.0000 ft.
30000.00 lb.
30000.00 lb.
0.500
2880.00 in
1.050
110.000 mile/hr
C
No
0.00 lb.
0.00 ft.
5.0000 ft.
1.00
SA285 C
26500.00 psi
W6X25
Strong
NO
1 .33
Description:D102 Legs
COMPUTED pARAMETERS:
Effective Wind Area of Vessel
Wind Pressure on Vessel ( ASCE #7 or User
Location of Centroid above Base Point
RESULTS FOR LEGS :
Section Properties for the selected Member
Cross Sectional Area for W6X25
Radius of Gyration ( strong axis )
Section Modulus (strong axis )
Overturning Moment at top of Legs
Weight Load at top of one Leg
Additional force in Leg due to Bracing
Shear at top of one Leg
Vleg (V + FF '" ( Imax / Itot )
Vleg (1843.3 + 0.0 ) '" ( 53.5 / 140.93 )
Vleg 699.86 lb.
Axial Compression, Leg futhest from N.A.
AREA
PWIND
WH
13962.21
38.02
12.15
7.340
2.700
16.700
13179.9
7500.0
0.0
in
psf
ft.
in
in.
in. **3
ft.lb.
lb.
lb.
138 Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
l
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Lining Lugs
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName : Seminar Page 67
Leg & Lug Analysis DI02 Legs Item; 1 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Sma (W/Nleg) + (Mleg/{Nlegm*Rn) II. 0000) / (Aleg
I
1. 0000)
Sma ( 30000/4) + ( 13179 /( 2 .., 2.02 I) .., 1.00001/
( 7.340 .., 1. 0000) )
Sma 1466.92 psi
Allowable Compo for the Selected Leg (KL/r <Cc )
Sa (1 (kl/r) "2/ (2*Cc"2) *Fy /
{
Sa (1( 39.47 )"2/(2 ... 146.97'''2 I) ... 26500 /
( 5/3+3*( 39.47 1/(8* 146.97 )( 39.47"3)/(8* 146.97"3)
Sa 19249.06 psi
Bending at the Bottom
S {Vleg * Rlngth
S (699.86 * 5.00
S 2514.48 psi
of the Leg closest
12.0000 / Smdsa )
0.0000 / 16.70 )
to the N.A.
Sb (0.6 * Fy * Occfac )
Sb (0.6 * 26500 * 1.33 )
Sb 21147.00 psi
AISC
Sc
Sc
Sc
Unity Check ( must be < or = to 1.00 )
(Sma/Sa)+(0.85S)/1Sma/spex)*Sb)
( 1466/ 19249 )+( 0.85 .., 2514.476 1/(
0.1785
1  1466/ 127463 ) * 21147 )
lb.
lb.
lb.
it.lb.
ft.lb.
o.
o.
7500.
1994.
o.
WRC107 Analysis: Weight only
Max. Shear/leg
Max. Shear/leg
Load / Leg
Moment/ Nlegs
Max. Shear/leg* Dist.
Additional Results
Forces/Moments for
Radial Load
Circumferential Shear
Longitudinal Shear
Longitudinal Moment
Circumferential Moment
Forces/Moments for WRC107 Analysis: Occasional
Radial Load Max. Shear/leg
Circumferential Shear Max. Shear/leg
Longitudinal Shear Load / Leg
Longitudinal Moment Moment/ Nlegs
Circumferential Moment Max. Shear/leg Dist.
..700.
700.
10767.
2862.
;186.
lb .
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
The PV Elite Program, (cl 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
(
(
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
139
Lining Lugs
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
COAOE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COAOE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 68
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Lugs Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Input Echo, Leg & Lug Item 2, Description: 0102 Lugs
Design Internal Pressure
Design Temperature for Attachment
Vessel Outside Diameter
TEMP
00
200.00
300.00
42.0000
psig
F
in.
Operating Weight of Vessel (vertical load ) W
Erection Weight of Vessel (Lifting Analysis) W
Force Coefficient Cf
Additional Area
User defined Wind Pressure
Use ASCE 795 Wind Code
Additional Horizontal Force on Vessel FF
Location of Horizontal Force above Base Point FH
30000.00 lb.
30000.00 lb.
0.500
2880.00 in
34.490 psf
No
3000.00 lb.
0.00 ft.
Horizontal Force Normal to the Vessel
Horizontal Force Tangent to the vessel
Lifting Lug Material
Lifting Lug Yield Stress
Lifting Lug Orientation to Vessel
Width of Lifting Lug
Thickness of Lifting Lug
Diameter of Hole in Lifting Lug
Radius of SemiCircular Arc of Lifting Lug
Height of Lug from bottom to Center of Hole
Offset from Vessel 00 to Center of Hole
Minimum thickness of Fillet Weld around Lug
Length of weld along sides of Lifting Lug
Length of Weld along Bottom of Lifting Lug
N
T
YIELD
WLIF
TLIF
DLIP
RLIF
HLIF
OLIF
TWELD
LWELD
BWELD
3000.00
15000.00
SA516 70
33600.00
Flat
6.0000
1.0000
1. 5000
3.0000
15.0000
0.5000
0.5250
8.0000
6.0000
lb.
lb.
psi
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
in.
Occasional Load Factor (AISC A5.2)
COMPUTED PARAMETERS:
Effective Wind Area of Vessel
Wind Pressure on Vessel ( ASCE #7 or User
Location of Centroid above Base Point
OCCFAC
AREA
PWIND
WH
1.33
13962.21
34.49
12.15
"in
psi
it.
1310
RESULTS FOR LIFTING LUGS : Description:D102 Lugs
Held Group Inertia in the Longitudinal Direction 86.50 io**4
Weld Group Centroid distance in the Long. Direction 5.16 in.
Weld Group Inertia in the Circumferential Direction 108.41 in
I
*4
Weld Group Centroid Distance in the Circ. Direction 3.53 in.
Primary Shear Stress in the Welds due to Shear Loads:
Ssll SQRT(W
A
2+T
A
2+N
A
2)/(2*Lweld+Bweld)*Tweld)
Ssll SQRT( 30000
A
2+ 15000
A
2+ 3000
A
2)/((2* 8.0+ 6.0)* 0.5250)
Ssll 2915.5B psi
Shear Stress in the Welds due to Bending Loads ;
Shlf = (N*IHlifLweld/2*YLL/ILL+fW*OLIF*YLL/ILL)+(T*OLIP*YLC/ILC)
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lining Lugs
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee; COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName; Seminar  Page 69
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Lugs Item; 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Shlf 3000*( 15.000 8.000/2)* 5.162/ 86.496 +
30000* 0.500* 5.162/ 86.496) +
( 15000* 0.500* 3.525/ 108.405)
Sblf 3108.76 psi
Total Shear Stress vs. allowable Shear for Combined Loads
St (Ssll + sbU )
St (2915.577 + 3108.760 )
St 6024.34 psi
Sta (0.4 * Yield * Occfac ) AISC Shear All.
Sta (.4 * 33600 * 1.33 )
Sta 17875.20 psi
Secondary Shear Stress in the Welds due to Shear Loads:
Unit Weld Section Modulus ( Uwsm )
(2*LWELD+WLIF)A3/ 12  LWELD
A
2(LWELD+WLIF\)A2/(2*LWELD+WLIF)
317.15 in .... 3
Lifting Lugs
Loads
Fth
Fth
on Welds due to Torsional Moment
T * (Hlif(LweldCent) * (Bweld/2J/Uwsm
1715.56 lb./in.
Ftv T * ( Hlif(LweldCent) * Cent / Uwsm
Ftv 2911.24 lb./in.
Fsv T / ( 2 * Lweld + Wlif )
Fsv 681.82 lb./in.
Resultant Load on Weld Group
Fr Sqrt( Fth"'2 + ( Ftv+Fsv )A2 )
Fr = 3981.61 lb./in.
Resultant Secondary Weld Stress
Fws Fr / Tweld
Fws = 7584.02 psi
Allowable Resultant Secondary Weld Stress
Psa (.4" Yield * Occfac )
Psa = 17875.20 psi
shear
Shs
Shs
shs
Stress in Lug above Hole vs. Allowable Base
SQRT( W
A
2 + N
A
2 + T
A
2 ) / Sha
SQRT( 30000
A
2 + 3000"'2 + 15000
A
2 ) / 4.500
1483.31 psi
Metal Shear
Sas (0.4 * Yield * Occfac ) Shear Allowable
Sas (0.4 * 33600 * 1.33 )
Sas 17875.20 psi
Pin Hole Bearing Stress Vs. Allowable Bearing Stress
pbs Sqrt( W
A
2 + N
A
2 + T
A
2 )/( Tlif * Dlif )
pbs = Sqrt( 30000"'2 + 3000"'2 + 15000
A
2 )/( 1.000 * 1.500
Vessel Legs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs 1311
Lifting Lugs Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
COADE Engineering Software
PVElite 4.00 Licensee: COADE Inc., Local White Lock
FileName: Seminar  Page 70
Leg & Lug Analysis 0102 Lugs Item: 2 9:51a Sep 21,2000
Pbs 22449.94 psi
Pba I 0.75
.
'field AISC Bearing All.
Pba I 0.75 33600
Pba 25200.00 psi
Bending Stress in Lug at Weld Vs. Allowable Stress
Fbs N*(HLIFLWELD)/(WLIF*TLIF
A
2/6)
Fbs 3000 *( 15.000  8.000 )!( 6.000 ,., I.DOO
A
2 / 6)
Fbs 21000.00 psi
Fba
Fba
Fba
( 0.4 Yield
( 0.4 .., 33600
17875.20 psi
Occfac ) Shear Allowable
.., 1. 33 )
1312
The PV Elite Program, (c) 19892000 by COADE Engineering Software
VesselLegs, Support Lugs, and Lifting Lugs
(
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Notes
Bibliography
Brief Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texts and Standards
This bibliography describes several of the commonly available texts and standards used by
the author of CodeCalc to develop and support the program. This list will help you to iden
tify resources you may need to effectively design or analyze pressure vessels:
ANSI Standard A58.1  1982, Building Code Requirements for Minimum Design
Loads in Buildings and Other Structures, American national Standards Institute, New
York,1982.
This standard provides the most commonly used design technique for cDlculating wind loads and
earthquake loads on structures, including pressure vessels.
ANSI Standard Bl6.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, American National Stan
dards Institute, New York.
This is 1he standard for 'standard' flanges up to 24 inches in diameter. Provides flange geomelries
and allowable pressures for the various classes oftlanges (150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500. and 2500)
made from a variety of materials and over a wide range of temperatures.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, SECTION VIII, Division I, Rules for Con
struction of Pressure Vessels. July 1989. American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
345 East 47th Street. New York, N.Y., 10017.
This is 'lhe Code'. The INTERNAL, EXTERNAL, NOZZLE and CONICAL programs are based
exclusively on this document. The FLOHEAD and FLANGE programs are based primarjly on Ihis
document. All of the allowable stresses used by these programs are also taken from this document.
ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Pip
ing ANSIIASME B31.3, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th
Street. New York, N.Y., 10017.
This is the piping code for refineries and chemical plants. The PIPE&PAD program is based on this
code. In addition, this document has good tables of elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal
expansion for many classes of materials.
Bednar, H.H., Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, Van NostrandReinhold Co., Prince
ton, H.J., 1981.
Bibliography
Drief Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texis and Standards Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
2
Bednar provides good calculation techniques for tall process towers and fair coverage ofa variety of
other pressure vessel design problems.
Brownell, L.E. and Young, E.H., Process Equipment Design, John Wiley, New York,
1959.
This is a classic reference on process equipment design, and contains many useful calculation tech
niques. However, many copies of Ihis book are in an unreviscd format Ihat contains errors in tables
and formulas. We recommend comparing agiven technique to some of the other texts before using
it.
Farr, J.R. and Jawad, M.H., Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.
This is lhe best recent book on pressure vessel design and analysis. The book covers a wide scope of
design techniques, and presents the rational and use of the ASME Code techniques beller than any
other pressure vessel textbook. (J.R. FaIT is on many of tile ASME Code commiltees). The book also
provides a good balance of theory, practice, and example problems. Highly recommended.
Harvey, J. F. Theory and Design of Modern Pressure Vessels, 2nd Edition, Van Nos
trandReinhold, Princeton, N.J.
Harvey provides a basic overview of pressure component design, but little information on supports
or other peripherals to the vessel. His sections on thick walled pressure vessels, aUlofretiage, and
thermal stress are especilllly useful.
Manual of STEEL CONSTRUCTION, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chi
cago, III. Eighth Edition, 1980.
This standard provides tables ofall beam sections and structural tubing, and provides calculations
for allowable compression on columns, allowable stress on beams, and allowable combined loads.
These are vel)' useful for support leg, gusset plate, and even flat plate cldculations. Later editions are
also available.
Megyesy, E.F., Pressure Vessel Handbook,Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing, Inc.,
Tulsa OK, 74135
This is another very widely used book with a good combination ofeasytousc formulas, examples,
and tables of data, including pipe sizes and schedules, flange dimensions and weights for compo
nents.
Modern Flange Design. Bulletin 503, 7th Edition, Gulf and Western TaylorBonney
Division, Southfield, Michigan.
This is the best known bulletin on design of flanges, and includes all of the f1rmge calculation sheets
commonly used for flange design. It also contains a good pmctical discussion offlange design and
bolting, and a good table of bolt dimensions.
Moss, Dennis R., Pressure Vessel Design Manual, Gulf Publishing Company, HOlls
Bibliography
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Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
ton, TX, 1987.
Brier Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texis <lnd Standards
Bibliography
This relatively new book provides many different calculation procedures, and some calculation
sheets, for most of file common teclmiques in pressure vessel design. A major weakness of the book
is a lack ofexample problems illustrating the use oftlie leehniques. Some ofthe calculations for sup
port lugs,lining lugs, and vessel legs in the LEG&LUG program are from this book.
Roark, R.J., and Young, W.C., Formulas for Stress and Strain, 5th Edition, McGraww
Hill, New York, 1795. (Later editions also available).
This well known reference book provides an abundance of [annulas for detennining the stresses in
structural components. The book provides tables for beams, plates, shells, and many other types of
components under many pmcticalloading cOlldifiollS.
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, Seventh Edition,
1988. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. 25 North Broadway. Tarrytown,
N.Y.,10591.
This is Ihe standard used for tubcsheets (in the TUBESHT program) and channel covers (in the
FLANGE program). This document also contains excellent tables ofelastic modulus, coefficient of
Ihennal expansion, thennal conductivity, and the bolt tables used in the FLANGE, TUBESHT, and
FLOHEAD programs.
Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw Hill, New York, 1972.
This is a 'standard' textbook for mechanical engineering students. It provides many basic fommlns
for beams, plates, shells, bolting, screws, springs, shafts, and olher mechanical components you may
need to analyze from time to time.
Wiclunan, K.R, Hopper, A.G, and Mershon, J. L., "Local Stresses in Spherical and
Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings," WRC Bulletin 107, Welding Research
Council, New York, 1965 (revisions through 1979).
This is the 'WRCI07' technique whieh is widely used to detennine stresses in shells due to loads on
nozzles and attachments. This analysis is implemented in the CYLNOZ and SPHNOZprogmms.
Though widely used, the results of this analysis are !lot especially accurate.
Zick, L.P., "Stresses in large Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle
Supports," in Pressure Vessel and Piping Design Collected Papers 19271959, Amer
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1960.
This is the 'Zick' analysis, used in the HORIZVES program. The Ziek analysis is very widely used to calculate
stresses in horizontal vessels.
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Brief Bibliography of Pressure Vessel Texts and Standards
Pressure Vessel Design and Analysis  Seminar Noles
Bibliography
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