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DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF HYDROCARBONS

For Further Information Contact:

DIRECTOR GENERAL

4 th

& 11

th

Floors, Hindustan Times House,

18-20, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi – 110 001 (India) Phones : (Direct) 91-11-23352650, 23352617
18-20, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi – 110 001 (India)
Phones : (Direct) 91-11-23352650, 23352617 / 47, 23717627-31
Fax : 91-11-23317081, 23352649
Web Site : www.dghindia.org
Volume – 1 No. 4 July, 2007 Renewable Fuels : DEPOSITIONAL MODEL - RAVVA Future
Volume – 1 No. 4 July, 2007
Volume – 1
No. 4
July, 2007
Volume – 1 No. 4 July, 2007 Renewable Fuels : DEPOSITIONAL MODEL - RAVVA Future Energy
Renewable Fuels : DEPOSITIONAL MODEL - RAVVA Future Energy Needs The Recovery Factor : Oilfield
Renewable Fuels :
DEPOSITIONAL MODEL - RAVVA
Future Energy Needs
The Recovery Factor :
Oilfield Development
Ravva Field :
Discovery & Future Prospectivity
Light Hydrocarbons Gas Seepage :
85 0 E Ridge
Cuddapah Basin
Basement Basement
Water Production Problems :
Gandhar Field, India
GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTION THROUGH RAVVA
Quarterly Journal of the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (Under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas)
Quarterly Journal of the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (Under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas)
Quarterly Journal of the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (Under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas)

Quarterly Journal of the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons

(Under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas)

Vol.-I

July, 2007

No. 4

CONTENTS

Renewable Fuels Only Alternative To Future Energy Needs V.K. Sibal

1-5

The Recovery Factor in Oilfield Development A.B. Das Gupta

6-12

Ravva Field - Discovery to Production & Future Prospectivity Ajit Jain

13-21

Characterization Of Light Hydrocarbons Near Tadpatri, Cuddapah Basin

A.M. Dayal, D.J. Patil, T. Satish Kumar, T. Madhvi, M.A. Rasheed and S.V. Raju

22-27

Identification of water production problems and remedial measures:

A case history of Gandhar Field, India Bhisham Kumar, M.C.Srivastava & Mrs.P . Mattey 28-31

A case history of Gandhar Field, India Bhisham Kumar, M.C.Srivastava & Mrs.P. Mattey

28-31

A case history of Gandhar Field, India Bhisham Kumar, M.C.Srivastava & Mrs.P . Mattey 28-31

Renewable Fuels: Only Alternative to Future Energy Needs

V.K.Sibal Director General, DGH

Preamble

Energy drives our societies and industries. The growth of a nation, encompassing all sectors of the economy and all sections of society, is contingent on meeting its energy requirements adequately.

There exists a strong relationship between economic development and energy consumption. The two key socio-economic indicators that drive the pace of energy demand are population and domestic production. Economic development and a rapidly growing population have taken the country from 300 million people at the time of independence to a nation of over one billion people today. This is imposing a great strain on the environment, infrastructure, and the country’s natural resources. With ambitious targets of growth rates of 8% over the next two decades, the country’s energy consumption is expected to more than double by 2020 to meet development aspirations (TERI, April, 2007).

Globally, fossil fuels will remain the main source of energy in the coming three decades and will be necessary to meet more than 90% of the increase in consumption. An annual increase of 1.6% (World Energy Outlook, 2006) in the demand for crude is expected, meaning demand for 6 Gt in 2030. Demand for

natural gas will continue to grow, doubling by 2030. This means that natural gas will increase from 23% of primary energy consumption to 28% by 2030. Growth

in demand for coal is expected to be less, and a decrease in demand is expected

for nuclear fuels. The transportation sector will show the maximum growth of all end-use sectors with annual increase of 2.1%.

Demand and Supply Scenario in India

Before we address the demand and supply scenario in India, I would like to share

a quote from a speech by Mr. Robbie Luxbacher, Director Europe, Exxon Mobil Gas & Power Marketing at the Oil & Money Conference in London:

“Eighty percent of energy demand growth over the next 20 years will come from developing countries, with China and India alone accounting for nearly a third of that growth”

The Indian economy uses a variety of energy sources, both commercial and non- commercial. Fuel wood, animal waste and agricultural residue are the traditional or ‘non-conventional’ source of energy that continue to meet the bulk of the rural energy requirements even today. However, the share of these fuels in the primary energy supply has declined from over 70% in the early 50’s to about 30% today. The traditional fuels are gradually getting replaced by the “commercial fuels” such as coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. The country’s fuel mix consists of oil (36.39%), coal (51%), gas (8.87%), nuclear (1.53%), and hydro (2%)- Source: (TERI, April, 2007). As far as oil is concerned, India is the fifth largest consumer in the world and it is expected that increasing consumption could push us into the third place in less than five years.

India is relatively well endowed with both exhaustible and renewable energy resources. Coal, oil and natural gas are the three primary commercial sources of energy. Coal has occupied center stage in India’s energy mix for a long time accounting for nearly 50% of the total supplies. India now ranks third among the coal-producing nations in the world. However, it is projected that refinery oil products will dominate the transportation fuel market in the next three decades. The situation in India is expected to be the same. Since oil and gas will continue to dominate the energy fuel supply in India for the coming decades, I shall dwell upon this subject at greater length.

We have a large hydrocarbon resource base of over 28 billion tones (about 205 billion barrels) and in-place reserves of about 7.89 billion tones (58 billion barrels) of oil and oil equivalent gas. It is expected that India’s crude reserves will exhaust in less than 20 years from now while its natural gas reserves will last another 34 years (BP World Energy Statistic 2007) at the current rate of production.

Natural gas has experienced the fastest rate of increase in any fuel in India’s primary energy supply. It now supplies about 7% of India’s energy, with that share expected to double by 2020. Power generation, fertilizers,and petrochemical production are industries that have been turning to natural gas as an energy feedstock. India’s natural gas consumption has been met entirely through domestic production in the past. However, demand for natural gas since the past 4-5 years has been so rapid that the demand far exceeds the supply. To bridge this gap, public and private sector companies are pursuing several gas import options. The import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being considered as one of the possible solutions to India’s projected gas shortage. Several LNG

terminals have been planned in India. The India Hydrocarbon Vision has identified natural gas as the fuel for the future.

Renewable energy sources

India has one of the highest potential for the effective use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, biomass, and solar energy constitute viable options. In the past 10-12 years, the capacity of small hydro projects has increased four-fold from 63 MW to 240 MW. India is the largest producer of cane sugar. There exists a very good potential for power generation from bagasse-based cogeneration in sugar mills. Grid-interactive solar photovoltaic power projects have been installed and more are under installation. Generation from wind power projects have also been increasing.

The total primary commercial energy supply in India has been projected to grow at an average rate of 3.2% over the period 2002-2025 (source : Energy Information Administration 2003). These growth rates would mean a doubling of energy requirement to reach 709 MTOE from the current level of 325 MTOE by 2030. Such a growth in demand is expected to entail significant investments in the capacities to produce and deliver these energies. In addition, ensuring stability in supplies will also be an issue of concern.

Fossil fuels are likely to dominate the energy mix worldwide. India is also expected to follow the same trend. Though the share of coal is expected to decline from 55% to 59% in 2025, it still remains the largest energy source in India’s energy matrix. The share of natural gas and nuclear energy are also expected to constitute 20% and 3% of the energy mix, respectively, in 2025.

Renewable Energy Technologies

RETs offer a viable option to meet the challenge of achieving higher growth while conserving the natural resource base. This base has considerably eroded due to the rapid growth in population, urbanization, and fossil fuel consumption. However, the high initial cost of RETs has been a major deterrent in harnessing renewable sources. India has today one of the largest programs in the world for renewable energy. This program covers all the major renewable energy sources. The Ministry of New and Non-Conventional Energy (MNES) is promoting several programs by trying to tap the potential of renewable sources in India. Besides harnessing the traditional wind, solar and hydro energy, the Ministry is setting up waste-to-energy projects through the National Program on Energy Recovery from urban and industrial wastes and the development of high rate bio-methanation processes as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission.

There exists a potential for generating about 1500 MW of power from the urban and municipal wastes and about 1000 MW from industrial wastes in the country

(MNES, 2003). The potential for expanding the use of RETs for energy generation is vast in India and awaits further exploitation.

The Importance of Oil and Gas in Energy Matrix

In terms of global consumption, crude oil is the most important primary fuel, accounting for nearly 40% of world primary energy consumption. In addition to conventional oil occurrences, non-conventional oil occurrences have a sizeable potential. Reserves of non-conventional oil amount to about 43% of the conventional oil reserves. Non-conventional oil resources exceed those of conventional oil occurrences by three times. Most of the non-conventional oil resources are oil shale, whose economic recovery in the foreseeable future

would involve high costs and environmental problems

Oil sands and extra

heavy oil do not have these problems, and numerous projects have been started in Canada and Venezuela in the past. Extra heavy oil/bitumen have been found

in very old rocks in the Rajasthan basin. Currently, Oil India Limited has taken up

a pilot project for exploitation of these reserves with expert help from a major oil

company in Venezuela. In the north eastern part of India, there are significant coal reserves which can be converted to synthetic crude, or syncrude through coal liquefaction. A pilot study carried out by Oil India Limited has indicated that

suitable technologies exist for such conversion. Further studies in this regard are

in progress.

When we look at the scenario in India, we find that our consumption of oil and gas is increasing at a rapid pace of 6-7%. We are witnessing turbulent times with the prices of petroleum skyrocketing. Currently, we are importing more than two- thirds of our total requirement of oil to meet our demand. In this context, we are faced with a rather grim reality – how are we to maintain sustainable growth? In the context of commercial energy, hydrocarbons have been playing an increasingly important role in the development of economies throughout the world and India is no exception. No nation can do without as critical a resource as petroleum. This is especially true of developing countries like India which are on the fast track of economic growth.

Energy resources are not distributed evenly across the globe. Regions and

countries with rich deposits often do not coincide with the regions and countries with high energy consumption. Thus, world trade is of considerable significance

in the energy sector.

While some countries are endowed with relatively large reserves of petroleum compared to others, the fact remains that the current proven reserves are finite and would not last half way through the century. In my view, therefore, the first and foremost challenge before all of us is in the field of exploration. Without doubt, exploration policies and techniques aimed at maximum reserves accretion will be the most important factor in determining how long the world economy can

sustain itself on petroleum as a resource. This would call for continuing research and development at the frontiers of technology to evolve cost-effective methods for adding petroleum resources.

In the field of exploration, India faces a great challenge. On one hand, demand for hydrocarbons is increasing at a rapid rate but domestic crude oil production is indicate to increase only marginally and consequently, import dependence is increasing. On the other hand about one third of the area of our sedimentary basins is virtually unexplored. India, therefore, has immense potential for discovering large reserves for achieving much greater production levels which it cannot afford to leave untapped. The recent discoveries of oil, and more significantly, huge gas deposits have vindicated the belief that there is lot more oil and gas to be found in India.

Exploration for hydrocarbons, including aggressively pursuing extensive exploration in non-producing and frontier areas is a major thrust of the Government of India. In the year 2001, the Government of India had evolved a long-term vision known as “India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025” which lays down the framework to guide the policies relating to the hydrocarbon sector of the country for the next 25 years. In the exploration and production sector, the main thrust areas identified include: enhancement of exploration and exploitation in the producing basins, extending the work of exploration into non-producing and frontier basins, exploring all the geological basins within a specified time period, optimizing exploitation of the discovered reserves, research and development efforts including technology absorption and environment.

Program for systematic appraisal of country’s sedimentary basinal areas with the ultimate aim of 100% exploration coverage of sedimentary basins by 2025 has been initiated and dovetailed with our annual five-year exploration programs. The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons has been in the forefront of these efforts. Efforts are being made for improving data archival practices for improved and quick access to quality data. A National Data Repository is being implemented in DGH.

While all out efforts are being made to enhance the indigenous production and availability of hydrocarbons in the country, the growing gap between demand and supply could be bridged through steps like acquisition of attractive exploration acreages and producing properties overseas and supplementing through other alternate hydrocarbon resources like Coal Bed Methane (CBM), Gas Hydrates and Oil Shale for providing oil security. We are aggressively pursuing the policy of participating in overseas ventures. We have the advantage of having a large, trained and technologically skilled manpower developed over the years. We now have a presence in many countries.

One of the most important resources, of immediate commercial interest to us, is CBM. We have vast reserves in the country, and consequently, we have large

CBM resources that can be exploited to meet the ever-increasing demand for natural gas. Our government has taken several initiatives and approved a CBM exploration and exploitation policy for the country. So far, 26 blocks have been awarded for exploration and production of CBM and some more blocks are being delineated for offer under future rounds. Preliminary estimates indicate that CBM production from blocks offered could be of the order of 38 Million Cubic Meters per day for about 20 years at peak production levels. Commercial production of CBM has commenced in July, 2007 from a field in Raniganj field of West Bengal.

Another important resource of alternate hydrocarbon energy is Gas Hydrates. Gas hydrates occur in numerous settings in permafrost regions and beneath the sediments of outer continental margins. Goscientific studies have indicated that our country has very large deposits of gas hydrates, especially in deep-water areas. Surveys carried out by DGH have indicated potential for large deposits of gas hydrates and gas below the hydrates at a number of locations in the offshore Kerala-Konkan, Andaman and Krishna-Godavari basins. Presently, the exploration work for gas hydrates is in the initial R & D phase and perfection of drilling technologies in hydrate zones will take some time. The fact is that India is one of the few countries in the world (USA, Japan, Canada and Russia), which have started this pioneering work. If technologies for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation are perfected in the near future, and we are able to harness this abundant energy resource economically, this may well be the end of energy shortages in India. A National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) has been formulated by the government and its implementation is being accelerated. Under this program, the R & D drillship, JOIDES Resolution was in Indian waters in 2006. In this expedition NGHP-01, nearly 3000m of cores were collected from various sites some of which gave very encouraging signs of the presence of gas hydrates. The data obtained from this campaign is expected to provide very valuable leads into the prospect of gas hydrates in India.

Economic Aspects of Renewable Energy

International oil prices have been rising persistently and the trend is expected to continue. The range of estimates of oil prices vary from US$ 50 (the current price is about US$ 70) in the short term to above US$ 100 in the medium term. Considering an oil price of US$ 28 in the year 2002, this represents more than doubling of the oil prices.

In the near and medium term, India’s huge power investment program must continue to rely mainly on conventional energy sources. In the long term perspective, the share of renewable energy technologies and Demand Side Management (DSM), within total power investments, may be appreciable, as new technologies reach commercial viability and higher incentives/support by the government.

In India, the renewable energy sources such as wind energy, small hydro, solar energy and biomass are plentiful, widely distributed and environmentally friendly. These sources add no net contributions to the atmospheric carbon dioxide and add no heat to the global environment. Renewable energy technologies fit well into a system that gives due recognition to decentralization, pluralism, and local participation. There has been a general perception that renewable energy technologies can only give small amounts of energy in certain locations and, therefore, their contribution to total energy requirements would be only marginal. The other skepticism has been about these being rather expensive compared to the conventional alternatives. However, there has been a paradigm shift in these perceptions due to the momentum and growth in renewable energy technologies and their application in the last few years, especially in India. Even at today’s prices, several renewable energy sources, such as wind, biomass power, small hydro and municipal waste-based electricity generation are already economically attractive.

The Road Ahead

energy supply, and

possibilities

individual energy-producing sectors should be part of an overall integrated

plans for

The vital importance of

energy,

growing problems of

require

that

the

of

inter-fuel

substitution

policy

and

energy strategy.

Despite increases in energy use in India, the current per capita commercial primary energy consumption in India is well below that of developed countries. Driven by expanding population, economic growth and quest for an improved quality of life, the energy use in India is expected to go up to about 450kg OE/year in 2010 from the current levels of 350 kg OE/year.

Continued economic development and population growth are driving the energy demand faster than India can produce. Substantial foreign investment is needed to achieve that level of growth. The Indian government has, in the past, focused much attention on coal as the means to generate half of its future energy demands. Oil and gas had been downplayed because of uncertainties in the global supply and price and because heavier reliance on these two sources would require even greater imports. However, given the increasing demand- supply gap, it has become imperative to design and implement policies to meet the demand and simultaneously meet the energy security concerns. Increased R & D, exploration, and technological innovation can ensure additional supply. The gap can also be met by diversification of the energy portfolio.

Efforts in finding a suitable renewable energy supply for the transportation sector needs to be focused as the transportation fuel market represents about 53% of the world refinery product demand. The share of transportation fuels in the oil market is projected to increase further in the next decades.

Bio-ethanol has been considered as a viable option in some countries. Currently, the production is mainly concentrated in Brazil and United States. Various countries and regions are planning a rapid expansion of ethanol production. Some scenarios suggest that a ten-fold increase is possible by the year 2020. The long-term prospect of bio-ethanol or any other bio-fuels such as methanol and bio-diesel, depend on biomass availability. This raw material is available in plentiful supply in India.

Currently, hydrogen production from natural gas is the cheapest large-scale production option for this fuel. However, the transition to a hydrogen transportation system may imply a transition period with more costly hydrogen that is produced through electrolysis.

In the long term, coal or nuclear energy could be used for hydrogen production with low or zero CO 2 emissions. It is projected that hydrogen could capture 10- 15% of the transportation fuel market by 2050.

Nuclear power today accounts for only two percent of our overall installed capacity. A major program has been initiated to generate 20,000 megawatts of nuclear power by the year 2020. Nuclear energy is not only cost effective but is also a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels. Our nuclear program has taken a major step with the launch of the commercial phase of the fast breeder program based on the utilization of thorium.

Other fuels that are being discussed are methanol and Di-Methyl Ether (DME). Both fuels could be produced from a wide range of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Methanol production from natural gas is an established technology. DME can be used as a fuel for power generation turbines, diesel engines, or as an LPG replacement in households. Currently, DME plans are in operation in China, and some are proposed in the Middle East.

In recent times, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have recently gained a lot of interest. These vehicles use a combustion engine to generate electricity which is used to drive an electric motor.

Last, but not certainly the least, the use of the wonder plant Jatropha for the production of biodiesel - A green, alternative fuel obtained from the seeds of this plant. It is reported that jatropha seeds contain about 45-58% oil, 30-35% of which can be extracted. The extraction process is simply and cost effective. This plant can be grown even in wastelands. It has been estimated that Jatropha can yield up to 2 tons fuel per year per hectare. The biodiesel produced from Jatropha is 90% less polluting and the byproducts include glycerine and manure.

Conclusions

It is anticipated that refinery oil products will dominate the transportation fuel market in the coming three decades, but a substantial share of alternative fuels may be needed beyond 2030. Hydrogen and bio-fuels are the only two supply alternatives that can enhance supply security and provide significant CO2 reductions. In both cases, further technology development is needed. There could be a role for hydrogen beyond 2020. However, important obstacles remain on the vehicle side and in the transition to a hydrogen fuelled transportation sector.

References

IEA/ETO Working Paper : Alternative Fuels – An Energy Technology Perspective by Dolf Gielen and Fridtjof Unander, March 2005

Tata Energy Research Center website

2002,

Availability

Reserves,

Economics and Labour,

Resources

and

of

Energy

Resources,

document published by Federal Ministry of

Germany

Financing India’s Renewable Energy Boom by Dr.V.Bakthavatsalam, MD, IREDA.

PM’s address at the Golden Jubilee function of the Department of Atomic Energy, October, 2004

Energy Security Insights, TERI publication, April, 2007.

World Energy Outlook, 2006.

BP World Energy Statistic 2007

The Recovery Factor in Oilfield Development

A.B. Das Gupta Chairman Hydrocarbon Advisory Council, DGH

A.

Petroleum resources and their uncertain Future

1.

The petroleum industry, in the modern sense, was born in 1859. In the first 40-years, discoveries were made primarily on the basis of drilling close to seepages, hunches, and on the use of such exotic tools as the divining rod & doodle bugs. Such earth science concepts as were propounded, did not make much of an entry into the industry till the 1890s. Even then it took some decades to get wide-spread acceptance in the industry. By 1917, scientific concepts had made enough input to lead to the industry’s first major discovery. This was 58yrs. after its birth.

2.

Over the next 62 yrs. the industry went on making a series of major discoveries- at roughly 10yr. intervals till 1959, and at closer intervals thereafter-till 1979. This increased the petroleum availability very materially, and both its production and consumption took a sharp upward swing from 1940, leading to the commencement of what has been called the Petroleum Era.

3.

With a fall in major new discoveries beyond 1979, it became difficult to maintain the high growth rate of 1940- 1979. For 3yrs after this, the production rate actually dropped slowly from around 23 billion bls pa (in 1979) to a little under 20 billion bls pa (in 1982). Although it has been possible to resume a gentle growth rate pa leading to a production of a little under 25 billion bls pa in 2003, there is a fear that (without further new major discoveries), the industry may be headed for a permanent decline in production in another 10-15 yrs. This situation is illustrated in Fig.1, which has been adapted from the ASPO forecast of 2004.

4.

With the advent of the Petroleum Era, many of our activities and many aspects of our life-style have become highly dependant on hydrocarbons. Consequently, the finding and improving the recovery of both conventional and non-conventional resources of this commodity has become very important. This is a vast field, and the present note tries to present in simple language only the factors involved in the improvement of recoveries. The exploration and the finding aspects have been covered in other notes.

It would be important to recognize at this stage that discoveries on their own would only lead to the locations and magnitudes of the new resources that can be hoped to be present. Realistic assessment of their recovery factors would indicate how much of this hoped for quantity is likely to be actually available for use.

B.

Discovery Assessments and Recovery Factors

5.

When a petroleum accumulation is discovered, assessments are made, out of which it is given an initial rating of having x million tones of Petroleum Initially in Place. This is usually abbreviated to Initial Oil In Place (IOIP) or Initial Gas In Place (IGIP).

6.

Subsequently, as drilling of new development and extension wells brings in New information, the magnitude of the assessment would change to

X million tones of IOIP or X billion Cu. Meters of IGIP.

7.

By this time, an assessment is also made of the proportion of the IOIP or IGIP one may normally hope to recover from the discovery. This would be y million tones of oil or y BCM of gas, as the case may be. This would be the recovery expectation, and y/x would constitute the expected Recovery Factor at any point of time.

8.

As time progresses, the discovered field and the recovery achieved from it many turn out to be either larger or smaller than originally envisaged. At this terminal point, the final figures of

Y mt Oil Recovered

-

and

X mt IOIP

Y BCM Gas Recovered X BCM IGIP

becomes the Recovery Factors actually achieved.

exist. The development of the resources thus found must then use a modality that can maximize what can be recovered out of this. The result would give an idea of the likely amount that can be recovered and made available.

10. The achievable RF can vary a good deal depending upon the nature of the reservoir and the modality that is used for the petroleum off take. This is more so for oil and somewhat less so for gas. The present note deals primarily with the factors connected with the recovery of oil, but touches also occasionally on factors that affect the recovery of gas.

C. Nature of Driving Mechanisms Available for Moving Petroleum out of its Reservoir

11. The first mechanism is provided by the expansion of reservoir fluids on reduction of pressure. The fluids can be Water, Under Saturated Crude Oil, Saturated crude Oil, and Gas

12. In addition, the structural fabric of the reservoir itself may be under a kind of dynamic equilibrium in which the internal fluid pressure may also be a part. Any reduction of the internal fluid pressure support in such cases may lead to further compaction and the consequential squeezing out of some of the internal fluid. Even where the reservoir fabric is fully compacted and is not dependant for its stability on any support given by its internal fluid pressure, it can be responsive to elastic compression. This may also have the potentiality of squeezing out a little of the formation fluids.

13. Amongst the fluids within a reservoir, water has a very low compressibility. In the 100-200 atmosphere pressure range, it amounts to only 44.2 x 10-6 per atmosphere. For a full 200 atoms pressure depletion within this range, it should be able to able to push out or produce only 0.884% of the total volume involved. Where the total volume of the water in pressure communication with the oil-pool is large (say over 100 time more than the latter), its expansion would permit it to sweep the oil-pool through a process of natural water-drive. However, the effectiveness with which this water would be able to flush out the oil would be limited (as mentioned in paras 17 & 32) by the capillary forces present.

14. In the case of under-saturated crude oil, the compressibility is a little higher, but it is still too small to be of much significance. It is when the crude oil becomes saturated with dissolved gas that the compressibility factor (whether expressed as relative gas+oil volume, or the summation of compressibility of the de-gassing oil + the released gas) becomes important. The attached Fig.2 shows the general way this Relative oil+gas volume expands. It is basically an hyperbolic curve in which the main element in the expansion is provided by the released gas.

15. Gas is of course highly compressible and its expansion on reduction of pressure can, given the chance, push out a lot of oil.

16. The gas compressibility relation is given by the equation

PV= ZnRt

or

PV = nRt, which is a constant.

Z

Z, described as the gas compressibility factor, modifies the simple inverse relationship between Pressure and Volume. Its value depends on the gas composition, temperature and pressure. Its value is the lowest, when

The actual pressure The critical Pressure

the lowest, when The actual pressure The critical Pressure of the Gas is within the range

of the Gas is within the range of 2 to 4

On either side of this range, it increases so as to approach the value of 1.

gases, the Methane tends to predominate, and the mixed gas can have a Z of around 0.75 to 1 at temperatures above 100° F

18.

Reverting back to Para 14 and Fig. 2, increase in the Relative oil+gas volume on depletion of pressure, involves two mechanisms. Firstly, the oil volume shrinks through release of its dissolved gase. Usually, this Shrinkage is more than what can be offset through expansion caused by de- compression. Secondly, the released gas expands much more (hyperbolically) through the continuing reduction of pressure.

19.

To the extent this expansion of the released gas can be kept confined within the reservoir, there would be an increased displacement of the oil (and any accompanying water) from the reservoir to the producing wells. Attempts to keep the producing Gas to Oil Ratio (or GOR) low, for as long as possible, therefore constituted the first modality in attaining improved recoveries. But for the presence of a number of impediments, this approach had the potentiality of taking recoveries to the region of 80%.

D.

Impediments in The Way of Attaining High recoveries

(i) Where Main-driving Mechanism is Expansion of Released Gas

20.

The most important among the Impediments are the Surface forces, which bind or repel one molecule from another. These in their turn produce a plethora of manifestations like permeability and wettability of the reservoir, interfacial tension between the various fluids present, capillary forces, etc. Gravity, and viscosity are two other important parameters. All these parameters have to function within the limits of a reservoir where the nature of its rock fabric, the size of its pores and that of the necks connecting the pores, and the rock wettability all contribute to the interplay of forces.

21.

The wettability of a reservoir, and its Pore-size distribution, controls the permeability. The relative concentration of oil, water and gas within the pores, controls the actual or relative permeability of each. Thus any increase in gas saturation in any zone will increase its relative permeability to gas and reduce its relative permeability to oil or water. then again, larger the size of the pores and their necks, the higher would be the absolute permeability and the relative permeability under any given saturation conditions.

22.

Thus, if we had a reservoir with very large sized pores (or vugs) and their necks, there would be less of blockage of the movement of any fluid inspite of the presence of the other. As the pore dimensions get smaller, the capillary forces would increase. The wetting phase (usually water) would be able to move through, but it would be possible to block the movement of oil, through an increase in gas saturation build-up. The crux of the problem therefore4 depends upon control over all factors, which lead to any gas saturation build up.

23.

When a radially draining reservoir (Fig.3), is producing under the mechanics of Depletion it generates a pressure draw-down or Sink around each producing well. This Sink has the highest level of pressure draw-down gradient near the producing well, and a much lower gradient at the Sink periphery. For each unit volume of the reservoir, the bubbles of gas that come out of solution from the oil, due to reduction in pressure, are therefore maximum in number close to the producing well bore and minimum at the periphery. This leads to a progressive increase in the relative permeability to gas from the periphery to the producing well-bore.

24.

Also each bubble of gas that comes out of solution has acting on it the producing pressure gradient which tends to drive it

towards the well-bore, and a buoyancy factor which tends to float it upwards through the oil column towards the top of the reservoir.

The first force increase gradually in magnitude towards the well-bore, where it is aided by the increase in the relative permeability to gas. The second force is primarily a function of the vertical permeability (or the vertical component of the permeability along the reservoir slope). A low viscosity of the oil through which the bubble has to move naturally helps,. This viscosity itself would have a slight increase (because of increasing gas desaturation) towards the well-bore. To the extent the first force, increase the relative permeability to gas further, and will reflect back at the surface as increasing GOR. Left uncontrolled, the reservoir will end up with a 15% to 30% recovery, depending upon the nature of the oil and the reservoir involved.

25.

if however, the reservoir has either a good vertical component of its permeability to gas or a straight forward good vertical permeability, and the urge of the gas to move towards the well-bore can be kept down by reducing the draw-down at the well-bore can be kept down by reducing the draw-down at the well-bore, the recovery obtained can be much more. Conceptually, in the ideal case of

a reservoir with very large pores

a very high vertical or vertical component of the gas permeability,

a sufficient headroom for the moving gas to accumulate higher up, and

a very low oil viscosity,

it should be possible to approach even an 80% recovery. Few reservoirs have this ideal situation, but many can still be sufficiently good to permit raising the recovery to region of 40-60% through a proper GOR management programme.

26. Once the head-room has been filled up by the released gas, one can of course thing in terms of keeping it functional by separately bleeding off some of the secondary gas. Once GOR control can no longer be used as a tool for recovering more oil, one would have to fall back upon methods to improve the displacement efficiency of the injected fluid, which in many cases is water.

(ii) Where Main Driving Mechanism is Displacement by another fluid

27. The ability to produce oil out of a reservoir with the help of another fluid requires that

(a)

The displacing fluid must areally sweep as high a fraction of each reservoir layer as possible,

(b)

The displacing fluid must spread equitably into all the layers in the reservoir, producing a good layer-wise Conformance, and

(c)

Effectively flush out oil from all the pore-paths traversed.

The first two of these can be included under the general term of Volumetric Sweep (VS) and the third simply as Flushing Efficiency (FE). The total displacement efficiency (which provides the Recovery) then becomes a function of VZ x FE.

28. The areal Sweep is a function of the mobility ratio, which can be expressed as

Permeability to Reservoir water Viscosity of Reservoir water

X Viscosity of Reservoir Oil Permeability to Reservoir Oil

This ratio can be improved, where necessary, by adding a suitable polymer at the head of the injected water. Oil India has been able to nearly double the expected recovery of their Zaloni 2nd sand through the use of a Polymer. If the reservoir has adequate vertical communication, special efforts at ensuring Conformance may not be required. But ensuring FE calls for special attention to overcome the capillary forces within the reservoir- usually through the introduction of various chemicals and / or solvents at the head of the injected fluid that is to be used as the displacing agent.

29. When the FE is adequate, an oil-bank tends to form of the displacing fluid, the same way, as a Bulldozer tends to generate a mound or bank of the ‘dozed’ material at its front. In time, the oil bank reaches a producing well, where it shows up through an increase in the oil producing. In a packed multi-point water-drive, this can show up as a field –wise phenomenon.

30. There are some factors like the velocity of movement of the injected fluid, which can help achieve some marginal increase in the recovery. But, in a radial flow system, one can induce high velocity in the reservoir only close to the injection and the producing wells. In between, a high velocity is possible only where the wells very closely spaced, and / or reservoir is a linear body.

31. Perhaps it would be simpler at this stage to go into the composite picture of how all the factors (that efficient displacement) act to gather. In the attached Fig.4, this has been shown as the residual oil (i.e. the oil left behind) as a function of the capillary Number (CN). The latter is a composite function made up of the following four factors;

CN =

Viscosity of the Water Porosity

of the following four factors; CN = Viscosity of the Water Porosity Velocity of the water

Velocity of the water

Oil/ Water Interfacial Tension

32.

Although the porosity (i.e. the fractional space occupied by the pores) has been included in this composite factor, the pore (and the pore neck) size has not. As mentioned in paras 21 & 22, this pore-size factor makes some important and inherent differences on the extent to which recoveries can be achieved, and has been by implications covered by the horizontal scale of the plot. In other words, for the same Value of CN, reservoir with larger pore (and pore-neck) sizes would be expected to have lower residual oil saturation or ROS and thus show up as data points on the left. By the same reasoning all reservoirs with smaller pure (pore-neck) size would tend to show up towards the right. It follows that larger the pore (and pore-neck) size the smaller would be the impact of capillary forces. Conversely, the smaller the pore- (and pore-neck) size, the stronger would be the impact of the Capillary forces. Recoveries would then tend to be lower, and the data points would plot towards the right.

33.

Amongst the two shaded areas shown on the Fig.4, one would expect the area to the left to represent a group of larger pore – sized reservoirs, and the one on the right to represent reservoirs with more modest pore sizes. If their study had included reservoirs with even smaller pore-sizes, these would have plotted in azone further to the right. Even with this difference, both the shaded groups show a some common features. These are

a) Upto a CN of 10 -5 , only mild improvements in recovery is feasible with increase in its value,

b) Above this CN, a material improvement in recovery is feasible upto the point where this composite factor reaches a value a little above 10 -2 , and

c) at this point, a nearly 100% recovery becomes feasible.

34.

The CN value under any operational condition can be determined. In many cases, it tends to lie between 10 -5 and 10 -4 . To raise the latter towards a thousand - or a hundred-fold value would call for some drastic change in the three variables (viscosity and velocity of the displacing water, and the oil/water Interfacial tension), Amongst these, changes possible in the first two are usually relatively small. For any massive changes, one would usually have to depend on a large-scale reduction of the Interfacial tension.

35.

The reduction in the Interfacial Tension usually requires a variety of solvents and chemicals. Beyond a certain point, their dosage may become prohibitively expensive. Also, near the end-point, (i.e. the CN Value of 10 -2 ), the displacing and the displaced fluid (water/oil) may become miscible with each other to an extent where additional costs may be involved at the surface in breaking down the miscibility in order to extract the oil from the mix.

36.

If

miscibility is the required end-point, there could be a variety of alternatives (from natural gases to micro-

emulsions) to choose from. To keep costs down, an appropriately sized volume of the chosen fluid can be introduced as a slug at the flood front. If the reservoir is inhomogeneous, one may have to have separate operational strategies for each of its inhomogeneous segments, if these are sufficiently large.

37.

Lastly, there are the forces of Imbibition and Gravity, which (acting over a long period of time) can help improve recoveries materially, if these are given the chance. In the former, the tight zones can imbibe water

from the adjoining less tight zones in a water-flooded reservoir and release a corresponding volume of oil for production. In the latter, the gravity may re-aggregate the dispersed water, oil and gas in a depleted reservoir in

a

reorganized more distinct water-oil-gas system-ready for a fresh phase of production. We have seen this

happen in some of the Myanmar oilfields, after their enforced World War-II shutdown of about 15 yrs. In the

Petrotech 2003, The Russian described a similar behavior and reported contemplating planned shut-down of some of their depleted reservoir with a view to achieve the same results.

38.

There are thus many techno-economic alternatives and problems, and one has strived towards optimizing the system to the highest practicable recovery that can be achieved.

39.

In the early days, a primary recovery phase was usually carried out without any frills, till the production became nearly uneconomic. The operator would often try to flush out some of the remaining oil with a displacing fluid (normally water) in a Secondary Recovery phase. Some others would even change over later to the modality of

a Tertiary phase. Some decades later, it began to be accepted that the best results could be hoped for if, instead

of going through these separate phases, the operator went in for one integrated enhanced recovery programme right from an early stage tailored to the precise requirements of the discovery concerned. In India, there are many oilfields where water-injection has been started on this concept from an early stage, but it is not clear in how many of these an attempt has been made to improve the CN factor as well. Since the net results in the

overall country-wise average recovery expectation of a miserable 28.36%, one would imagine that this aspect has not received adequate attention.

E.

Summary & Conclusions

 

40.

This Note is an attempt to present in a simple language the basics of recovery of oil from reservoirs for the general management. In order to be able to take the right decision at the right time, the latter also need to have some broad understanding of the importance of improving recovery systems, the impediments in the process, and what can be done inspite of these impediments. The ground level Reservoir Engineers would know a lot more of the details, but even they may find it useful to recap some of the basic concepts presented.

41.

Lastly, since both Discovery and Enhanced Recovery are essential for the maintenance of Petroleum supplies, it is not enough to concentrate on discoveries alone. There must be a comparable effort (and allocation of funds) on enhancing recoveries as well.

42.

In considering the relative deployment of funds on Discovery and Enhancement of Recovery in India, one could for example work out the averaged discovery cost per barrel of IOIP. If this is Rs.C per bl., then at the average country-wise expectation of 28.36% recovery, each barrel of produced (or recovered) oil will have, in its make- up

 

C

or

Rs3.5261 x C

28.36%

43.

In enhancing recovery, one should therefore be able to spend this amount per barrel of enhanced production without making this activity an additional burden. With the global new discoveries following a downward trend, the discovery costs are likely to go up further. In any case, with the price of purchased crude oil on an upward path, both Discovery and Enhancement of Recovery could well require increased allocation of bath effect and funds.

Fig.1

Fig.1

Fig.2

Fig.2
Fig.3
Fig.3
Fig.4
Fig.4

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

= Viscosity of water x Velocity of the water Capillary Number = µW.VW Ф.σ Porosity
= Viscosity of water x Velocity of the water
Capillary Number = µW.VW
Ф.σ
Porosity x interfacial tension oil / water
The forms of the graphs mean that recovery would be higher if either
viscosity and / or velocity of water is higher, and / or, the oil / water
interfacial tension is lower,
-1
How, from Page 8, the recovery increases significantly, when
∆∆∆∆P
Pressure Differential
= Length x Interfacial Tension
-2
Increases about the critical
value of 5 Psi / ft / dyne
W.R. Foster
-3
This may be compared
with the capillary
number value of 10 -4 in
the present figure
-4
Du Flex
-5
-6
-7
-8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60

RESIDUAL OIL PER CUFT PORE VOL

Ravva Field - Discovery to Production & Future Prospectivity

Ajit Jain Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, New Delhi-110001

Abstract

The Ravva oil and gas field is located off Amalapuram coast in the shallow offshore area of Krishna Godavari Basin on the east coast of India. The field was discovered by ONGC in 1987. ONGC drilled 30 wells out of which 21 were found to be oil / gas bearing. The field was put on production by ONGC in March 1993.

Consequent to an offer in 1992 from Government of India to Indian and foreign companies to participate with ONGC in joint venture development of Medium sized discovered fields, a Production Sharing Contract (PSC) was signed by Government of India on 28 th October

1994 for 25 years with JV comprising of ONGC (40% PI), Cairn Energy India Pty Ltd

(22.5%), Videocon Petroleum Ltd (25%) and Ravva Oil (Singapore) Pte Ltd (12.5%). The

area of the block is 331.26 Sq Km.

Ravva JV drilled another 29 wells including 2 sidetracks during1996 to 2002 (total 59 wells). Till recently, 13 oil wells and 5 gas wells were on production with 7 water injector wells for pressure maintenance. The oil production of 35,000 BOPD as envisaged in Ravva PSC was achieved in January 1997 and it was further raised to 50,000 BOPD from January 1999. The oil production has been maintained by Ravva JV around 50,000 BOPD since last 8 years with excellent reservoir management. The 2P Inplace oil reserves have been enhanced by more than double from 203.7 MMB (27.5 MMT) in October 1994 to 470.3 MMB (63.2 MMT) as on 1.4.07. The field has already produced 181.2 MMB (24.2 MMT) oil by 31 st March 2007.Infill locations comprising 3 producers and 1 injector have been drilled and put on production and one more Injector location is under drilling to maintain production plateau of 50,000 BOPD for another 2 years.

With acquisition of 319 Sq Km 3D OBC seismic data during 2000-2001, and processing and interpretation of same, 68 leads were identified out of which 12 prospects have been analyzed and prioritized. Few exploratory/ appraisal wells have been planned for probing new areas/ prospects. The paper describes the scope for future prospectivity within Middle Miocene and also other deeper and shallower prospects within unexplored part of Ravva block.

Exploration Background

The exploration activity in Ravva area started with the acquisition of 2D seismic data during

1978 and 1981 in streamer mode, which led to drilling of first well R-3 by ONGC in 1983.

The well penetrated Middle Miocene reservoirs, but the discovery could not be tested due to drilling complications. In 1982-83, 2D Telseis seismic data by Western Geophysical was acquired to cover shallow water areas of KG offshore. The interpretation of this data resulted in drilling of 4 exploratory wells viz. R-2, R-3, R-4 and R-5, which proved presence of hydrocarbon in Early and Middle Miocene sequences. In 1990, first 3D seismic survey (96 channels, 48 fold) covering 3597.6 Sq Km area was acquired by Digicon Exploration Ltd. Based on this data, 21 exploratory wells were drilled by ONGC in different fault blocks. This third drilling phase was successful in establishing the presence of several commercial hydrocarbon accumulations in the Middle Miocene as well as Early and Late Miocene sections. Out of 26 exploratory wells drilled by this time, 19 wells were found to be hydrocarbon bearing (15 oil & 4 gas wells). Two platforms RA & RB were installed and field

was put on production from 4 wells from Middle Miocene reservoirs @ 2300 to 6000 BOPD in March 1993. The structure comprised of a large faulted anticline, segmented into series of narrow fault blocks. The 2P Inplace and recoverable reserves in R-10 and R-17 blocks were estimated to be 27.5 MMT (203.7 MMB) and 13.6 MMT (101 MMB) respectively. The Ravva Block covering 331.26 Sq Km area (Fig 1) was awarded by Government of India to Ravva JV comprising ONGC (40% PI), Cairn Energy India Pty Ltd (22.5%), Videocon Petroleum Ltd (25%) and Ravva Oil (Singapore) Pte Ltd (12.5%) on 28 th October 1994. Based on reprocessing of 3D seismic data by Veritas, 25 wells comprising 16 development, 6 exploratory and 3 appraisal wells were drilled by JV during 1996 to 1998 targeting Middle Miocene reservoirs. The exploratory wells RX-1 & RX-3 encountered discovery in M30 reservoirs; however, same were not considered commercial. Ravva satellite gas field was discovered in 1991 by drilling of wells R-22 and R-23 wherein Late Miocene sandstones beneath Base Pliocene Unconformity (BPU) were found to be gas bearing. This discovery was appraised and put on production in 2000.

This discovery was appraised and put on production in 2000. Figure 1. LOCATION MAP OF RAVVA

Figure 1. LOCATION MAP OF RAVVA BLOCK (PKGM-1)

During 2000-2001, 319.76 Sq Km OBC 3D seismic data (30 fold, 15 m x 30m bin size, CGG) was acquired by JV in view to improve the image of already identified leads and prospects and discover new exploration opportunities particularly in the deeper Early Miocene and Late Oligocene sequence. The data was processed to Pre-stack Time Migration (PSTM/QDAS) by Western-Geco, Perth. The data was further reprocessed for Pre-stack Depth Migration (PSDM) at Paradigm Geophysical, Perth, to improve the fault and reflector definition in deeper sequence and for wide angle stack to facilitate mapping of producing reservoirs, hydrocarbon distribution and other leads & prospects.

In 2001-2002, another 4 wells including one exploratory well RX-7, one appraisal well RH-2 and two development wells RC-4 and RF-5 were drilled. The well RX-7 drilled in NE part of the block targeting M30and deeper Early Miocene sands was found to be dry and

abandoned. During 2002-2004, 10 new AVO-Inversion attributes volumes were generated to facilitate mapping of reservoirs and quantify charge risk and trap integrity.

Regional Geology

Krishna Godavari Basin is a peri-cratonic passive margin basin on the east coast of India. It occupies a unique characteristic among the Indian sedimentary basins, as it has a geological extension into the deep offshore. It occupies 28,000 Sq Km onland and 1,45,000 Sq Km offshore excluding vast area in deep waters. The basin’s characteristic feature is its en-echelon horst and graben system, which is filled with a thick pile of sediments of Permian to Recent age. It is a proven petroliferous basin with a huge unexplored potential.

Krishna Godavari Basin is orthogonally juxtaposed to NW-SE trending Pranhita-Godavari Gondwana graben in the north. The NE-SW basin margin is the most extensive fault trend over the area. In addition to the basin margin fault, three more regional faults developed further basinward: the onland Matsyapuri-Palakollu fault, a Miocene structure building fault in shallow water close to the coast, and a Pliocene structure building fault in deeper water. The arcuate horsts and the four regional arcuate faults are more or less parallel. In offshore, the sediments are mostly influenced by growth related tectonics.

The Ravva field is located in the Godavari Delta, which is considered to be a wave- dominated delta throughout its Tertiary history. Tertiary deltaic sequence which is over three Km thick, is the main exploration focus in Ravva area. Tertiary sedimentation has been primarily influenced by eustatic sea level fluctuations along with uplift and erosion of the hinterland caused by the Deccan hotspot, Himalayan collision and local gravity induced tectonism. The stratigraphic sequence thickens basinward away from the present day coastline and depositional systems range from shoreface to deepwater fans. The primary targets for exploration are the coarse clastic Miocene and Oligocene reservoirs.

Ravva-Stratigraphy and structural model

The stratigraphy of Ravva area is derived from 59 drilled well data. In absence of definitive correlation markers and little reliable biostratigraphic data, correlation is mainly sequence stratigraphically based and guided by the seismic data. The oldest sequence seen extending from onshore on seismic data is a thick relatively undeformed Cretaceous sequence. The top of this sequence is Cretaceous Tertiary boundary, which separates rift and post rift deposition from complex Tertiary sedimentation, erosion and tectonism. This is marked by a regional tectonic detachment surface, associated with listric growth faulting and coeval toe thrusting. Above the detachment, a thick Paleocene & Eocene section and moderately thick Late Oligocene section is inferred since they are not drilled so far in any Ravva wells. Early Miocene sequence is dominantly shale with thin sandstone and limestone units. Middle Miocene unconformably lies on Early Miocene and is divided into sub-M20 overlain by M20 and M30. The M20-M30 sequence consisting coarse sandstone of over 100 m thick is the primary hydrocarbon-producing interval. The thickness is partly depositional and partly erosional at LLM unconformity, which incises into Middle Miocene sequence. Lower Late Miocene is dominantly shale with occasional channel sands whereas the Upper Late Miocene consists of alternating sand-shale sequence. The Late Miocene and at some places part of Middle Miocene are incised by a major Base Pliocene Unconformity (BPU). Above this unconformity, is a thick deepwater shale section of Pliocene-Pleistocene age overlain by alternating sand-shale sequence of Pleistocene- Recent age.

Figure 2. REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTION THROUGH RAVVA FIELD A large low angle listric fault

Figure 2. REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTION THROUGH RAVVA FIELD

A large low angle listric fault on NW part of Ravva block (Fig 2) is the dominant structural style. This fault detaches at the Base Tertiary and has significant rotation so as to generate associated toe-thrusting further in the basin. Ravva field lies within the hanging wall of this fault. The hanging wall section of Paleocene to Late Miocene age rocks has been deformed by a series of small, low angle, SE dipping listric faults and small, high angle antithetic faults. The faults trend NE-SW and are linear to curvi-linear in plan view. Since Pliocene, minor faulting has occurred except Pleistocene-Recent growth faulting in NE part of the block. The faulting is related to sedimentary loading of the shelf, instability and collapse during periods of sea level low stand. Relative rise and fall in sea level through time has continually shifted the depositional environment between the shelf and slope. Three major periods of sea level low stand have occurred during Middle Miocene forming M20 sequence boundary, at the end of Middle Miocene forming Lower Late Miocene sequence boundary and Base Pliocene Unconformity causing significant erosion. These were followed by rapid sea level rises, deepwater conditions and deposition of thick prograding shale sequences during Pliocene- Pleistocene. These provide the seals to the main hydrocarbon accumulations in Ravva area.

Petroleum System

Source: The analysis of Ravva oil from Middle Miocene reservoirs from all blocks indicates similar composition suggesting same source rock kitchen and derived from kerogen Type III source rock with some marine input. The source rock maturity varies between 0.7% -0.8%.

Generation & Migration: Regional basin modeling and subsidence modeling suggest

generation of hydrocarbon from the Early Miocene to present day. Regarding migration timing, there are two possible models:

faulting. The trap must have remained intact during failure and rotation of the Ravva listric fault.

(ii) The main migration and filling episode occurred after Early Pliocene faulting (and

possibly until recent times) filling the crest of the rollover anticline (the Ravva fault block). These two models have implications regarding the remaining prospectivity. The former model suggests that tilted fault block traps e.g. the Back Fault Block would have formed after main migration event, and could be the reason for absence or small hydrocarbon accumulation in these traps. If the main migration phase was after Pliocene faulting, the small hydrocarbon accumulations or lack of hydrocarbon in the tilted fault block trap may be the result of lack of fault seal or migration direction/ volumes. The migration direction may be SE or NE. The RH and RF gas field are dry gas accumulations representing later stage migration into these structures.

Reservoirs: The sandstone reservoirs within the Oligocene to Pleistocene sequence were deposited in a wave dominated deltaic environment where relative sea-level fluctuations through time resulted in fluvial to sub-marine slope sedimentation. The best hydrocarbon reservoirs are located in the fluvial channels, beach ridges, barriers and upper shore face environments.

Caprocks: Two types of Caprocks are present viz. Regional highstand sequences and Intraformational shale. The highstand thick shale sequences of Lower late Miocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene packages form the most effective top and lateral seal for Middle Miocene reservoirs and Late Miocene gas caps. The former is heavily faulted. Intraformational shales are 15-100 m thick and are present throughout Tertiary sequence; they are proven seals in Early Miocene and Late Oligocene.

Petroleum Plays

Based on trapping mechanism, four type of plays have been identified in Ravva area (Fig 3):

1. Middle Miocene erosional remnant and roll over: This stratigraphic sub-crop trap is the proven play in Ravva field comprising Middle Miocene reservoirs at the crest of the hanging wall rollover with low structural dip. The Middle Miocene reservoirs have been eroded by Lower late Miocene sequence boundary and sealed at top and laterally by Lower late Miocene shale. RAD, REFB and RG producing blocks are example of this type of play.

2. Base Pliocene subcrop: This proven subcrop play forms RH and RF satellite gas fields. In this play, Late Miocene reservoirs subcrop the Base Pliocene Unconformity, which forms a prominent erosional surface. The erosional remnants of Late Miocene sands form topographic highs that are sealed as a 4-way closure by Pliocene shale. The presence of gas is easily detectable on seismic by Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI).

3. Tilted Fault block: This play is more encouraging in Early Miocene / Late Oligocene where several hydrocarbon pools are found within structural closures. It is not significant in Late Miocene though several wells have intersected Late Miocene fault compartments. Most wells in the Middle Miocene are located in tilted fault blocks but are sealed laterally by the Lower Late Miocene shale. A key problem with success of this play is fault seal, which is unpredictable. The fault seal is effective only when the reservoir is juxtaposed against thick shale package rather than interbedded sand- shale package. The ability of a fault to hold a hydrocarbon column is important for the assessment of the remaining prospectivity in Ravva area, since this play is present at several intervals.

4. Submarine channel sand with updip stratigraphic seal: This play consists of channel sands, often stacked and deposited on the submarine slope within Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs. The Pliocene submarine channel sands form discrete dipping bodies in a thick shale package but are generally dependent on updip stratigraphic pinchout onto para –sequence boundaries. Trap risk is high since sands may form continuous sand bodies or if isolated and relatively unfaulted, may not be on migration pathways. Only one-third wells intersecting these sand bodies

Only one-third wells intersecting these sand bodies Figure 3. SEISMIC LINE SHOWING THE MAIN HYDROCARBON PLAYS

Figure 3. SEISMIC LINE SHOWING THE MAIN HYDROCARBON PLAYS IN RAVVA

have shown minor shows. Therefore, the exploration of Plio-Pleistocene has been considered to have a low chance of success in Ravva area.

Exploration potential in Ravva area

The acquisition of OBC 3D seismic data in 2000-01 has enabled more confident correlation of seismic horizons within Early Miocene, Oligocene and older sediments and also improved imaging of unconformities. Based on interpretation of PSTM data, 68 leads and 13 prospects were identified. Further processing to PSDM (Paradigm Geophysical, 2002) and interpretation of seismic data has enabled more confident interpretation of the deeper Tertiary sequence and the specially processed AVO attributes (Veritas, August-September 2003) has enabled better understanding of hydrocarbon and brine response on seismic data which has been used as a tool to quantify tap and migration risk.

Impact of AVO studies on Ravva exploration:

Following AVO tools have been deployed for fluid /hydrocarbon identification on seismic:

will have larger deviations and plots away from the mudrock line. The amplitude of the fluid factor is equal to distance from this line. Brine filled sands have a close to zero fluid factor and the hydrocarbon filled sands will have negative attribute at the top of the sand and positive at the base of the sand. This technique is limited by the thinning of reservoir or chaotic seismic data due to structural complexity. An excellent correlation between fluid factor response and fluid type at Late Miocene and Middle Miocene levels gives confidence in the expected fluid type for the identified prospects and can be used as a risking tool at these stratigraphic levels. Therefore, in Early Miocene sands, a fluid factor response should be expected if the reservoir is relatively thick and is located in a structurally simple fault block.

(ii) Lambda-Mu-Rho (LMR) Inversion (Goodway et al, 1997): This is another AVO tool used for fluid discrimination. The parameters compressibility (Lambda) and rigidity (Mu) are derived by taking P-wave and S-wave impedance volumes. Lambda Rho versus Mu Rho cross plots of sands encountered in wells have been generated for Upper Late Miocene, Middle Miocene (M30) and Early Miocene. The decreasing Lambda Rho value discriminates hydrocarbon type (gas/ oil) from water. The Lambda Rho and Mu Rho values and fluid type cut-offs will vary depending primarily on the depth of the reservoir. The Upper Late Miocene cross plot shows a reasonable discrimination between gas and water. In Middle Miocene, the hydrocarbon discrimination is quite poor, particularly between oil and water. In Early Miocene, this further deteriorates.

Out of above two AVO techniques, Fluid Factor Attribute has been considered the best hydrocarbon indicator and has been used for analysis of the prospects and leads in Ravva.

Exploration Prospects Identified

Total 12 prospects have been grouped as per the age of the formations as given below:

Eocene/ Oligocene Late Oligocene Early Miocene Middle Miocene Upper Late Miocene

: Prospect LO110 : Prospect LO101 & 102 : EM202/217 & EM211 : MM300, MM301, MM302 & MM304 : LM403, LM404/P534 & LM413

These prospects have been ranked on their risked mean reserves. Most prospects in Ravva area fall within “Low risk low reward” category except Prospect LO110 which is the only “High risk high reward” prospect since it is large and deep and the sequence is not penetrated by any Ravva deep exploration well so far. For the low risk low reward prospects to be economic, low cost exploration and development is necessary. For example, the close proximity of Prospect MM301 to LM403 means that they could be combined into a single development. The Ravva JV has already lined up these prospects for exploration drilling during the year 2007-08 and based on the success, the appraisal wells have also been planned in WP&B for year 2007-08.

Exploration Prospects drilled

Ravva Back Fault Block

Out of the above prospects, 3 prospects viz. P534/LM404 (Pliocene), LM413 (Late Miocene) and MM300 (Middle Miocene) in Ravva Back Fault Block have been drilled in June-July 2006. The well RX-9 drilled to 2800 m MD encountered P534 sand package with 2.5 m gas pay (Interval 1208-1210.5 m) and LM404 sand package with 2 m oil pay (1403-1405.25 m).

Middle Miocene sands as per MDT were found to be water bearing. On testing, LM404 (LM80) sand flowed little gas with negligible quantity of thick biodegradable oil. P534 (PL20) sand flowed gas@ average 0.6 MMCFD with falling rate and pressure. In view of insignificant testing results, the well was plugged and abandoned.

Prospect LM403

This is an erosional remnant of Late Miocene sequence that subcrops the Base Pliocene Unconformity (BPU). It is a direct analogue to RH and RF gas caps and has a bright amplitude and well defined flatspot. The fault NF 4000, interpreted to be charging oil & gas in wells RX-3 and RX-6, runs north of LM403 and occur as bounding fault in the north. At the base of Pliocene, BPU erosional unconformity limits the preservation of the section towards east and west. Two accumulations with different fluid contacts (62m oil column with GOC at 973 m and OWC at 1035 m SS in RX-6 and 36 m oil column with GOC at 1099 m and OWC at 1135 m SS in RX-3) were identified on RFT pressure gradients. The trap is defined by a DHI/ flat spot at 1035 mSS. The area of the flat spot is 8.8 sq km with vertical relief of 133 m between the crest and lowest known oil in well RX-6. Based on integrated review of fault analysis, AVO attribute analysis (qualitative fluid discrimination from LMR studies) and hydrodynamic correlation, the prospect was thought to be both oil and gas bearing.

BPU BPU LM100 LM100 LM80 LM80 LM20 LM20
BPU
BPU
LM100
LM100
LM80
LM80
LM20
LM20

Fig 4. Petrophysical Summary- Well RX-10, Prospect LM 403

The exploratory well RX-10 with moderate deviation 44 degree has been drilled upto targeted depth of 1581 mMD (1331 mSS for primary objective LM40-100 and secondary objective LM10. Based on petrophysical analysis and RCI pressure data, the well has encountered only 9 m gas pay (in vertical depth) due to very poor net to gross ratio (Fig. 4). There is no sand development in the expected oil column (Interval 973-1035 mSS). This indicates that the reservoir is of poor quality. The strong DHI could be due to the residual gas saturation and possibility of finding oil is still interpretative.

The wells drilled to the south of RX-10, viz. R-3, R-5 and R-26 and R-25 to the east of Prospect LM403 have not given encouraging results in Late Miocene, thus implying that beyond RX-3 and RX-6, the facies in this interval might be changing towards argillaceous nature. The depositional model, therefore, needs to be updated for these sands by incorporating the drilling results of well RX-10.

Future Prospectivity

The prospects, which are to be probed by exploratory wells, are briefly described as follows:

Prospect MM301:

This is a Middle Miocene prospect comprising a faulted, three-way dip closure (area 4.2 km2) and an erosional remnant similar to main producing blocks of Ravva viz. RAD, REFB, RG etc. and situated as a satellite structure towards NE of RG gas block separated by an incision during Lower Late Miocene (Fig 5). The fault closure trends NE-SW direction. The Middle Miocene section is faulted, tilted, rotated and scoured down by Base Pliocene Unconformity. The Plio-Pleistocene clays provide very good top and lateral seal forming MM 301 as a perfect structural and stratigraphic trap. The immediate offset wells of the prospect are RX-3 and R-26. RX-3 was drilled in the up thrown side of the fault, in which 57 m of gross gas column was discovered from Middle Miocene package. R-26 is located on the SE margin of the prospect, which encountered 3 m oil sand at Middle Miocene level. (Fig.6). The pressure gradient analysis from RFT/DST pressures has prognosed a gas cap with about 25 m thick oil column.

has prognosed a gas cap with about 25 m thick oil column. Fig 5. Proposed RX-8

Fig 5. Proposed RX-8 Well Location Map, Prospect MM 301

t
t

Fig 6. Log data of wells RX-3 & R-26

The RMS Amplitude character (Fig 7) matches well with the amplitude characters of RX-3 accumulation and with other oil and gas producing M30/20 pools of RG, RF and RB blocks and suggests that reservoir sand units in the prospect area are hydrocarbon filled. Similarly, AVO analysis and RpRs cross plotting suggests positive class II anomaly at top of reservoir and HC charge in the package.

II anomaly at top of reservoir and HC charge in the package. Fig 7. RMS Amplitude

Fig 7. RMS Amplitude Map on Top M30 (at 100 ms window), MM301

Prospect EM 211B/ EM 220

These prospects comprising Early Miocene reservoir packages EM 50 to EM 10 form the fault controlled structural highs and about 65 m of net sand is expected.

An exploration well RX-8 targeted to 2417 m TVDSS has been planned to be drilled and test optimally Primary objective Middle Miocene reservoir (Prospect MM 301) in a vertical hole and Secondary objective Early Miocene reservoir sands (Prospects EM211B/EM220) in directionally drilled hole with maximum deviation of 37 degree.

Prospect LO110

This is the deepest prospect in Ravva area with the crest at 3470 m SS. This is a 4-way dip closure within tilted fault block having an area of 33 sq km and vertical closure of 400 m. (Fig 8) The structure is identifiable amplitude anomaly on PSTM and Pre-SDM data. Since none of the wells have been drilled to this deep level, the age of the prospect is uncertain. Regional correlation from onshore wells suggests that this prospect could be from Eocene to Oligocene age. Being adjacent to Early Tertiary detachment surface, it is on an ideal migration route. The wells R-3 and R-5 have indicated HC presence at 3160 and 2647 m SS respectively. Bright amplitudes at top of structure indicate reservoir presence. If the prospect is Lower Eocene in age, deepwater turbidites and fans are predicted; if it is Late Eocene/ Oligocene, it could be shelfal sandstone. Fluid Factor and Lambda reflectivity attribute volumes show a positive AVO anomaly with correct polarity, which suggest hydrocarbon. However, the meaningful AVO response at this depth requires about 30 m thick sand.

AVO response at this depth requires about 30 m thick sand. Fig 8. Prospect LO110 -

Fig 8. Prospect LO110 - Depth Structure Map, Dip & Strike Line, Stratigraphic column & Prospect Summary

The prospect is rated as High risk, high reward having 1 in 6 chance of geological success and a risked mean reserves of 32 BOE. At a depth of 3605 m SS, it requires drilling by HPHT rig, resulting in high drilling risk and geological risk. Pressure and temperature prediction is critical for this prospect for well planning and techno-economics.

Conclusions & Recommendations

The acquisition, processing and interpretation of 319 Sq Km OBC 3D seismic data in Ravva Block has indicated 68 leads, out of which 12 prospects have been identified and prioritized for drilling.

The AVO tools specifically Fluid Factor Attribute has been considered the best hydrocarbon indicator and has been used for analysis of the Prospects.

The 3 prospects within Middle Miocene, Late Miocene and Pliocene falling in Back Fault Block have been drilled as well RX-9 and has indicated non-commercial hydrocarbon presence.

The Prospect LM403 within Late Miocene was envisaged to be having gas cap with oil leg based on RFT data of nearby drilled wells, DHI/ Flat Spot, AVO attribute analysis (qualitative fluid discrimination from LMR studies) and hydrodynamic correlation. However, the drilling of well RX-10 has encountered only 9 m gas pay due to poor reservoir sand and no sand against expected oil column. The strong DHI could be due to the residual gas saturation and possibility of finding oil is still interpretative.

The wells drilled to the south of RX-10, viz. R-3, R-5 and R-26 and R-25 to the east of Prospect LM403 have not given encouraging results in Late Miocene, thus implying that beyond RX-3 and RX-6, the facies in this interval might be changing towards argillaceous nature. The depositional model, therefore, needs to be updated for these sands by incorporating the drilling results of well RX-10.

The Middle Miocene Prospect MM301 along with Early Miocene prospects EM211B & EM220 are to be probed by well RX-8. The Middle Miocene prospect is envisaged to be gas cap with 25 m thick oil column based on RFT pressures of nearby drilled wells and RMS Amplitude character.

One deepest 4 way dipping anticlinal structure but largest in areal extent (33 Sq Km) at Eocene to Oligocene level (LO110) has been identified. Bright amplitudes at top of structure indicate reservoir presence. If the prospect is Lower Eocene in age, deepwater turbidites and fans are predicted; if it is Late Eocene/ Oligocene, it could be shelfal sandstone. Fluid Factor and Lambda reflectivity attribute volumes show a positive AVO anomaly with correct polarity, which suggest hydrocarbon. However, the meaningful AVO response at this depth requires about 30 m thick sand. The prospect is rated as High risk, high reward, requiring drilling by HP-HT rig, resulting in high drilling risk and geological risk. Pressure and temperature prediction is critical for this prospect for well planning and techno-economics.

Besides above prospects, several leads within Late Oligocene, Early Miocene, Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene have been identified, which are likely to have a high risk of lacking one or more play component, i.e. trapping or poor reservoir development. These need to be examined for further prospectivity in the block with the help of 4C/4D seismic studies in future.

Acknowledgement

The author is thankful to M/s Cairn Energy India Pty. Limited for freely using their published reports and data related to Ravva prospectivity based on OBC 3D seismic data API and also well proposals/ Geological prognosis reports of wells being drilled / planned. The author is

particularly thankful of Mr. S.S. Pandian from Cairn Energy India Pty. Limited for his critical comments/ suggestions on the paper. The author expresses his sincere thanks to Director General, DGH for encouragement and granting permission to publish this paper.

References

1. PKGM-1 Ravva Prospectivity Summary, Feb 2004 by Cairn Energy India Pty. Limited, Feb 2004

2. Ravva RX-9 Exploration well (Back Fault Block)-Geological Prognosis, April 2006

3. Ravva RX-10 Exploration well (Prospect LM403)-Geological Prognosis, April 2007

4. Ravva TCM Presentation on G&G review of RX-8, Drilling & operational summary, 12/13 th June 2007 Ravva RX-8 Exploration well (Prospect MM301, EM211B & EM220)-Geological Prognosis, July 2007

5.

CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHT HYDROCARBONS NEAR TADPATRI, CUDDAPAH BASIN

A.M. Dayal, D.J. Patil, T. Satish Kumar, T. Madhvi, M.A. Rasheed and S.V. Raju* National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad 500 007 * Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, New Delhi. (e-mail: dayalisotope@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Seepage of natural gas from the few bore wells was reported from vengannapally

village, Tadpatri, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh. To study the source and nature of

these gases, soil samples around these bore wells were collected and analyzed for light

hydrocarbons (C 1 –C 4 ,) and carbon isotopes. The adsorbed soil gas survey in the area has

indicated the presence of petrogenetic gaseous charge, not influenced by secondary

effects during migration and absorption on sub-surface. Source of these gases may be

thermogenic / Kerogen III type. The geological and geophysical studies reveal that

Tadpatri shales (Chitravati group) can be potential source rocks for hydrocarbons. The

Papagani and Chitravati groups are mostly undisturbed and have the pre-requisites, which

can be favorable for generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons.

Introduction:

Surface geochemistry methods have been used extensively for more than 70 years

but these methods have been renewed .recently by the advent of the gas chromatograph,

Carbons isotope and computer processing which make analyses of soil hydrocarbons

simple and cheap. The geochemical exploration is that hydrocarbons migrate to the

surface from sources at depth and that surface prospecting techniques can directly detect

these minute quantities of vertically migrated hydrocarbons. The presence of these

vertically migrated hydrocarbons does not guarantee, of course, the presence of a

commercial petroleum deposit. In theory, component gases of hydrocarbon

accumulations may escape and move vertically from a reservoir by diffusion and effusion

due to the pressure gradient and to their lower densities, compared to those of water,

overlying rocks and petroleum. Velocity of upward transfer depends on the pressure

gradient, the viscosity and molecular size of the gas and the permeability of the enclosing rocks.

Hydrocarbons reside in the near surface as free and bound gases; however, only the free gases migrate from depth (Jones et al., 2000). Free gases occur as either vapor in pore spaces or as a gas dissolved in an aqueous solution. If the gas is attached to the sediment matrix or contained within the interstices of rocks or certain minerals, such as calcite or oxide coatings, (Hunt, 1979; Jones et al., 2000) it is considered to be bound. Bound gases include adsorbed and chemiadsorbed gases. Gases that have reached the soil horizon may also contain biogenic, thermogenic, and/or abiogenic gases that migrated to the surface from deep sources (Saunders et al., 1999). Near-surface free gases are dominated by gases from deep sources but may also contain gases formed during diagenesis, such as biogenic methane (Jenden et al., 1993). To minimize the influence of biogenic or another source of C 1 , some other hydrocarbon constituent (for example, ethane, propane, and butanes) should be measured (Matthews, 1986; Jones et al., 2000). In this article an attempt has been made to characterize the amount and composition of the light hydrocarbons (C 1 -C 4 ) in the Vengannapally village (where natural gas leakage has been reported), near Tadpatri, Cuddapah Basin and to explain its possible contribution to the formation of hydrocarbons. During an adsorbed soil gas surveys carried out by NGRI jointly with DGH in 2005 covered the Cuddapah basin, have shown that the basin has potential for hydrocarbon generation (Unpublished report, NGRI, 2005). Geology :

The Cuddapah is an epicratonic Proterozoic basin covering an area of ~445x10 2 km 2 . The aggregate stratigraphic thickness of 12 km and the sediment thickness increase from west to east signifiying the deepening of basin towards east. The sediments are deposited in a shallow marine carbonate shelf and beach environment (Nagaraja et al., 1987). The stratigraphic sequence of Cuddapah supergroup is divided into lower Papagani Group (2100 m), Chitravati Group (6000 m), Nallamalai Group (3500), and younger Kurnool Group (520m) comprising quartzite, limestone and shale units separated by an unconformity. All the sediments in the basin are mature and unmetamorphosed except on the eastern part due to the thrusting of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. Three groups

are starting with quartzite and ends with a shale unit representing cyclic repetition and reflective of transgression and regression in a regularly dropping basin. Methods:

Natural gas leakage from the bore well in Vengannapally village study area was reported (Fig.1). To study the oozing gas and source of gas, adsorbed soil sampling survey work is carried out. The survey is designed on cluster sampling on selected specific sites and then collected 33 adsorbed soil samples to evaluate the source of light hydrocarbon and its characterization. Samples were collected from the depth of 1 to 1.5m using manual hammering to required depth and analyzed for light hydrocarbons and carbon isotope of methane, ethane and propane. The cores collected were wrapped in aluminum foils and sealed in poly metal packs. Sample processing and analysis:

Light hydrocarbon analysis using Gas Chromatography The light gaseous hydrocarbons were extracted from soil by wet sieving and subject to chemical treatment under partial vacuum using a degasification apparatus for GC and GC-C-IRMS analysis, respectively. The carbon dioxide released due to decomposition of carbonates is absorbed in potassium hydroxide solution. The volume of desorbed gas is measured by water displacement method. The hydrocarbon concentration in the adsorbed gases from all the samples was analyzed for light hydrocarbon content by using Gas Chromatograph using FID detector. The calibration of GC was done by using external standards with known concentrations of methane, ethane, propane, i-butane and n-butane. The quantitative estimation of light gaseous hydrocarbon constituents in each sample was done on the basis of peak area measurement and the correction for moisture content was applied to the data obtained. The hydrocarbon concentration values of individual hydrocarbons from methane through pentane are expressed in parts per billion (ppb). The accuracy of measurement of C 1 – C 4 components is < 1 ng/g. Carbon Isotope analysis using GC-C-IRMS Methane, Ethane and Propane components were isolated for isotope analysis. this analysis were performed using an instrumental set composed by GC-C-IRMS, which comprises of Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatograph (GC) coupled to a Finnigan-Delta Plus XP

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer via a GC combustion III interface. The carbon isotope ratio in the sample was determined by comparing isotope ratios with that of standard, NIST RM 8560 (IAEA NGS2) using ISODAT software. The carbon isotope ratios are reported relative to the PeeDee Belemnite (PDB)

δ 13 C = {(( 13 C/ 12 C) sample /( 13 C/ 12 C) PDB ) – 1}× 1000

The precision of the isotopic analysis for CH 4 is ± 0.5‰. Results and Discussions:

Evaluation of surface hydrocarbon data, with graphical display and statistical analysis was carried out to establish data precision and quality and to depict patterns of variation. Subsurface data can help to confirm active hydrocarbon seepage in the subsurface today. Compositional analysis reveals the type or types of subsurface hydrocarbon accumulations present. Gas reservoirs are commonly dominated by methane, whereas oil reservoirs commonly contain a higher percentage of heavier hydrocarbons (C 2 +) (Jones et al., 2000).

Soil-gas samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography and CF- IRMS. The magnitudes of each of the organic constituents (C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , iC 4 , and nC 4 ) were measured and are expressed in parts per billion of gas per unit volume of the soil gas mixture. The number of sample sites, ranges of values, and useful statistical values for each analyzed soil-gas constituent, are summarized in Table 1 . The data population and distribution pattern were analyzed using frequency distribution histograms (Fig 2), shows that all the hydrocarbons present a bell shaped curve with a positive skewness showing a polymodal distribution pattern which is commonly associated with surface geochemical data in petroleum exploration (Steven Tedesco, 1995). The Pearson correlation matrix between C 1 -C 2 -C 3 , and ΣC 2+ is given in Table 2.

The excellent correlation between C 1 -C 2 , C 2 -C 3 , C 2 -ΣC 2+ and C 3 -ΣC 2+ (r = 0.9) indicating that i) these hydrocarbons are genetically related; ii) are not effected by secondary alteration during their migration from subsurface to subsequent adsorption on to the surface soil and iii) might have been generated from a thermogenic source because of the presence of C 2 & C 3 component. This suggests that all the hydrocarbon constituents in microseeps are from the same origin without any prominent secondary alterations during

the path of migration to the surface and their subsequent adsorption on the soil (Gevirtz

and Carey, 1983). This enhances authenticity of the anomalies created by migratory

gases. The cross plot of C 1 /C 2 and C 1 /(C 2 +C 3 ) is given in Fig.3. Bernard et al. (1977)

presented a transformation to discriminate between biogenic and thermogenic gases with

the equation C 1 /(C 2 +C 3 ) yields a ratio. From this equation these samples are showing in

thermogenic range.

Table 2 . Pearson correlation coefficient matrix for adsorbed soil gas

 

C 1

C 2

C 3

ΣΣΣΣC 2 +

C

1

1.0

C

2

0.9

1.0

C

3

0.6

0.8

1.0

ΣΣΣΣC 2 +

0.7

0.9

0.9

1.0

Table 3. Approximate Empirical Range of Microseep Compositional Ratio for Gas, Gas condensate, and Oil (adapted from Jones and Drozd, 1983).

Hydrocarbon

C 1 /C 1 -C 4 or

C

1 /C 2

(C

2 /C 3 )X10

(C

3 /C 1 )X10 3

Composition

%C 1

     

Gas

100-90

100-20

25-50

2-20

Gas condensate

90-75

20-10

16.5-25

20-60

Oil

50-5

10-4

10-16.4

60-500

The geochemical signature (gas, gas condensate or oil) is determined using ratios of

hydrocarbon constituents detected in the soil-gas sample (Table 3). The percent methane

(%C1) and the percent gas wetness (Jenden et al., 1993; Jones et al., 2000) may further

quantify the compositional signature of a soil gas. The values of hydrocarbon constituent

ratios provide an identifying compositional signature for each sample (Table 3), may also

indicate the most probable source of light hydrocarbons (Jones et al., 2000). The gas

produced from this area is a gas condensate (%C1 90-75 with heavier hydrocarbons),

C 1 /C 2 ratio shows that all the samples are in oil range and most of the sample in gas

condensate range from (C 2 /C 3 ) x10 ratio. The frequency distribution of (C 3 /C 1 )X10 3

ratios obtained for all samples having C 1 and C 3 show that 94% samples are in the oil zone and remaining samples in gas condensate zone (Fig 4 ). The carbon isotopic composition of methane (δ 13 C 1 ), ethane (δ 13 C 2 ), propane

(δ 13 C 3 ) for selected samples is given in Table 1. Methane is the dominant component in the natural gas samples analyzed in this study. Its relative concentration ranged from -35.0‰ to -25.2‰ in the Vengannapally samples. Methane in natural gases may be formed via biological processes (bacteriogenic CH 4 ), thermal degradation of kerogen and oil (thermogenic CH 4 ), or metamorphic reactions and degassing of the Earths mantle (Schoell, 1993). Methane from the metamorphic reactions and degassing of the Earths mantle typically shows a considerably heavier isotopic signature. The CH 4 from any of these various sources may possibly contribute to the reservoir gases and thus influence the overall composition of reservoir gases. The origin of the gases and possible processes of gas generation are investigated first with the help of the Bernard diagram (Bernard et al., 1978), which uses the molecular composition, namely the C 1 /(C 2 +C 3 ) ratio and the δ 13 C values of methane. Molecular ratios C 1 /(C 2 +C 3 ) less than 50 are typical for

thermogenic hydrocarbon gases with the δ 13 C values between –25‰ to –55‰ PDB. Thermogenic gas mainly derived from Type II kerogen show enrichment in molecular ratios up to around 10 3 , whereas thermogenic gas mainly generated from Type III

kerogen show enrichment in δ 13 C. Bernards diagram (Fig.5 ) shows that the CH 4 gases could be classified as thermogenic and Kerogen Type III sample. Fig.6 illustrates another classification developed by Abrams (1989), all the samples belongs to the Type I. The Type I samples contain small amounts of methane and have δ 13 C values >-45 per mil, suggesting methanotrophic oxidation of CH 4 from an unknown source. These samples are considered to be the product of oxidative modification of methane. Geological & Geophysical studies With the heat flow over 130mW m -2 in northwestern and southeastern regions of the basin, these regions are considered to be associated with highly prospective zones for hydrocarbon generation (Panda, 1985). The Nandyal shale (Upper Kurnool Group) are considered as a future target for petroleum exploration (Kuldeep Chandra et al,1999). The Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) and gravity studies reported that large sediment thickness around Nandyal (Rambabu, 1993). The marked δ 13 C signatures of Koilkuntla limestones

as reported by Patil et al (2002) are indicative of high organic carbon burial/productivity

at the time of deposition of these sediments. The Vempalle limestone/dolomite can act as

good reservoir rocks with its vuggy and fracture porosity. The Vempalle limestone

(Papaghni Group) and Tadpatri shales (Chitravati Group) contain abundant stromatolites

and can be potential source rocks. The Papaghni and Chitravati groups are mostly

undisturbed and have the prerequisites that can be favorable for generation and

accumulation of hydrocarbons.

Conclusions: The adsorbed soil gas survey in the area has indicated the presence of

cogenitic subsurface gaseous hydrocarbon charge, not influenced by secondary effects

during migration and absorption on subsurface soil. The Carbon isotope of methane show

enriched carbon isotopic data that indicate methane derived from thermogenic / Type III

kerogen and oxidation zones. Tadpatri shales (Chitravati Group) contain abundant

stromatolites and can be potential source rocks. The Papaghni and Chitravati groups are

mostly undisturbed and have the prerequisites, that can be favorable for generation and

accumulation of hydrocarbons.

Acknowledgement:

Authors are thankful to Mr.V.K.Sibal, Director General, DGH and Dr V.P.Dimri,

Director, NGRI for giving permission to publish the paper. The OIDB is gratefully

acknowledged for funding the National Facility for Surface Geochemical Prospecting of

Hydrocarbons at NGRI.

Reference:

Abrams, M.A. (1989) Interpretation of methane carbon isotopes extracted from surficial marine sediments for detection of subsurface hydrocarbons. Association Petroleum Geochemical Explorationists Bulletin, 5, 139-66.

Bernand, B.B., Brooks, J.M., and Sackett, W.M. (1977) A geochemical model for characteriuzation of hydrocarbon gas sources in marine sediments. Proc. 9 th offshore Technology Conf., Houston, TX, pp. 435.

Gevirtz, T.I., Carey, B.D.,(1983) Petroleum Geochemistry and exploration, Europe Geol.Soc.Spte, Publ.11.

Hunt, J.M., (1979) Petroleum geochemistry and geology: San Francisco, W.H.Freeman and Co., pp.617

Jenden, P.D., D.J.Drrazan and I.R.Kaplan (1993) Mixing of thermogenic natural gases in northern Appalachian basin: AAPG Bulletin, V.77, pp.980.

Jones, V.T., M.D.Matthews and D.M.Richers (2000) Light hydrocarbons in petroleum and natural gas exploration, in Handbook of exploration geochemistry: Gas geochemistry: Elsevier Science Publ, v.7,chapter 5, pp.133.

Jones, V.T., and R.J.Drozd (1983) Predictions of oil and gas potential by near surface geochemistry: AAPG Bulletin,v.67,pp.932.

Rambabu, H.V.(1993) Basement structure of the Cuddapah Basin from gravity anomalies. Tectonophysics, v.223, pp.411.

Kuldeep Chandra, Punati S. Rao, B.N. Prabhu and N.J.Thomas (1999) Hydrocarbon Potential of the Cuddapah basin of India in the light of global proterozoic hydrocarbon habitats. Proc. 3 rd Int.Pet. Conf & Exbn, Petrotech-99, New Delhi.

Pp.131.

Matthews, M.D. (1986) The effects of hydrocarbons leakage on Earth surface materials, in M.J. Davidson, ed., Unconventional methods in explotation for petreoleum and natural gas,Sym. IV: Dallas, Texas, Southern Methodist University Press, pp.27.

Nagaraja Rao, B.N., Rajurkar,S.T., Ramalingaswamy, G. and Ravindra Babu. (19870 Stratigraphy, structure and evolution of the Cuddapah basin, Purna basins of Peninsular India, GSI.Mem.6,pp.33.

Panda, P.K.(1985) Geothermal maps of India and their significance in resources assessments. Petroleum Asia Jour. v.8, no.2, pp.202.

Patil, D.J., Das Sharma,S., Kumar,B., Dayal, A.M., and Shukla,M.(2002) Carbons, Oxygen and strontium Isotope Geochemistry of Carbonate Rocks from Kurnool Group, Southern India. Jour. Geol.Soc. India, v.60, pp.615.

Saunders,

D.F.,

K.R.Burson

and

C.K.Thompson

(1999)

Model

for

hydrocarbon

microseepage and related near surface alterations: AAPG Bulletin, v.83, pp.170.

Schoell, M., P.D. Jenden, M.A. Beeunas and D.D.Coleman. (1993) Isotope analysis of gases in gas field and gas storage operations. Soc. of Petroleum Engineers,SPE paper 26171, pp.337.

Steven A. Tedesco (1995) S.A.Surface Geochemistry in Petroleum exploration, Chapman and Hall Publishing co.

Identification of water production problems and remedial measures: A case history of Gandhar Field, India

Bhisham Kumar*, M.C.Srivastava** Mrs.P. Mattey***

* ONGC, , Chennai ** DGH, New Delhi

***IRS, ONGC, Ahmedabad

ABSTRACTS

Gandhar field is a multi layered sandstone reservoir with moderate permeability and high reservoir temperature (130 to 140°C). The field is exploited through pattern flooding in some of the reservoirs. One of the reservoirs, GS-5C is quite heterogeneous in nature which has led to early breakthrough of injection water in the offset producers through high permeable streaks. The reservoir porosity is 15-20% and effective thickness is 3-9m. There is rising trend of water cut from the reservoir.

This paper presents the techniques applied for identifying water production problems in offset producers using water oil ratio diagnostic plots and successful application of in-house developed polymer gel formulations for controlling water production in offset producers through profile modification in water injection wells. The polymer gels pumped in injectors move in high permeable zones and drastically reduce the water phase permeability, thus diverting the injected water to other zones. As a result, the offset producers are showing reduction in water cut.

The indigenous developed organic gels formed by cross linking reaction of polyacrylamide polymer and organic cross linking chemical like Hexamine are found to be thermally stable up to 140°C for more than six months. The identification of water production problems and subsequent application of polymer gels have shown excellent results in field trial of some pilot wells completed in sand GS-5C. There was drastic reduction in water cut value to the extent of 20 to 60% with increase in oil rate to the extent of 500 bopd in offset producers.

KEY WORDS

Profile modification, polymer gel, Sweep, Heterogeneity,

INTRODUCTION

Inadequate sweep efficiency due to reservoir heterogeneity is often causing poor oil recovery in water flood. The presence of fractures and high permeable streaks in heterogeneous reservoirs are responsible for undesirable influx of water into well bore and early breakthrough of injection water. This excessive water production from the producers leads to rise in handling and disposal costs and reduces the economic life of the well. The success of water flooding demands a clear understanding of the reservoir characteristics with a view to identify the high permeable channels so that adequate remedial action can be initiated to reduce the adversity of reservoir characteristics on the water flood recovery. One of the remedial actions is profile modification treatment in water injection wells.

BACKGROUND HISTORY

Gandhar field is a multilayered sandstone reservoir with high reservoir temperature ( 130º C - 140º C) and low to moderate permeability. Pattern water flooding is done to maintain reservoir pressure (fig.1). The reservoirs are quite heterogeneous in nature. One of the most affected layers viz. GS-5C was studied for remedial measures to minimize water production. The porosity of the layer is about 18% and permeability is 100-200 md. The sand thickness is 3 to 9 m. The investigations were carried out to identify source of early water breakthrough using

reservoir performance, logs, PLT studies, rock and fluid properties, produced water analysis and well completion details.

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCE OF WATER

The numerous technologies have been developed to control the water production problem, but the identification of source of water must be known in order to design the effective treatment. The water production problems often are not properly diagnosed. Infact, the lack of diagnostics have been cited as one of the major reasons for ineffective treatment.

The water problem was experienced early in the life of wells in sand GS-5C reservoir. The produced water salinity was 1.4 – 2.5 gm/lt which was quite lower than formation water salinity 0f 3-5 gm/lt due to mixing of formation water and injection water in reservoir. The PLT studies also confirmed the source of water. Besides above information, the log-log plot of water oil ratio (WOR) and time derivative of WOR verses time was also used to diagnose the source of water in high water cut wells 1 . The log-log plot of some of the wells viz. P2, P3, P4, P5 & P6 (Figs 2 to 6) indicated the presence of high conductive channels/high permeable streaks.PLT studies in injection wells I-1, I-2, I-3, I-6 also confirmed that there was an uneven injection profile indicating preferential movement of water causing breakthrough of injection water in producers. The tracer studies in Injection well I-2 also showed the preferential movement of water in nearby producers.

Based on above information, it was decided to implement a high volume (1500 bbl) polymer gel program, for profile modification treatment in some injectors on trail basis where premature water breakthrough has been observed within flood pattern.

POLYMER GEL SYSTEM

Polymer gels 2,3 formed by the cross linking of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymers with organic chemicals like Hexamine have shown excellent results in controlling water production from high temperature field like Gandhar where reservoir temperature is 130-140º C

The laboratory studies were done for screening of gel formulation suitable for profile modification treatment. The desirable gel characteristics are longer gelation time to pump the large volume of gelant, sufficient gel strength to divert the injection water, thermal stability of gels to remain effective for a longer time at high temperature of reservoir without degradation, low viscosity of gelant solution to ease injection of large volume and smooth propagation in the porous media, Compatibility with process water, formation water and reservoir rock.

The Gel formulation was flowed through native reservoir rock to evaluate the permeability damage of water phase, injectivity information and compatibilities with formation fluid and rock.

The Selection of suitable candidates 4 was done considering the parameters like Poor recovery in pattern area, early breakthrough in offset producers, non uniform injection profile of the injector, excessive injection rate at low pressure, adverse injection to withdrawal ratio and Tracer studies.

The low polymer concentration forming light flexible flowing gels is suitable for profile

modification treatment in matrix reservoirs. Considering the above parameters, a treatment

volume of 240 m3 (

distance of about 50 ft to be effective 5 .

1500 barrels) was designed so that gel must penetrate a significant

PATTERN INJECTIVITY

The gelant volume pumped, pre job and post job injectivity are given in Table-1.

Table-1

Well No.

I-1

I-2

I-3

I-4

I-5

I-6

I-7

I-8

Volume, bbl

1500

1535

1600

1570

760

1545

1540

1130

Pre-job injectivity, M3/d

70

110

125

80

60

80

70

80

Post job injectivity, m3/d

45

60

95

70

45

72

70

 

PRODUCTION RESPONSE

The response of profile modification treatment in injectors has been observed in offset producer’s viz. P-1, P-2, P-3, P-4 and P-5 (Fig-7 to Fig-11). The well wise response is discussed as below P-1: The water cut in this well has been reduced from 26 % to 10% with increase in oil rate from 56 m3/d to about 76 m3/d. There is continuous decline in water cut to 3%. The response in treatment was observed in about 40 days after treatment in injection well I-1. The additional oil of 16893 m3 (106257bbl) has been recovered after the treatment P-2: The water cut in this well has been reduced from 65 % to 10% with increase in oil rate from 26 m3/d to about 85 m3/d. The response in treatment was observed in about 60 days after treatment in injection well I-1. The additional oil of 7660 m3 (48185bbl) has been recovered after the treatment P-3: The water cut in this well has been reduced from 59 % to 35% with increase in oil rate from 26 m3/d to about 43 m3/d. The response in treatment was observed in about 45 days after treatment in injection well I-1. The response was shortlived. The additional oil of 5727 m3 (10568 bbl) has been recovered after the treatment. P-4: This well was closed due to 100 % water cut. The water cut is showing a declining rate after treatment in I-2 and I-3. Presently well is flowing with 85 % water cut. The additional oil of 473 m3 (2977bbl) has been recovered after the treatment P-5: The water cut in this well has been reduced from 98 % to 85% after treatment in I-4 and I- 6. There is variation in water cut. The additional oil of 702m3 (44200bbl) has been recovered after the treatment No response has been observed in wells P-6 and P-7. The total oil recovery after the treatment is about 26640 m3 (167568bbl).

CONCLUSIONS

1. Water oil ratio (WOR) diagnostics plots combined with other well information’s like produced water salinity, PLT logs, Tracer provide a better understanding of water problems. This is vital for success of treatment.

2. Polymer gels are effective tools for profile modification in injection wells to improve vertical conformance and water flooding efficiency of the reservoirs. The response in offset producers after the treatment indicates that there is substantial reduction in water cut with increase in oil rate. The incremental oil recovery after the treatment from the offset wells is 26640 m3 or 167568bbl.

3. The larger size of treatment volume coupled with more quantity of polymer is desirable for improving the sweep efficiency in matrix reservoirs.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank the management of Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. for permission to publish this paper. Thanks are also due to officers of Well Stimulation Services, Subsurface team , Ankleshwar Asset, Water control Group, IRS, Ahmedabad who made sincere efforts to make the trial of gel technology a big success. Authors also acknowledge the guidance given by then Head IRS & present ED, kavery basin and Dy General Manager (Chem) and Head, Regional Lab, Chennai for carrying out this task.

REFERENCES

1. Chan K.S.” Water Control Diagnostics Plot” SPE 30775

2. Bhisham Kumar et al. “ Water control in High temperature reservoirs”, Petrotech, Jan ,

2001

3. Bhisham Kumar et al. “Successful water shut off treatment using PHPA polymer”,

Petrotech, Jan , 1997

4.

Bhisham Kumar et al. “Evaluation and field application of polymer gels for water control”, Improved Recovery Symposium, IRS, Ahmedabad, ONGC India, July 2000.

WOR"

WOR

WOR"

WOR

WOR"

WOR

WOR"

5. Smith J.E. et al.” Practical issues with field injection well treatment” SPE 55631. Rocky mountain regional meeting, May 1999

Pattern Diagram of Water injection in layer GS-5C

P-5I-5 P-6 I-4 I-2 I-6 P-7 I-1 P-4 P-3 P-1 P-2 I-7 I-8 Injector Producer

I-5P-5 P-6 I-4 I-2 I-6 P-7 I-1 P-4 P-3 P-1 P-2 I-7 I-8 Injector Producer I-3

P-6 I-4 I-2 I-6 P-7 I-1 P-4 P-3 P-1 P-2 I-7 I-8 Injector
P-6
I-4
I-2
I-6
P-7
I-1
P-4
P-3
P-1
P-2
I-7
I-8
Injector

ProducerP-5 I-5 P-6 I-4 I-2 I-6 P-7 I-1 P-4 P-3 P-1 P-2 I-7 I-8 Injector I-3

I-3

WOR DERIVITIVE PLOT WELL P- 2

10 10 WOR WOR" 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.0001 0.0001 0.00001
10
10
WOR
WOR"
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.0001
0.0001
0.00001
100
1000
10000

DAYS

Fig. 2

WOR DERIVITIVE PLOT WELL P- 5

10 10 WOR WOR" 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001 0.0001 0.0001 100
10
10
WOR
WOR"
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.0001
0.0001
100
1000
10000
WOR"

DAYS

Fig.5

Fig -1

WOR DERIVITIVE PLOT WELL P- 6

1000 100 WOR WOR" 100 10 10 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.001
1000
100
WOR
WOR"
100
10
10
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.0001
0.0001
10
100
1000
10000
WOR

DAYS

Fig.6

WOR DERIVITIVE PLOT WELL P-3 10 10 WOR WOR" 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01
WOR DERIVITIVE PLOT
WELL P-3
10
10
WOR
WOR"
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.0001
0.0001
 

0.00001

 

10

100

1000

10000

 

DAYS

Fig.3

 

WOR DERIVITIVE PLOT WELL P- 4

 
 

1000

100

100

10

wor

wor"

10

1

1

0.1

WOR

0.1

WOR 0.1 0.01

0.01

0.01

0.001

0.001

0.0001

0.0001

0.00001

 

10

100

 

1000

10000

DAYS

Fig.4

QL, m3/d & Qo, m3/d

Ql, M 3/d & Qo,m 3/d

W/C, %

Ql, m3/d & Q0, m3/d

W/C, %

Response After treatment Well No. P-1

100 120 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 Liquid rate,Ql.m3/d
100
120
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
Liquid rate,Ql.m3/d
Oil rate,Qo,m3/d
Water cut, W/C, %
Oct-03
Dec-03
Feb-04
Apr-04
Jun-04
Aug-04
Oct-04
Dec-04
Feb-05
Apr-05
Jun-05
Aug-05
Oct-05
Dec-05
W/C,%

Fig-7

Response After treatment Well N0. P-3

100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0

Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04 Apr-04 May-04 Jun-04

Jul-04

Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04 Apr-04 May-04 Jun-04 Jul-04 Water Cut, % Liquid rate, m3/d Oil rate,

Water Cut, %

Liquid rate, m3/d

Oil rate, m3/d

Fig-9

Response After treatment Well No. P-2

100 100 90 80 80 70 60 60 50 40 40 30 20 20 10
100
100
90
80
80
70
60
60
50
40
40
30
20
20
10
0
0
Water cut, %
Liquid rate, Ql,m3/d
oil rate, m3/d
Oct-03
Dec-03
Feb-04
Apr-04
Jun-04
Aug-04
Oct-04
Dec-04
Feb-05
Apr-05
Jun-05
Aug-05
Oct-05
Dec-05

Fig-8

Response After treatment Well No. P-4

35 100 30 95 25 90 20 15 85 10 80 5 0 75 Oct-
35
100
30
95
25
90
20
15
85
10
80
5
0
75
Oct-
Nov-
Dec-
Jan-
Feb-
Mar-
Apr-
May-
Jun-
Jul-
03
03
03
04
04
04
04
04
04
04
Water cut, W/c, %
Liquid rate,Ql, m3/d
Oil rate, Qo, m3/d
Ql, m3/d & Qo, m3/d
W/C, %

Response After treatment Well No. P-5

Fig-10

70 100 60 95 50 90 40 30 85 20 80 10 0 75 Liquid
70
100
60
95
50
90
40
30
85
20
80
10
0
75
Liquid rate, Ql,m3/d
Oil rate, Qo,m3/d
Water cut, W/C,%
Oct-03
Dec-03
Feb-04
Apr-04
Jun-04
Aug-04
Oct-04
Dec-04
Feb-05
Apr-05
Jun-05
Aug-05
Oct-05
Ql,m3/d & Qo,m3/d
W/C,%

Fig-11

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