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DEGASSER TECHNOLOGY: The key for good data

Surface gas detection process


There are 3 main parts to any gas detection service today and Geoservices have focused on all of them.
Logging Unit

Gas Extraction Gas Transport Gas Analysis


We measure the amount of extracted gas in the gas air mixture , at the trap suction: It is a gas in Air measurement

Gas Line Degasser Spare Gas Line Return Mud Flow From Well

Vent In-line H 2 S Sensor Drying Agent Pump Total Gas Detector Vent Pump Chromatograph

Compressed Air Supply Calibration System

Recording Equipment

Variables in measurement: Losses of gas along flow line

Losses at bell nipple. Degassing depends on molecular weight Flow line not full. Turbulences Mixing with air

Open flow line Spontaneous degassing

OUT

IN

Misrepresentation of gas composition far from well head

Impact of degasser position


104
Gas quantity (ppm)

Flow line data

103 102 10 1 Time (A.U.) 104

Spontaneous degassing of mud decreases gas quantity far from well head Change gas composition: heavier remains longer in mud than lighter

Shales shaker data


C1 C2 C3 iC4 nC4 iC5 nC5 Time (A.U.)

Gas quantity (ppm)

103 102 10 1

Conventional gas extractor


Rubber Hose, 8mm I.D. To Mud Logging Unit Check Valve Cylindrical Tank

Decanting Tube Float Rubber Hose, 12mm I.D. Gas/air Outlet

Tubular Mounting Arms

Motor Air Inlet Connection Box Mud Outlet Degassing Chamber Recommended Mud Level Rotor Blade

Rotor Coupling Plate

Installed at Shaker header box No volume or flow control

Constant volume gas extractor


Motor driving both Agitator and pump - Constant ratio Constant Volume Pump

Installed in the flow line Constant mud and air flow rate Increased extraction efficiency Qualitative gas extraction

Gas Outlet

Sealed extraction chamber

Self cleaning mud intake probe

The benefits of a constant volume trap


106 Gas quantity (ppm)

Conventional degasser
105 104 103 102 10 Time (A.U.) 106

Conventional degasser: spurious peak due to mud level fluctuations Constant volume degasser: no spurious peak, consistent with fluid reservoir composition

Gas quantity (ppm)

Constant volume degasser


105 104 103 102 10 Time (A.U.)

TG C1 C2 C3 iC4 and nC4 (dashed) iC5 and nC5 (dashed)

The benefits of a constant volume trap


106

Conventional degasser
Gas quantity (ppm) 105 104 103 102 10 Time (A.U.) 105

Conventional degasser: decrease of gas detected due to inadequate supply of mud (Trap Starvation) Constant volume degasser: no decrease of gas quantity, consistent with fluid reservoir composition
TG C1 C2 C3 iC4 and nC4 (dashed) iC5 and nC5 (dashed)

Constant volume degasser


Gas quantity (ppm) 104 103 102 10 1 Time (A.U.)

Constant volume/temperature fluid extractor (Flex)


Mud Level Sensor Specially designed mud outlet Pump volume Constant RPM sensors speed Constant Agitation Temperature sensors

Self Cleaning Mud Intake Probe Sealed Extraction Chamber Constant Air/Mud Factor

Constant Heater Temperature Repeatable gas extraction Gas In correction On site extraction calibration

Improved gas extraction: air and mud flow rate


1st difference: volumetric/flow rate ratio difference
Degasser GZG Flex Mud Flow rate 1.5 l/min 0.3 l/min Air flow rate 0.5 l/min 0.5 l/min Ratio of Mud Flow/Gas Flow 3 0.67 4.5

Assuming any other parameters constant, concentrations of extracted gas expected to be 4.5 times less with Flex compared to GZG For light components, GZG can have higher readings than Flex

Improved gas extraction: agitation and temperature


2nd difference: stirring Degasser GZG Flex Stirring 1300 rpm 2800 rpm 3rd difference: temperature Degasser GZG Flex Mud temperature No control/regulation 70C(WBM)/90C(OBM)

Higher mud/gas contact area with Flex Higher and constant stirring rpm thus increases exchange kinetics

Shift equilibrium to higher gas concentration Increase exchange kinetics Reproducible gas extraction conditions

Positioning Flex Out and In probes

GAS OUT

GAS IN

Extractor designed for Deep Water condition


Standard measurements overestimate light HC components
Standard Deep Water Data FLAIR Deep Water Data

Coherent ratios C3+~0 Good heavies

High light components readings No C3+ readings

Fluid data up to C5 and more

C1-C8 boiling points


Name methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane Benzene Molecular Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C6H6 Boiling Point (oC) -162 -88.6 -42.1 -0.5 36.1 68.7 98.4 126 80.1 State (25oC, 101.3kPas gas gas gas gas liquid liquid liquid
liquid

liquid

Extractor designed for Deep Water condition


Deep Off-shore Mud temperature 15 C

Standard Deep Water Data

FLAIR Deep Water Data

Conclusion: Degasser evolution from Gas Trap to Fluid Extractor

Repeatable gas extraction Gas In correction Constant mud and air flow rate Increased extraction efficiency Qualitative gas extraction No volume or flow control On site extraction calibration

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