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Every other aullwr mq)J



[11'aise; tile lexictJgrapher cun only

hope lo e;Jcape reproach, tlJid eve.11
this Mgative recompense has hee11
gra11ted ta very few.

Pf'eface to a Dictionary
of tbe English


Amharic is the national language of Ethiopia. The scientific investigation of Amharic goes back to
the 17th century, but little attention was given to furni5hlng the student with practical tools for the
acquisition of the language.
The most recent English-Amharic dictionaries are those of C. H. Armbril:iter, Initia Amharfca,
part II, 1910, and of C. H. Walker, English-Amharic Dictionary, 1928. Since these publications
Amharic has developed considerably. The progress that Ethiopia has made in the field of education,
the literary documents of the last fifty years, the technical needs for new expressions, the contact with
the Western world, and the natural development within the language itself have contributed greatly
not only to the enrichment of the language but also to numerous changes within the existing vocabulary.
A few examples taken from .ApnbruSter's dictionary illustrate the changes in the expressions. Thus,
'address' is rendered in Armbruster by IJ"A.h-l- in contrast with the present-day h~t.ti; 'bank'
11")1" tL-l- as against q.,h; 'bicycle' f(lf.tll') 1-l.:h as against n.ll.htt.T; 'cigarette' Rml..,..'J- ,..,.
m.,.l\1\ 1 .'J-IJ"ttU" (1it. 'tobiU:CO that is wrapped in paper') as against M~; 'coin' -rhA:,. as against
iVJ-1:9'"; 'doctor' ql\ DltJ'.:u..:t- as against .hh.-9'" or P..h..,.c; 'general' ~'"'*as against 1:):6-A;
'map' nc 1 PilA. as against ltC;t-; 'sea' fOJ-? ttihe as against qmc; 'story of a house' .t.cil as
against :..,., and many more.
Needless to say, in Armbruster's time there was no need for expressions ruch as 'United Nations,
Trusteeship committee, Security Council, control tower, review of books, agenda, airlines, basketball,
elevator', and so on. Moreover, the practical interest in Amharic has increased in the last few decades.
If to all this we add the fact that at present English is the language of instruction in the high schools
of Ethiopia as well as at the University, we can easily justify the urgent need for a modern EnglishAmharic dictionary.
The most useful approach to the understanding of English lexical items and to the translation
process from English into Amharic appears to be to illustrate English words in context, that is, in a
sentence showing the usage of the word, rn.ther than simply to enumerate the various Amharic renderings of any given single English lexeme. This is particularly important wherever a single English lexeme
varies in meaning according to the context of the sentence. A few example.~ bear out the point.
The Engliili 'box' can be rendered by (rt~:t i ;r}'l and by RRfP. 1 -ou;t-:t-. It is only the context
that helps the reader to choose the appropriate Amharic expression. Thus, in the sentence, "Shall l
put the shoes in a box?" *"1...,9"1fi") {t.,~:,. 1 ~~D-{1'1" 1 o'\~G;J>=t1.D'l, 'box' is rendered by {t'},IJ.:t.
In the sentence, "I have another box of cigars" M 1 :rfl 1 it.:J&- 1M'S, 'box' is rendered by :r\1.
Finally, in the sentence, "A box on the ear hurts" ](r: 1 4\.& 1 Oll"m. -010;-;r. $/}f"'A., 'box' is
rendered by Rll"m.. 1 --.:1'-l-.
Or, the English 'draw' can be rendered in Amharic by 40 I "'A I .,.~ I 1\mnJ J +nlllld 1 hfl.'lq I

A+t!d. t .,.lh I DfiiiH, and probably by other expressions. Here again, only the context helps the

reader to choose the appropriate expression. Thus, "The horses draw the wagon" ~t:.l'\lti 1'h~1~ f.h
rur; "He drew a picture of his teacher" .t"il.,...,tk&"t P'6A "''ll; "The boy drew water from the
weU" A)l: h.,.~~ (1)<:.0 4'.';; "He drew his hands from his pockets" ~!Ji'J htu\o AmtiJ;
"They drew lots to see who should go first" OJJ'1,.a-t;,.t ...,., ll't~tz~ l)tfJ -r-nl"'fto; "You
"'7lrJill- AMltJ; "His speech
should draw fresh air intO your lungs" 1A-ih l'lfC CDR.
drew long applause" 't~<G- t:.H,.. J!it 1,11"'-11 .1\.,..t:.LA-l-; "Her elegant dress drew the eyes
of all onlookers" .til'O<l..,.ID' Ail I). f.,._Alt1fi"t 'H'"t fJoh- U.h; "He drew his sword and
nm at the enemy" .,.,t..F.,(&'} _,. mF. mo\41 t"m.
The ambiguity of meaning applies to many English lexemes, and it therefore dictated the principle
of using the lexeme in context.


The various meanings of the same English lexeme were taken from the existing English dictionaries.
were chosen to illustrate the various meanings. Nevertheless, not all the meanings of the same
lexeme were always considered, since to do so would have greatly increased the bulk of the dictionary.
Occasionally, a sentence is limited to a specific situation. St:e, for example, 'incidence' where the sentence refers to 'a high :incidence' only; or 'going, get going' is limited in reference to holding a conversation. The verb 'adulterate' (no. 2) refers only to adulteration of meat, but of course in Amharic
for other kinds of food the verb 'adulterate' has to be translated differently.
In other situations, a main entry has to supplement a subentry or the other way around. Thus, in
the entry 'inhospitable', the sentence of the subentry 'be inhospitable' refers only to the desert, but
if the reader needs to translate 'be inhospitable' speaking of a host in relation to his guests, he must
choose the translation of the main entry 'inhospitable' hh-K.?~t!'t f.,..Xr\m- and convert the relatiye
f.,.. XI\ into the verb 1-M. Or, in the entry 'reasonable', it is evident that the subentry 'be reasonable'
illustrated with the sentence "chicken is reasonable this week" refers to a specific situation. The translation of the verb 'be reasonable' in any other context is made possible by using any of the five adjectives
translating 'reasonable' by the addition of tm- 'he is'.
There are sentences illustrating a lellCme in which the context does not seem to vary from the
standpoint of English, but nevertheless require different Amharic translations. See the entry 'attitudC',
or 'uncover', nos. 3 and 4.
It is true that some Iexemes have only one meaning and an illustrative sentence may not have been
necessary. For other entries, the sentence may be considered supcrl)uous since it is not meaningful, .u
"my father left for Harar" to illustrate the noun 'father' t,q:,O. How~er. it is interesting to see that
the same Amharic ~<.q.'f- is also used in the sentence "God is called Our Father," but in the sentence
"I talked with Father Giyorgis about the church", 'father' is rendered by hq.
For the sake of consistency I therefore thought it advisable to illustrate every word with a sentence.
An additional reason for doing so was to provide the learner of Amharic as well as the Ethlopian
:;;tudent studying English with concrete illustrations.
An exception has been made for a few categories, such as the numerals (outside of the numerals
1 to 12 referring to time), certain animals, and a few isolated words.


The English usage is mostly that of American English. Likewise, the orthography is that of American
Expressions that are considered informal in a dictionary such as ''The Holt's Intermediate Dictionary
of American English" are occasionally included. Thus, 'close call'; 'easy' in 'take it eMy'; 'fancy' as in
'fancy rate$,' and so on.
Slang expressions are not given.


Technical expressions in the fields of technology, mechanics or exact sciences are not included since
normally Amharic would use the foreign word. Thus, 'electrodynamics, electron, helium, hydrogen,
biopsy, biochemistry' will not be found in the dictionary. However, the everyday expressions dealing
with electricity, cars, and telephone are included even though most of them are foreign loanwords.

The translation of each sentence was checked with several translators. The main objective was to
have a correct translation oft~ English sentence in idiomatic Amharic. Needless to say, because of
stylistic preferences, various translators rendered the same sentence differently. Only one translation

wu chosen in order to keep the bulk of the dictionary within bounds.

For many words, Amharic offered only an approximate translation and thus the translation proved

to be pale.
Since the main objective is a


transJation in idiomatic Amharic, stylistic and syntactic diver-

gencies between the English sentences and the Amharic translations arc inevitable. Only a few examples
illustrate this point.
"He banged his fist on the table" m~A..IIID-1' Ofl<m, -:1-m- (English bang on, Amharic -:Jwith the direct object).
"Under the ~ulse offriendship, he plotted treachery" m.ll~ tN{tfr> 1 hihf..+'t 1 hl'lR (lit. "looking
like a friend").
"Donations are welcome" "'-C~;f- 1 "'-'") (lit. "we accept help" or "donation").
"It is evident that he cannot come" il.-9'""1:,. '1Ait 1 }m- (lit. "his not being able to

"His brief was printed in the newspaper" fl'lmiD' 1 h"PC ou1fl.-.. 1 n;n1"1 ;J-TDB (lit. "the brief

that he gave").
"Can you discriminate gMd books/rom bad?" ,...,.l::.c; 'No or>A'.rhi:!~'J A,,. 1 T";fl\il.11?
(lit. "bad and good books").
"You will be surprised how he changed" "'-').J.'..T 1 "J'.")f..+ilmm 11.:1'~ Y/JCf"''A (lit. "if you
see how he changed").
"The boys apology conciliated the angry father" fl\"K, f.rt>c:l" oumf'-l 1 _tqJ:'J 1 ')I...)- 1 Adt:~
(lit. "appeased the father's anger").
"What is the frequency of the Addis Ababa statiOn?" fh4,n 1 t.nq 1 o!..4,f'" "'RJ 1 ~71
9""t 1 .ttJA 1 ~mo? (lit. "how much?)".
"SM is in the work heart and soul" P~,.., 1 hA9.. ' -l-w.&-A~ (lit. "she does her work").
"He is thirty years of age" u>o\ta 1 'l-..z 1 t.,. (lit. "his age is").
"She waited at the street (".()mer for a bus" (1-')1.(- 1 .I;C 1 .fo"7 1 hd)o.fortn 1 mR+:Y. (lit. "standing

at the street corner").


Geez morphological patterns as well as the Geez vocabulary are occasionally used for the creation
of new expressions. Thus, the passive participle q<Jtul is used in : 'th-1'1 J>D't-t 'subcommittee',

'article' A_,. 'axiom'

ni h..l':"&-iT 'welfare'.
Verbal nou~s with -o1,




'admiration', hlMlC"+ 'respect',

h"tK"C'+ JI'A (in the so-called construct state) 'abbreviation', 1\~IA, 'bias', ..,At' 'theory',
.,..;JY:tr- 'campaign', +:lrll'i" 'influence', AM..,...,.. +4'RA 'acquiesce'.

Geez construct state : htj:A h1C 'region', h'i!A II,..'J 'century', Pl. UC 'bottom of
things', hill. Rtt-A 'celebration'. A reversed construct state, that is, the Amharic word order with
the -ii of the Geez construct state: ID"lam ~")ofl 'bylaw', m-{lm 'ltl."i" 'subconscience', .,1M A
Rc 'accomplice', h"t~n.,. Cirl'IH 'eloquence'.
With an adjective as second element: ou,.,.t:..+ O.h 'baseless',""'""~'~' C.,. 'calm', q.,.e.t I'UDC

With the spread of foreign languages, and particuJarly of English, it is to be expected that calque
translations are being used in Amharic. Examples : 'weekend' fltM-l- -~t:.Ti; 'cross-c;amina
tion' ou{I4"A~ Tl'<t; 'slide rule' +'Jil"~;t-';f or>ptPJ~I'. and others.
Of particular interest is the usage of the verb m(IJ'. 'take'. The example of lllf"RC m-ilS: for
'take a seat!' is recognized by most Ethiopians as a calque and is frowned upon. The verb mtV..
'take' seems to be extended in usage. however, and it is at times qifficult to decide whether we are
faced with a calque translation or a correct Amharic expression. Thus, for instance, 'take' is idiomatically translated by 4.' in the sentence, "it took the firemen two hours to put out the blaze" .4'mi'P,.
fl./l:t 1 lt<H- 1 4.)!;4:fiD"', However, 'take' is renf1.4..-,. 1 h}!.;Ji.D< .,~.,.if*
') 1

dered by m(IF. in the sentence "the wound took a long time to heal" -l:l'IA- 1 :lo..llh.1ic 1 11ft< 'LH.
IDfl'-. The question arises whether this is a calque translation or whether it is idiomatic
Another important question is the plural marker. Amharic does not normally use the plural marker.1
Thus, "there are many trees in this park" is normally rendered by OH.U ~4.7( r (l;J- 1 -nu ~~~
hit There is, however, an increasing tendency to use the plural marker -oCC, a tendency that is proba-1
bly due to the influence of foreign languages. The above-mentioned sentence is translated by DH.U
lP'fiL'l'i 11;1- ofllfo lf~l- h&. Or, in the sentence "they raise fine cattle in this country"
h1C ID"'llT r '1"~ ' hofl.,.* 1 J'C:Qh-, 'cattle' has the plural marker. Whether the tendency to use the
plural marker is due to the influence of a foreign language or whether it is a naturul development
within Amharic itself can be ascertained only by examining the writings of authors whoarenotfam iliar


witb a foreign languase.

Many English expressions cannot be translated into Amharic because the object or the institution
does not in Ethiopian culture. Thus, there is no way of translating 'jury' or 'cheese' in Amharic,
since: the institution of jury does not exist in the legaJ system of Ethiopia, and Amharic hiAI is really
not 'cheese'. The method adopled in the dictionary is to give an explanation in brackets (see 'ale,
allergy, delta, galley'), or to use an existing loanword as in the case of 'cheese' rendered by S:C...,;,
Italian 'formaggio', even though some loanwords are rarely used outside the confines of the literate
class of Ethiopians.
Likewise complicated is the rendering of lexemcs that are not equivalent in English and Amharic.
Thi9 is the case of 'winter' and 'sununer'. Neither the time nor the character of the continental winter
or summer corresponds to the seasons in Ethiopia. The only recourse was to translate 'winter' by
'the dry season').
ho~..,-:,. (ac.tually 'the rains' from July to September) and 'summer' by U,.!) (actually
It is due to the culture-bound phenomena that no literal translation can be given for certain English
expressions. This is the case of 'temperate climate' in the sentence "we live in a temperate climate"

rendered by ff"'fCOT I fl;f- I tD,.t; I S!;J I ~dl'o, but IDPi ' 1.;J (the intermediate region between
highland and lowland) applies only to Ethiopia.
The sentence, "write the alphabet in reYerse order" is rendered by AJ.~') h:l'"f. tJJJ/.. l!,.f,.
0.,.&-~ because the Ethiopian student when studyiog the alphabet mites it from top to bottom.
The expression 'period' is translated by AM )'1'-n 'four dots' in the sentence, "you forgot to put
a period here" ).ff_p .l'tt.-l- 1-'1'11 "''I: .f.., il.IJV because Amharic uses four dots where English
uses a period.
The sentence, "I did not get your last 1fat!le" rendered by .fQ>lolJ ll9"' h.Ad"''IJof'" means literally
"I did not get your father's name., because the last name in Western culture is in rea1ity the father's

name in Ethiopian culture.

The cxprc!l.'!ion 'bang out' is rendered by hi\tll 'spread out on the ground' in the sentence "she was
hanging out the wash when 1 came" il"""llf f:J-mn A:flil :l"'i'to1J ~nc because the Ethiopian
woman spreads out the wash near the river instead of hanging it out. The verb d+A 'hang out' couJd
probably be used in the sentence, but the verb h(I11J 'spread out on the ground' is a more natural
Anothcc interesting lexeme inherent to Amharic is the verb 'borrow' or 'lend'. While English uses
the same verb for borrowing money or objects, Amharic differentiates between borrowing money or
grain (+O~l) and borrowing objects (-I''PI\). The same differentiation is expressed for lending money
or grain (h!U.C::) and lending objects (h'Pn).
English 'empress' expresses both the wife of an emperor or a woman who rules an empire. Amharic
differentiates between the two meanings using 1..-t-1. for the wile of an emperor, and 't"!P'+ ' ~"JI"':,..T
for a woman ruler. In the entry 'empress', in the first sentence the empress Menen was the wife of the
emperor (therefore 1.-1:1.) whereas in the second sentence Zawditu was empress in her own right (therefore 'l'1P'+ ' ~"JP':I-T).

The purist will probably object to the listing of loanwords in the dictionary. These loanwords
are, however, normally used in the language and no systematic attempt has been made to replace them
with Amharic expressions. There are about 300 loanwords in the dictionary from English, French
and Italian.

There are many English lexemes for which there is no Amharic equivalent, mostly because they are
culture-bound expressions. An attempt was made to create an Amharic equivalent, as in the case
for 'dessert' ..,oTI"''"tf; 'dressing (for salad)' "'fiiJL~; 'lawn' f.,O. 1 -il.h; 'oasis' fOC::'Ii "1~+.
and other.:;.
Other lexemes are ad-hoc creations, such as 'brochure' oP"'JAAf.' A'tft.'j:.; 'leaflet' Jt'b'i: (also 'article
in a newspaper'); 'diagram' P"M'I! oo.,AAf.; 'dock:' f..,.Ch-11 1 .,6-"'tl.f; 'drain' f1t.t1Jil """m-C::)f,
and others.


An important deciiion had to be made in the domain of the orthography of Amharic. The Amharic
alphabet has various leUer.:; representing originally only consonants, some of which have become iden-

ticaJ in pronunciation. This is tho case of .h and 0 (letters that have lost their consonantal value
and serve mainly when a word must be written with an initial vowel); 0, dt and 'l pronounced h;
u> and 1"1 pronounced s; II. and D pronounced ~ As a result of the identical pronunciation of these
letters, there is lack of consistency in Amharic spelling. There are three possible solutiOns in dealing
with Amharic spelling : 1, a radical reform of the alphabet; 2, the adoption of the commonly accepted
orthography; and 3, the standardization of spelling through etymology.
In a radical refonn of the alphabet, wherever there is a choice of two or three letters for the same
pronunciation, one would have to adopt arbitrarily only one letter, regardless of the origin of the root.
Thus, if in the case oft. and o, one were to choose, say, the letter 11., one would have to write h(l'
'imprison', h.m+ 'know', ht.1' 'eye', all with the h, even though .1',10.,. goes back to Geez I+ (with 0),
and h.f..') likewise goes back to Geez O.&') (cognate with Semitic 'ayn). Similarly, if between"" and il
one were to choose il, one would have to spell ..,.IJA 'vow' and +IJA 'be painted' both with ll, even
though etymologically .,.... A 'vow' goes back to Geez MA, and "''r\ 'paint' goes back to Oeez IPdfl..
The same arbitrary principle wou.ld to be applied to the other letters that have become identical
in pronunciation. I did not feel that I could use this solution in a dictionary that is intended for
use by Amharic speakers.
The orthography currently and commonly accepted is highly unsatisfactory. Indeed, not only
different speakers of Amharic. but even the same speaker will spell indiscciminately Mol- and :r.o:,.
'sister', ~'1111 and .(.tJ'i" 'well', fJtJA and fJifiA 'culture', rh+l1 and v+l1'just', om+ and 11om+ 'know',
and so on. In this connection it is interesting to mention two authoritative dictionaries published by
Ethiopian scholars. Abba Yohann~ Giibtii Egli'a~her (JI.Q 1 \"'rh")h 1 Hit: 1 2\"'tU.ofl:.r..C) in his
..-,,n 1 .+o'\-1- J -1-"'K?l- hf"rhC,_, (a Tigrinya-Amharic dictionary) spells the Amharic verbs hOC:
(p. 46), h.(.C:: .(p. 47), hr\L (p. 49), all with h., whereas Kidana Wa.J.d K::~Oe (h.-'1~ mA~ h'AA.)
in his OUK'rhL fl'I"Rm- ltDOU'tJ1R J>o'\T hJth (A Geez-Amharic dictionary) spells the same words
withO; thus, one: (p.470), ou (p.473),andPA"-(p.478).Incidentallythew ordfor 'Amharic' is spelled
h....,C~ (with h) by Abba Yohann;)S Giibrii Egzi'abQher, but D"7Cii" (with II) by Kasate B:u-han
TAsimma (h"fir -flcn Tl\"7) in his f0"7Cii'- -1t10 ?11-l- (Amharic-Amharic dictionary),
p. 979. On the basis of this evidence it seems to me that it is not practical to follow the normally accepted
I decided to adopt the principle of standardization through etymologies even though this principle,
too, presents certain pitfalls. In the case of h and D, Geez as well as Tigre and Tigrinya and the other
Semitic languages could be used as guides for oorcect spelling. In the ca!le of V (h), .h (b) 01 -1 (b),
only Geez (and Arabic) could serve as a guide since Tigre and Tigrinya retain only 0 h and dt b. this
last sound representing a merger of th b and.., !J. For w and (I as well as foe ~ and I, Geez alone
could serve as source of information, since in both Tigre and Tigrinya IP and (I ace represented as
(I s, and " and 6 have merged into " I It is on tho basis of this principle that I adopted spellings
such as OCD4' 'know' (Geez 1+), UFC 'ten' (G. dFC), 7.1-l- 'sister' (G. 7..'1-l-), rM 'three' (G.
wAn-tt), ift'tlt 'building' (G. ifa'l~) .nn 'baby' (G . .nn), :r..+ 'things, baggage' (Tigrinya lt_.da),
bi:A 'fortune, luck' (Tigrinya IJ.Rr\), and so on. Less generally accepted spellings ace those of om.t.
'double', a~ 'mow, IJ")Q-:,0 'wood', and 'tCD-1'\<' ~<f.n 'whirlwind', but here again the speJling
with o was adopted be<::ause these roots have an fl as first radical in Geez : om.t. I IJP.R J /JiJ and
IJID'tr, re'!pectively.
Special mention shoUld be made of w6- 'work, do', and its derivatives F~ 'work' (noun), V"&-+11
'worker', ""'Yf/.f 'tool', all with~~'. It is true that this root is the closest connected with Geez flCdl
'labor, endeavor' (with ll), but it can also be connected with Oeez uco 'arrange, dispose' (with 1.1").
If one adds to it the fact that the most frequently used Amharic spelling is,~ (with 1P), I thought
it advisable to spell it with IP.
The Amharic verb for 'to take a rest, to die' is spelled 1\C:I. (with h) even though the root is DU.
The spellinj: with h is justified since Amharic hU comes from hM.L becoming hU., the h of which
is that of the prefixed morpheme of the 1\-stem. The noun 'rest, vacation' is spelled,. however,
M~+ (with o) going back to its root.

Etymological spelling is also used in Arabic loanwords. Thus, .h.llil 'bill', Arabic ~,.,.~I_.; rhh.f'"
'doctor', Ar. ~; O,o\'"7 'aim', Ar. -;_.~; 1-ol\., 'object, purpose', Ar-l...:N.. and sO on. It-is likely that ).:,OJ!' 'plan' comes from Arabic~ but since its origin is doubtful and it is normally written
with ilt., I adopted the spelling
The standardization of spelling through etymology is not intended to conflict with actual pronunciation of a lexeme. Thus, for instance, the verb 'be went out' is pronounced wdtra, with J,
and is therefore written tatiJ (with "1), and not m~ as it would he if one adhered strictly to the origin
of the verb, namely Geez OJirlt.. Also, the verb 'he is' is pronounced a/Iii, with an initial a. It is therefore
written hi\ and not PI\ as it would be if one adhered strictly to the etymology, namely Geez 1.11\ ...
The samecoosideration applies to 'new' addis, written h.ll.n and not rhJI,h as the etymology would have
In roots for which there is no corresponding Ethiopic or Semitic ctymoloJY, I have adopted h
for an initial vowel, fJ for h (except in lit? 'water'), 1\ for s, and A for ~
A labiovelar with the vowel ii is often reduced in pronunciation and in writing to a velar followed by
o. Genetally, I kept the spelling with the labiovelar; thus ojLm.l. (and not "'m4 This spelling is,
however, not consistent.
In the verb forms of the 1.2.2. verbs in which the last two consonants are in contact I have adopted
the spelling with one consonant; thus, -+(pronounced marro) for ,..:t+ (from ,..:"').
Jn forms in wbich there is a meeting of the vowels tl-tJ I have no:rmally adopted the system of eliding
the vowel a; thus, /1C for fA1C. In entries, however, I also keep both vowels; thus, fMC (see
'airlincs'). In the meeting of the vowels 11--a I normally kept the two vowels; thus n.~ (and not
f~J, but Ml'lo (and not hl'\:l'!.{t).
Tile conjuoctions are not separated from the verb5l; thus, RAI>IJ, The prepositions that have more
than one letter- are written separately; thus, ilr\ 1 11"i"il. They are not separated from a pronoun;
e.g. 111'\ll- (for ilA"Il-), or occasionally in combination of nouns in which the f of the first noun is
omitted as in ilr\tJ')P.':f- 1 ).~forM 1 (f)tnJl.olC >c.
The end of the Amharic sentence is not marked by . Only the question mark(?) is given wherever
required, and occasionally the exclamation mark (!).

No pronunciation is given for the English Iexemes. The student will have to know that the pronunciation of 'entrance' (n.) is different from that of 'entrance' (v.). Only in exceptional cases where
the swne part of speech is pronounced in two different ways is there an ind.ication for the pronunciation; see 'row' (n.) rhyming with 'low' or 'how'; or 'tear' (n.) rhyming with 'pear' or 'fear',
As for the Amharic lexemes, it would have been hJghly desirable to indicate the gemination with a
special symbol, but this would have increased the cost of the dictionary considerably.


In the enumeration of entries, the verb is given before the noun.
Within each entry, the arrangement is alphabetical. Example : 'close. close down, close in, close in on,
close out'. A word in parentheses does not count for alphabetic arrangement; therefore '(be) closed
up' is not placed under 'be', but after 'close out'.ln the subentries in which the word of the main entry
is at the beginning, it is treated first. Thus, under the main entry 'near', the subentries 'near at hand.
near here', are listed first. Only then follow the subentries in alphabetical order where 'near' is not the
first word, as in as near as. come near, get near, nowhere near.'

An English entry is occasionally translated by two Amharic entries. In this case the symbol J
is used to separate the equivalents; see 'anger' (vt.) h.'iU I; 'abduct' mill. 1 .l't'i=IIJ" m(l,_
The second Amharic lexeme is either illustrated with a different sentence (as in the case of 'anger'),
or is used in the same sentence. The second lexeme is then put in pareotheses (as in the case of'abduct').
Wherever there is only one meaning for the English entry, the Amharic equivalent follows immediately after the English entry (see 'ail'). ff the English entry has more than one meaning, no Amharic
equivalent follows the entry directly, but the Amharic equivalents are below the entry and are
numbered according to the various meanings o the entry (see 'aim').
The English verb entry is normally rendered by the Amharic verb in the perfect, singular 3rd
masculine; e.g. 'build' w&., lit. 'he built'. The Amharic verb is cited in a verb form other than the
perfect wherever the perfect is not used; see 'not bad' (under 'bad') Mf" Af.l\ since in this idiom
the verb is used only in the negative imperfect.
The Amharic verbs translating the English verbs with the prefix un- are also occasionally given in a
verb form other than the perfect; SEe '(be) uninhabited'.
The 3rd person singular, masculine is alro used if the Amharic entry is a gerundive or a relative
imperlect translating an adjective. This is the case of'late' (adv.) !MIA-, but one of the cited sentences is
'she arrived late' Jl..,,.;f- f.~(l"f where the fonn is that of the Jrd person, singular, feminine. Or,
'favorite' (adj.) f"'l.tD.Rm-, lit. 'that he likes it', but the cited sentence is 'my favorite' f'/"tJJf.ID"
lit. 'that I like it', that is, the first person.
The Amharic impersonal verbs are cited in the perfect, singular, 3rd masculine followed by the object
suffix pronoun of the singular, 3rd masculine in parentheses; thus '(be) thirsty' m"7(tD-); 'understand' 'l'l(ID').
An Amharic verb that is used with prepositional suffixes is cited with the prepositional suffixes in
parentheses. Examples: 'rage' Qf'\(O'f-); 'rally (to)', 2. Ufi(RT).
While the Amharic verb entry is cited in the perfect, singular, 3rd masculine, the verb of the translated sentence can be used in any verb form. Thus, in 'base' (v.) -.,.~.,., the verb of the translated
sentence is likewise in the perfect <-.,.~Thm-); in 'backbite' (h."'J), the verbal noun ("7..,-fit) is used
in the Amharic sentence; and in 'benefit' (m+"-), the imperfect (,_m't'"YA.) is used.
Occasionally an active or a transitive verb is illustrated with a passive in the English sentence.
In this ca..<:, the Amharic verb is cited in the active with its passive form in parentheses. Thus, for
'announce', no. 6, the sentence has the verb 'was announced'; the Amharic entry is therefore i'l~ (+i1
At other times, the cited English entry is in the passive rather than in the active; see '(be) imprinted',
without the active 'imprint'. This procedure was adopted for cases where the p&SSive usage is more
frequent than the active usage. When an active form is required, the reader will then use the Amharic
active verb of tho cited verbs ++"a and~. that is a and li+o-.
Whenever a stative verb is expressed by 'be
adjective', it may occasionally have a special entry
beside the adjective entry. Most often, however, this kind of verb has no special entry. but can easily
be translated by using the cited Amharic adjective followed by irD< 'he ill'. Thus, the adjectives 'curious,
nasty, hollow' and others can serve as bases for the stative verbs ('be+ adjective') by the addition
of idt- 'he is' to the adjective: 'be nasty' h.llm~lo t, or


The passive of an English vecb is not cited as subentry since normally the passive is formed in Amharic by the -f<-stem. For instance, only 'betray' h-'1 is cited, since 'be betrayed' would normally be
expressed by .,.M, However, in verbs in which the passive is not rendered in Amharic by the +-stem,
but rather PY the basic stem or by another root altogether, the English passive is cited as subentry.
Examples : 'demolish' l\toXrno (expressed by the h.-stem), but 'be demolished' m~- (expressed by the
basic stem); or 'lift' ht.., J h~ AU1, but 'be lifted' i9 translated by other roots (l\R..+ I +li~H).
See also 'affoct' and 'be affected'; 'form' and 'be formed'.

Verbal nouns ending in -ina (weeding') or abstracts (such as 'oondemnation') are usually not cited,
since they are expressed either by the Amharic verbal noun that can automatically be formed from the
verb or by a verb form.
Phrasal or complemented verbs such as 'go in, throw away' are listed separately as subentries since
the tnmslation cannot be inferred from the main entry. More complicated is the question of a method
for listing those verbs which are followed by a complement, but the combination is not a phrasal verb.
Thus, for instance, 'deal with' in the sentence "how shall we deal with this problemT' is not a phrasal
verb. This combination is, however, listed separately because the proper Amharic equivalent for
'deal with' could not be inferred from the equivalent of 'deal' followed by the Amharic preposition
'with'. Besides, the Amharic equivalents -f'~fi>,.. (no. l) and SH (no. 2) are not even used with a prepositional element, but are combined with the marker -'1 of the direct object. Combinations of that
kind ace, therefore, listed separately. See also 'contribute' and 'contribute to'; 'bore into' (under
'bore'); 'zip through' (under 'zip').
A good illustration of separate listing of nonphrasal verbs is 'ask after' (as in "he asked after your
hea.lth")or'askfor' (as in "did anyone ask for me?''). It is true that in both these case; the.verb 'ask'
is translated mf'-t which is the translation of English 'ask'. However, since Amharic does not express
'ask after' or 'ask for' by a combination of mf'-t 'ask' with the prepositions 'after' or 'for', but by the
direct complement, the separate listing seemed advisable.
Occasionally the preposition is put in parentheses, as in 'account (for)', 'adhere (to)', 'answer (for)',
'cut (through)', 'depend (on)'. A preposition placed in parentheses after the verb indicates that while
the combination is not a phrasal verb, the preposition is required for the special meaning.

The Amharic key word does not always indicate the syntactic structure of the sentence which is
conditioned by the key word. The reader should, therefore. read the whole sentence to familiarize
himself with the function of the key word in the sentence. For instance, 'make believe' (under 'believe')
hll-M does not indicate that it requires the verb lo be in the relative. Indeed, the sentence "the boys
made believe they were fighting the enemy" is translated AF,:P 1 ml\_.,., 1 f<"t'P1- t..h-i'l.fto
(with the relative verb f"t,.....).
The functioning of the key word ~IJA for 'about' (no. 4) is understood only through the whole
seiJtence "this house is about as high 8S that tree" ,f.-IJ I 11.-l- I .f")') I lflj! I ~tJ/Jtt. I .E~1f"T/Jtt. Where
it becomes clear that the compared object 'that tree' has the suffix -1' (in ~'J't).
Or, the position of O.ll 'devoid of' after the noun in the construct state is evident only from the
sentence "she is devoid of shame" :h.'i!~.,. ll.h ...-......

An English verb is labeled transitive (vt.) or intransitive (vi.) according to the usage in the existing
English dictionaries. A verb is considered transitive if it has a direct object; it is intransitive if it does
not have a direct object. Thus, read' in the sentence "he reads a book" is transitive, but in the sentence "he reads well.. it is intransitive.
The labels vt. and vi are used only when the same verb can be either transitive or Intransitive; see,
for instance, 'dutter, read'.
Most nonna11y an English transitive verb is translated by an Amharic transitive, and an English
intransitive is translated by an Amharic intransitive. At times, however, this is not the case. An
example of this is 'circle' (vt.) in "the moon circles the earth" translated "'~.4> 1 o-&.:r- 1 ,,.tJ' 1
."f-PU:f (where ~~~ is used with the preposition :and postposition 0 ~ - - tt-t.f). Or, 'bang at' (an
intransitive usage) in "he banged at the door to be let in " is translated ADIO"J(J:T 0{-'J 1 J!~O (that
is, a transitive in Amharic).

The labels vt. (transitive) or vi. (intransitive) are not indicated for the Amharic verbs. It is through
the translation that the reader wiU be able to deduce whether the Amharic verb bas a transitive or

intransitive USa&eThe label n. (=noun) or v. (=verb) is used only for entries that could lend themselves to con~
fusion when taken out of context. Thus, 'abuse' out of context can be either a noun or a verb. The
label 'abuse' (v.). 'abuse' (o.) is therefore necessary. But there is no need for a part-of-S);'JeeCh label for
'accessory' or 'accommodate'.

Plural of nouns. The most frequently used plural marker S, -es (dog-s, match-es) is not indicated.
Any other plural marker is given in parentheses; thus 'calf (calves), child (children)'. Besides, the special
plural fonn is found in the appropriate place with a reference to the singular; thus 'children, see child'.
Past tense. The most frequent marker for the past tense -ed is not indicated. Any form of the past
tense that deviates from the regular form is given in parentheses; thus 'come (came), carry (carried),
commit (committed)', These forms of the past tense (except those of the 'carry' and 'commit' type)
are also found in the appropriate places with the reference to the main entry; thus 'came, see come'.

The cross references are indicated as [See also ...] placed at the end of the entry; see such entries as
'advance' [See also 'pacific1; or 'advantage' [See also 'operate']. The choice of p1aciog a subentry
under one or another main entry is arbitrary. For instance, 'make pacific advances' could have been
entered under the main entry 'advance' rather than under 'pacific' where it is placed.
There are no cross references to the verbs 'get, keep, make, put, take' since they are frequently
combined with other parts of speech. Nor are there cross references to tbe prepositions used in phrasal
verbs, such as 'come in, come out, come by' and so on.

The symbols used are : ', +, ( = ), and [ ].
The symbol ',

11Ds symbol is used wherever there is no exact Amharic equivalent fOI the English entry. For iiJ..
stance, there is no precise Amharic equivalent for English 'afterthought'. The meaning of'afterthought'
can, however, be rendered in Amharic in a sentence such as "the idea came to me as an afterthought"
t1{., f+1t1Hlh-+ 1 lrlfJii 1 hD-, It would, indeed. be misleading to translate the entry 'afterthousht'
by any of the Amharic Iexemes in the above-mentioned senteoce. It is the traoslation as a whole that
renders the idea of 'a.ftertho\liht'. Or, the idea of the noun 'adhesion' in the sentence' adhesion of the
intestine to the muscles requires surgery" 1'1.1)!-l- bm-1!f= ;~c. 1 1\.I"IJR."t 1 +1!- 1 '1'1'1 1~A
is undoubtedly und,erstood in the verb form 1\."'R~ 'when it adheres'. It would be misleading, however,
to translate the noun adhesion by 1\.I'IJR."t. The symbol' is, therefore, used.

A sentence preceded by " is not necessarily the first sentence following the entry. For example, the
first sentence followins: the entry 'advent' hu the Amharic equivalent ....,,.."1-l-, but in tj:le second
sentence 'since the advent' is translated by bor>Rt ID,ILtJ, It is the whole unit 'since the advent' that
is translated and not tbe isolated word 'advent'. The sentence is, therefore. preceded by .
When the English entry has neither an Amharic translation following it nor a *~sentence, it means
that the key word equivalent is lengthy and is shown only in the translation This is done in ca9eS
where the sentence that illustrates the entry contains only few additions to the entry. See, for instance.
'false alarm' (under 'alarm') illustrated with the sentence "it was a false alarm" fm-'ft'.-,. "1hm"t<M:
' ~D"ll!T ~nc. I adopted this procedUJ'e for the sake of economy.
The syffi.bol +.
This symbol indicates that the Amharic sentence has a different subject from that of the English
sentence. This symbol is used if the difference in gubjects affects the entry. This is the case in the soM
called impersonal verb of Amharic; see, for instance, 'understand' no. 1 +1Q(m-).
The subjects may differ between the English entry and its Amharic translation in many other verbs.
Thus, for instance, 'be bored' (under 'bore') where the subject of the Engliili sentence is the person
whereas in the Amharic sentence the subject is the speech. See also 'absolve, be absolved'.
The symbol {"" ).

Occasionally a specific part of speech of the English entry is not rendered by the same part of speech
in Amharic. In this case, the Amharic entry is preceded by the symbol ( = ). Examples : 'advance'
no. 3 (= adv.); 'literal' no. I(= adv.); 'oddJy' (=adj.).
This is likewise the case when an active verb of English is rendered by a passive; or when a passive
of English is rendered by an active o.r transitive; or when an intrami.tive verb of English is rendered
by a transitive verb in Amharic; see '(be) knocked down'(= tr.); 'lean over', vi.(-= vt.); 'bark', vt. 2
( = passive).
For many sentences an equivalent part of speech could have been obtained by forcing the Amharic
translation, but the more natural way of translating the English sentence was through a different part of
speech in Amharic. The Amharic part of speech preceded by the symbol ( =) was therefore kept
Incidentally, the adverb(= adv.) in these cases refers not only to regular adverbs, as under 'vain'
( -= adv.) Rh't-1>, but a1so to adverbial or circumstantial expressions, as under 'twofold' ( = adv.)
IN\-l- ~~;'token'(= adv.) M- fUA, or tti'l- +'t'i'i.
The bracket symbol [


An English lexeme that has no equivalent in Amharic is explained by a definition. The definition
is placed in brackets; see 'ale, allergy, delta, galley, jury'. and so on.
















intransitive verb
transitive verb
(zero) indicates that the English lexeme is not translate

to express my own feelings while workThe motto at the head of the introduc tion is merely intended
I am well aware of all the pitfalls inherent
ing for the last six years on the compilat ion of this dictionary,
im:onsistencies in the arrangem ent of the
in a work of this kind. There undoubte dly are occasional
the material offered in this dictionar y may
subentrie s and even in the orthogra phy. For some readers
ns themselves, in many cases other renderbe too abundan t, for others too scanty. As for the translatio
s of aU kinds and my own occasion al hesita.ings could have been used. Notwiths tanding the difficultie
of the student of Amharic as well as of
tion5, I thought that the time had come to put at the disposal
prove helpful in furthering Amharic
the Ethiopia
on of the dictionary. The technical
Many persons and institutions were involved in the preparati
support of the Office of Educatio n
executio n of the work was made possible through the financial
al financial aid came from different
of the Departm ent of Health, Educatio n and Welfare. Addition
Near Eastern Center, the Afrlcan Studies
parts of the University of California, Los Angeles, namely the
tive Studies. The printing expenses were
Center, and the Committ ee on lnternati onal and Compara
(AID) which purchase d a certain number
partly covered by the Agency for Internati onal Developm ent
Sellassic University and to the Ethioof copies and made them available for distribut ion to the Haile
y would not have been possible, however,
pian Ministry of Educatio n. The publicati on of the dictionar
witz. I wish to thank in particula r
without the enterprising spirit of the publisher Otto Harrasso
and sound advice in publica.tion matters
ste in Louvain was cooperative and
helped me in many stages of my work. The Imprimeric Orientali
tbe printing went along.
very patient
sentences. I would like to mention
Many Ethiopia
very helpful thanks to their excel
in particula r Tesfaye
helped me greatly in solving
lent knowledge of Amharic
Kane who participa ted
problem s of language
with Amharic as well
in many stages of this work,
ble value from
as his exceptional understa
beginnin g to end.
admirati on and my sincerest thanks to
I take once more the opportun ity to express my profound
and whose spirit guided me in
my teacher Marcel Cohen who initiated
my scientific endeavors.
without the wholehearted cooperaThe completi on of this dictionar y would not have been possible
of my wife. My deepest gratitude goes to
tion, patience, understanding, sacrifice, and encourag ement
Los Angeles, Decembe r 1972

Wolf LesliLU


I. (zero). A boy came. A~ "'""
2. 1>11:. A boy came. 1>11: A~ "'""

aback, be taken ~ f.t.,.(IIJo)

I was taken aback by my friend's refusal to
lend me money. aJ-'1:(_ ~1H-II 1>1\0f:CU
.,. fl.ll't f.t.,.'t
abandon (v.)
I. .,.dl. He abandoned his efforts to achieve
his goal. h'ti\"711Jo II"" 1:~11 Yf.C.*I f
tO~BJo1 '1'~'1- _,.dl
2. 'I'll- 1\f.. The man abandoned his family.
l'tiiJo\1-BJo IL_,. 1'111-1 'I'll- 1\f.
3. 'I'll- lflf. The captain gave the command to
abandon ship. trt1:l- l'tl"'ll DDChll-1 'I'
IIIIJo l\1-'l.lflf. 'l-l\~11 l'tm
abandon (n.)
*The students cheered with abandon waving
their arms and shouting. -f-"7t:.l"'ll ll!f'I'BJo
1 0"7dl~dl11<; 0DD'""1i 0?11 11"'1.'1-
f.ll;I-'I'BJo1 111Jt.
abandoned (adj.) f_,.,.,ll
The abandoned child was begging in the
streets. f.,."'IIBJo A~ 0foP1~JI. Y.ll
.,., tnc




The prosecution will he abandoned if the stolen

money is returned. f.,.l't~.,...,. 11Hil h.,.,..
111'1 hl't- Y..,.&-A
abase 1>'1'~
A man who betrays his friends abases himself. aJ'I.l('ll1 f"''..h-'1 l'tiiJo &-l't-1 Y'I'C'IA

abate (vi.) .,..,.tl't

The ship sailed when the storm abated. "76
011- ......,.til DDChR- -MH
I. l>o'im~. He likes to abbreviate long words.
~lf~!l" :1'11'1-1 "7o'imc f.aJ'IA
2. l>'lK"f!'.,. :I'A 1>1'.~1. How do you ab.
breviate 'doctor'? 1'-h.,.c f"'1.1111Jo1 :I' A
l\1.<'.'1- l>'lK"f!'_,. :I' A :J-f.C~'I'IIU l
abbreviation l>'lK"f!'.,. :I'A

'Dr.' is the abbreviation for 'doctor'. fP..h.,.

C l>'lK"f!'_,. :I'A 1'-C tiiJo
abdicate lf"l.l-1 11.,..,.
Why did the king abdicate?
,.of.<;'f'IIJo") 11.,.411

1.,.,.. 11!1"1

abdomen IFf:
The sick child's abdomen is swollen. f01i.,.
;;- A~ 1 rrf: l>iltll.A
abdominal rrrf:
Abdominal pains may he caused by eating
too much. h""m1 01\Y. 1 DD-1111'1- 1 IliFf:
,,...,. DDt If (I.IF") Y.:f-1\A
abduct milL I l>'i''l' aJI'tf.
The rebels abducted his daughter. ODDD'l''ll
f(t.1 I A~ I mii~'J- I (l>'i'tiiJo I dl~'J-)
aberration fl>ll!l"f!' 1 u-h'IHe stole the watch in a moment of aberration.
(t't1:1 I f(t~.,.,. I fl>l\!f"f!' I rJoh'J- I f.C{I
0'1- I OtO~O'I- dl~'l- tBJo
*His speech was full of aberrations from the
main subject. 01"1"1'1- 1 1\f. 1.?"1'1" 1 h'l'
....... l>Cll/1'1- f.dl"' I )OC

abash l>ltol..~
The rebuke abashed him. t.,.ll..:J-BJo l>o'ioi..~IIJo
be abashed hoi.~
The little girl was abashed when she saw the
room filled with strangers. h'i'll- Ol\1"1'1
l'tl":f' _,.'I"A.f flf:f' '1..11 A~;l: l>L~:f'

abet (abetted) l>l'.of.L~

Only one man stole the tire but his two
friends abetted him. i"7BJo1 1 fl't~.,.,. h
11: ....... I -11!1' I llrF1!1" Yf.of.L-1-'1- u-11'1- I
l'tl":f' 1>11-

abate (vt.) .,.tl't

The city administration abated local taxes. f"7
ll?!f IL1: fh-f-"711Jo1 "lilt: .,.M

abeyance, be in - "'""'"
His interest in stamps has been in abeyance
for weeks. 1:!l"iiC fDDI'tofll'tofl 'i'l\i1: 1 11oft
, . I '1!1"1;1-'l- I YUA I T'll~fl )01:

hold in abeyance O+mt!" h.f.t'

The judge held the case iri abeyance until

addition al witnesses appeared .........76 V"il
hl!':f l.ilh.of>Ctl- J:"~il ' Jl'f.,. ' '1--'ll''t '
Oof>ml!' h+f.,.
abhor (abhorre d) m'l
He abhorred cruelty to animals. Ol.'til(\:f
'If. """"h't' t m'l
abhorr ence 'l''lil'
I cannot hide my abhorren ce for her. Ajl.
.fA'h 'l''lil' Milof>., . ht>.:f-t>.V"
abhorr ent hilmll.
Treacher y is abhorren t. hdi-'l.H hilmA..



abide (abode, or abided), vt il'A

I cannot abide loud noises. ""l"'i:J- ht>.:f

abide (vi.) hJ'.of>CV"
Even after disappointments hope still abides.
'1--'l.f:f-'t qf.<\IJA'tV" l.'t\>, ...il4- ..,J:~;>:f't hJ'.of>CV"
abide by

!. hhO~. You must abide by your promises.

f1q1i.,.' t :J>t>. ..,hOC hAilU
2. 0 ao;. I abide by what I said qf>.b-l-

abiding H'l<l:
He manifested abiding devotion to his country.
'11~ H'l<l: '1'11-C't h<\f
ability (abilities )
!. ":ftt-:J-. He has ability to swim like a fish.
l.'tf.. 'i"f fOD'I'"f'l- :ftt-:J- ' hll"'"
He is a man of great abilities. h'i! .fA
":ftt-:J- '""'" II..... ) ....
2....11'1'9'. Musical ability often shows itself
early in life. fDDoiL-"' ...11'1'9' hilq'f~
'1..11. 01>.)!')'1- J'.:J-11J-"'1>.
abject M-"'4:
Abject poverty is visible in the beggar's tattered clothes. hA.,"f' R--Io+ t>.ilil hll-"'4:
J:-1i)'l- ' l.'t"'AO'I- J'.:f"W-"'1>.
abjure !Jf..
He abjured his religion. ,,.._..,,N't !Jf..
(be) ablaze
!. ...'tll1fl1. The streets were ablaze with
lights. 1-f-<;"9''fl ' QODilt-'J- 0 -l"'tfl1(1-1'ff>.

2. 01.<\'1- ....f.fH. The whole building was

ablaze. .b'ta.,. QDDoll- 01.<\'1- ...,,.,.
3. -1:"1 hA. I was ablaze with anger when
he kicked my dog. .,.lftlo't 0~1m '1..11. 0
't ...'l--ll"' ht>.h-

!. ":ftt-:J- .fA.,.. He is an able speaker. ":ftt:J- .I'll"'" ....<;;>& ) ....
2. '""' An able speech won the king's favor.
f ...f-~1"'" ' '""' ' 't"'"'C ' fi'I-P'-'t ODI>.IJV"
hil....ff'l- hil1"f
be able il'A
Will you be able to come? 1\0DV""''I- '1-":f
'I AU!
able-bo died , ....,_,. 11.,.)'1- .fA.,.
Only able-bodied men will be accepted into
the army. wf.. fllC llt-'E-11 1\oP"'q'J- f
"t.:f-11- , ....,_.. 11.... )'1- '""'"'" ilil'
ablutio n OD:J"mil
Ablution must be performed by Muslims
before prayer. l.M1":f h""all.f ,.,. R.I.
'1- oP:J"mil t.Aq'f.,.
abnega te 'i'of>
He abnegate d his family fortune and became a
monk. fiL-J- liM Uil'l- 't+ OD)h-11
abnega tion (= adv.) F;>~ OJ:"ttA hermit lives a life of abnegation. q;,:J-0
F ;>~ OJ:-tt- J'.'ft-1>.
abnorm al
I. h ....I.'I'C' f ...Af. It is abnorma l for a
J:- II.... ...
man to be seven feet tall.
ODif't ' h ... .I.'I'C' ' f ...
OD'J- ' llq'J- '
Af ) ....
2. Ohl.V"C'.,. 1111- .I'll. Abnorma l children
require special teaching. Ohl.V"C''I''I'"'" 1111-
.fA- A~ AI' f..,il...._,C H... .fil.l.l>.
3. 11-'1' .f"' I .fi>.... AODS'... His abnorma l actions show that he has been drugged. 11-'1'
.f"'"'" ' (.ff>....I\ODf...,.) o h\>,:\). o ODJ:-'1~'1-
OD1jooPI\-'t o .f<\.ff>.

""1.., '

aboard , go~ .......,~

We went aboard an hour before the boat
sailed ODCh!l 1>.'1-~J:- h'tJ:- ll'i'l- 11.4'
t-'1- ...<\.I,C't


all aboard floPCb11


f)ofl"- 11-fto

When the ship went under all aboard were

drowned. ""Ch!J. 11~11'1'11" fliD-IItjJ. f)fl
tt- r flo/r llm.,...
all aboard I .,.114.'1- I

All aboard! The bus is about to leave. .,.114.

-1-1 h,..,_fl'll- ii.'U: ~,.
abode (n.) ou<;&Y
His abode is far away. OD'f&YID- -1-:J> ~,.
abode, see abide
abolish hi14'&
He abolished slavery.



abolition "'1'1'4-~
The abolition of poverty was the main purpose of the bill. fa,.,. 'I'<; 'ill"'' .l:''lh
~'t "'1'1'4-~ ~flC

hilh4. lf'f Y.II"'''I'A

2. hll:l'of:. The abominable cruelties of Nero
are well known. f~ hll:l'of: "l"IJ~ fl"''.
f;ND4' '


abominate mil
He abominates strict discipline. 'J'Il:J> .,....
'I'C Y.miiA

abomination ( = adj.) hllh.L

The man's cruelty is an abomination.
,. "l"IJ~ hilhol. ~,.

breakdown in communication. hoo1'i~ -flA

'li~ N~"f f_,.f..~~,. '1':1'~ hifol.

abortion 6'tll't "''llm~s:Is abortion a crime in Ethiopia? 6'tll't "''ll

ID~.I:' flh.~f"kY dl't"-A ~,.?

I. P'C YAIIf..f... An abortive case of smallpox will leave no scars. P'C YAIIf..f.. fol.
"JIIJIIJ O'li:t- 1 mq/1 1 hY.-1-m-11"
2. 'i!ol. 11.11. The early attempts to fly were
abortive. 4'1..11" II.A 1\0Dofi~C 1 f.,.f..~.,.~
.....h&-l":Y. 'i!ol. 11.11 ,~,. "'""

abound '1"11
Animals abound in this forest. flll.ll ""liJ
ID-11'1' h&-'~ 'I"A:1:A

The river abounds with fish. m'tlf< ID-11'1'

'l"' 'I"A:1:A

1. hllh.L. The weather this year is abomina.
ble. flll.ll 'l""~ Yf-1- mq,e hilhol. ~,.
He finds this music abominable. Y.ll ,....11.:1'




aboriginal f'l"t~ lll":Y.

Traces of aboriginal dwellings can still be seen.
f'l"t~ lll":Y. OD'f&Yl":Y. C'll&-'l'r h

11-'tll" Y.:t-YA

aboriginal Inhabitant '"""-""&Y ~'I'&

The aboriginal inhabitants of Ethiopia are the

Agaus. fh.~f"kY '"""-""&Y ~'l'&l":Y.
h~l":Y. ""'"'"
aborigine '"""-""&Y ~'I'&
The Agaus are the aborigines of Ethiopia.
Ml":Y. flh.~f"kY f"""-""&Yl"'li )'I'&
l":Y.. ""'"'"

1. 111).~~4.. When a pregnant cow is iqjured,
it will abort. hofl.l:' flf~:Y. 1111" 11'1-7-JI
o}-111). ~"14-11:y.
2. hlf4.. The attack aborted because of a

about (prep., adv.)

I. 1111. They were talking about the war.




What is it all about? Y.ll 11-lr Ill\ ll"'t



2. fl--- IIY.. There is something queer about

him. 1111- IIY. h't.l:' 7.'t"'JI ~~c


3. h't.l:'. There were about thirty people present.
h't.l:' P'll/1 lll":Y. ~~~-~4. YIIA. This house is about as high as that tree.
Y.ll IL~ Y't't q'i' YIIA Y.~11"'1A
5. flll.ll hiJqfl., Are there aoy wild animals about? flll.ll hiJqfl. f-'I.C h&-'~


6. fl - - - lf<&Y. The dog capered about its

master. m-lf,. fl'l.;t-m- lf<&Y 11~4'
*John is adept at repairing things about the
house. ]('t fiL~ 7.:l'l":Y. faam~'t :Y.

11-:t" hi\ID0He is about my age. flcl.l:""'. 7.11-Yf ~,.

about face I 4''{ :\11 11-C I
The officer roared, "about face"! ODho't\Oo 4'
"{ :\11 lf<C oflll- hHH
be about A


The pail is about full. q/:I,JI,m- 11.'1"11


Lunch is about ready. 11"11 il.f..CII

be about the same
{II\ I )tJJo




I f.,.OD/1

Is the weather in Addis Ababa better than

in Harar? It is about the same. fhJI.II h



Rfl ,ffC v-~;1- bm<:C J'.lfiiAt f.,.-1'&<:R (f.,.oPfl(lA) I ~liJo

*It's about the same. ~ )m--


+ imperfect + ~w-(~nc)
He is about to leave. fl.'t1: ~"'"
I was about to send for you. AAb11tl ~nc

abreast mt. 1-1

The soldiers walked three abreast. m;t-t.r:'ll
,,. 1-1 V'll."f- V'il."f- l\fll'). 'tJI.

be about to A

have about enou1h of fl:J"(tD-)

+I bave had just about enough of your arguments. ,., ... 1."~'1> R'l>.f'i'A

how about It l :J-JU'ill

[See also 'somewhere, up, wbat']

above (prep.)
1. b - - - RIIJ'.. They live above the store. bll"'. RIIJ'. I J'.'
The water came above our knees. tD-;)tD-
b.,_ol\R;J-:Y..1 RIIJ'. ID"'
The temperature was above I 00 degrees. ..,.
-t-lo I boP.P. -'1."16 ' RIIJ'. ' ID"'
His bravery was above all praise. )';"11H
b!l"il:>., RIIJ'. ~ nc
2. b. A father should not favor one child
above the other. hfJ."f- h1JI.1 ol\~ t,
1-'1. .,RIIII'I' fiiR."f-!1"
*The book is above me. ""K".hf. b:fll-:1"
jl. RIIJ'. ~w*He is above suspicion. 'tl{t- fli):K.or h.~
above (adv.) b'IJ'.
Seen from above, the lake looks like a mirror.
biiJ'. ' fi.;J- J'. ' m.J'."' ' OD{l.,.'l'."f- ' J'.oPilllol\
As mentioned above, the letter clarified the
matter. b'IJ'. l\11..,.m-tilw- 1.11'1tLw-
"1-.111'1 h11&-e.f;J-ol\
*The bookstore is just above. foPl\.h"i'."f-
""'-11~ ."f-111 b"i' 1111- ~"'"
above all bll-fl-11" J'.RA'I' ! bll-fl-11" J'.ol\:,0
Above all, remember to be on time! ho-A-!1" J'.RA'I' R'l.ll. oo~T."f-1 hil;l-w-{1
Above all, don't get discouraged! bll-fl-!1"
J'.ol\:,0 .,.il'i- h."f-.,..<:'1'
[See also 'far, over']

Abrasions of the skin are painful. f.,.llm


keep abreast (of)

I. n:,Oc11 .,.b:J-.,.11. He keeps abreast of scientific developments. f<'IJ'.1il1 ,.~..,. n:,.c

11 J'.b;J-.,.IIol\
2. b --- ;JC .,.&-.,..1.. He keeps abreast of
the times. b'l.ll.liJo ;JC J'.&-OD'IA

abridge hllm.:
The book was so long he had to abridge it.
""K"mf. o'.'fr!l" ilii~R.: .,lime ~n.:n."fabridged (adj.) ,fm<:
This is an abridged version of David Copperfield. J'.ll ,fmo'.w- b-TC.I.ol\1:
l\."f-!1" ~"'"
be abridged .,.~t,
The rights of citizens must not he abridged
without proper cause. Yll ~IL !l"h1Y."f-
f.h1111 ou11."f- OD~t,."f- fiiR."f-!1"
This book is an abridgment of a three-volume
history. J'.ll ODK".h"i' V'il."f- '1'&-11 f:J-&h
DDl\.h"i'."f-1 R.,llmc f.,.l\.1. ~"'"
abroad w-op h~C
He studied three years abroad. V'il."f- '\OD."f-
w-op MC .,..,<:
abrogate lfo'.
The Emperor abrogated all laws permitting
slavery. 1.,.,.. ~~1"-lo fJC~."f-1 f"''..oi.:,O.t~-."f-1
.n-t:f ll-fl- lf~
be abrogated Ll..ft.
A binding contract cannot he abrogated by
only one signatory. X".,. m-A Q'l ~ 1..6"'1.. 11!1' hJ'.oi.Cil!l"

1. lim. The stone abrades theskin.1:1;JJ'. 41'1 1
2. ( = pass.) .,.lim. +The boy abraded the skin
of his knee when he fell. ol\7!: m!:oll .,.ol\

.1!-1~.,..,. The road is full of abrupt turns.

1:1~.,.:;' '1'9"119"11 J'.RqR;J-ol\


We noticed an abrupt change in his attitude.

""II'I'ID'I' .,..,.,llb."f-1
nv-~:t-w- 1:1~.,..,
2. ( = adv.) R1:1~."f-. The abrupt awakening was
caused by a noise. R1:1~."f- n -"'"'" R<Qo
1i."f- !l"h"iY."f- ~nc




The road made an abrupt rise up the hill.

OD't"J-'1- -""'"" 'If. {IJ'.Cil OIIJII" h lj" :,0(1
abrupt manner

He has a very abrupt manner. OIIJII" "'ilt.

'i'-t-'1' ) ....

absently 01\.'1 .h/111 ,.11'1' 1-,.tn 1111

She absently nodded in response to the
question. 01\.'1 .h/111 ,.11'1' 1-,.IIJ Ill\


abruptly 7.'tS'.)"JoiHe treated me rather abruptly. 7.'tS'.)"Iol- Jill


The doctor had to cut the abscess . .h h....
7.'1""-"t h.C.<:mll-r

abscond, - with IIC.f' 1>01111

The clerk absconded with the store's money.
~~.... .~..... ' fODS'-11-1-'t ' "l'tH11 ' IIC.f' 1>01111
absence hll""'l"C
The absence of water keeps plants from
growing. f..,.;) hi\OD'l"C 119'1'-r't l.'t-'1.1'
Y:.,. ' .I'S'.C:>'I''I'IIt.
In the absence of the director all work stopped.
'l.~h* ' ill\# ' 1"6-,. ' IHt- .f'oo
*Please be my attorney during my absence.
M 01\.1\o-O.r '1.11. )"1.1: .C.)';. o-"t
[See also 'leave']

absent (v.), - oneself <!'<:

Why did you absent yourself from school?
h-r11"11c-r o.-r liM -1'<:11!

absent (adj.) f-1'<:

The absent members could not vote.

oot.+:f o-~;1" 1\ILII h"IC h/1110. :f"'

c ' .C.'J'lf'.llt.


:,. httll-l- Y:M'I'~ 1\.llm-'ll-9"

be absent
I. .,.<:. Three members were absent because
of illness. O.ftou!l" ll"h't.l':,. 1"11:,. hfl
11-l- _,C-1',. )OC
2. hllt.1'1"fll". Snow is absent in some countries.
fl't-'l'tY: h1r:l- O<:P.. h!'-1"19"
in an absent manner IJ1llfl

She was daydreaming and answered in an

absent manner. O.h/111 1',."1 111\)0C II
:f"il-11 llm:Y.

1\'J'f., ....



) ... ) ...

absent minded 111.,.

He is always late to appointments because
he is absent-minded. 11't.,. 111\lf) o-llt.'l.
H. 1\_,ml!' H"'U J'.S'.CIIIIt.

I. 'i'll-11". That's the absolute truth. !'-II 'i'
l\.9" ' 7.fllo),. ' )fllo
The dictator excercised absolute power. 11.9'"
fl 1H 'i'l\.9" Olf) 1"/lt.IIJ't 1~
2. .C.'I"P '11.6-"P. He has been an absolute
ruler. .C.'I"i" 'll.6-"i" 11C )OC
3. 'i'l\.9" 7.C"'ml;'. It is an absolute fact.
'i'l\.9" 7.C"'ml;' )1C ),.
4. 1S'.11 fl\.1\fllo. The absolute authority of

the director was burdensome for the teachers.

"JS'-11 ' fl\.11 .... ' f'l.~h* ' l"llt.IIJ't ' 1\aD!I"
116-'t h'IY: )0C
5. 'tll-.ft. Absolute alcohol has no water in it.
'tll-.ft hllt.l>llt. fllo;) fllo-rll"

I. O'i'll-9". He is absolutely right. 7.11- O'i'
l\.9" ' llt.h ' )tJ>o
2. O"i"6-'1i (with negative verb). He is absolutely dishonest. O"i"6-'11 :1""7"1 hJ'.S'.I\9"
3....11- o-11-. Do you agree with me? Absolutely. h~ :>C -rll"7"71\lll -11- o-Il-

absolution 'i':,..h:,. l 'i':J"-r

The priest performed absolution. .,,... 'i':,.
...,. ' ('i':J"-r) ' hS'.<:.,.
give absolution L:'"

"Give me absolution'\ he said to the priest.

., ....'t ' j'.'i'-J>'S ' h'l'l'fllo
pronounce absolution 'i';f":,. hll"7
The priest pronounced absolution. -ttr fi:
:J"-r ' hll-

I. f"''...,.C 1"'7t:. A careful teacher keeps
track of absentees. m't .+.+ OD!I"IIC f"7...,.
o~-.r"t ' 1'"7t:l":Y. ' J'.WO!m6-llt.
2. Ooo~-J> 'lj'. f"7J'.'l"C. The problem of
absentee landowners is a serious one in this
country. ooo~:f"'l',. 'If. f"7J'.'l"-l- ttl\

I. )II hS'-<:1. The judge absolved him of guilt
in the accident. flF...? 1 ~t;{UD 1 ...-4-+
-""'"'" ' )1\ '


2. II<:H(II-r). He absolved me from the promise

I made. 111'1111-r f)O.I:fllo't .+A II<:HIIt.'S

be absolved 1-l'la(ll 'l-)
+He was absolved from his sins.
(It: fil-l-



absolve (someon e) of his sins L:Jw

The priest absolved him of his sins. -t(l. I.


1. oomm. The sponge absorbed the water
QUickly. (tlj:~.,.. I 8Jo;'}oli.Jo") I fD.IlJtD- I ODffi
2. }'II. You cannot absorb all that material in
a Single }CSSQfl, n1- I flo/r I f)") S: I :,.,..IJC'I- A'I-.1'-UtiJo 1\'1->fAI"'
3. tf'm. Large companies absorb smaller ones.
'1-AA:,O &q1}'l" >f 'I-1'Jll"'ll1 }'.tiJot!llf'I'A
4. .,..,.1111. The United States absorbed millions
of immigrants. 1\"'UIJ 11"7.11.1'"1 f"7. 4-.m~
111.1-'l'>f ' 1-+llll'f
5. 11'11. The company will absorb all the

research costs. b-Q1' ym- fT'i"-IJ') r mQ;a. ,.

6. a>l'lf..(fl'l-). This job absorbs all my time.
}'.II .1"&- "1..11.11.1 11..,.11- }'.dJ{l.I!-11>;'A
7. "7t:h. The circus absorbe!l the boy's attention. I'ICh(l. fA)I:1 ""11..11 "7t:ht1Jo
be absorbe d +oo(lm
He was so absorbed in his book, he did not
hear me come in. noox-mf. OIIJ,.. +ou
iltn iiii~IIC 111q I\A1'1"7't9"

absorb ent,

~ paper DP9"m""'. m.:HAbsorbent paper is used to dry hands . .,..,.

m""'. m.:.,.:r- 1\)('1 11"7.(-t::,O }"11\"lit.A

absorb ing f"7.DPil'l'

He told me an absorbing story. f"tooil- r

;hlh ~~.:'t

abstai n
I. 1-4-.mfl I 1-mfl.,.. The doctor ordered him
to abstain from meat. mh...,. hP':> 1\1
-'1, 1\UUtiJo
Athletes usually abstain from smoking. liT
C1-'1'>f l\it~>;'..,.1 "1..11. h"7..._1l J'.m
11:1'112. .1:-9"6 I\AI'Im9". Three nations voted for
. the proposal and two abstained. 1Pil'l- 1\~
~>f r.,..:n..,. 1 m'lil II.Y-"14- v-1\i>
1 11;9"6 1\AI'Im-9"

absten tion
I. ""mfi:,O. His abstention from alcohol kept

abstra ction
him healthy. hi\AI>A ""mil., lim.1~'1-
1\'1'.: ....
2..1:-9"6 1\1\DPilm'l-. The meeting acljourned
after a vote of three for, two against and
three abstentions. IPil'l- floPf..~'i! 1 v-11'1-
IIDP:I'm !"' 1 IPil'l- .1:'9"6 qi\DPilm'l- llil
(lq..,.. 1-111-~

abstine nce ODmfi:,O

Abstinence from liquor is good for health.
h"t}'l'lh C ""m'l' ""mfi:,O l\m.1~'1- J'.

abstra ct (v.)
1. hmar. They abstract iron from ore by
smelting it. 1\I..C 11"7:,011'1' ilt:'l- }'m
"1112. 1\'lm.:. The student was asked to abstract
the book. 1-"7tlt1Jo ""!l;m#-1 1\1-'I.J'il'l'C

abstra ct (n.)
I. 1\"111;~1- ,.,.<;:.H e published the full speech
as well as the abstract of it. 1"1"1~1 11..,.11<; ' 1\"111;~1- ' 11;....#-1 ' 1\/11-DP
2. f~1C 1 i19". Sweetness is an abstract; sugar
is concrete. IIJ4-?~T 1 r~1C 1 il'l"" 1 )m- 1
ll'>.C "11 f-1'/l.,.._{l ill"' ~..,.
make an abstrac t lt.ll"l'l:' 1 "-L
He made an abstract of the book on Ethiopia.
Ill\ ' 1\.'l-\'"ti:}' ' f1-l\l..t1Jo1 ' DP!I;mt;! ' 1\fi'J'



abstrac t (adj.)
I. <:4::,0. Only advanced students can understand the abstract theory about the nature
of the soul. Ill\ ~'i!ll q,"hCJ'. <:4::,0 1\
111-'ll'lil ll.t:-'1- f"7.>fll- fi'I-9"11C;f-'ft1Jo
f~4- ' 1-"7tll">f ilil' <;'fmo
2. f"7J'....,fl'l'. That is an abstract question.
y f"7J'....,fl'l' ~~c ~..,.

abstra cted (adj.) f1-""iltn

He gazed at me with an abstracted look.
fl1-oP{ltf1 ' 1\{11-}'f'l- ' 1\'l-h-~ ' 1-0DI\h1-'t

abstra ction


The abstraction of philosophy contains the

essence of human experience. ft;:Ailt;:li" 1 ~
4::,0~'1- fl'lt~Jo'J A)(' 6.....,.'1- <;:.:,
~c .1'-JI.A
*In a moment of abstraction he grabbed the
wrong hat. Oth/tofl 1 +m-tn ' lJ!d fA.I\ a (l!m- '


I. f"7 f.""R'I'. What he said about the matter
is abstruse. ilo\ "I-'ll< fof-<;~t.m- f"7f.




2. o\ODt."'."J- h."';J:f. +His ideas are abstruse.

.hO\(J-") 0 o\OD(."!."J- 0 h."!;J:f 0 ~OJo
absurd DO-lIt is absurd to think I would steal. 7-.~ 7-.11
C:J'o\11- oflll- "7/lofl DO-l- ~mabsurdity ;1!'.1\H
It is an absurdity to wear shoes_ on your
head. """.tl":f"t 7-.&-il ~f. "7Y:t."' ;1!'.1\~
."1-' ~"'"
abundance ofi~."JThe abundance of fish will develop the factory.
f'i"' ofi~."J- of.ofl&l)m-"t Yf.t."P;A
in abundance

I. R~<;:. Food and drink in abundance are

to he found here. ODoflol\<; ""m'l' 7-.H.II
0~<;: ' f.~"ifol\
2. OY:II-."1-. Since the end of the war they have
lived in abundance. ,nc~1: I}O:J' mJI..tJ
OY:II-."1- ' <;t.'I'A
I. fOo\K~. Is Ethiopia abundant in minerals?
t..."J-I'"kY 0"7bY:"t fRo\K~:f <;."J-?
2. 11ft'. We have abundant evidence to convict
him. fl(to I /tf. I j\ODij.':~_e- I 1Jit' I OD~)f I
abuse (v.)
I. t..1-o't-to\. The mother abused her child.
7-.<;."1-1'"'1' ' A:(."t ' h.1-o't-to\:f
2. 1-"1. My brother abuses his eyes by reading
in dim light. m"tY:"" Rf.ofl~~ -ocn
0"7"t0ofl 'if.l-"t f.1-"'A
3. Yo\ t.."'qofl w&-(0."1-). The manager abused
his authority. F&- t..ilh.J')I: OFA"'l-
Yo\ t.."'Q-R w&-O."J4. The demonstrators abused the
speakers with their shouts. 11~"7'1! IIA.C.'l"'ll
of-<;;J&l"'ll"t ' 0""1i;f''fm- ' t.m\>,'l'm5. 111.0 I Oh"t1: m&-. He sinned by abusing
God's narne.fl'."'H.h.ofi.J.C"t ilr oooilf.-R
(Oh"t1: OOD'J'&-."1-) "lm.t..."J- ~"'&abuse each other +MY..O
The candidates abused each other during the
campaign. -1-0J"'"'&l"'ll ' om-s:-~ ' 1.11. '

abuse (n.)
I. iiR:-R. No one likes to listen to abuse.
i~R:-R"t ""ii"'."J- f"''..mY: 11m- fAr
2. -1-~R. YAII'~ t.Y:&-~."1-. We hope to put
an end to abuses. -1-~R. Yol\11'~ t.Y:&-~
."1-"t ' o\..,il... ~Y: ' -1-ilof.. ' h.o\"t
3. Y~"'qofl ""m4'r. The abuse of power
corrupts the official who does it. P'A"'"t"t
Y~"'Qofl oum<tr f.ll"t f"'L.f'f.~m-"t
qiiP'ol\"'"t oflol\lf. Y~'l'ol\
4. 0 - - - oom4'r. Abuses of public office such
as taking bribes are punishable by law.
"1-11 o ODo(I~."J-"t o o\OD0\/11\-."J- ' h.Y:&-~ofo:f '
0"""t"'FT FA"'"t ""m4'r Om"' Yil

abusive fBo\4.
He showed me an abusive letter. fHo\4. f.ofl
"111. ' h.o'tf'S
abut (abutted)
I. -1-YYH. The two houses abut. o-o\1: 11.-fo
:f f-1-YYrt- <;'l'm2. 1-"t ~m-. The street abuts against the railroad. OD"t1-'l- hqiK- .h.II..Y: 1-"t ~"'"
I. h<;: Yo\. The people of this region live
in abysmal poverty. fH.II h.I)QR. lll":f
h<;: Qo\ :f"'c m-ilT f.'f&-112. OJf.C fll.o\m-. He showed abysmal ignorance of Ethiopian conditions. ilo\ t..."J-I'"kY
o-~;1' mf.C f/l.o\OJo t.~'I'4:~."J- ;f'fO."Jabyss 1!..1\
The bus crashed into the abyss. hm-ofo!l-(1. 1
f.A m-il'l' mY:.J -1-/IQOt.
acacia "1&-C

I. f<to\r ."1-ruc."J-. We should have an institute that can grant academic degrees.
A4'Ar ."1-ruc."J- Y:"'& f"'-11'1' Y:c;l!'
."1- 7-."t.ll..'ft."t Y"ifA
2. o\hil-1-0\llofl oflll' f"''..m:J>r. Whether or

not to have a language academy is now an

academic question. f:lrt* t..l)"'"''.. f.\-C
hf.1-C f"''..o\m- 'I'Y"' qo-"t 1.11. At..
il-1-o'tllofl ofl!l' roy_m:J>r ~"'"
academic preparation .rruc+

He has sufficient academic preparation for

the job. o\F&-m- 04: fll'~ ."1-ruc."J-
[See also 'year1



academy l\OJ-'1"'1.
There is an urgent need for a language academy. r!t'l* l\OJ-'1"'1. 1111'1'\>..1'. YII~IA

accede, ..... to
I. .,.+1111. He acceded to my request. TJI.,IIo
., ' .,..,.011
2. JIH. He acceded to the chairmanship after
the incumbent died. f-l'.l:"'l"fll- 11.-1' OD'I
OC 11.'1"'1- l\1\- II.+ OD'IOCt_,'l JIH
3. fD~il. When the king died his son acceded
to the throne. ., ... ,.. II.'1"-1: lA )I: l\IA;Jfll'1 ' fD~II

accelerate (vt.)
I. 'i!'l't'l- ....... ~. The drivers accelerated
the motor by stepping on the pedal. tl["''ll
o.'Ill.'I ""ll""lfD-'1 o-c..T f'I"-K-'1
'i!'l't'l-' """""2. l\'1-mt. Foreign aid is needed to accelerate
Ethiopia's development. fl\.'1-I'"A:JI'I IA"'I'I-
11"'1'1-m'l ffll-.,_.. l\C-'1;1- l\11.1.1\'1. tfllaccelerate (vi.) fi:.'I')-T Q;t.oo~

The stone will accelerate as it rolls down the

mountain. J!"1,."J'- ' +&o&-tJJo"t (l.mcJ!" r tt:
'l't'l- 1lf""""~'IIA
*Stepping on the gas pedal causes the acceleration of the car. 0.'Ill.'I ""ll"'ifll-'1 11'1~"'mfll- f""ll_""'" 'i!Tt-1: JI. ...'/"6-IA
Accent the first syllable of this word!
fll.ll'l :l'IA f"""Y..""&JI h'i!ll :l'IA l\'1"1
2 l\1-1\. Her scarf accented her blue eyes.
JI'I"J:t G:"' II"'IJI'Efll-'1 'iJI.'f!l!'l l\1-1\'ffll-


accent (n.)

I. ~.,-.-,..,- .(--1-'J-. Where is the acoent in this

word? fll.ll :l'IA ~.,-.-,..,- .1:"-1-'1- f'l- 1\JI.
2. ..,_..~.-,.. The French alphabet uses different
acoents for the vowels. f .I.~'I fiJI. .I.S'.IA
11.1:"'1"6 ' 1\..IJil"':r- ' 0.,.111'- ' .,...~.,.:r- ' Jl.
3. M;J"JC. His foreign accent betrayed him.
f..,.. I ft1C I {liD' I Jrt),;>1"- I 1\,."J/ltnlD*He still speaks with an accent. M;>"Jol- ll
'IS'. ' 1\"Jol- ' .,....1\~ ' 1\JI.S'.II'F'

accentuate l\1-'1
Her black hair accentuated the whiteness of

her skin. '1"1!'1- 1!.'1-<:: f.,.-'1'1''1 '1"1'1-

l\1-1\fllbe accentuated +out-

The rhythm of the dance was accentuated by

drum beats. f.,_...l.&-fll- fD-11'1'11. f"'l.""6-fll-
OhOI!' 'F''I- tfllaccept
I. .,.-1'011. Will you accept that position?
Jl"n ' F 6- '1-+0IIIIIJ!
She accepted the gift. lltn;J-fll-'1 .,.+Oil:rThey accepted our invitation for dinner.
JIS'.~"''I'I:ffll-'1 ' fl\6-'1- ' "111"1f ' .,..,.0112. lllf. l\11. He asked her to marry him, and
she accepted. li'I.I:";J-11Jfll- mJI.*+ toe
lllf. ' l\II:J-fll3. 1\'I""S'.. The children immediately accepted
their new classmate. A}(:ti J\.Jl.ll-1 fh
'i!IA 'IS'.'>''f,_., fD/!Jfll-'1- l\'1""'1-'1be accepted
I. 11_.,11'1- !I'll. Only able-bodied men are

accepted into the army.


'-1: 11"""111'1- r"'l.:J-11- r.,.~~~


llfll-t'l- '

Jl'l'ffll- ' 11!1' ' tfll2. :J'""t. It is now generally accepted that

the world is round. ~~ 'ill'/" h11t:t

Om~l\1\fll- :1-'I").IA
3. .,.-I'IJJI.t'l- M"f. Einstein's theory was
widely accepted. fl\JI.'III:J-JI.'I 6'111 dall11
Oll.l.fll- ' .,..,.IJJI.t'l- ' l\1"f
acceptable .,.11"'1"'1.
His behavior is acceptable. mill'- .,.11"'1"'1.
tfllbe acceptable



The plan was acceptable to everyone.

'1- Oli-11-'F' .,_+IJJI.t'l- M"f


!.""+RIA. Her acceptance of the flower they
brought delighted the children. Jl""m-'1'1-'1
l\OIJ ""+0~ IA}('Il'l l\IIS'.II;J-'1'111The acceptance of responsibilities is a sign
of adulthood. "1'1.1.t'l-'1 """'""' l\OJII oum
'I f"".l:"~ll 'F'IAh'l- tfll2. .,.+IJJI.t'l-. The invention found widespread
acceptance. l\'lll f.,..l.llll.l.fll- t1c 11.1.
.,..,.IJJI.t'l- ' l\1"f
*She was delighted by her acceptance into
the club. fhnn- l\IJIA l\'1.1:"'1-.r'l 1111.,.+0
~'I-' S'.ll' l\'1'1-



Access to the mountainous towns is often

difficult because of poor roads. h""'t~P..'f
OD'J'G:H ' fN"f ' hofi~'?CD-"t ' "1.11. ' .,.&&-"'/ mF. rr1- hi-"'',.'f -~.:n t.h'f':>


gain access A."IQ 1 !J=Il J "IQ

They gained acoess through a back window.
h'il!" ' 111\11> ' ount>+ II.~~~- il'tr
The queue was too big and I couldn't gain
access to the theater. I'IAf. hi\O~ofl'{ -t:f
+c ""~" -t<:vhave access to
I. 11.....,11+ !1'11. All children have access
to the library during the afternoon. hl'l't+
0:\11 A}('li ' IJoflo ODl\ih'i''l- o.+ 1\oo>"IIJ
+ f.'flltr
2. 1\"":,0<:o(l !1'11. Only high officials have access to the Emperor. h1'?-1P r )"IP'-1: H1'.f.':
1\oo>:,O<:ofl f"'L'fll-'1- h'i'_,.'? 111\P'A"''l"'f
oflil' ' ""'""
3. 1\"''f'l- !1'11. He has acoess to the files.
P..ll.jP'fi't 1\"'/f'l- f.'fiiA
have an access of
He had an access of coughing. ,..,_
accessible 0-tlltr f"'LF.<:h
Debre Bizen is an accessible monastery.
F.ofl<: ' lln't 0-tllflo f"''.F.<:h ~'IIJ" )fDo
A telephone should be put where it is acces
sible. hAh 0-tllflo II.F.<:hO'l- O"''.ii'AO
+ h'i'&- ou-tou'l' hl\0'1be accessible to T+Oil
An open-minded person is accessible to reason.
., ... 0 1'1.1. fiT) ' (lfDo fl\.11-'f't hh.,. ... l'lofl '

accession oo"-loooC
The school was increased by the accession
of fourteen new pupils. OF&- t.&-+ h-'1.
h i-"76jP'f 0""""""<!-'ffDo '1-IJ"IIC'l- 0.
"' t.F.~
accession to the throne frt'-i-'l 1l,m&
The constitution defines the accession to the
throne. .n~ ""'t"IF1> fit-of.'t't h<&-<:h
accessory (acoessories)
I. .,....,...,6 l\:J>jP'f.'Duty has been imposed
on automobile accessories. nooh.'i" ..,."'"'16 l\:J>jP'f 11,1'. +<:'1' _,.F.C11J'f1>A

2. "'.IIJ 1 1.'1'. A woman likes her accessories
to be of the same color as her dress. ll.'l- 'l
"' '1'1' hAofiP, :>C _,._,..,....... +Ill>"
ll'l'&-'ffDo ' 'I-< 'Ill'f
I. t.F.;J. When did the automobile accident
happen? foo>h.'i" t.F.:> """' F-<:1'11
2. ( ~ by accident) l'.'t-'1:>"1"'1.. Our meeting
was an accident. f.,.~'i"T)fDo 1.'t'l:>"l"'L )
by accident "-1'~;JliJ""l..
I found it out by accident. l'.'t'I:>"'"'L F.<:h
h-0'1[See also 'overt, prevent']
accidental (= adv.)
I. .-.,r.;J-I'Iofl. An accidental discovery of oil
was reported in the paper. "J.'.:J-I'Iofl HJ.'.
'1- ' .,.,~,., 0.;>11."1 .,.)~<:
2. O~'t~'l-. Breaking her doll was accidental.
t.7I"t.,./l.:l:'t fi'IO<:fDo O~'t~'l- )fDo
accidentally O~'t~+ l l'.'t'I:>"'"'L
I dropped the plate accidentally.'t
0~~'1- "'Ah-'1I accidentally learned the truth. l\11Jo)1>'t
l'.'t-'1:>"1"'1. ' F.<:hh-0'1acclaim (v.) f:>ll h~'i".,..,'t ~1111(11'1-)
The crowd acclaimed the fireman for rescuing
two people from the burning house. fl'..-.'1-
t.F.;> .,.hii!JI< h.,.:J>ml\fDo 0.'1- fDoh'l'
fo-11'1- l'ljP'f ihf.m+ M.,.<:of.. ih1111-
f:>ll h~'i".,.1>'t ~1\KII'lbe acclaimed i-oflll- .,....,0...,0(11'1-)
He was acclaimed winner of the race. Aft.
fl\11:,0~1>"~- t.lf'i".l. .,.oflll- .,. .... 0 ....

acclaim (n.)
I. T"ofi""IJ'i" l'.AA;J-. The Emperor was
greeted with acclaim. 't.,.,.. )~P'.,.'t O"i'"
ofi""IJ'i" Ol\AA;J- _,.+011-'l''ffDo
2. IT :1-. The birth of the new nation was greeted
with acclaim. f-'1.1'1-'t Me ououp><;'J-
OIT;J- .,.+011-'lacclamation t.~'i".,.+
A shout of acclamation was heard when the
winner was announced. hif'Jd.(l)o "71 1 7t.
'tF.IT) 0_,.)~<: "1.11. ft.~4l'l- "i'"off""
II' _,.1'1"7



~~~----------------~~-----------------~tr/1'l" 0"?11"'-Q

He was elected president by acclamation.
!1:'1"6 ltJ.'.h'l' O"i"f'.U.fJ 1 "f'MVI")+ 1 II'

by acclamation



acclimate 1\00Y..
The dogs acclimated quickly to the colder
country. tJJol\"'li 11C'I....., h1C D.P.II-
acclimate oneself flODI..

Tom acclimated himself readily to the new

town . .P.V" h-'1.(1-") h+"'/ D'i''l')+ 1\0DY.

acclimatize hll.,ouY.
They acclimatized the plants to the dry
region. 68'1'+") bJ'.G"' h'i'll 01C ;JC h

I. MI.,.,. I will accommodate my plans to
yours. f~") M.1:" It").,. ;JC hil.,.,'l'llv2. hil.,.oum. This table easily accommodates
six people. ,I'.IJ mGA.~ il.J:-il+ (ltJJo f
ll"f--C fil.,.9"11J/.\
3. hHG;J. The big bedroom will accommodate
six beds. """'"' ou'S;J- n.:,. il.J:-il+ h

/.\;J?l":f fHG;J/.\
4. G-'1. He accommodated his friend with
money. 'IY.'i'tJJo") D1")H11 G.lltJJo
5. h1"f(ll+). He wanted change for a quarter,
but I could not accommodate him. 1\il.,..t
V"")~& .f./.\1 )DC l "I") 111'S11+ h/.\;1'
accommodate oneself &-fl-1 Jtil'"ID'f
He accommodated himself to the circumstances. hv-~;1-tJJo ;JC &-(1-") hil.,.,

The man was accomnlodating enough to lend

me a dollar. {ltJJoftJJo -nc I\..I'D.I:"G'S .f.:l'
Y.'i' )DC


_,II_,_,,_ _,.;I'll

2. V"+. The hotel has a restaurant for the

accommodation of its guests. 11'-1:11- llfi")"l
J'.":f V"+ f.,.H;J}! f9""111
accommodatlons '7~~y

n,:,. hllm-

They finally found accommodations in a

small hotel. nouou.Gif lt")-'1.+ :,.-,11
11'-I:A ,.11'1'

I. lf"f. His friends accompanied him to the

railroad station. 'IY."l''li 1\ilh fJii-C "10.
f .~:"Gil lr"f.+
2. .,.h+ll- """'Evangelists accompanied the
Spanish colonizers in South America. BJ"t'll\lD"

n;r'S h1c h~'tl".,..,

I ,g{Ml I Jr..Oit'.ft I OD1fto

3. o;t!n. The orchestra accompanied the singer.
t.cb.M&-IIJo H<f."f.") o}!OIIJo
The nobility accompanied the Emperor to
church. .,.,.,. )11"1: n,.,. hciltn fl.~
Jl. OD\>,")")1: o;t!!l.:f"'"
4 . .,..,.11.,.11(0+). Wind accompanied the rain.
)<f,(l- 11o;11 _,..,.11~11-D+ )OC
*He accompanied his speech with gestures.
")"I"IC {LfY.C"I b{liiJo):,. 7.")~11:1'<'1.
.,_.,-c )DC


accomplice "111G hOC

Who was his accomplice in this plot? Dh.l:"
"'"'" "111G hO-I- _,-, )DC!

1. l..:t.oo. For one day he accomplished quite a

lot. fJ") .1:" .,.., 1111' uoo

2. hbo;ro). Did he accomplish anything?
Nothing to speak of. fbo;aJ)IJJo )1C hill

f"'U1CII+ h,I'.Y.IIV"
3. .U.G(l. With their work accomplished the
boys went out to play. A]l;'li P'&-:ftJJo") h
.U.G(l- 0:\11 1\0D"'idl:,. ~JI.

accomplished (adj.) faJ"'II+

He is an accomplished speaker of English.
fdl"'ll+ ' 7.")"111.11 ... ' .,.o;;.& )IIJo
P'<l- l fP'&- "'"""""
His mother is proud of his accomplishments.
1\o;-J: ' DP'ci-IIJo ' +ll-&-1\:f

These accomplishments are merely collateral

to his primary goal. Mli.IJ fP'&- IIJom..P.":f
f'l'o;IJJo 'til.,,. '

I. .,il.,.,+. The accommodation of old ideas

to a new plan was possible. f .l:"~tJJo") hil.,.
fi~ .1:"

accompany (accompanied)


accommodating .f.:I'Y.'i'

lt(l1J lt-'1.(1-


.,u.y t.."f.


' o;:f,.

accord (vt.)
I. hY.G1. They accorded him a warm welcome.
+A~ h.,.fJOA hY.G1-II+

2. hm. We accord praise to those who deserve

it. 9"ll;.o; 11"7.1fJ:ftJJo fi"){lt1JII")
accord (vi.) .,.il.,.,

His account of the accident accords with yours.

ill\ ' hY.;JIIJo ' DPJ:"Gil ' 1.(1- ,.,.o;1G11Jo ' h
-,_,. lt/.\hiJJo ;JC J.'.il.,_,A



accord (n.)
I. """IQQ'I-. Theyactedincompleteaccor d with
him in releasing the prisoner. l'.II<:"'IIYJ 11.
.I..,. ' hi\- :>C 0"""11- .,...,qq'!- )UC
2. 119"9")'1-. France and England reached an
accord over certain tariffs . .1..<:'11'11-<; 1.'1"1
11.11 1111 h'1-'1'1Y: 4'<:tn:Y. hll9"f")

'1- .1'.<:1\be In accord Tll"7"7

Their opinion of war was in accord with his.

1111 tnC)'I- 11\'l'm- hiiTI'lll11 1.1\- 1J
1\tJ>o hiiTil/111 :>C Tll"7"7
of his own accord 0"111 r L:J'/1..

He did it of his own accord.




accordance, in



I. l\'1.1'. + (noun). We tried to live in accordance with the customs of the country.
l\'1.1'. h~-1- A"7Y: ll""'l'C 'l"hC'1
2. fl ~ - ouavt:T. In accordance with your request we are sending you three books. R'I'1111J
"""'<:'!- ' 1"11'1- ""ll"m'i: l'.'1AhAYII'1

according to
1. l\'1.1'.

+ (noun). He will be punished accor-

ding to the seriousness of his crimes.


m'1)':11- hQY:)'I- f.4'"1A

2. n - - - """'<:'!-. Everything was carried out

according to instructions.

3. 0 - - -



v-~t--,.- r ~1C r


He spends according to his

income. f'"'t,.fmnJm- 01flaJo

oPm"J r


4. ( ~ conj.) l\'1.1'. + (verb). According to

the Bible, God created the earth in six days.

""~~""'"' :,.,~~.11 1.'1.1'."'1.1\tJ>o l'."IH.h11m.c

9"Y:C'1 RIIY:II'I- n .t.m<:

accordingly 011.1 """'<:'!- 1 l\'1.1'. .1'.'111I have told you what to do, so act accordingly.
9"'1 1.'1.1'.9";1-.I'.C"I )"1"-YIIrr l 011.1 """'

<:'1- P'&.
I have heard the evidence and will judge
accordingly. oP<:]ffDo'1 119"!1'1\rr<; l\'1.1'. , .1'.



*He felt unwell and, accordingly, left. m.'1H

1111;1-mh 1!.1'.

accordion hi>CJI.M
He plays the accordion. hi>CJI.f"'1 1-''"l.m;J-A

I. M:>~<:. A stranger accosted me. f"7ilfDo4'
..,. II..,. h) :n<:'S

2. T"7m). A beggar accosted him begging
for money. 11"7"t' 1'1H11 tl.llm'S 1111- .,.

account (for)
1. 9"h'11-1- ~llll. We must account for every
dollar spent. l\1'1-'1'1JI. 11C fm"'n'l-'1
9"h'11'1- """IIIli" hl\11'1
2. 9"h'11'1- lim. How do you account for that?
1111.1 ,., ' 9"h'11'1- '1-11"111111
3. 9"h1'1- hl\fDo. How do you account for
your lateness? II""H"If'l-11 f"'1 9"h'11'1-
hi\ Ill

4. f"h'11'1- IT). His illness accounts for his

actions. 1\..(-~-')i: 9"h'l.r+ r ftriom-- r ;,.ouoo- ,
5. "lilt. IT). You will have to account for
your actions. 0~;1-.('.C'JaJo )1C r ;1'\L r ou
IT'1 f.'l'C11YA

A dry spell accounted for the poor crops.

h11""&."'" fTRilifm- hY:C4''1- f-1")"1

account (n.)
1. oP11\1. His account of the accident is
not clear. ill\ r h.F..;Jm- fftmm- r 000"11\1 r
"lAX" hf-.1'.119"
2. ;1-&h. He gave acoloredaccountofthe battle.
1111 tnC)-1: 14'<:UfDo ;1-&h fTifQ )tJ>o
3. .,..,..,11" ..h.l'l11. I have an account in this
bank. 1.11.11 IJ'1h T4'"711" ..h.l'l11 hii'S
4. ..h.il11. You will have to give an account
of every penny you spend. 111'1-'1'1~ 1m"l
Y'l- 1'1'1-1:9" rrll- ..h.l'l11 "7:,0<:11 hl\1111

5. 9"h'11'1-. I did not do it on this account.

f"'&.rr'l- RH.I1 9"h'11'1- hf-.1'.119"
1 have an account to settle with him. h(t.
:>C l'.'1T1J'II'1
accounts r ,.h,/111 t oP1f11l
The company's accounts were in good order.
fh-Q'11fDo f..h.l'l11
by all accounts


0.1'.'111 )UC


It seems, by all accounts, that Ras Ali was a

rival of King Theodore. l'.'1.1'."'l.QIIm- &.II
'til. f'1"l-P' -J:li'Y:c-11 .,..,.<;:I''S nn
-1-. '-""1111"'
call to account ?'"li"J.,f'-IJ"t r




He called his secretary to account when he

found some money missing. 11'1111 ootptf..
1:'1 1Jm4' 1." 9"h'111:'1 l\'1'1.)"1<:..,.
K"'t.tJJo'1 mf4'm-

of no account 'P;J




His advice was of no account. rtr

'1':> ILll )0C
on account fl,.IJ..fl.

She bought her furniture on account.



~:J>'I''t f1'1:fa>- O'l-0. )a>-

on {one's) account Af\o -RA- i llA(to

Don't go to any trouble on my account.

Ill!. .flllll (lllll!.) 'l"'t" 1>:,.'1'1C
on account of
I. 0 - - - "h't ,1':,.. The game was postponed
on account of rain. 011.,.fl "h't ,1':,. ""

.,,...,. ...'111.1.
2. 0 - - - f ... )..,. On account of that, he was
fired. 011.,1' , ... ).., hP'&- ....
on no account OM?"' r"h~ 1+
On no account must you open this drawer.
0"')" "h't,l':,. ,I'.IJ')') ov/111.,1' ovh
.,...,. fll.flll"


take Into account

t.Aov'fH). You have to take all the facts into

account. rNI't" )1C "''OV'fH') l>ll.flll
2 ....ovllh.... The provisions of the law do not
take this matter into account. f.b'l- A't+l<:f
,I'.IJ') ' 141,1'. ' l'o,I'.OVI\h-1>"
3. "'"t a>-11'1' l'of.G1. Before building a
house he took into account the increased cost
of materials. o.:,. hovP'&--1> oo~.:,. f.b'ta
OV"f&,l'fl':f OVOJM'f'CD-'t "1".... ' CD-11'1' '
take no account of ~ Jr..A

Take no account of his words. f"'L.,1Ga>-'t

:f'l 01\CD-

(be) accountable for '1'1.1. )a>-

Each person is accountable for his own work.

~JI')Jl. lieD- 1\P'&-CD- P'&- '1'1.1. )CD-

accountant th.ll.fl O'Pof:

Since I did not agree with my partner, we

consulted an accountant. h1icll. :>C 0
th.ll.fl MA... II"''"'''t th.ll.fl O'l!+ 1>"'1

I. l>"'f ...+011. The committee accredited
Parker's report of the events. ;rchc 1111

Qo~;ND I ffttnCD-") I OD"'Il\dJ. I "-C"J-. I J\tJP'f I

#01\CD2. .fill- ...+011. We accredit the invention of
the telephone to Bell. O.A IIAh't f4.111'1
.1. )a>- .flll't ... +oflll)'f'A

3. fif.ov:,. f..flJIO. l'l'l'.f 'lha>-. The minister accredited him as ambassador to England.
"'1.111* O~'t"'11.11 l>1C Arqllf.C ~')
Jl..rn fif.ov:,. f.ofiJIO. 1'1'1'.....,. '111-l4.....,.q,l'.):,. 1>11. +The committee accred)I: Of.C1- H't Y:
ited the college.

MqM:,. M"f


accretion f.,.Q;~.oul_
The last part of the legend is a later accretion.
f;f-t:!J. ' fOVIA(;lf h<;:A h'l.ll. 0;\'1
f ... ,;Q,OV(; ' )CDby accretion 0'1':1'~ l>IJII-:f OV'I'.hY:
Some rocks are formed by accretion. l>'tJI't
Y: !1/'l''l':f f"''..,.o;.:,. 0'1':1'~ AIJII-:f
OD'f'th.(" I




Interest will accrue on my savings account.

7,q')h ,I'll'S ....,..,.,_.. 1'tH.fl OJIIJI. ,I'.
Benefits accrue to society from hetter education. h ...lf11 :,.rue:,. f ... ).., '"r.flG...
l'l.fl ,l'.m+"''A

accumulate (vt.)
1. l>h"'''l'. By working hard he accumulated
a big fortune. m'thl!' oovp&-:,. ofltl- II
-o:,. l>h"'':f;tA
2. Am&-+ov. He likes to accumulate money.
1'tH.fl "'ltn&--1'" ,I'.OJ.IIA
accumulate (vi.) ...h"'''l' I ...m&-'i'OD
If you don't sweep, dust will accumulate.
IJAmG"'1ia>- 1>!1.&- ,l'.h"''!J'A
If earwax accumulates, it may hurt the ear.
11-h 1\}(1!' l'l..m&--1'" 11.'1-Jia>- f.:f'IA

accumulatio n

The accumulation of knowledge is a result of

reading. ba>-+:,. f"'L.II.flGa>- .fill- O"'''t
"'" )CDHis accumulation of old papers filled three
trunks. ,l'm&--l'"'''l'a>- An OJG'i'.f:f
IPII.... "''J'') '1"111 :,.hhl\0:: oo!l'')
I trust the accuracy of his story. f;f-t:!J.'t
....hhl\...).... l>"..1\nThe attestations of all witnesses were checked
for accuracy. f"11hl!':f :J>A n-tr :,.hh
II... 1\0DIJ'). ...OD(;UD(;

accuracy :,.hhl\0::):,.

accurate :,.hhl\0::

She is very accurate in her work. OP'&-'1'

0"1" ....hhl\0:: .......




Give me an accurate report of the accident!

lll\ hS'.:JID- '1-hhl\>;' m>"'ll""i lim'S

be accustomed flODJ?..

He was accustomed to hard work. hlJS'." P'


accurately 0'1-hhA.
She described the accident accurately. hS'.:J
ID-1 l'-.1.1'.'1- l'.1S'.S'..!ll 0'1-hhA. 111

accursed (adj.) f.,..!1""

The poor man felt himself accursed. S'."'>lm-
nm- f.,..!1"" ODIJ'\L .,.,...,"'"

accusation hll
The man denied the accusation that he was
a thief. (lm-\LfD- llolJ tu .,.oflll- f<I>.!O
0'1-1 hll IJS'.
brina an accusation against bfa(l

Why did he bring an accusation against him?

liM hllllm-1
lay an accusation against hfl(l

He will lay an accusation of theft against

the official. ~ Ollooflt'l- f.hll'I'A.
level an accusation hll A+t:R
He leveled an accusation against the governor.
Oh1.! 1'JCID- ilf, hll h<I>.!O

I. hllll. He accused him of theft. Ollooflt'l-
hllllm2. m+fl. You can't accuse me of being lazy.
llt'i' tu ofii\U A.'l-m:,Oll'S h'l-:fA.V"

accused (n., adj.) .,.M11

They brought the accused to court . .,.h..,lf-1
'i'CS'." IL'I- h<I>.!R-'1-

accuser h..,11
The judge gave an adverse decision to the
accuser. ,ll>;'m- 1\h..,lf. f"'1..1--'IID- "'""~

accustom hi\"70DS'.

1 hlli\ODS'.

He accustomed his hunting dog to the noise

of a gun. fhS'.1 1 m-lfiD-1 1 hm....,)l' 1 m.
'Ji'l- :JC hi\"70DS'.IDThe job accustomed him to meeting many
people. JP &-.ID- I b-flft" I (ldJ- I ,.?C I 001'if
'f-1 ' hlli\ODf,.IJ)o

accustomed (adj.) f.,.II.,..S'.

By Monday he was back in his accustomed
place. ll'if .,....,A.i\ ,.,.1\...,S'.m- 11:1' t


I f/t.ODJ?.. I


get accustomed T/tODJ?..

He couldn't get accustomed to the strict

discipline. '1"110:,. hll'tm- P't P'C't'l-
;JC 1\liODS'." hA.iJ'I\V"



The acerbity of this fruit set my teeth on edge.

f'i'"-"'" 1-V"~~t'l- 'I'Cil.1 hS'.tllllaJ*The acerbity of his words makes the students
angry. ooclf>;' 1"1"1~ .,..,&l"'l?t y<;S'."II

ache (v.)
I. h_oooo(m-). My ear aches . .l!l!''-1 yoo>;'A.
~~. He ached for his freedom. 1\tllt-1> ~~


ache all over (laJo)., =J"l-A

After riding the mule all day, he ached all over.

4>\0-1 -~r oo:,-11- 1111~11 llm-t-1> ~1-11
(one's) heart aches &-.&-.

Her heart ached for the starving animals.

11.,.&-11- :t.1ll ...,. &-&-:f

ache (n.) ih""V"

This medicine relieves all aches. f,IJ ""S'."
~~,. "71>;'1D-1V" ihODV" Yll:f"''"'A.

I. IJ..OD. He will never achieve anything. ?"1
V" t1C ll.d.~V" hf,':fA.?" .
2. u>&-. I have achieved only half of what
I hoped to do. Au>&- hV"oo'fm- 1"'1..ll-1
ofi;F u>Cil'l\113. h1'f. He achieved distinction in mathematics. OmAofl 1\.0:,.t'f-1 h1'f
4. h"'ofl hS'..!ll. He achieved his purpose.
"'~"'"'"1 h"'ofl hS'..!ll

1. h'i'.,.>;' m-m.'l-. Hoover Dam is an engineering achievement. riJooiic 1~ fih"t2\
P' &- h'i'.,.,., m-m.'l- tm2. f P'&- h11D-1. By his achievements, the
president dignified his office. OP'&-m- h
11D-1 , -r"-11-'111> lf.oo-1>1 hllhO.!.,.
3. "7"1'f'l-. The achievement of skill takes
practice. :,OA.'!"i'<; 11"7"1'f'l- A.V"V"S'."
"71.".!"1 Yll.t.A.:JA.

acid (n.) hii.S'."

The acid ate into the iron. hii.S'." ofl.!-1>1


acid (adj.) 1>1"'"1"1
A lemon is an acid fruit. 11-"7. 1>1"'"1"1
'i!"- I ~IJ)o
I. h<::nm. This is to acknowledge receipt of
your letter. f.tJ f1.ofi'IILtJ't ooY:<:il 11"7


2. 11111. Please acknowledge receipt! ooY:l:{to't

3. hl"''l' .,..,.1111. He acknowledged his own
faults. f &-{to't '1'4-'1- hl"''l' .,..,.1111
4. om+(ll'l-). The boys acknowledged him
to be the best football player. h.,."'11''1i
IN\" ' I"'C'I' ' .,."'11'T ' l\{to ' ODIJ').'t ' <1\]t.

'li omoflll'lacknowledgment
I. "7<:;>1"'1. A receipt is an acknowledgment
that a bill has been paid. 1.<:11'S 1'tHofl
IIODb.f./1- ' "7<:;>1"'1 ' ~(I)<
2. "711ofl. The company gave Mr. Parker a
medal in acknowledgment of his long service.
11-Q't}'m- f<:'frll" '1.11. MA"I/1-;1-'fm-'t
ll"''ilofl II"'Lil.,.c ;rchc "'L'lf. ifll"'''l'macoustic (adj.) fODil"'L.f'
Earphones are acoustic aids for deaf people.
f]t.l: "7Y:OD"'',-T 111.'t.Ji:,-T ' IIODil."''.
.I' ' <:-'l.f-:f ' 'O'I'macoustics Y:l/"6 oo(l"''
The acoustics of the new hall are excellent.
.f'P,.{to ' h-'1&-11 ' Y:l/"6 ' OD{l"'i ' fl"JI"' ' ~ '
acquaint 11111(11'1-)
I want to acquaint you with the facts of the
case. f"l--'11'-'t 'i't. ~1C <1\1<1\11'<1\tJ l\.1.<1\
acquaint oneself +~
It will take me a week to acquaint myself
with all the problems. T"i<-'t II'I"I\ II
ODl:-'l'f- ' h'tY: ' ill""t'f- ' f..f.~...<l\
be acquainted (with)
I. .,.<:-'1. Are you fully acquainted with the

case? '1--'11'-'t 111.'tofl .,.<:Y:.,.1i1'<1\!

2. .,.1'm+. He is acquainted with my father.
IJQ-1: ;>C f..,.1'm?<l\
3. .,.11"7""1.. I am acquainted with the work.
1"&-m-'t ' .,.11"71"')';.1'111Jo

get acquainted with each other


You two should get acquainted with each other.

rrii;J-:frr OD.,.1'm:,O hiiQ:frr
[See also 'intimately')

I. f"'L.f'm-+m- ilm-. An acquaintance of mine
came to see me yesterday. h'JJ': rrPtm-+,.
nm- '1-'0't'l-'S """'
2. =i1.'S~'I-. We struck up an acquaintance while
we were abroad. tDJfJ" h1C fl~IIC'tll'l-
'1.1 ' =i1.'S~-r ' """'l:'l-'t
be an acquaintance ( = know)


He is an acquaintance, not a close friend.

.t.m-+1'11rr ll't:<[ v:,.cofl 'i1."'"" hf.1.11ll"
have acquaintance with


He has some acquaintance with Amharic,

but does not speak it fluently. h"''C'l' II
ODffi). ' .f'm-?A ' ~1C ' "l't ' h+l\'1'6: ' hf.'O
make acquaintance +film+
I was very happy to make his acquaintance.
illl.,.1'm:,Orr'f- oflil-'l'A

acquiesce in flhCll"'l" .,..,.1111

We acquiesced in their plans because we
couldn't suggest a better one. f.,.lfll .-hilofl
11"7:,0<:ofl M<l\ii'A't ft{to't l\:,OY: llhCI"'
.,. ' .,..,.11<1\~tlJo
I. 1l1'f. He acquired a good knowledge of
Amharic. ~ .l'"lC'l' :f/1-;J- h"I'S:I:A
He acquired considerable skill in football.
fl"IC \>.il OQ,1';J- h'i'_,.'l' :f/1-;J- h1"f
2. +.,oo. He has an inquisitive mind, and has
acquired a lot of knowledge at an early age.
_,.,...&-"'16 hlll/"1: Mllm- 1'0 llm"l

""~"" ' ofiH- ' 6m-+'l- ' "'"'"'""'

3. m<:n. We acquired the house when our
uncle died. h'l;J-T't II.'I"'I- IL.,.'t m<:il"J
[See also 'polish')
acquirement Mflfm- ~1c
One of his recent acquirements is a knowledge
of French. IJ:,Oclt h1fl.l''l'm- ~1t!':f f ~
l:'tflf. ' !fn!l/ 0 ODiJ'/1- 0 h't-'J; 0 ~IJ)o
acquisition "7"11"'1Acquisition of skill in riding requires much
effort . .l.l:il fOD;>IIofl't :f-~:1" 11"7"11"'1-
ofiH- '1'<:'1-
This land is a recent acquisition. f.U out.
'1- (J:,0Cofl f-1"11" ~m-

6. R 1\f.. They are going to construct a bar

(be) acquisitive (of)

1. ,.,..,Oi'IOll

A miser is acquisitive


of money. ..,:,. (ltJJo 1'tHofl "7"1RIIRII

2. .,.,..,.. . A great scholar is acquisitive of
ideas. :J-11:,0 11.:,. m<'lofl1 ,..,.P'"7A
acquit (acquitted) R)l\ 11.,..,.
The judge acquitted him. "1'1tJJo R)l\



acquit oneself well

*The new player acquitted himself well in the
football game. lVI.(I- -1-"i'P:f 1'7\"'C \\{I
"'-'I':f-tJJo1 '1'-1- -1-"iaJ.,.
*He acquitted himself well in battle. tpC)
.,1 ~-.<; h.I:"Ci .,....;J

acquittal R)l\ oo11.,.:,.

His acquittal was published in the newspaper.
R)l\ 0011.,..,. R;JII."' _,.11\l\
acre [fDD&.'I- DDI\IU']
acrid h'i'1""i f"'i.h~hc
I smell acrid smoke from the burning rubber.
h'i!1""i f"'l.h~hc
*The old man has an acrid disposition. 7i"7"1
1\.tJJo )"'l'<;""i )tJJo



seem acrid h~h~

Smoke seems acrid in your nose. m.ll OAt;:

1""i h11J f.h~h&-A

acrimonious f"''J'IIDDCC
He sent an acrimonious reply to my letter.
lll\'i!h-11'1- ~ofi"'IJ. f"''J'IIOOCC OOAII
acrobat [:,OA'I"i!<; f.,.DDI\R'I- A f. f(ltJJo)'fo
1-.1:,011.+11. f"''J'<'If. lltJJo]
across (prep.)
I. h 'llf1C. I looked across the room.
hh'i!ll- 'llf1C _,.oollh'l-o2. h "7 Jl.. He lives across the street.
hOD11JI. "71'- o f.'f&-A
3. ( = adv.) h"'C hllh "'C. Draw a line across
the sheet of paper. Rm~.,..., 1\f. h"'C 7-.11




"'C hP'!I"CThey sttetcbed a rope across

4. R h"'S::!I".

the path. RDD11JI. h"'S::!I" 1DD.I:" 0~15. R h!l:c.... He hiked five miles across the
desert. R!l".1:"~ R"'tJJo h!J:Ctp h!l"ll'l-
"7Y.A ' _,.'IH

rage across the river. OtD1",..



l\.1)tl- )tJJo
across (adv.) h"'C h"'C
What is the distance across 1 h"'C h"'C C
.,.... M YIIA )tJJo?
*The river is a half a mile across. tD1",. M
"77i "7f.A 114.'1- hl\tJJo
[See also 'come, just, pass, now, walk')
act (v.)
I. h~~1. I will act on your advice. h1~ou
hch'S h~:>llv2. hll<l.ll1.tJJo1 ~~1. He acted in time to
save the house from burning down. 0.~
l'.1"1.P..+mA R1.11. hll<l.ll1.tJJo1 ~~1
3. If). Don't act like a child. 7-.1~ a.n h

4. lf'l' .,.""im.,.. Who is acting Hamlet?

U!l"l\.'l-1 lf'l' f"'i.""iaJ_,.tJJo "7)tJJo?
5. tJJoft~(lm. I am required to act by tomorrow.
hllh )1 .1:"~11 m-It~ h1S::{I'f' .,.mf.'l:

6. hiiDDilll. She is not really crying; she is

only acting. 1'7\tJJo)'fo A:,0(> hf.~l\!1" 1 "7
iiDD{I!\_ 0 )tJJo
*Please act your age. l'.'ihll1 P'&-11 Rb.l:"
"'1.11 Ah .P.o-1
*Tbe boy acted badly in schooL A)l: R'l-!1"
IIC'f- IJ.'fo fD-11'1' OD'J'G: m'lf. h<'lf
act as R +abstract + w&The student acted as interpreter for the Emperor. .,..,&m- 1111-w )1P'., Rhii.,.C'I
'''U'I- w&act for
1. a>hl\. My lawyer acts for me in my absence.
h~ Rl\.1\o-R'I- mR.+IL f.a>hii'1A
2. l'-.1~&-11 lf'l' ....&-.Heinvestedhislawyer
with complete power to act for him. 1-.1~&-(1-
lf'l' 1-.1-'1."'&- 1\mR.+m- oo-11- P'A"l1
act on



He acted on his lawyer's advice. fmR.+tJJo

1 !l"hC _,.h'l-11- "'&act out

*Everyone roared when Henry acted out the

episode with the teacher. %1& hOO!f"ll-1-
;JC ' s:-c-.....1 ' Yll ' 1"1"1C ' R!I"Ah'l- ' iii" '
1\.Y<'If. v-1\-!1" ' h'l- oflllm- ..,.,.
act up 1\.,.'I''I'C hii'M~
The children always act up in school tile day

activi ty

------- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---il "-"' m4before a holiday. -t-"'1<19''1i IIO'tll'l- 'I'll.
"'I M'M'C fll'l'-l&-11-

act upon IP6This medicine acts upon the heart. _,., oo

~"1tT ' f"'/.IP<IofDo ' 0>1\11 ' 1\f. ' )fDo

[See also 'collusion, friendly, humble'].

act (n.)

1. J.':C'I.'l-. To hit a baby is a cruel act. ih!"t

oo'/";l'' l- f'i"lt~ J.':C'I..'l- )fDo
2. 11lC. I do not want to miss the first act.


f""'f.""<lffDo 11lC 7."t-'I.J'ooAm'1 hAL/A

3. f;l'm'f. ih"l. By act of parliam ent demon

strations require a permit. O;rCII"'I O;l'm'f.
ih"l OOIPl.T IIM"'I'I! {l(A<;: L?J.':
In the act of il + imperfect

The thief was caught in the act of stealing.

llo'lfDo (L(IC:Jo 7.~ b'i'"t~ -t-S'H

acting (n.)

1. 1/tffDo h'i'A. Tbe acting of the main

performer was disappointing. lf'itD- +fl''i
,. S'itf,. h'i'IA :Joe f"7.f(l' 1 )OC
2. f"'lllOO{lfA I"&-. His acting fooled nobody

f"'lilOO(l{A ' J"<lofDo ' "'l"t"t'/" ' 1\1\'f"'f'/"

acting (adj.) -t-m'l'l-1:
He is acting minister in the Foreign Office.
OfDo'i" 1--'lf. "7.tll1: C -t-m'l'l-1: "'l.tll
'l-C )fDo


1. J.':C"L'l-. The action takes place in a garden.

J.':C'I..-1> f"'I.L~,..,. '1'1-h/A'l- ll'i'&- )fDo
The adventure story was packed with action.
f'f,.11-'l. ;l'&h J.':C"L'l- fO~O'l- )OC
2. P'&-. Emper or Theodo re was a man of action.
" ' . 1:9'J.':t:ll fl"<l- ......... )0~
3. M'IC. To betray a friend is a base action.
'IS'..';'"t ODh.ll'l- ~<;: M'IC )fDo
4. M:'/")1". Has aoy action been taken on my
case? llll). 1-.111- f-t-m(lf. 7.C'I"ll" l\117
5. -11-IA. Tbe action of the water wore away
the rocks. f,.~,. -11-IA 1\ll.f-'li"t Ifl.lft-'ffDo
He was killed in action. OIPC "'t.JJ .,..,.
actions 1\J.':&-1'1-

His actions are hard to understaod. 1\J.':<I-11>

"t ll""l.'l' l- 1'1'1:1'/A

be In action tP&.

The machine is not now in action. Jrtu-"t

""h.'i'fDo ' 1\f.IP<Io'/"

be mlssln a in action OtnC)-

He is missing in action aod presumed dead.

OIPCH 111- llllmof. 'f":::A -t-1111- 1-1


see action +"P;J

The battalion saw action in Korea. ;r1\:J>tDIPC 01><11 -t-'1'"1;1;/A

activa te 4'(14'(1

The noise of the alarm activated the fire

compaoy. f"'lllm"t4'4:1fDo S'.mA <Ll>'li'l-
l?>it'l- 1\S'.;JfDo"t J.':C~'l- 4'(14'(1 ,.


1. oo-tr. Are you an active member? tiO"fr

"'I"'OC-t-'i' )II!
2. 11C1>. He is still very active for his age.
OtLIJ ~J.':"'LfDo 1\11-"t'/" 11C1> )fDo
3. "t41. Children are more active in the mornin
thao at night. /A-,_':f- h"'l:l' 1-IA:Jo '11-'l-
fOIIm "t 'i''l'fDo
4. h.f:t-."L. "Eats" in "he eats bread" is an

active verb. 'All- Jl{l 1 .r.oi\A ,, 1 fl""l..A

fDo Ol.'i'-t- )1C fDoll'l' 1-011/A hJ.':&"1. 1 "'Ill


*He leads ao active life. 11-/A'I..H. 7."ti.IP<Io

be active
1. o.r;>T IP<Io. Is he still active in this
club? l\11-"t'l" ohon- fDoil'l' O'l-:J'l-
2. -t-4-. How long ago was Zuqwa la ao active
volcan o? 1111:'1 7./t-t- 1'1"<1- f.-t-4- no
l.fDo bM 111/A '1..11. Oo!.'l- )OC!

take an active part oo-tr 1 floo-tr 1 .,.114-.r.

He takes an active part in the government.
fl0it'}"''F1: I P6- I m-il"'r I ao-tr I OCJD-Ir
-t-l:tof.f. )fDo

active ly o-tr /A11

He is actively interested in tbe project. oM

-'1. f"''.l:t.C./1,. ooa-tr "'11 ),.

activi ty

I. l\"t:Joll,!l'(l.. There is very little activity around

here on Sundays. l\d.J.': 1..Jt.J.': OtLII h

l:t'lll 1/lfDo 7."t:Joll.!l'(l. 0"1'/" T"t1i )fDo

He has to give up all physical activity for a

while. 11'1'4:'1- '1..11. "'l"t'i'fDo"t'l" 1\l:tll'l!

7."t'tll.!l'(l. ,..,.,. 1\110'12. f P' <1- "11-A. When a mao is over 70, his
time of full activity is usually past. 1\"tJ.':



-too-l- ltll.l.m- h-tW;'m-"J

"1.11. fP'&- '1,_11- ,_4')ilA

3. 1""1fJC. A student who has too many

activities does not have time to study. ofltr-
1""1fll!':f"t f"'L..'h'i"m-"} 1""'ltl IIT'i"-1-
"1.11. ' flltD-11"
4. h.l:-&-1'1-. The government was aware of
the activities of enemy spies. OD'l..,P"-1: f'
m'l-1- Mf":f-"J h.l:"&-1'1- ym-:t- tRC
*The committee is probing into his financial
activities. S'.C?- 1"JHII-"} hi"'"} P'&- h
"JJI'I'IIm- ' ,_,..~11"&-A
[See also feverish']

actor ....,.,.,_
Charlie Chaplin is a good actor. !I'CII. ii'T
11."J '1-R"lf 1"'1''i",_ tm-

l. "-m-}+;;:. The actual reason was an entirely
different one. hm-t1"'i'm- !l"h"JY-1- 'i'~
II" At< tnc
2. ."1-hhll::'. Can you give me the actual
figures and not an estimate? "'19'".'J- lt.etr
"} '1-hhll'fm-"} 'I'C A'f-{lm'"! '1-:f-'1

The actual state of affairs in the country
is not known. 1/~tl:J: hiJo"J Yll:f-R-1- '1-h
hll'l' ' 11-~:J- ' h,.;J-OJ:t-11"
3. f"l.ll.. The teacher described the actual
position of the moon. OD9'"U~ r f"LH.8Jo'l r
f ....~,. '




1. f"l.ll.tD- 11-~;J-. He had to adjust to the ac
tualities of life. h"JS'."J.II.tD- 11-~:J- oo<rc
MR-12. hC"I'I' t~C. The actuality is worse than
your suspicions. hC"Ifllo t1C 1 h"J1" hll"-1m~'l'~tD- ,_hof.A
become an actuality flP"~ 4\t. r 1'A
The plan never became an actuality. h:t-JI.
RP'&- '1,_ ll,_m-A 4'~
in actuality hC"Ifllo"J 1 I\OD'i"1C
In actuality, the battle never took place.
hC"Ifllo"J ' IIOD~C ' tnCt-1: ' h.f I hA1"S'.~1!1"

1. Rhm-t-1-. Do you actually believe that story?
1 :r.:h nhm-t-r :J-II"'i"llu 1
2. ( ~ adj.) hm-t1"';'. The president rules in
name only, as the party is actually in power.
htD-t1"';' ' P'A"'"J ' YIIOJo I f?""M:ItOJo I





1\.11"'1 ' T&.H.-'1"}1: ' f"'l.~~,. ' Ril!l" '




actuate h"J4'114'{1
He actuated the pump by an electric motor.
7"11""1'"} ' Rl>~"}of: I '1"1"C ' h"J4'114'{lmbe actuated.,..,..,..,

She was actuated by love for her mother.

f1"t"'"':f-tD- I llh'i":J: ' fi'IT I 'i':t-C I tOJo

acumen 11Atlt."JHis business acumen made him rich. llA

"J"I.I:" I YlltD- I 11Allt'l- ' t11l;J-9" ' hS'.~~,.

1. .,,_11'1'. Dogs have an acute sense of smell.
IIJoil":f- 0 .,,.Ill;' 0 f"'lii1"!1' 0 :f-flo';J- I hl\'fiiJo
2. ltllJJ.lA.. Aacute appendicitis prevented him
from going on the trip. haJ-'1.1. 1 f-1-C'i' 1 h"}~
T I ihOD!I" ' h?-l'tD- ' h{l'i"hllm3. l\")o. A bad tooth can cause acute pain.
Rii1"';' I 'I'Cil ' l\")o I ihOD!I" I 1\JOD") '

4. f{ll\. Some sounds are so acute that
we cannot hear them. h"JJI"J.I:" .1:-!I"P:f-
R"'!l" ' f{lll- I bODII"'i"'fm- ' f1"t"' ' A"J{l"'l
'I'm- h"J:f-A!I"
5. h'i' 1 Yll. Due to the drought there was
an acute shortage of vegetables. h.!:"C4'1:
f1"t"' h'i' 1 Yll Y-1-hA-1- 1 h'l'~-1- 1 toe

6. -,41:. He is an acute observer of the political

1"h;J-;J-,_ 1
situation. R?"llof:ltOJo
7. iiA. An acute angle is less than 45 degrees.
iiA 1 "'lhH"J ttcfl hll"il-1- 1 .11."ltl n:r:r- 1

,_,.;r .,.,.

be acute

1. K'i". If the pain becomes acute, call a doctor.

hll'i" I dJ h.!l" 0 'No
2. h~~- The political crisis became more acute.
f?"llof:I}IIJo 0 1I'J'1J'J' I hfh~~ I '/.f.

ihODDDo '

(be) adamant -,:,.-,:,.

1 h,_A!I"
Once he has made his decision he is adamant.
h "}J'. ' IIJo/1~ I ltf.~1 ' "J:t-"J:t- I h,.A!I"

Adam's apple "'l'lc-1He scraped his Adam's apple on his collar.

"'l"JC-J:"J Rl>I\.;J-OJo 'lm

1. h&-oof.. Schools should adapt their currie
ulum to modern needs. '1-!I"UC-1- 1 O..f:f- 1

P'C'H 'I-?"IIC-1>1 hHoo). <;:111'1- ' ;J

C I .,&-ODY: I hllq'f'a>-

*The ministry adapted the American textbook

for use in Ethiopian schools. "''..tiH:~ fh"'/.

' .,111-"''M ' ' ODJI".h'i' ' 0"'1..11.,., '

HF. Oh.'I-f"A",1' '1-?"IIC'I- M'.f 0'1':,0?"
llf. 7.1-'l.<D-A M'-~1

adapt to 1\oPY.,

Most children adapt easily to new surroundings. 11rt- A"Jl.'.f h-'1.11 hMR.1 04'11
II- f.II?"Jiotr
adapt oneself -1-'\0D.<'. l -1-11.,.,

He adapts himself easily. 04'1111- f.IIODJioA

He adapts himself to new conditions. h"''..
,1':J'l',_'l- h-'1.11 ll-~:t"9''.f Y.ll.,., A

adapta ble
I. 7.1Polll.ll1.t-l> 11.1\'l'dl'l' f"''..'.fA. Mother
has an adaptable schedule. M'-1: 7.1Polll.ll1.
t-1> 11.1\'l'dl'l' f"''..'.fA '1"1!"'1&-?" hll'l2. hll-'i'-l:a>- ;JC f"''.ll.,., . She is an adaptable person. hll-'i'-l:a>- ;JC f?"'l-11. ,.,
lla>- ' ..,..,.
add (vt.)



additio nal


adapta ble

You will have to add some sugar.

'1'-1:'1- 11\>.C OD..,_ODC ' hl\1111

Add it to my bill. o~ .h.ll11 llf. ""?"~..,.

2 . .<'.OD~. He added 8 and 2. 11?"1'1-'i' fl-11
'1-1 ' ....... ~
3. hhll(o'l-) . The committee added a rider to
the bill . .<'.CI- O.ih'l- ~-1::,0 llf. h1J.': .,
?.$ hhiiO'I4. Ht4'. They debased gold: by adding copper.
omc41 llf. oo~~o11 O""Ht:,O h~hll-'15 .,.114'11 (-1-_,.11.,.11). Pigment is added to oil to
make paint. 4'11?" 1\0DP'&-'1- .,:,01\"''..,,'<D-
hHY.'I- ;JC f.4'114'11A
add (vi.)
I. .<'.""~- They started learning to add and
subtract. oPI..DPC'i oPcf-'H'l oPDI/C ~,.,"-

2. o.,...,., t hll. "I hope you will come

early," he added. 0-1-..,., t 4'.<'.?" 1111
II 7.1.<'.?"'!-oD"' -1-114- h.<'.C:JIIll- h

add up to hODI\h-1-

The evidence adds up to a case of murder.

ft'i'll "lllof. dl1)';A ODIJ')-1


,l'oollh;t- A

*How much does the bill add up to? .h./111'

om:,OIIIItJJo 111'1- f.ll''i'Al

[See also 'luster']

addict 11-11:;<

The cigarette addict finds it hard to stop

smoking cigarettes. fii.:J&- 11-11:;< 11.1{&-
.,1[>?" ,I'II'I'"I~'I'A

(be) addicte d to f- --11-11';< ll't If-- -11-11

Mo'IHe is addicted to smoking. fll.'/{&- 11-11:;<
He is addicted to strong drink. fODm'J' 11-11
Mo'laddicti on h.<'.1';< fll't 11-11

Opium is an addiction-causing drug. h"l:f.?"

t..._.,:;- ,

fll't 11-11 , f"''..,,'l\.11 ""mt'l-


additio n
I. Y:?"C. Is my addition correct? J.':?"t. A
h ' till'!
2. oo.<'.ooc. Addition is taught in second grade.
OD.<'.ODC ' Ofl-11-1-';< ' h'i'A ' Y,II"'A
3. """"ooc . The addition of flour will thicken
the soup. Po-'1:'1- oo..,ooc ll'cq1 ,1'
4. :,0'1',1'. Workmen are building an addition
to the house. P'&--1-'l''ll f .ih1,.tJJo1 :,0'1'
,1' ' OODP'&-'1- ' llf. ' 'i''l'lll'
in addition 0-1"....,<1

In addition he asked for ten dollars. 0-1....,<1 OP'C 11C mf_,.

in addition to h - - - f\.1\
In addition to his fixed salary he gets a commission. hoo.<'.O';< .<'.'l"rt- 1\.11 1>"'1..111'"
1 ,1'1';<A

*He works in addition to going to school.

hfu>&- f..,&-A


add to MII(O'I- )

His father's illness added to his troubles.

'q"" , .noo?" ,
add up




Add up these figures! Mrt.ll1 41'l'C''.f .<'.


additio nal -~""""'<1

An additional difficulty is the lack of money.
-~""""'&"'" '.f"lc f11H11 htn'l- ttJJo

*For an additional dollar you get better

quality. h1Y: 11C 11'1-..,?"C f-1-lfll
'tY,t'l- ' :J-1';<1\1)

address (v.)
I. hY:6o'lf IlL. He addressed the letter to
me."t ' n~ ' hY:6o'/f ' 1\
2. "t"'"'C hU1. Mr. Parker will now address the meeting. "tMc ;rchc hv-"t 111-q
I'. "t"I"IC YY.C:>II3. h.,.<:n. I would like to address a question
to th~ speaker. 11.,.<;;>6"" '1'?41 "7"1-<:11
't\.t./:\;JIIIJ4. lim. He addressed a warning to a friend.
'l"tY: mJ17!: "7llm"t.,.4:.1' lim
5. h<;1<:. I addressed him with respect.
nhh111!''1- h<;1Cl>.'l'
6. m6o (.,.m6o). Protocol requires that dignitaries be addressed by their titles. Qll P'IA"'
<;";f n"7b.l:"l 11"7'1' 't\"t'lm~ Tl!'.f-1>/A

*How do you address a mayor? fh"li:ll f

h11C oom6Y MY:tl
address oneself .,.Ctl' +)out
He addressed himself to the task of doing his
homework. fO.'I- P'6otl)o"t II""P'6o'l- 4'


be addressed

The letter is addressed to me. 1.11'10..,. f.,.'l

h n~ hY:6o'lf t

address (n.)
I. hY:6o'lf. Do you want to write down my
address? hY:6o'lftL"t lloPI\'i' '1-.t.IA;JIIIIl
2. "t"I"IC. The Emperor delivered an important
address. "t1-"' )1P'-I> m?"t flft "t"l"l

c ' h1..1:13. "'ftt-;1-. He managed this difficult affair with

admirable address. hll'l':>6"t 1-JIY. noy_
Yll!."t"'> "'ftt-;1- uoo""
4. oofAh. A salesman should be a mao of
pleasant address. h'lf'lf"l' fl.ll 1.11 oo{A
h ?II II oolf"t hlln'ladduce m.,.ll
The lawyer adduced a decision in which the
judge freed a man charged with robbery.
mn? no~.'!- >~';' nn<:'l- f.,.hllll"t
II ntll fll.,._,.n'l-"t .,. ... ~ m.,.ll
(be) adept at "'ftt-:1- hll
John is adept at repairing things about the
house. ~ fO.'I- 't\?l""'f"t fDDm1"t ";f
tt-;1- ' hlltl)o
adequacy 1141t'IWe doubt the adequacy of his training.
f'I-9"1/C-I>"t 1141t'l- 't\"tm6om6oll"t

I. not. The lawyer presented adequate proof.
mn? not oo<:lf h.,.<:n
2. h'l':>ll f.,.':'.ll. His schooling is not adequate. 'I-9"11C-I> h'l':>ll (f.,..,.ll) hY-1.119"
3. 1141. Mr. Smith is adequate for the job.
"tll.,_C 11"7.11 IIP'6o"" 1141 t

adhere (to}


That scotch tape will adhere to
anything. hlll>:f -I:T hM9" )1C :>C

2. l\'1'11<1' .,.h.,.ll. He adhered to his plans.

h"'--'1-"t ' h'1'11<1' ' .,.h.,.ll
3. .,.h.,.ll. Most people adhere to the church
of their parents. h11~';'1",.; lll""'f fa>'l
}!:ll''l'"t ' '/Y."7'f'l- ' Y-11.,.'111-

adherence Y.;J.Lt'IHe declared his adherence to the cause of

freedom. lltllt'l- 1-Jif. Y.;Jol.t-l>"t 11111

adherent (n.) 1.:>.1.

The adherents of the church party supported
this plan. ro..,. hcll-tn mn l.:>ol.l""'f
.l'.ll"t"t' '1."1-Y: ' 1.14adherent (adj.) f"tarn+
Adherent materials should not be placed
together. f"t"'n.,. t11!'7f"t h"tY:t'l- "7'l"C

*Adhesion of the intestine to the muscles
requires surgery. h"t~'l- llm-"tll' ;JC II.
arn"'> "'~'- '1'1<; Yll.LIA:>IA

adhesive (n.) "7"1not? flft t1C

Glue is one of the many adhesives. _...., "''
arnot? ' hlf!o- ' 1111- ' )11!'"'f ' h"t-'1- ' )tl)o
adhesive tape T'lll.,.C

Give me some adhesive tape for my wound.

1\41111\. f"tlf"t T'lll.,_C lim'S

adieus, make

~ .,.llo;n.,.
He made his adieus and left. .,.11<;11-f- l'Y.



The house adjacent to ours has been sold.
II';' 0.'1- _,.'I'll- ?II 0.'1- .,_il'tii-IA
be adjacent .,.'I'll- )tl)o l .,..,.lit
The house is adjacent to the church. 0.-1> II
0..,_ hCII-1:?1'- .,.'I'll- t (M'II<;A)
adjective "1-ltA
The word 'heavy' is an adjective. hll~
f"tlltl)o ' -"'"' ' "1-lt/A ' )tl)o

adjust (vt.)

adjoin -1-'l'tU

My garden adjoins his. .1''1-hoM il'i'&-IL

fll-"1 .1''1-hA't- il'i'&- J.'.'l'il~'I'A

adjoining f"t-t'I'A

The adjoining room is empty. f"t-t'I'IIID'

h'i'A. qp. ~..,.

adjourn (vt.)

I. -tm.:. The judge adjourned the court until

the following day. -'~"'"" 11"7.-t'I'IIID' -t"l
2. R-1-~. The chairman adjourned the meeting.
11.-t ' OD"j0~ ' il11ilq..,.., ' R-1-~
adjourn (vi.)

I. -t-R-1-~. The meeting adjourned at 10 o'clock.

il11ilqtD- q,:.:,. t'l'\'1- -t-R-1-~
2. lloft(lq..,. hR:I". With the concordance of
the membership we will adjourn. hqtl-'ll h-til"7DD> ll11(lqtD- .I'R:I"A
3. -1-ll.l'f. It was a strange proceeding when the
senate adjourned without any decision. tl'l
oPOJ(l...tD- .I'll ID'/tlr, 1\.II.I'J.'. .I'Ai"IIOD!l.

administ rative




be adjourned hR:I"
The meeting is adjourned. ll11(lqtD- hR:I"

(be) adjudged
1. ,.roll~. The boy's case was adjudged in juve-

nile court fA:q: 1-JIJ.'. RID"''t- '1'4-1"'1'

:f 'i'C!l.' 11.'1- -!-IBM
2. R'i'C!l.' -1-t'lm. The property was adjudged
to the rightful owner. "1110:-1> R'i'C!l.' 11"""~-~'"'"" q11u11'1- -t-t'lm
3. -1-L.:!l.(R't-). The accused man was adjudged
guilty. -t-blt!F- ... ..,. "'"'"""' ~u -t-1111" -tL.:!l.R'I4. -J-1DD-J-. It was adjudged wise to avoid war.
tnC~'t- hl\"7"1"1'1- fi">fll ll''l' -l-1""-1-

adjudica te R'i'C!l.'


It is better to adjudicate disputes than to

settle them by fighting. mR-"1 R'I'A bDD<U.
<:il J.'.A:t R'i'C!l.' "7il1Dt'l"l J.'.>fiiA

adjunct -t-<U."7tl ,_,..

A radio is a common adjunct to an automobile.

t.ll.f'' 1\0Dh.'i"' f-J-1\0D!l.' -J-<U."7tl ' , . . ' ~ ....


adjust oneself


1 cannot adjust myself to the climate here.

hiLU ' 11'1'&- ' h fC ' :>C ' ODIIODfl.' ' hA:fA'/"

adjustme nt

I. "711-1-IJh.l'. Our radio has an adjustment

so that we can make the tone loud or soft.

ft.JJ.f''i"l-"1"1 !l."/"6 h'i''i" 11:t f'l"'i"!l.C

"'R'I- "711-t-IJh.l' hi\ID2. f"t..'-t &-C11 H!l... They worked out an adjustment of their conflicting ideas. f"7J.'."'q
o-q'f'ID-"1 .bltll:f f"7..1'-t&-C11 H!l.. Lm~
make an adjustmen t ,.11"7"7

Try to make some adjustment of your differ~

ences. RooiJhll:ftJ> ili\1\ID' hll"""'qq:, .
1\0011"7"7'1- ' 'l"h~

adjutant .:JI't-

The colonel's adjutant gave a report. fl>lllr.

tr .:.11'1- &?'c'l- h-t.:n

administ er

I. h11-J-JI!l.<:. Who is administering his estate?

C111>"1 f"7..1'11i"JI!l.'O:ID- "7~1D-1
2. h11Ll\oP. Ethiopia has many good lawyers
to administer justice. h.'t-f'A-.1' '1''1-.h"l
f"7..1'11LK'DD>' '1"1-' fll')o ' 1111" ' f.h"' ' 0'1'<1:

l":f ' htr'l''l3. t'lm. The nurse is entitled to administer drugs.

~C!L oP~).'t- l\oP11m't- P'A"'"I l\11'1-

administ ration l\111-JI!l.C

The country is in need of good administration. h1t1;t '1"1- h11-I'JI!l.C .1'11LA:>:f'A

administ rative .1'111-JI!l.C


I adjure you to tell the truth.

!l.''t-'i"1C "-III"'""YIIIJ>

I. hil-1-IJbll. The manager will adjust your

bill. 1"&- ' hilh..l'1t ' .h.lt11tl"l ' .l'il-1-IJh
Y au cannot see through the binoculars unless
you adjust them first. 0"")'."""<1.1' IJIIili"IJhA
hiD' ' Rh:tMLID' ' OD~K'C ' 11"7f'l- ' h'l-:fA'I"
2. h111D1!l.. The elders tried to adjust the
differences in the quarrel. 11"7"11\.l"'fi Rmtl'
fi".C.m<:tD-"1 hlloP"'qq:, . 11"7111111!l.' 'l"h~
adjust (vi.) &-11-"1 hlloP!l.
His son adjusted to army life. fll- A'f:
&-/1-"1 ' hlll:f'!l.C ' ).(!" ' ;>C ' hlloP!l.
*He has to adjust to the actualities of life.
"-"l!l.'l.niD- U>lr.;f' ou'l'C hiiR'I-



This is purely an administrative job. ,_.,

0'1"11 ' .1'11-1-JI!l.C ' 1"&- '

~ ....

administrative assistant ~.-;+


The administrative assistant has executive

powers also. ~'I+ hil.,.-'1-'ltl +h~11 roo
ilm+l"' FA"''J hl\tJJo

administrator hil.,.-'1-'ltl
A good administrator treats the poor and the
rich equally. 'No hil.,.-'1-'ltl .<:-"lio; 1111
;foll"'t hh-A YYA

admirable f"''.YilS'.1;r. 1 f"''.f.);r. 1 Mf.<;of:

He performed many admirable deeds in the
war. fltnCH 'IJ'. 1111" f"''.YilS'."J'I- l
11-'l. oPC;J:A

His determination to go abroad to study is

admirable. mF.. 1 m-? I\1C 1 '/.P. /lOD"''
c Yl\tJJo 41C'l' hlt11 f"''..':)'i- )tJJo

Since she has a goiter her admirable face is

ruined. h"J;r.c:,. Mm"'":fo hili'S4: ooA\>.

admiral ffJ.ftC "1J'.A .,.., h~'fr

The admiral's ship sank. ffJ.ftC "1J'.A 'I'
'i h.tJ-n; ODChofl 1 (loomladmiration h.<:-o;.J+
Your admiration is exaggerated. h:'i""+u
,.,._,)) ' )IJJo

*He is the object of everyone's admiration.

Ml ,.,,. rrtr f"''.Yf.'Jof>tJJo )tJJo

admire hf.)of>
I admire your patience. +b"'F+o"J hf.'J

admirer f"''.YI'.'J;r.
She has many admirers. 1111" f"''.YI'."J!t+
ill"":f-' htr

(be) admissible
1. .,.Lof>l'.. This form of argument is not
admissible . .eo 'lJ'.)+ hchc hJ'.Lof>l':r
2 . .,..,IJJ'.)+ hl\tJJo. Hearsay is not admissible
evidence. flil"''. il"''. f.,.1"f mt:. 1\"'lil~ll"
),. ' .,..,IJJ'.)+ ' fl\tJJo!l"

1. OU"'IOJ'. Free admission is limited to certain
)l\ """'fl..l' f"''.Lof>l'.tJJo 1\.,.m(l)o.
of>'l'":fo' 11il' ' )tJJo
2. "7ou"). His admission proved my innocence.
f(lo ' "'IOD'J ' f~') ' '!'of..,.:;' ' hi\ODIT') o h~;>
*Admission to school is by examination only.
+P"oc+ (I.+ f"''.11JOJo IlL.,.., 11il' )m-




admit (admitted)
1. hil11J. The servant opened the door and
admitted the guest. h "lib>~- fi-1-'J b<t:of h'J
"1-'IOJo'J ' hil11J

2. 1\.0D). I admit that I was wrong. il.ft.,.

.,.'i' , ""IT~"J h!I"<;Arr
3. ~of>flll. Jordan does not admit any Israeli
claims on her territory. I'"C-'I'l'il hilt-h.A
tJJoil'l' f~ )tJJo fl"'+lltJJo'J rrtr
4. YH. The harbor admits three ships. <DI'.
flo IPil+ oocb!l":fo J'.J'.~A

*His answer admits no reply. ooA,(l-


Yll )mbe admitted

1. h'J-'1.11J .,.Lof>l'.. Children under fifteen
are not admitted. bOP'<!- hl"'il+ 'lou+
fi;Jo":fo Ytr ;r,yo;+ h'J-'1.1 flo hJ'.Lof>.l:-11"
2. ;foOD), It i generally admitted that a good

wife is necessary for success in life. om:,.Ott

11m- 11.,./t!J )o.t:" "'"- "''.il+ "'lilLIIli

3. ( ~ active) hil11J. Mention my name

and you will be admitted. il"''J 'l't- Yil

4. ( ~ active) .,..,fill. He was admitted to

the club. fhflflo hiJA h'J-'I.IT'J .,..,

[See also 'bar']

admittance fOD"'IJ+ L:J>.<:He gained admittance to the park. <DI'. ""
<;L"iftJJo ' il't't- ' fOO"'IJ'I" ' L:J'.I:" ' M"f

*He was, admittedly, the thief. flhC"I'I' II.IJ
m- 7l(l- 1 ~oc
admixture ooof>'lof>A
The admixture of foreign words makes the
language hard to understand. ffJb.l:" :J>'I+
ODof>'lof>tr ' !t"J!ttJJo'J ' 1\0D~-'1+ ' Yil'F"It-A

1. 1U'l\. The teacher admonished the boys
for being lazy. hil.,."'ltltJJo A;o::r; il)'l'
ili\IT)o. 1U'l\:ftJJo

2. hilm)of>of>. The policeman admonished him

not to drive too fast. ?'1\.(lo boom') fill
J'. h'J'IJ'.M hiltn)of>of>tJJo

admonition .,..,.,,..
The teacher's admonition to the student for
his careless work was of no avail. hil.,.*Ytl

tJJo Ill\ -1-"''tltJJo f"'~l\11 P'tl- film

tJ)o I ..,..,UfJt I ~ I fl.ll

adobe (construction) hm-11 f-1-"'<1The houses in this area are of adobe construction. fll.ll hiJqn. 0.-l':f hm-11 f-1-"''~--

adolescence f't-A'/"11<;<;





Adolescence starts after childhood. f't-A'/"11
<;<; fi><:J!~'l- '1.1 h.'h!'t~'l- R:\'1 f.

I. i<:'l"lt. He is still an adolescent. 1'0 i<:'l"
/J I ~(IJ2. !><:-'!. She is still an adolescent. 1'0 I><:J!

I. RP'tl- 'If. h'l'/1. The government adopted

the present civil code several years ago. DD1"1

~""" .f'rl-'11' f<t:'l-.h -nm.c .'h"' h

'1'4:'1- "'\oo:J''l- n.c.'l- nF.:. llf. h'l'l\

2. -t-+nll. The club adopted the motion by
a vote of 20 to 5. hnn- f+<:RtJ>o"l' .hltil
U.f' Rh'l"ll'l- Rll'~ .f':'I"IJ -t-+RIItJJo
3. n - - - -1-111111. For the teaching of Amharic
we adopted a new method. h"''C'i' 11"'111
-1-"''C qJ!.Il H~ -1-1111/i\1'
4. ouctn fH. He adopted a new name when
he became American. fh"'UIJ'E~'l-1' 1"1~'1-
IU'1'S hJ!.ll 11'1" DPCif' .f'H
5. R't-J!.Lil' -t-+RII. My aunt has adopted
a little boy. hhll-1: 'l-1'11 A7!: R't-J!.L
il' -t-+nll:f
[See also 'habit')

adopted (adj.) f't-J!.Lil'

It is an adopted child. f't-J!.Lil' A7f: ~tJJo
be adopted
I. RP'tl- 'If. 'I'll. k flexible pnlicy was
adopted.1.1'.J'. hllL'I'I.~'l- f"''.l\'l'dJ'I' 7"11.
II. ' RP'tl- ' 1\f. ' '1''1
2. -t-+qf-~'1- h1i. Christian practices have
occasionally been adopted by members of
other religions. h1'J!1'.f': fhCM:n '1""1
ql!':f Rl\.11-:f 1.'1"~'1- -1-h:l'l'":f H1'.f':
-f-+qM'l- h"''S-1-'I'A

I. 7-J!.Lil'. His adoption by the kind old man
changed the boy's whole life. .f'.'t- 11"'1"1

1\. 7-J!.LiJ' ll'I.J'.<:1tJJo fA)!: 001\ ihf.

m'l- -1-1\fllm
2. oo+RA. The teachers are talking about the
adoption of a new course of study.
tll"'ll f'l-'I"IIC'l- hr'l"''l' hJ!.ll oP'J"tl
.f' lloo+RA f.~:nt~-11-


father fm-'1- hq'l-

His adoptive father is very rich.

hq-1> R"'!l" llil;l'!l"



adorable .J'.Il f"''.A

He is an adorable baby. .J'.Il f"''.A .'hf

") I

adoration "''hRC
Adoration of the Virgin Mary is widespread
in Ethiopia. .f':1'"1A "''C.f''/"1' "''hnc
nt..'l-l'"k.f' tJJoll'l' nr'l.C.tJJo f-t-1\oof. ~IJ)o

I. hL+<:. She adores her family. 0.-1-r'l!l.1'
2. fll.J'..J'.. The baby adores being tickled. ihf)-1'
ll.h-<:IK-'1- f.lllJ!A
3. h.ooAh. In ancient times, Ethiopians adored
idols. 0'1'1''1- 1.11. h.'l-l'"k.f'tJJo.f'"l' R"'P
:r- .f'OOA!J. ~nc
4. h<t: .f'll hiJC r'lm. The followers of
Gandhi adored him. f:>1'J!. -1-h:l'l'":f h<t:
.f'll h-nc f.r'lm-'1- ~nc

1. h.ll1.m. The municipality adorned the city
before the return of the Emperor. 'l"NP )
"'JP-h hooooAta:fm- r flA..+ r OUU;J1f 1 fL-JJ h
T"''tJJo1' hll'l.m




Kindness adorns his character.

mq\<1' .f'lt!I"<:'I'A

adornment "'1'1.""1
A flower was the only adornment on her
dress. Ailjl. 'If. .f'lltJJo .,'1.""1 hnq
-nil' ~nc
busy with the adornment of the room
the day before the party. f.f':"'r'l- '1'1"'1 II
'1- 0.-1>1' 11:1''1.'1' '1'1\:f


(be) adrift .f'/1 oo.: -t-1'+'1'1111

l '1'1111
The boat was adrift in the ocean. ~Aq'l' tJJo
:t-.f''l" r'l- 1\f. .f'II oot1 -1-1' +'I' /Ill:f
A derelict ship is adrift off the coast. (ll":f
f"'~'1- oochil Rm<:4- h:t-.:.n..v '1-'I'AA



adroit HS'.o;:

We admired the lawyer's adroit questioning

of the witness. mil,....,. llll"llh~ .r.,..:ll
..,.'t HS'.o;: llm.l'f:t- II~):,O't

adulate hDDm't 11'1.1'- 11'1"?1'1

Some young people adulate singers of popular
songs. ll'tJI't.l:" ID"'fo':f ' HOO'i'' H'f.'l'':f
't hoom't 11'1.1'- .I''I""I(J.'f'I'A

adult 0'1'4!
There was milk for the children and coffee
for the adults. IIA;tt.:'f IDT'I- ' IIO'I'<i!l"':f
flo'i' )IIC

I. ll.,.m). He adulterated the heer with water.
m'l..,.'t ll..,.;lo ll.,.m)..,.
2. f"7J'.t:Q P':> .,..,.'1.,.11. The company
was fined for adulterating canned meat. IJ.q
't}IIJ)o ' 7.:f"lf?IJ)o ' P';J ' IJ)o/I'J' ' f"7J'.t:Q '
P' ;J 0 II00.,.'\.,.1\- 0 .,..,."J

adulterer IIOO't11t:'i'
The adulterer was killed by the husband.
IIOD't11.:o;:..,. IIQA.f..,. -1-?~11

adulteress H"7''1- 11.'1- l J'OO)Ht:':f 11.'1Adulteresses were stoned to death. H"7'.1'

'f-':f ' (J'OD)H~ '':f) ' 11.1:-'t;JJ'. J'.

adultery 11..,.'1The Bible condemns adultery. ODK'do'i! :t-.11.

II 11..,.'1-'t J'ID"I~A

adulthood llltll oom't OD.i:"t:ll

The acceptance of responsibilities is a sign
of adulthood. '1'1ol.)'f-'t """'11"'- llltll oo
m't ' fOD.i:"t:/1 ' II"Ah'f- ' )IJ)o

advance (vt.)
I. mt. o!.'l- IIOD"J'f.'l- l.'t-'1.~.1:" 11~.:?. The
general advanced his troops to the new position.
)';.~t-11- o ID:f"J'.C'fl o IIJ~ ' ol.'f- ' IIOD"J'f.'f-
IIJ~ 11.11.1'1- "l'tQC l.'t-'1." 1\.1'...:1

2. .,.~11" ll~t:?. The chairman advanced the

time of the meeting. II..,. DD'tll~ fllofll'l
QIJ)o') ' 1.11. ' .,.~11" 11~.:.,.
3. ll:t-.r..-u' l'lm. Could you advance me
some money? '1-'til ?'tHofl ll:t-.1:-"'l..l' A'll'lm'1 '1-':f'IIIU l
4. 1111~.:. The banks often advance money to
farmers. Q'tl>'ll 11-fl~o;:..,.'t 1.11. 1\?11"-l"
:f 1'tHofl .1'11.1:-t-11-


5. 11.,..:11. The plan he advanced was not good.

.r.,.-:11..,. l.:t-.1:" ~ IIA)IIt:ll"
6. 7.'tJI.I'I'i!'t 11~.:?. The minister tried hard
to advance the cause of peace. "'l.tll~ M
II" 7.'tJI.I'I'i!'t 11"7.1:-t:"l -flit" ~boo
7. 11-'111.:. His purpose was to advance his
own interests rather than the company's.
~""'"'" ' ft-1'1-'t ' 7.'tl[ ' fiJ.Q't.I'IJ)o't ' 'i!'l
i'l- 11"7-'IIIC IIA)IIt:ll"
8. 1\1\1..1. They advanced him from lieutenant
to captain yesterday. '1-'l't'l-'i' boufo 1111
:,0)'1- m~ lfii"IIA)'f- 111\f...,.:,..
advance (vi.)
I. T'IH. We advanced twenty miles in one day.
Q't.l:" .,.'t u.r "'""' T'l11't
2. Q;Loot:,, Since the war, prices have continued
to advance. htoC~-1: mJLtJ ~ "P;J llfa;toPt:,

3. m.r.d.T r


Has civilization advanced

in our century? JPAU:. fl~ htt:A noo

't ' ID.I'.ol.'l- ' Tt-11"J!...Al
4. ?4- I m.r. ol.'l- ?4-. The army advanced
toward the enemy lines. to<-. m~ mil+ .,'l
qc' ?4The soldiers advanced under enemy fire. m:f"
.r.c:'ll fm'l'l-'t Tlt-11 '1'1'1..,. ro~ o!.'l- 14be advanced lt."tJl.+Cofl r +F..t;.1

The date of the meeting was advanced from

April to March. fllofliiQ..,. 1.11. h"'l..1'11.1'
m.r. oo;~R.'I- 7.'tJI..,.Cofl .,.~C'IA
advance against M14- """1(11'1-)
The forces of the enemy advanced against us.
fm'l'f- ' '1.1'-A ' 7.f1'f. ' OD"Jofl't
advance upon 1"m;J

He advanced upon me in a threatening

manner. 1\.l'IILt-t- Tm:>'1

advance (n.)
I. oolflfA. Great advances have heen made in
medicine during the last few years. Qllf.'l-
~ou:f"'f- IJ)o/1'1' ll.lohll"'i' oflll" oolflfA
2. 1'i!fo ODII""J'I-1 OD"J'f.'l-. Nothing could stop
the advance of the enemy. fm'l'l- 1'i!fo ooll"
"1'1- (oo"J'f.'l-) Mil" /1..1'/fODIJ)o IIAiJ'IIII"
3. ( ~ adv.) ll:t-.1:-"'l...'. Can you give me an
advance on my salary? hJ!.'I"n ll:t-.1:-"'l...'
ll.h'i!ll-'1 ' Y..l-'111-1
in advance ll:t-.1:-"'l..l' 11111.,..1:"'1" I .,.~11" -tillLet me know in advance if you are coming.
"""""' 7.'t~.r) o:t-.1:-"'l..l' 1111:1"..,..,.'1


After this, please let us know in advance.

hll.ll ' 0:\'1 ' hii<I'J!"ODII ' hii;NJJ<I''t
I arranged it in advance. <I'J'.9" illlo hH:>

In advance of h---


They walked on in advance of the king.

h'J.,.,_... ' <I' J!"ODOJ- o


(be) in advance of b--- +"'oo

His ideas were in advance of the time. thft

flo ' h1.H.OJ- ' f<I'J'.OD )OC
[See also 'pacific']

advanced (adj.)
I. h<;:-J-0::. He is not smart enough to take

advanced courses.






(IJ!- ":f-~:1-ID hf.L:J-J:.-fl'l-9"

2. f14-. He is very advanced in years. 0/1..("'1. ' 0"19" ' f1<f. ' )OJ3. 0'1-,.:IIC-f: f1<f.. Only advanced students

can understand the abstract theory about

the nature of the soul. {II\ ) llihC.e
M::J- hll1'fol'lil fl.t:JI. f"''."'f-11- O'l-9"
IIC;f-'fm- f14- -1-"'l&l"":f il!f' 'O'fm4. h1.H.IJJo <I' Y:'l" f~J'.. He has advanced
ideas. h1.11.m- <I'J:-'1" f~J'. mfoil hflm-

*Our army is in an advanced position.

fo:' tDC "l'tQC _,.J'.9" )IJJo

I. f"'IM"I '-F-'1'1-. The captain has hopes of
advancement. !f9"011- f"'l~l."l '-J:.-1'1- {I
"'I"IT'I- -1-ll<f. YJ'.C:>A
2. "'llflfA. Advancement in school reform
requires more teachers. f,'J-gs>LJCT O..f~1' '
f.Jf;f- ' fl"'llflf"' ' .,. ....
hll-1-"'l&l"":f '

..,& '

YIILA:>fl3. "1!'"'1&. Loyalty and hard work are what

usually bring an advancement in pay. f"''l"
'If "1!'"'1& f"'/.YII1'f. :f'"'l'h'l-'0 m'th
C' ' ODP'tl-'1- ' 'O'fOJo

I. 'I':J-9". This method has advantages and
disadvantages. f.ll HJ'.. 'I':J-?"'0 '1-'1'1- h

This is to your advantage. .e.u t\&.iltl

:J-9" ' )OJ2. iiA"'i. George had a good education and

this gave him an advantage over his friend.

}!:C)!' 'No '1-?"IIC'I- )Ot.m- ! )'.II?" h
~J'.o:'m- iiA"'i't hi11Tfl'l-

have an advantage fl+ifA r v-~:f" It~ )aJo

You have an advantage over me. hi. 1 fi+
lffl !Jo~;f- llf. )II
take advantage of wtl-(0'1-) l -1-m<l'oo(O'I-)
He takes advantage of every opportunity. rot
y ;J'J'ODIJJo') ' M:A ' !Joll- ' J.'.oPtl-0;1-A ' (f.
Don't let people take advantage of you! l'll"":f
to advantage }\{Jguf!"
The draper will arrange your draperies to
advantage. oo;>t.'1/: w.:.-1-o:'m- oo;>t:)fl"":f
ll't hfo!I"C' )'.wtl-AYA

[See also 'operate']

1. fotm:t-gu. He is in an advantageous position.
f"7.m:J-oom- (1;1- llf. )IJJo
2. r=ti. This advantageous position commands
three roads. f.ll ll"'fi ll<;:tl- 1"11'1- oo')1
P.":f't {loo<f.flJmC Yll"'fllA
advent oo?"flJ'IThe advent of spring is a joyful occasion.
fKU OD?"flJ'I- f"''.YIIJ'.II'I- m:J-'1- )OJ*Since the advent of modern medidne, diseases
have been reduced. HOD'O' ihhii"'O hooflJ
OJ-'1.11 ' 0'11:1' ' -J-<1'){1
Advent of Christ f""X"h-1-

The exact day of the Advent of Christ is not

known. f?"K'h'l- '1-hhflo:' <l''t h}.'.;f-m
adventitious -~'"""'1&

The exciting life of the author gives the book

an adventitious interest. f~fl..aJo 1 1tl'l1&."t
).C' fiODK".J.4- -~'"""'1& hJ!"'O.J.'I- .r.n
I. ~il.fl.. The soldier told the tale of his adven
tures. m;f-J'.~ f~il.fl.m-'t OJ6. hmtl2. h:>"'"''.. The title of the book is " Adven
ture in the Forest ". fODK'.J.f. hC'-11'1-
O""lto IJJoll'l' fJ'.l.l'l h:>"'"''. f"7.A
3. Y..."JtnODaJo 1 )1C. He regaled me with stories
of his adventures. Y :>moo-'1-') )1C'":f ;1&h R"'l"'im'l- hiiJ'.I'l-1-'S
I. f~il.fl. l'lm-. The traveler to Africa is a
great adventurer. mJ?.. 1 h_ij:;&1J 1 fOIJ.=lHaJo r
...,. ' :f'll:J- ' f~il.fl. ' ..., . ' )IJJo

2. fl"'ilo. The adventurer looked for an unmarried girl whose father was rich. f.A-/t.(J)a
1/A-t-IU..":f- f'lllll;> lA~ ~M

I. )';il'l- fn~n'l-. An expedition to the North
Pole is an adventurous undertaking. tJJS'.. {I
"''.o;-<em- 'PIA:" ""'111 J>:it"- rn~n'l-
Y:C"I..'I- ' ~ ....

2. S'-4-C. The adventurous explorer was

applauded by the listeners. ll~of.~ h<'t1i
hY:"?fl"''ll ''1-

adverb -t-m-lth "Ill

The word 'now' is an adverb. h&"t
f"''.II<D- :J'IA -t-m-lth "Ill ~..,.

l. 11/\;J&.. He is my most dangerous adversary.
R"'!l" t 1\.~1'1 '111:>.:.\L 1\.ol- ~..,.
2. mll'l-. The United States and Japan were
adversaries in World War II. Ro-11-t-'i'm- f
'\11!1" tnC~'I- 1.11. h"'L&IJ"}<; )f;r"} m
1\.Y.":f-' )fi~
3. of-:>"1"7.. Which school is our adversary in
the football game? RII."IC '>.ll .U.'I':f' f
'i' of-:>"1"7. ' '1-!I"IIC'I- !1.'1- f'l-'i'm- )a>-!

I. f"7.1-JI. The judge gave an adverse decision
to the plaintiff. Jl'i'<D- llhltlf. f"7.1-JI<D- mItt lim
2. 1/A-t-:J''i. He struggled against adverse
circumstances. ttA+:J>'i" ll-'i-1: ;JC ;Pli\.
3. 'l't\:F s .fHl\. His adverse criticism discour
aged me. '1'1\;F 1HIIa>- ~.,.of...,. -t-llof.
4. h.l.'l- 11.1.'1- fOD"'. An adverse wind delayed the boat. h.t.'l- 11.1.'1- fOD"' ~of.ll
oot:h!l."} II.H11'1-

adversity oob,:.
He knew many days of adversity. ofllt' foo
h.:. .,.<;''f-"} hlt/Aj,IA

I. hll:I'OJ.,.. He advertised for a servant in the
Sunday paper. RII..Jo.Y: :>11."1 11.1ihC oo
4.11-,."} hll;l'm.,.
The mayor advertised the hours of the public
meeting. h"}t'lm- .lo11'1'1! llilll'l f"''.
1~C"I'l:fm-"} ' 11'\.Y.":f- ' hll;I'OJ.,.
2. f"}"/.1:" "7ll:I'OJ<t1 hm"'. Stores that wish
to sell things advertise in a newspaper.

1\.:J' ll""lf"' f"''.l.IA.,. -~ilf!''f- n:>

11."1 ' f"}"!Y: ' "7ll;I'OJ<tf ' 10J"'tr

I. "7ll:l'm-t1. I saw your advertisement for
employing teachers. hll-t-"7&9'":f- 11oo:r-mc
10J"l1!m-"} ' .,ll:f'ID<t1 ' hftJ2. f"}"IY: "7ll;I'OJ4!1. I saw your advertisement on the special sale. lA I' 111-P II."}
~!I";I'~C"I ' fi"}"/.1:" ' .,ll:f'OJ4!1<D- ' 1\J.'- ' II.

I. "7ll;l'm4!1 "7ll)1C. Advertising on television is very expensive. 01:1\.ii.V1' tl'/ll:r
OJ4!1 "7M1C R"'!l" m-Y: ~m2. f"7ll;l'm4!1 F.:.. John found a career
in advertising as an illustrator. V"dt"tll 1 n
"7ll:f'ID4!1 F.:. a>-ll'l' ' R"''\11..)'1- ~
"7. F.:. 1\.11"

advice !l"nc
My advice is- to leave immediately.
' )ID-


1}-).). ' 11."}.1:"'1-~.1:"

advisable f"''.lfiA
I think it advisable to stay home today. ~.~.
!1.'1- OD'I'/A f"''.lf /A f-ODllll'i'IA
It is advisable to cross streets only at corners.
oo"}11'-'f-"} oo:J'm.t.1:fm- ~f, it;F "7~
G'l' f"''.lf/A f-oollll'i'IA

I. oPbG. What do you advise me to do?
M 1\."}JI~C"I '1-oohG'i'lllll

He advised me against it. l\.~~1\s-..C'uD 1

2. hll:l'm.,.. Please advise us when the merchandise arrives. lf.,.m- 1\..~Cll 1\.'lhtJ"} 1\.ll
;I' <D-.,."}
be advised of-~1G(m-)

He was advised of the latest developments. n:,.

en- llii~Gol-'1- )11!''f- f,)1G<D- )fit:
[See also 'ill1
II'~ ill\"
He used the word advisedly. :J'fr"} f-t-m.,.





advisor h"71J&
My legal advisor is away on business. fih""l 1
h"71J&I'- RF.:. -,..111- ' OJ~ tD-"P ~.\:..lA

advisory 11."71J&
He is a member of the advisory board. fii."71J
6m- s

nc.e- hQA


advocate (v.)


I. l'tOh. He advocates Amharic as a medium

of instruction for secondary schools. ftN\_,.

Of Jl.<'.7f 'l-9"11C'l- fl"'IC'f ~'t-'l.l't'l'
2. t.T1l4' !!.1.1.. He advocates education at
the age of six. OIIJ!.'II'l- 'loo'l- 'l-9"11C'l- oo
)!OOC't o h'J'1l4' ,1'..1'."14-A
3 . .,.h&-h<'.. Parties of the right advocate free
trade. f.,.'f h<;:A :rctl"':f 1\)11 1"1
Jl.' ' ,l'.h&-h&-11-

advocate (n.)
I. mO.+. He is studying to become an advocate. mo.+ 1\00IJ''t ,1'."'1&-A
2. -1-h&-lt<'.. Mahatma Gandhi was an advocate
of passive resistance. "7'1+"7 .?"JJl r f(l~"''
'I! _,._,..,.... -1-h&-lt& )OC

advocated (adj.) f-1-mf.,.

A reform long advocated by the younger
generation was finally adopted. Om"''l- 'l-mAJ!.' 11<'.1!:9" -z.n. f-1-mf.,.,. oolf'lfA
OOD .... <'.lf ' 1"&- ' '1,1'. ' 'I'll

adze oo-r<'.ll..l'
In olden days they made boards with an adze.
Y )0C

-z.n. ll't .+




f"''.m<'.Om- Ooo-r<'.O.

aerate t.<; t.l't

This device aerates the room.


h<i:ll-'t y<;<;:ltA

aesthetics fl") '1'011 -r<;'laether [htl'l'm- h'i' 1lll- f"'1.1'f fmt.c


afar -1-:J.
I saw him from afar. h-1-:J. t.fv-'l-

I. :,.,._:,., He is affable with everybody. 1\tJ-11-
,..,. ' ,.,.,. ' )ID2. t.ll!':f. His smile is affable. .1.1"1;1-m-
t.ll!':f' )ID-

I. "1-.11,1'.. I don't meddle in his affairs. Ol't-
"1-.11,1'. t.A1fl9"
2. )1C. Their wedding was the most brilliant
affair of the season. om:J.-1: h-1-Jl..<'."l-'l-
)11!'"f v-11- !!.9"4' f;l-fiD- f)(t- l'tC
"I )OC
[See also 'state')

I. t..+m(l. That cold climate affected his

health. .,.11.+qm- t.fC m.<;m-"t t..+m(lm2. 1--'5. War affects a nation's external trade.
tnC)'l- fti1C't fiD-"P 't"l!l..' ,1'.1--'IA

Cold doesn't affect him at all. 1lC!l..' ' .1.11''1"


3. h.m4-. The disease must run its course;

there is no medicine which affects it. f"'"l.l'm

4-m- ' ODJ!.'U'l- ' 111111.11 011;1-m- '

~'t!l.1fl '


4. +K"6'r J\lllD". Edison's inventions have

greatly affected modem civilization. f.I..Jl.-11
"I ' <;:A(I<f.jP':f ' OHOD<;'f!m- ' I"A"'~ ' 'I
,1'. h'i' Yll -1-ll'b'l" t.'l'l'm5. .,..-...,(m-). His wife's death affected him deeply. f"'/.11-1> 'l"'l- OTA:J> -l-l't9"-I'-;I-A
6. m!l.Jl.. He affects loud neckties. Jl."'I:J>
h&-'i-1'-':f"t ,l'.m.IIA
*He affectedJ(not::!tolhear me. 1'19"-1'-'f YA<'I
"'I ' OD(t/1 i!ii b,)
be affected
I. -J-)lt. The lung was affected by tuberculosis.
lt"tflm- Olt'tfl ).,.Cit ' _,.)h;I;A

The stable foundation of this house was not

affected by the earthquake. 1\'). fll')ID- fll.
II I 0...,.. I ODrP,l:r- I ODD"-..,.. I 00").,..,..,..... I hA
2. ;J-oooo. If the epidemic is unchecked,
thousands more will be affected. 011;1-m-"t
ltA-1-41."1m-l-'l- 11.11-':f on:u f"'/.41.m-l-

affectation A9"1'tA IJ,I'.


Her little affectations annoyed me.


IJ,I'. rH;I-'1' hO't..,_'f

affected (adj.) f&-l't- YAU')

He has affected manners. f&-l't- YAU') '
miJ,I'. ,l'.!f.A

affection <;::Joe
He hopes to win her affection.



"'l"l'f'l- ,l'.ooo;'A

The affection of a mother for her children

is well described in this book. ~<;:,. IIA]I..
!I! Y'l'l- <;::Joe 011.11 ODI\'m'i' m-11-r
0"'1.1fl -I-1A!I.A
[See also 'crave, starving']



ffl7.lDY:. She is an affectionate child.

(lm- f9"'l-m!l..' A"J!: -;:,.


2. TID-'I;t'. She has an affectionate nature.
TID-'I;t' Q.bCf. M+

(be) affianced"'""'
He was affianced at an early age.



)-Jo' "'""'

affiliate (v.) T<i''lof>ll

He refused to affiliate with a political party.


;>C lloPof>'lof>A l>A


be affiliated with f - - - 'l'~'i'


The college is affiliated with the university.

1>11.)1: fllkliCotof:m- 'l'~'i' ' )<D-

affiliation 11'1"~<;
The affiliation of the two languages is shown
by the many words they have in common.
fll-11-lo :t'J:tl":f 11'1"~<; f'"l.;J-mof>m-
II;>&- ' q~'I'm- ' i!H- ' .4''1+ ' )<D-

I. oPof>&-~il. There is close aflinity between
those two tribes. lll>HU' v-11+ )~1'-:f oo

llhA 'l'il:Jo oPof>&-~il 1>11

2. Tfl'l'l". He has an affinity for languages.
f:t'J:t Tfl'l'l" l>II<D-



He affirmed his loyalty to his

country. '1~<1- Yllm-"J :J-"'I'h+ h~:>~m

He affirmed that he was not guilty. '1'4-T'i'
l>lloPII"\oo"J t.~:>~m
2. l>KJ'.of>. The higher court affirmed the
lower court's decision. htt:..,.;;:m- tt:CJ!" r CL
.-,. fll;J-:f 'i'C~ IL-r"J m-{)~ l>KJ'.of>

affirmative fl>l""t:JAn affinnative answer is indicated by nodding

the head. fl>l""t:J- ""'-h t.&-h"t -"-"- of>
11"'1~~., ,ll-1111\A
*John was on the affirmative side of the debate.
}("J llhCh-1- 'If. dollflo"J h-"-~4-+ m
~"J )flC


affix (v.)
I. l><r ~. I affixed my signature to the letter.
-"-il-'IIL<D- 'If. d.C"'IIIo"J l><;'Ch-'S
2. llmL. Affix a label to the jar! ~"JIIm- 'If.
I"'Ah+ ll'l"i'll+

2. l>m.4'. Starvation afflicts India from time
to time. ~;)11 U"J~"J llf'I.K<D- Ym.4':J-A
be afflicted
I. .,.,..~H. Is Congo affiicted by sleeping
sickness? I>"Ji lll>"J:J>A'i' ll'ii:J- .,.,..C~II
2. .,..,.4'f. Farmers are constantly affiicted
by locusts. ~11<1-l":f llf'I.K<D- lll>"tll"' f.

"'-"'Ytt3. T'l--'1. The world was afflicted by the financial crisis which began in 1929. 111iiffill

f~"JHil :f"lc 'till"' .,.'1-~.f


4. ( ~ active) l>m.4'. +Hararge is often afflicted

by drought. do~C'I."J illl- 'I.K ~c:Jo Y

1. foub,&. "l.H.. She was brave in her affliction. flouh&-'1' 'I.K ;J-.:>11 )fl~:f
2. ou:,.Owtt:T. Some diseases are terrible aftlictions. l>"J-'I"J~ ll'ii:J-l":f h4- ou:Jo.,'i'.f

:r- '


3. 1".4'1-. The affliction caused by this disease

was considerable. 1111.11 ll'ii;J- fT).., f-"-~fl
I& I P:f"~ f h!J: I Ill I ~fl)o
1. Vofl+. Affluence will not guarantee happiness.
11-ll-'l- -"-h:J-"t 11"'/h~'f:,. 'Ph+<; hf.-"-11'1"

2. O"Jij: DP'iC. The affluence of minerals made

the country wealthy. f"'lb~"J ll~'i' oP<;'C
11~6-Jo"J ' l>llllll.:>+

The people of this country live in affluence.

live .in affluence ).C"iD"

flf.U MC {ll":f \oot!''P:fm- fT".7.'1 )


affluent (n.) :t'~+

The affiuents of the Awash River are dry in
December. <D-"- l>'P'ii <D"t11 f'"l.Lfl- :t'
~.f';f fl:J-"r..,JP f.-"-C.4'1taffluent (adj.)
l. q{l,.,;J. The minister was an affluent man.
'"Lth+-1- ' Q/111;> ' {lm- ' )fl-1-

2. f'l' .:>il. Affluent times followed the end

of the war. IPC)-Jo 11114' 11:\~ f'l'.:>il


. I. 11"1'1" '1--'1. War has long affiicted mankind.
IPC)+ llilH- 1.K {lm-"J 11"11"' '1-~

I. flm. Reading affords pleasure. "'I"Jilil -"-11
:J-"t ' f.I'I"'A




----------------------------------------------------2. hil1'f. His own garden affords vegetables

for the family. f..:-(1. ,1''1-hA'I- ll'i'<!- IIIL
.,_ llll- h'l-hA'I- ,I'II1'SII;f-A

llt 1\H.,I' O!l.GIIh- 1.n IL-l> Ollil'l- .,_

4>"1'1'11- ~nc


can afford

Can you afford now to buy a car? h&'t

""h.';" II"""Jq'J- '1-lf'llllll
cannot afford




2. ho:,..... 0'1,1'. ~ ..... I cannot afford that.

n'l.r. ~..,.

3. o:,..... h,I'.L:,O~ll'l-'1". I cannot afford to

buy a car now. ho-') ""h." /IOO"Jq'J- o:,.
"' h,I'.L:,O~A'S'I"

[See also 'pleasure']

afforest !!..') hiiOll
The government is trying to afforest the area
around the capital. 0""';"111" h.,.., hl)Q!l

M:..:. !!.') 11"7AOII


~.,t.. I )CD"

affranchise hc~'J- hOJtiJ

Lincoln is famous for atfranchising the slaves
in America. Oh"'<l'l II.')j>A') QC'lf') h
c~'J- 0"7..,."1-1> f;f-OJ4> ll'S:A

affront (v.) M'.:F.

He affronted me by walking out in the middle
of the speech. 0')"1"14. """A .,.~/".,. n
oofDoti)'J- M'.:F.'S
affront (n.) fDoC!l.'IWe cannot take this affront. ,l'.tJ')') fDoC!l.'l-

afield Of"'VV
The hunting dogs are afield looking for
rabbits. h.ll'l''li ..,.-p.f 'l'"t'I'A 'I'll;> Of

""' .,,.,..,.

far afield OJ!!. ~:,. Me

The traveler wandered far afield. oo')1!!.'1..,.

OJ!!. ~:,. h1C ~!!.

*To discuss that topic takes us too far afield.

OH.,I' 1--'1,1'. M .:>1C hhCl\11-1: .fill- ,I'

(be) afire OM'I- .,..I'.I'H

The house is afire. IL-l> 01\il'l- .,.,l',l'.!f.A
set afire h.+11Jmll

A spark set the house afire.'l- 'l")tiJ<I

IL-l>') h4>"1mll..,.

(be) afloat
I. .,.')iti.L. The logs are alloat. "J').f'.'Ji """
')itl.'i' ' '1,1'. ' .,,.,..,.

A busy man cannot afford delay.

p>,:. f"'l.OqO'J- {lfDo ""H"If'J-') h,I'.L:,O~

.r ho:,O"'

(be) aflame OM'I- .,..,."'mll

The house was allame by the time I got there.




There were many rumors afloat.




get afloat h')itl.l.

We could not get the ship alloat. oocbll-')

A';"')it'i!l.fDo hA!J'A')'/"

afoot Oll"IC
Afoot it is two hours, but by car it is ten
minutes. Oll"IC o-11'1- ll't'l- ,I'.OJII'IA
Oooh.';" "J') OJPC !!.<1::1' .fi!J' ~..,.
be afoot .,..,.{14>{1
Trouble was afoot. <:.fill" .,..,.ll:,.{o ~nc

aforementioned h'\,1'. f.,.m+ll

The aforementioned students can leave. hi\
,1'. f.,.m4>(l.'J- .,..,<ll!'lf 11.~.11. ,l'.:f'ltt(be) afoul .,..,.n.,.n
We cannot use the rope because it is afoul.
1""'1- f.,..,.n.,.n llllll'~ A')m4>'1"R'I-
run afoul

*He ran afoul of the law. .h"l-')

'J'{o lf"lc

fDoll'l' OJJ!.4>

(be) afraid
I. 1...:.. He is not afraid of anyone. "7')')'/"

I was afraid of hurting her feelings. hll4>,1'."7

;f-llo- .fl\1- I.C!I'IIo-

2. ""llll(tD-). I am afraid it is too late.


fH1f ,1'.""1111'1A

I'm afraid I can't help you. At:-'111 f'l"lf

A h,I'.""IIII'S'I"

after (prep. adv.)

I. h--- 0:\'1. Can you call me up after supper?
b..:-'1- 0:\'1 A'J-J!.fDoAA'S '1-::f'lllll?

He fell sick on Tuesday, and died two days after.

"Yhll'l' """"""" bo-11'1-

n n:\'1 .,..,.

2. 1111. Your aunts asked after you. hhll.,.lf-11

11'1').,. mf41
3. ( = conj.) .fl + (imperfect). After all her
suffering she is still cheerful. ,1' o-tt- .,...,_
il-I'A ll!l.CIIQ'J-'1" ho-')'1" !!.11.,_'1 'J-oo



4. ( ~ conj.) (I + (imperfect). After the rude
way she acted who could like her? li'M,II

Can you come this afternoon?

ll'l-q<l\"1 :l'f.:l' "7't f.ID'I:l'Al

fl:\'1 ' 41\'l-00"1 ' '1-":f-'11111!

*He wrote a fable after the manner of Aesop.

fh.fiT't ' .hllll'i' ' flOObof-41\ ' h'tJ:" ' -l-0:'1- '

*He closed the door after him when he left

the room. fl-1-'t H"l+ ID"'
*He failed his exams after all that studying.
n't filA 1>'1"1-fo 1.-1-'i"fD-'t mS'.+
*The brazen girl told lie after lie. ""1'1'0:-1- 11.!1.


S'.:J"/"7 '


(verb.). I answered immediately

after I received his letter. S'.il'lfl.fD- ll'tS'.
S'.O:(I'f I IDJjJfD-). I ODjl\{1 I l\'i'b2. b
fl:\11. He left after we ate.
bfl'l't ' fl:\'1 ''t.S'.


[See also 'late1

*The idea came to me as an afterthought.
~~-1-'t fof-1)Hilb-'l- H"lf.'f ~fD-

afterwards fl:\'1
I will talk to you afterwards. 0:\'1

M :>"'


q,:.-1- ' 11~'1- ' OOIIJ ' ll~?" ' IDJjJfiJ- ' 't.J:-'11-



I will tell him again.


1. f'l" II'~ f. II 1 fll'~ ll''l'. After all, he

failed his exams. f'l" II'~ f.ll of..-1-'i"fD-'t
You are right, after all. fll'~ ll''l' Ah ~~~
2. oo'f?". What can I do? After all, he is my
friend. ?"'t 'IJ:"C"' 1 ou'f?" ID'I:f.: ~fiJI! appears the best after all. oo'f?" bv-11-?"
f-1-lfll f.ooMA

after that blf..l' fl:\'1

After that, there was nothing else to do. bH.
1 n:>.'l .,..,,. 1\.'1 f"''.f.O:"l ~~c hA

after this hH.U I n:;\1\

After this, please let us know in advance.
btl.II ' fl:\'1 ' hll+J:"OOIJ ' h(I:J'fD-+'t
be after
I. -1-b:l'-1-11. The police are after him. 7'1\.fo.":f-
2. LM. It is quite plain that he is after her
money. ~'tH!J.'t oo.t.l\'l- "141\l\"" ~fD

[See also 'ever, long, one, shortly, soon']

afterbirth fll't"lf. A'l':


fll't"lf. A'!: M ."(fD-

'i" f?":J-~q f.oo{IAVA?

2. bH.II?" fl'lf.. Again, I must say that he
is very honest. bH.II'I" fl'lf. fl"'?" :l'
"7'5 , oo!l''l-'t 00"/1\l\"" l\LA.:>IIv*It might rain and again it might not. II.H'til
'/" 'lf.H'til'l" f.":f-'141\
again and again F.;J.,tt"

I told him again and again. S'.:>"'"'L



bil~'l- fl:\'1


11-'1do a1ain 1..10D

Don't do that again! f.ll't't ll't'I'I-S'."l'/"

[See also 'happen, never, now, once, over, time']

I. b--- h'tl\C. The sailor tried to row against
the tide. oocbfl'i'fD- 1 b'I"~JI. h'tl\C 1 1\00
::,OH'i' 'l"bO:

2. fl - - - 'If.. He had charms recited against

his opponent. nqll.:>.:.fD- ' 'If. ' hll"7'1- ' hll

3. noo.+m?". He voted against the proposal.

f+O:flfD-'t mltil noo:I'ID'I" J:"'/"6 lim
4. 1\00fD-.:>'1-. The Ethiopians went to war
against the invaders. h.'l-f"kf11J-n ID.:.t.fD.,. I

The afterbirth was buried outside the hut.


Do you think she will marry again?

after all


He came at ten and I left shortly afterwards.


shortly afterwards tDJfJt-

after (conj.)
I. ll'tS'.

this afternoon tf&. hlltJT 0:\1\

/toPt- ,;J:,O


5. ( ~ adj.) f"''.bllhA. Is there a law against

begging in this country? l\11.11 h~C 41\0D'i"'t
f"''.bllhA <h"l hill
6. 1\00b'lbA. The parliament took energetic
measures against crime. 'l"hC 1 fl.-1> 1 ID't;eA

He goes home every afternoon at three. v-A

'1.11. bil~'l- fl:\'1 ' flHm'f ' 11~'1- IDS'. ' fl.

't ' 1\0IIb'lbA ' 'l"ff:jo ' liC!I"ll"

of> ' f.'t.'IA

7. 111. He was named chairman against his




will. Yll W.1.:rm- 11.+ ou"tOC ~1'.11.11"1'


aged (adj.) fUM

Do you like aged wine? fOI'III fWJ'-1' m

*He saved money against difficult times.

~ '1-w-'11111!

ll:f-'IC 1.U 0"7(111 11'H11 .,.'I'll hMoum

be against T..4-tDoP
Are you for or against it? '1-J'."I<l.'PI\11 w)'.il

A boy aged ten came to see me. YPC

The police are against student agitation.

7"/l.fol- ' f-J-"7&P'l-1' 00)"1"1'1- )'.:J'W"7(1o
[See also 'time, up']

age (vt.) hifou111

Fear aged him overnight. 'i'CY'I- q"t.l', hlfoo
age (vi.)
I. h.:)!. He has aged a great deal lately.
h~{:11 1.U W-'1.11 0"1!1" ' hC~tt.
2. 01'111. This mead ages well. J'-11 fWJ'-1' m
~ J'.~'i' fOI'III )m-

age (n.)

He is about my age. n~~ ~11-YIL )m2. '"""" He is thirty years of age. "''~" '


The aged man was wrinkled and bent. 11"7"111.

OJo "'""'"'" hoolf1Jlffl-!l" 01\J'. 1-11m
aged woman hf!'1..'1-

The aged woman was wtinkled and bent.

he"!.;!: "'""'"'" hoelf11lffl-!l" 01\J'. 11lm'Ptt.

I. J'.'c~'l-. Employment agencies help workers
find jobs. fhil+"'& J'.'C~l- "'tl--1-'l'l-
P'tl- ~1'-'l.Y1"f. ' J'.t:-'111-

2. The company has an agency in Addis

Ababa. &q"tym- h-'1.1'1 hnq OJoil'l' wh.
to,' hiiOJo

I. ~~- State age and occupation!

P'tl-111' "IIIli'



,. ' to,~ ' /l.tnJ'.+~ ' OD"J

aged man 11"7"111.

3. h"7t,J'.)'I-. Sand is made from rocks by the

agency of water. hlf'P h!t'l''l'l- f"''."'tl, . OaJo;> h.,llJ'-)'1- )OJo

[See also 'employment']



His back was bent with age.



!l"h"t y:,. ' 1-1Jtp.l>t,

4. f~~ oo"l<l-'1-. Because of his age he
stays at home. MJ'.'"''.Y'fm- """1<1-'1- f-1)"1 ML'I- OJoii'Ptt.
5. f1.U 1Jq'l-. The bread turned black with
age. -'lflm- h1.UID- 1Jq'l- '""'.:
6. "7C)!'I-. The boards of the floor were
cracked with age. fWIIII- ll"t:J'P'l- h"7C
)!:1-'fm- f-J-)"1 -1-M"''I'+'Ptt.
7. HOD'}. This is the age of invention. ~IJ ftt:
A.(l:cf. I HOD"} I )'OJ8. f.,f ,...,..,., Its age heightens the value of
the painting. f.,f oeU"). fP'~II-1' 'P:>

be of age IIO~"" h-'1!1" J'.t:(l

He will enter the priesthood when he is of age.

1\o~oe h-'1!1" II.J'.Cil Y.+il'ltt.

come of age lli't.l]ll oom'}


He will come of age next year. 0"'1."""1"'"

,_,. 1\ht,l\ ' ODffi"t J'.J',.ClJtt.

in ages Aoflft" HOP'i+

We have not seen them in ages.' H

,....,..,. hl\f'i''fOJo!l"
[See also early, old, tender']

agenda h)':"t-'1
The secretary read the agenda of the meeting.
11"'"-"'" fil1J(Iqm-1' h)':"t-'1 MOO

I. Your agent has already called on me.
wh.AI1 +J'.!I" (Lt. mU'i'A
2. h)"111. Agents are fomenting rebellion in
outlying districts. M"'itP'l- tl-~ q(lo:,.
hm-&-"jfP'l- IJ>oil'l' 11'1'11'1' ' y)"'"'il3. DD16\1Y. Heat and electricity are important
agents in the life of today. oq&.m- 'N!' '
1><:1'-l:'i' ......,.,_ m:J-"'1. OD16\1YP'l- 'i'


agglomerate (v.) hJ'.qll+

He agglomerated rocks and clay to make a
kind of brick. J!:"t:>SW lfM 0"7MII~
fm-fl 'J'-)'1- ....,:.

agglomeration, ~ of
I. ~~ Yll-. An agglomeration of houses
could be seen in the distance. 0'1-~ ~~
Yll- IL-I'l- J'-:1-Y. )OC
2. f-1-0Jo"'"'. His plan is an agglomeration
of other people's ideas. f(lo ~~J'.' h/1.11l- o'IP'l- .bll11 f-1-ID-"'"' )OJo



agglutinate ..,1"1m""

The word-particles agglutinate to form long

words. f:l'l/t. 'lhoil h'i'II-:Y. ...1"1'1'""""
~11';1!'1"' ' :1''1'1-'1 ' 1'>1.'1'&-flo

agglutination oo'f'mJ:'
The agglutination of asphalt and gravel
solidifies the highway. ft.'l'fl'<; fmme
oo'f'mJ:' '1-S'.<;ID''I ,l'm)h~'l'l/t.

aggrandize h<U'.1
He aggrandized himself at the expense of
others. 011.11-:Y. +hlf &-"''1 h<U'.1


His tardiness aggravates me.

'l ...''hol- ,I'O<'l..,'i'A

2. hq(t(Ool-). +He aggravated his sprained

ankle by walking. oo&-ooJJ.. tiJfl'r fl\tJJa'J

4!e"'l'l"''i'"'7.1>'1 t.qnool-

aggravation oflil"'I''II got nothing but aggravation. hoflil"'l'+ 0

ll..,+e 1"''11"' h'l1'fv-1"'
cause an aggravation ftflf}(t

The treatment caused an aggravation of the

pain. ihh!l"<;fDo ih"'"""'l hqq(t,.

aggregate (vt.)
I. h+'l+ll. Farmers should aggregate small
fields into one large field. 1Rt.l":Y. '1-'1'1'11
"7<'ll":fo'l 0"7+'1+A h'IJ:' +A:'f- "7<'1
"7J:'G"I hllqlffDo
2. hm:l'l\11. He aggregated his holdings into
one company. 'loflG1>'1 v-11- q'IJ:- !Joq'l
,1' hm:l'llll

aggregate (n.) m:'f-'1'1 J:'l"'e

The aggregate of all his debts is a hundred
dollars. ,1'110'1- M m:'f-'1'1 J:'l"'~ ...,.,.

2. mO'i'. Nobody likes an aggressive boy.

"7'11"' (tiD' mO'i' A)!' hY.mJ:-1"'
3. 'l'ofl:'i-. The police are making an aggressive
campaign against crime. ?'fl.(l:fo ro'I,J>;A'I
1\0Dh'lhl/t. 'l'ofl:'i- ol-"11/t. 0"7J:'G"I 'If.


aggressor mofl h""'..:

1 h'l'ol:
The aggressor was Italy, the victim, Ethiopia.
mofl h""'.&'l' h."'A,I''I ll+tl"' Rm'lol-
7.:1!' vmY.+:Y...,. Y.'l" ' t..+f'w.l' )O~:Y.

As restitution, the aggressor government gave

ten million dollars.


oo')..,po:,. OP"

e "''.tl.M ofle IJ<'l hl.ll





I. fmofl h""'.&)ol-. Haile Sellassie the First accused Italy of aggression. oJ>-'1"7'1! '11'>11 I"
'Ill. h."'A,I"''I Omofl h""'.o<l)ol- hll!l'l2. mofl "7""1.e. Aggression is condemned by
the United Nations. mofl "7""l.C o ... qo
~T OD'I"JI" ;fool- f ...fD"IH ' )fDo

1. mofi f Mt.6. An aggressive country is always
ready to start a war. mofl -w'. h1C J tnC
H ' 1\0DJ:oue ' 1""1"111.1"' ' 11"1)1: ' )fDo

~ :joe ..,(t'f
He felt aggrieved when I was promoted. 1t,).
fS'.GII' 1.J::1'1- q,-r,. 'l.H. :joe ..,ll'f

aggrieved, feel

(be) aghast h,. oflll- S'.)1m

He was aghast at the damage the wind had
,I'S'.GllfDo'l 'l'of.'l- qf '1,11.





stand aghast tJ(D-


He stood aghast at the horrible sight. hll.+ot

aJo1' I ~1C I l}f I "l..f'L I tJID" I 1\/l

I. +A"'of.. A basketball player has to be agile.
f:'f-e""'.ol- ' l;>,ll ' ...""'.'I':Y. ' +A"'of. ' ODIJ'
'I hiiO'I2. '14!. You need an agile mind to solve the
problem. II~ ou-;:'1-m. 11"7il1'f'l- '14!
h1.1"'l!' ,l'ili.A"IVA

1. 1\~"1"1. Foreign agents were sent to agitate
the people. ih1111''1 11"7)"1"1'1- ffDo"'l'
Me M"fif'.f ...AhiD' )Oe
2. hli'OG. The news that his enemy was
promoted agitated him. fm'11> ou!l!l" m
to hli'RGfDo
3. h<;mK. The wind agitated the lake. )of."'
mf.4!'1 h<;ro,...,.
4. h"71111. The maid agitated the soup. 1~JI.ol>
ll'eq,.'l h"7llii:Y.""

I. OD)"f"f'l-. The police are against student
agitation. ?'fl.(l:fo f ..."7.:l":Y.'I ou)"f"f'l-
2. fOD' ooGO'il. His agitation wouldn't
let him sleep. fOD'II."' ooGR'il 1.'1:'1-A'i!

3. ooli"mT. The agitation of air causes the dust

Yf~ ou<;tn'l' l\!J.&-"'"1 1~"1

to rise.

be In a state of agitation


She was in a state of agitation due to her

recent bereavement. fl-1-Ctl- flf.<;(lq'Jo fH
OU: ' 'I"'Jo ' 9"h1f'Jo ' .,.lf11&- ' )flC

His face was aglow with pleasure.

h:J- ffl&- ~nc



I don't happen to agree with you. 1!1.,. :>

C l\All"7"79"



I. h - - - flll-'1-. I was there two months

ago. hll-11'1- tnC flll-'1- l\11..1' )flCII2. f~~. The club began two years ago.
hfltl- f~~ o-1\-1- <tou-1- .,_!1/!1/ou

[See also 'how, long, moment, week, while']

agonize (vt.) 1\h..,)<i'

His decision agonized him for weeks. 11..~

~.,. ' .......~ ' 111111- ' ft9"1-l''f ' 1\h.... )<i'IDagonize (vi.)

agony (agonies)

I. tiJ<: '1"-1-. His agony lasted hours. tiJ<:

.,...,. ' 111111- ' "1.11. ' .fof
2. F :I' f.. An earache is an agony. f;t:C: .h
OU9" ' F :I' f. ' ~ ....
3. l\{l:J'-1: 11-~;1-. The viper bit her and she
died in agony. M-'S-1- ~::1,-1- q(l:J>oJ:
' .,..,.,_

be In agony +w?f

He was in an agony of remorse.

I. 1\llf.ft'f. She has an agreeable disposition.

1\ll.l'.ft'f ' qa,<;y. ' l\11'12. .,.11..,..,_, They played music agreeable to
the occasion. A"Lrt.m- +il""l"7.. ftr~ .,.,..

IU' '


{be) agreeable {to) .,.11"7"7

Is he agreeable to our suggestion? l\{1- q4'

<:11~,_ dtft11 f.ll"7"7A?

agreemen t


Even though he was right, he agonized over

the decision for weeks. 9"19" l\1\\1 -1hhA ll11'1 qf.<;~,_ ,_..,~ 111111- ft9"
1'1-.,..... ~"'



:J'f. ~nc

suffer agonies bf..~ TIP :J-f

I suffered agonies with that headache. fl&-h

9";1--l- hf.:;' .,..,.:l'fll-

agrarian fl\Cl!"

Our agrarian laws are very strict. n..c;r ih1,."J

:1-'f-1 ' flt1J9" ' '1'11-1' ' "'~'"'"


and gender. "Ill flouf.11'0 fll<:l' hqllfl.

T ' :>C ' f.ll"7"7A
2. l\11. I agree that he is the ablest of us.
hll-ft:f-19" fl'f-11-:1' f..,_flA'I' ~,_ l\111111agree with one +ll"7t11J
This food doesn't agree with me. f.U 9""1
11 ' l\f.ll"7"7'S9"
happen to agree +il"7-'l

(be) aglow 1\fl.:.


agricultur e



I. .,. .....,..,. He agreed to accompany us.

ll.lf71 ' .,. .....,..,
We agreed on a price. Ill\ 'I':>.,. .,.11..,
The verb agrees with the subject in person

I. 119"9")-l-. The agreement has to be ratified

by the Senate. 119"9"~1: fl.h"l ouro(l:;' ou
K".l'.-1- l\llfl-12. oull"7"7-l-. Agreement between tbe verb and
the noun is required in Amharic. q..,cij='
fl"lll<; ' flll9" ' OUIJhA ' OU!I"7"7T ' .,...~..


3. .,..... ..,..,_~+. There was complete agreement

between the stories of the two witnesses.

flll-l\1o ' 9"1lhC:'f ' :l'A ' OUIJhA ' '1'~9" '
.,_.,....,..,,_)-1- )flC
be in agreement +il"''"''

We are all in agreement on that. o-ll'f-19"

flll.ll ' l\111"7"7111
come to an agreement +il..Y"'7

We came to an agreement on this point.

flii.U '1--'lf. .,_11"7"71
conclude an agreement il~gu~:,.


The two nations concluded a trade agreement.

11-1\oof: ' 1\~c:':f ' f1"1: ' 119"9"~~ ' 1\f.l.'l-

agricultur al fl\Cl!"

The farmers used modem agricultural methods.

~fl.&.l"'li flHOD'O'I! fl\Cl!" HS'. .,.m<l'oo-

agricultur e

I. "111C'O. What is the state of Ethiopian

agriculture? fl\.-1-f"WY "111C<; f.l':l' l\
1S'.'l- ~,_?



2. I?.Clf -1-"!QC. There is not much agriculture in this region. OltU +OA. r -flrf' n.
elf -I""I'IC fllf"
Ministry of Agriculture

1\C.,.. "ttli-J:C

Inquire at the Ministry of Agriculture! IIC

lf "'Ltll1:CJ mf.+
~ ""<l-'1- J.'H
The ship ran aground in the shallow waters.
oPCh!). ' 'l'l\4>'f- 0 01\.1\lflo I fll? I lfloll'l' I
-.:.'1- I J.'H":f

aground, run

aid (n.)
1. Ac.c;:f". Tanzania is seeking only economic
aid. n~v rf"'I-4-A7tD<<r"''. 11c.11
;t- -fl!J' ~"'"
2. <:-'1'1-. He is a nurse's aide. f~Cll <:-'1'1- ~"'"
come to (someone's) aid S'-<:1'1(11'1-)
When I was losing the fight, he carne to my aid.
0.1:--fl.<:--fl Alf~'i! IIA S'.<:I'IA~
[See also first aid']



What ails the man? l'llfloflflo1' 9"1'

1. mu'l-. There are rough times ahead.
tDS'..f.'Jo I f:Y..,C I "1.11. ' hfl
2. 0'1'.1:-"''.J.'. I want to send my baggage on
ahead. 'lH.1' 0'1'.1:-"''.J.' fiODI\h 114-A:>

1111ahead of
I. 4>1.9" -fill-. He sits thnee rows ahead of us.
M' 1"11'1- -I"C;t- 4>1.9" -fill- -1"4>9"

2. + .1:-'1". He got here ahead of me. h~ + .<:.,. ' 1111.11 S'.<:l'l

be far ahead +"-oo
His scientific discoveries were far ahead of
the times. OF~ ' '1!'1'<:'1- .,..,.,. ' J.'1>;''f'lflo
~7C'":f h"LH.Iflo ,.,.,__ ~0-1be ahead OD6-

Who is ahead in the election race now?

f9"C""ilflo1' lflo.I:-.1:-C f"'/.fiP&-tD<


be ahead of

1. +F..oo. Are you next? No, he is ahead ofme.

11'-1" -1"&- ~tiJ<! fllf" 111'1- J.'.+.<:-ou'i'A

2. II+. He is ahead of everybody. rJ-11-1'9"

be way ahead
I. 74-. I am way ahead in my work. OF&\'- 7'1!!1'11112. -fill- 4>1-"". Hurry up, the others are

way ahead of us already. .l.m1' RA i 1\11'll ' -fill- ' +.<:-outD<..-A

get ahead -f"o'jiJ(Il'l-)
+My uncle got ahead in business. f~ h"l''1- f1'"1.1:- F&-lflo -f"o'jiJfl'I(See also 'go, straight, time']

aid (v.) <:-'1

Can I aid you in any way? A<:-'111 ff"":f-A
n'l- ""1'7.<:- hill


ailing 011-l"'i'
He has an ailing mother. 011-1""' 11..-'1- h
11-'1be ailing houou(tD<)
She is always ailing. 11-A"1.11- J.'"7 ;t-A

ailment "'""'"

There is no remedy for his ailment. fflc

ihfiPJ" ' OD.I:-;}t'f- ' ffllflof"

aim (v.)
I. M"'m<:. Aim higher! Your bullet hit below
the target. h'i! oflllll M"''I'C 1 .,.,_,.
II ' h'\.l\"7tD< ' O;J-":f o ~lflo fOD;J-tiJ<
2. hi'IO. He aims to become a doctor. mh.f"
3. T"'"'<:. She aimed to please her teacher.
hll-1""76'1'1' 11"711S'.I'l'l- -l""'"'<:":f
be aimed at
I. -I"MH<:. He fended off the blow which was
aimed at his head. 11&-1'1- f-l"l'l~Hl:tD<1' 9"
'1- ' -l"hllhll

The President's speech was aimed at men

of his party. I'T<l-11.-'11'., 1'"1"1C tDS'. &1'1- f?'lltiJ n-.<:-1' f-l"l'l~H<: ~oc
2. ;t-1'10. That was aimed at me. f:J-I'IOtD< II
~ ~oc

aim (n.)
.,~"'mC. Is your aim good? 'No .,~"'mC
'I-":filii II?
2. '\'1"7. He has missed his aim. '\.11"71flo1'
3. 'tl\"7. His aim is to become a good doctor.
'M"7fDo To;.. - tbh.r' I i\ODif'} I )omtake aim 1ti-11Jmt:
He took careful aim and fired at the fleeing
convict. S'.~..- h.!:-C1 M"'m<:..- J.'.lf1i
o~o<:"'" tD"l'.lll"' 111- +hol'l


aimless (pursuits)

fresh air! J'.ll h<;:A ;l''i!'lA l ""ill>.,..,.

'I'~ .I.~~

He spent his life in aimless pursuits. il:"7.



.I.~~ Aloii.I.<JJo

let the air out of hllT~L(t

The child was running about aimlessly. A)l:

.l'll't.'l:f 'tll"'i a>l!..l' <DJI,II J'.C:'f' )0C

put on airs .,..&- c


Yours friends will laugh if you put on airs.

'1-&. 11'1-)~ 'lS'.'I'"f-11 J'.P'.,ii?A

air (v.) A<;Ml

Would you please air the room while I am out.

take the air ..,.r;L(t

Let's go into the garden and take the air!

il<D"' h'i!ll-') A<;<;:(l<JJo

air one's grievances .)o&,;t-m-1

h.t.-J-<Jlo<; _1'.').1..110'1-

He let the air out of the tire. 1"'/<JJo') All-J-

aimlessly .I'II'M:f 't'l"'i







He aired his grievances when he met with

the minister. h"'Uil.X. .:>C 01"1'i"f '1.
H. ' :,.,:._,......,. IJ-1\' ' 1111\

air (n.)
1. AfC. The air in this room is bad. 011.11 h
~A. I dJoll'l' I Yl'\m- I hfC I OD'I'G:. I ~(Do
Birds fly in the air. ro,;:';f OAfC 1\J'. J'.O
2. o-~;1'. The famous man has an air of mystery.
11)'f<JJo (l<JJo il<JJoC fll') o-~;1' AII<JJo
The air was charged with excitement. o-~
;I'<JJo f :>II 11"'1.'1- f'I"IIO'I- )0C
3. ""Ah. The hotel has an air of luxury. 11'-1:11-
f.<':ll-'1- ""Ah AII<JJo
4. 11."'1. This is an old English air. J'.ll f'f'')
'1- f>.')"!l\.11 11."'1 )<JJo
airs .l.ll.'f'

John's city airs annoyed his friends at home.

f)M fh-J-"'1 .1.1\.'f' MI.'!- f"''.11''1-')
m-'l}(lf?t AOio""l'f<JJo
air (adj.) .l'fC

The order of the day was to be alert for air

attack. 6/I;I"E<JJo '1-M11 llfC -r:l''l- 11
"1)1: o-'t- f"''.A )OC
sive oneself airs A:t"~ 1 A.;f'"~ 1 hl'\
She has few friends because she gives herself
such airs. A;I'J'. A:l'J'. "'111'1-') ilM";I'
0~ 'lS'.'l'lf 0"111" -r4:'1- <;If..,.

10 off the air .,.ltlm

Because of a power failure, the station went

off the air. 011./l.h'l-.&h '1-.<':11'1- f-J-)"1 "'
IU'<JJo -J-9/lm
(be) in the air ).1..(1

There are rumors in the air that he will become

President. ).(1- 'l'll-11.-'1')'1- J'.II'<;A f"''.A
"t.>'i""rr'!l";l' J'.)<;:loA

let In fresh air I _1'.').1.110'1-

This room is stuffy; open a window and let in

<1-lhA.,. 11;1' ),')<;.1.11

(be) up in the air ODJ-'1'1


My plans are still up in the air. dlloO. 1<;

O<Jlo'f'') ' )<JJo

[See also 'current, freight, fresh, importance,


airborne AfC mil.<':

Airborne troops occupied the town. hfC

11.<': OJ;l'S'.C:"f h-J-"'Iavt .1'11''1-

aircraft A<JJoC:'l'l\')
Aircraft must land on level hard ground.
A<JJoc:'l'll'f"f S'.MII 011') m')to&. ""<!.
'1- 1\J'. "'ll'i! Allq'f..,.

airfield A<JJoc:'l'll') "'IL.I'

We will meet at the airfield. A<JJoc:'l'll') "'
IU'<JJo ).')1<;'fll')

air force fAfC 'lJ'.A

The Ethiopian air force is strong. fA.'I-I"A'
.1' fAfC 'lJ'.A 'l.r.ll'f )lD'

airing, give an """

1. A<;.l.(l. They gave their winter clothes an
airing. fhl!l"'l- Aillo'f<JJo') A<;.t.(l-'12. ll<h11il )~. The newspapers gave the scandal an airing. .:>H."'jP:f f1-S'.l1lD'') Ao't'l-6
)1C ll<h11il U,.'l-

air letter fMC ""A>.h'l1 received an air letter today. tf&. 1 fhfC
A>.h'l- S'.l(l't


airlines fAfC ,..,.1.<':

Ethiopian Airlines goes to Athens. fA.'I-I"k
.1' fAfC _.,.1.<': <DS'. A-1:') J'.O&.A

airmail fAfC ""A>.h'IWhat are the rates for airmail? fAfC

ODA>.h'l- 'I'.:><JJo II') 'I- )lD'!

airmail letter OAfC f-J-IIh S'.il-'10. 1 fA

fC ?'11;1' S'.il-'10.

I received an airmail letter today.





*Ethiopia is air-minded now. h..'l-f"kY hrJfhfC


airplane h,l'.<!'"l"'I'J



! hCD-~'I't

How long does it take by airplane?


li'J'f- : 1.11.






air raid fhfC


The news of war alarmed everybody. ftDC)oJo







(be) airsick h'I'OJIIOJII(CD-)

I am airsick in this small plane. Oll:Y. '1-'J
1i I hCD-~'1') I CD-!1'1' I Y'I'OJIICD-II'I'A

(be) airtight hfc hY.HA+CD-9"

Is the box airtight? "1'1'). hfc hY.HA+....,.?
*We have an airtight case against him.
Ollll I ......., . I 'IY. I - - I f"t..''I"'CD- I 11




I. Hll f"'l.1fJCD-. He wants an airy room
on the second floor. OrJ-11-!-'I'CD- c::fo 1\Y.
Yll I h'JJ': I )of.ll I f"'l.1fJCD- I h'i'A I Y.I.A
2. h'J-Io. His airy schemes always ended unhappily. h'JoJo I l\:f-'1. I !J-Il\1.11. I l)Y,.l)IJ I Y.+t!-A

aisle oaof-1\III.Y
The aisle in this cinema is narrow. t'H.tJ lL
t"7 IL'f- ouof-'1111-Y m'lil )CD-


The clatter of the mob in the street alarmed me.



The people were told to seek shelter when

there is an air raid. fhfC r mt:.&. (l.ootiJ '

,...,,. ' l\')\>,') ' (lOJofCD- I 0"1'1" I YG1. I fl

IJ'"t'F' I hrJ-'J'F' I ) :J> I ill\- ' Y,.H'f'ID<!-A
2. O'i''l')'f- 1 Y'l'tll:Y. "'/OD'J;J-'1-. He accept
ed the invitation with alacrity. 'J'tiCIJ"') O'i'
'J')T I (Y'I'tll:Y. I "'/DD'J;J-'1-) ' -1-+011

alarm (vt.) hlfOG I h!IS'.)1m


The airport of Addis Ababa is new. YJI.ll


alacrity, with

I. ):J> illl-. Although the man is very

old, he still moves around with alacrity.









be alarmed

1. ~~1m. Don't be alarmed if you see a car

COming. ODil.'O I (I.OD"J I ll;f"Y,. I l,~S'.'J"I'J'
2. -1-lfOG. Everybody was alarmed at the
news that war might break out. tDC)'f- Y.
)Ufr 1.-IJ"'iA OO?..AID" m~ r flo& (lm- +

alarm (n.)
1. J':'J ;Jm.. Everyone drew back in alarm when
they saw the snake. ll'lfi-'J 'II< 1.11. rJ11-'r


fll~'f- S'.OJA.



OJS'. ' :\'1


Set the alarm for six! fll

S'.OJA ' 001"<1-




3. f"7llm'J+4:Y S'.IDA. The noise of the

alarm activated the fire company. f"7llm'J


S'.OJA I ...."Ji'fI +ll+(lCD-




aJarm clock f"7..1.m-A 1"1-l+

Set the alarm clock for six! f"'l.S'.CD-A
001"<!- I !J-IlT






false alarm

It was a false alarm. fCD-lf'f- "7llm'J+4:Y

(be) ajar 1C0il M

The door was ajar. 001f1.J'tD- 1Cfiofl 111\-

(be) akin
1. of-ODI)l)Y,. )CD-. Most boys are akin in
their love of sports. hil~'l'l"'fi A]F.:Y. !Ill
li7'C'I- I """'"'" I 'i':f-C I of-OD/)/)Y,. I ""'"'"
2. -1-IIDDS'.. The man is an old friend of mine
but is not akin to me. ll:tJJofd)oo f'o(}lf- ~II.
'JS'.'I'tlo I )CD- I l\')7( I hY,.IIODS'.'S9"
Pity is often akin to love. C'l~ iiH- 1.
tL I bODeD-~ .,.?C I fTfiODF.. ~--



Y:'rll hi1'7
Sound the alarm! The building is on fire. YS'.
sound the alarm YY..~


hll"7 I .ft')l\CD-


[See also 'flurry']

alarming h'l'lfl
The report of the world news was alarming.
f~/1?" I



alarmingly O"tJ'li;J

l,l)/)flo )0C


The fire is alarmingly close. l\1)-to O"t)'li;J

IH;f- I -1-:l>C!I.A

.:::a.:::la=-s:___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____:.3..c6_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ align

alas I


Alas! I have no more money. mf,.i, ! 9"'l9"'

nn-o t.A-J-<(.1.'S9"

-o + imperfect
Albeit he has failed twice he is not discouraged.
9""'i9" h"'i1>."'i IJ-1\i:':t9" -1-llof.

albeit 9""'i9" h"'i1>."'i

album fC:of-"1&-'i: "'''l'&Y

alchemy (RoPIIhii'O'm- H"""'i fh."'LIIT& oflm.]

I. hAI>A. Alcohol is the principal ingredient
of beer. t.AI>A 1 'l'<;m- 1 fm~ 1 h<;:A 1 ~"'"
2. f"tY(thC 1 oom'l'. Drinking too much alcohol
depraves a !person's character. fot..f'(thC ~





Alcoholics must be treated by a doctor. fh
AI><!.\ 1 (to(t'l'':f 1 R.hll.ll" 1 oo:f"hll" 1 hllq'fmalcohollc (adj.) h<I.\1><1.\~T 1 Yllm1

How is the strength of alcoholic beverages

measured? h<l.\1><1.\~:,. 1 Y~'l'm- 1 oomjll':f 1
'1.l'.~'l'm- I f"'LIIIItJJo I h"'i ........ I ~"'"!

ale [fll.&-

algebra hA)!.-fl&f.h./tofl



alias f.h(t:,.



The spy's real name was Harrison, but he

sometimes went under the alias of Johnson.











' "l"'i



1 ~nc



I "''ilT]

(n.) ft1Jo11'



II.;> i ftJJo"f."


All aliens must register. fiJJ-IiP h'lC H..79'l- 1

(-J-CD~}':.':f) I IJ-{Io I ""OD'If1-fl I j;jlq'ftJJo
allen (adj.) q~.l:'
A refusal to support one's parents is alien to
Ethiopian culture. ro~,'i(.f"'i 1 hiiOOjllC 1 II
t.,:,.v-t;ym-n 1 quA ' q~.l:' 1 ~"'"



The cupboard is kept in an alcove in the dining

fOOID. cJt9"' I UflJ"). I fif""""l-fl I (1.~ I flh-A I



alcoholic (n.) fhAI>A


2. '11"1)1:. The order of the day was to be alert

for air attack. M:f"'l!tJJo 1 Th~ll 1 llhfC 1
...,....,. 11"1)1: I .,..,. I f"'LA ~RC
Algebra is a form of mathematics. li.A:(ofl,t.

He gave her a photograph album for a present.

fC:of-"1&-<i: "'''l'&Y 11"':1" t..<'.<(1~:,.

oPffi'f' ~

A good hunting dog is alert to every sound

in the field. 'No 0 ft.S'.") I tJJo~ I "'/JJtJJo I tJJo
/I'J' I ll"t(t"''tJJo I ll"''"'i'O'tJJoll" I .1:'9"6 I "'joj! 0



I. hiiYf. His wife alienated him from his

friends. "tll-1> 1 broo'IP:,'Il 1 hiiYf':fm2. h&-.,., He has alienated his entire family.
11.-1- 1 {ttJ-"'i 1 Roo~ 1 hC!'IA

alight (v.)

alert (v.) hllmH.,.

He alerted the guards that a visitor was coming.
h"'i"l-'1 1 ,1'.00"1<1.\ oflll- 1 HR'l''ll"'i 1 t.llm~.,.,..


The commander alerted the troops before the

enemy attack. m~:,. h"'''l':J'-1> 1 n.c.:,. 1 h
WH' m;f"Y.C:'Il"'i 1 hllm~.,.:J''I'm-

I. hG.I.. The plane alighted. t.m-er~). h<(.l.

The bird alighted on the ground. ro:J, 1 0011,
..,. ~.e. ' l;<(.C.':f
2. ID<(S'.. I ran up to him when he alighted
from the plane. bt.m-1!'1'~). 1 fiiD<(S'. 1 '1.11. 1
c:- I IDS'. I h(to I H"'i .1:' I 't.I:'!J.

(be) alight
I. LII. His bright face was alight with happiness.

alert (n.) "71lm"'i.,.4!Y

He received the alert in the afternoon. O?llm'l
.,.4!Ym- I h(t~..,. I R:\~ ' S',<({ttJJo
be on the alert 'l41

I ,~.., RS'./1:1" I " " "

2. ofo"'iRIIRII. The fire is alight in the hearth .
h<'l-1> I 9".1:'']fm- I tJJo/1'1' I -1-"'iRIIRII



A soldier must be on the alert. m;f"Y.C

ODif"'i hiiRT
alert (adj.)
I. "'ioj!, He is an alert fellow . .,.,




align (vt.)
I. hl'lll.l.. The officer aligned . the soldiers.
00\>-"'j). I ID;f"S',C:'i?) 0 l;(tll.l.
2. S'.<(S'.<(, We aligned the chairs along the wall.
ID"'iRC:'Ii"'i I 0"1.1:'"1-'ltJJo ...., I. S'.<(S'.C"'i

align (vi.)
I. -1'1\11.1.. The troops aligned. <D;J-.I'.C'lfi -1'1\
1142. q").l'.- ' ODP'ODC ' lt,f. ' -M'f. This wheel
aligns with the other. f.IJ 1"7 hl\.lt.,.. ;>C
q").l'.- ODFODC lt.f. f.'J'i'A
align oneself ,.(tAL

Ethiopia aligned herself with the m<\iority

on that vote. fiiU' "i''lf. .1'.-'1"6 fl"'l.{l'J'fl'l-
1.llo h.'l-f"k1 IJ11~'i',.. ;>C -1'1\ll.l.'f
be aligned -f'qfl<;

Germany was aligried with Japan in World

War II. flll-11-1' ...,.. f'll\'1"





wrn :>c

fi'C~'I- ~c


I. l\11-A. This law applies to men and women
alike. f.IJ ih"' ll<D"t P.'f'l" flll,.Y.'f'l" l\
2. h"t.l'.-. All music is alike to him. 1\(1. v-ir
'I" ' 'lf.~'l- ....~~.,.. h"t.l'.- ~ .....
be alike -f'OD/j(lfl
These seats are all alike. MH.IJ """'""""l"
'f 11-it' f.oPij(llt,(to
r J\f
treat alike 111'X"
We treat all our customers alike. o--A-"}9"' f..
"tfl'l'!l"f't"t q").l'.- 'lf."t M'1'l''Pil"t


aliment 11""111
Bread, milk, and fish are aliments. -'If\ ! tDi"
,.., 'l"f '1""111 ' ""',..



Alimentary disturbances ruined his health.

fh"t~'l- fl'ii;J- m."tH"t hfllt.lf,..

alimentary tract fll'.l'.- f'l""'11 oP-f'lt.l\.1.1

The alimentary tract is subject to diseases.
fll'.l'.- f9""111 oP-f'lt.ll.l.1 ' flfl'ii;J- 1\.tll
:J' ' 1-'flt.A

alimentation hOD;>111
Proper alimentation is important for main~
taining health. m."t~'l-"t floPmfl4' -1'1
II. ' t,OU;>11J ' ' ~ .....

alimony hfiA
After the divorce he had to pay alimony
to his wife. h-f'of..J, fl:\lt. 11"7.11., hfiA
""h.I.A ~fl<:fl'l-

I. flihf.<D'I- 111. Who is the greatest man
alive? flihf.<D'I- !Jit- (ll"'f DPIJhA ;Jlt."7"t~,..l

2. h~ihf.ID.,. Get him dead or alive! '-"~ i

II'~ h~ihf.ID., hii""'A"i
3. "t. John is one of the most alive boys
we know. ]!."t hll"'i',..:J''I',.. fl"''l" 't
hll'l-'1- A]!.'f h"t-'1- ~,..
be alive

I. flihf.<D., hi\. Is he still alive? hll-"tll"

flihf.ID., ' hfl !
2. 'l'<:. Being dead is better for me than being
alive. ll~ ' hDP'l'C ' f.A:t oP'I"T f.ifll'i'A
be alive (to)
I. OID4'. He was alive to the danger of the
situation. ill\ 11-l!.;J-,.. h.1'.1'1~+ 1"":t ~fie

2. 1ti\I\L9'". He is alive to his opportunities.

fDP"'I\'1-"t ~.1'.-A h1A.I.tiJo'l"
be alive with rf-'1"1\

The streets were alive with people. OD'l1P..:fi

Oih1111 i''I"Ai'""


*The room is alive with bugs. htt:A- -1-:\'l

11!1' ' ~ .....

keep alive (vt.) hol'f

His revengeful actions kept the quarrel alive

for years. ffi4'A i'"'q-1- mq'f',.."t 1111H-
qon;t-'1- h-1'1-;J::A
keep alive (vi.) flihf.IDT ol'f
It is a miracle they kept alive. flihf.<D'I- ""-~'
1?''l'tiJo' -l'hii"C, ~""

all (n., adj.)

I. 11-11-. He wanted all or nothing. 11-it'"t IJ

hA.I.A"''I" hll

That upsets all my plans. 1 l\:t.l'.."t 11-11-


2. v-A

(suffix pronouns). Did you all go?

v-lt.'fll-'1" 1'-'l'fll- ~tiC l

3. onlt,tiJo. Last year, all Ethiopia celebrated

the 25th Anniversary of the Restoration. qll.l.
t..'l-r-1>1 '11 hll"
~' 'l""'l-


il-1''1,.."t nu+ fl'lA hhfl<:

4. "7"t'1,... He has to give up all physical

activity for a while. ll'l'-1:'1- 1.11o "7"t'1,.."t
'II" ' h!Jlt.'l! ' l\"t:tii:J'Il. ' ""-~',.. ' hllfl'l5. ( = adv.) fl..,.ll-. My son has appropriated
all my ties. A:( h&-li-Hi'J fl' <Dil

all (adv.)
I. fl'i'~ll". He is all wrong. l\(1. fl'i'~ll"
2. fl"'l.1q. The men were all ready to start
their next job. fll"lfi f"'L4''1'11~ F&-'1',..
"t {loo~DPC fl"'l.1q i'H;>)'.'-1',.. ' ~tiC



*If that is all there is to it, I will do it.1.'t-'l.ll
*That is all I needed. f.l.ll"lrJ-'1- J'.ll't 11

iF ' ~ ....
*The prisoner denied all connection with the
crime. 1.11<:'i'aJo 1111 m't~l\o ?"'!?" hllaJo
:j>?" 1\A 11.1'.
all along
I. ?"'t1.U9". We knew it all along. ?"'11.U9"

"'""'"'" ~nc
2. rJ-A1.U. We have suspected him all along.

IJ-A1.U 1.'t.l'.1'm&-mC~aJo ~OC

3. boo~oo<IJ' ~9"1!". He knew all along that
it was a lie. m-if+ r oPIJ").") hoo)!'ou6Y r
~?"c y.,.:j> ~ nc
*There were trees all along the road. flfoP1'
1.11. ' qc:'f- ' ~0~
all at once O.l'.''t1'1All at once the wind came up. ~'i-ll O.<:-'t1'1-
all but

*He all but collapsed. IIODaJo.l'.:j> ?"'19" hA

4'<:..,.?" ~oc
(be) all for 4.:1'.1'.>;' ~..,.
I am all for accepting the prize. 'IIA.,-I:'t II
oooJ>OA 4.:1'.1'.>;' ~'1
all in all Om:j>llllaJo
All in all, he is not a bad fellow. Om:j>llllaJo
OD'J'C: 0 /laJo ' h)'..1'.119"
all kinds of .,.,,...,.,.. 'l)'.~'IThey sell all kinds of electrical appliances.
.,<;'faJo't?" ' 'l)'.~'l- ' fl\.1\.h'l-&b 0 OD"f6
.1' Mf"'llsuffix pronouns
all of II-A
They asked all of us to the party. llll'f-'t'tl"'
11.1'.'"111- :>Oii''t

all over (prep. adv.)

I. o-11- l ODDIIaJo. He traveled all over the
country. h"l~"t floo-A- tft;
Her brilliance as a piano player was known all
over the world. O'C.I''l" 1-'"i'l''f-~'1- .1'11'1- :j>
A'l''i'<; 0""11"'" 'llll"' f;l-m4' ~0<:
2. 0 - - - II)'. 0 ...11-. He left bread crumbs
all over the table. Om<:A.qaJo II)'. Ooo-11-
'i'C-1-& hll4'<:
3. IJol\OD'im-"t. I am aching all over. IJ-ItOD'i
11-'t '.l'""'i'A
4. ODI\ (tm-~~- He trembled all over. ODI\ r
/laJo~-1: 1''t4'm4'm

(be) all over hll-1'

It is all over. You may go home now. hA!II
A l 0.'1-11 11""'/..1'.' '1-'f-111111
*Once the police discovered his identity it
was all over with him. ?"ll.(o.,; 1.11- """
).'t 11m<lt fll- ~1C hO:J' .,11'1- ~"'"
all that

I. 1.11bllll. It is not all that bad. 1.11bllll

""'I'C: ' h)'..l'.lll"'

2. J'.ll't .I'IIA. It is not all that cold. )'.ll't

.I'IIA 11C.I'.' h)'..l'.ll?"
all the better
*If that's so, all the better. 1.'t-'l.ll
h't-'I.J'aJo?" ' f-1-lfll ' ~ ....


all the same

I. -""'" That's all the same to me. II~ -""'"



2. O.lf'tl"'. All the same, I want to see it.

O.lf'tl"' llfaJo 1.4-A:>IIrJ-

*His remark was well-meant, but insulting all

the same. hll-1-.l'f'l- fllmaJo O:j>'t ""'t"11 O.lf't?" 11.1'.-11 ""If). hA-l'<:?"
as as all that f.tJ"t ' ftJA

It is not as difficult as all that. )'.ll't .I'IIA

hll'f:>& ' h)'..l'.ll?"
from all over hf(t;J-ID-

They came from all over. hffl:J"m-


ln all Om:j>llllaJo
How many are there in all? Om:j>llllaJo ll't
:r- ' hl\o l
once and for all fooa~1f aJo"} 1 ~mI am telling you once and for all, stop it .
fi"'~"ICII fou..,<:lfaJo't ~"'" l 1-aJo
[See also 'after, almost, around, at, for, gone,

line, not, once, one, time']

I. rJ-11 111 flf~. The allaround athlete
earned three Olympic gold medals. rJ-11 111
flf~ :hll?"C-t-'i' 1"11'1- fNI.I""Cb me
:j> flf't M'f
2. ( ~ adv.) .~..,..,., Our attempt to get control

of the meeting was an all-around failure.

1111/lqaJo't ll""oJr."'mC .l'.l'.<:"l~aJo ..,b&-
' <'1)'.<'111 ' 4'<:


I. h:J-1111. The doctor allayed his fears. doh.
- 'i'C7-I>'t h:J-111111'12. hll;l-1w. These pills should allay any pain.


all clear


Mtlll h.t'l'l- "71:;:'1'm-1!1" 'IM-1- .h

""'~" .filM"Iit-

t.' t.RIJ m-tt'l' illl" mllil ""111':f. hit-

all clear YfC wt.&- "7il-"''1- '/"Ah-1The all clear was given at 8 o'clock. ,ffC

alii ance 1ilt.'l- 1 il'/"'1")'1The two clans have an alliance. 11-11., 1-lll"

wt.&-m- "7il-"''l- '/"Ah-1- Ro-11'1- 11'1'1-


allegation -"'A 1 )1C

The lawyer's allegation was no proof.


ID" -"'A "7/lt.lf t.A)Rt.'l"

He made so many wild allegations that no

one will believe him. ilH- hl\m-)'1- f&-4o
)1C':f !l.t./1- illl"'l.A "71'1" t.,f'/")m-'1"

allege toll
The man alleges that his watch has been stolen.
llm-\L<D- 11'1-1: _,.llt.4'il~ J'.~A

He alleged that he had closed the door when he

left. ho't.ll. R.I.'!- IL_,1 H"''li,fl\11- toll
alleged (adj.) f.,.IJII
The alleged theft never really happened.
f_,.IJI\ID" IIC-1''1- Rl\C"''I' t.AAt.ll'l"

:1-1 nw:J-!1.&-'1! il'/"'1")'1- 11"71117'1- f

"'l..C.A"' ' )m-

alii ed (adj.)
!. fjllC 'i!l..... The allied nations won both
World Wars. fjllC 'i!l.....:f ""1"1F:I"'I-
11-1\.,1'1" f'll\'1" jllC)'I- .I':A h!l.t.'l-

2. f"'l.~OD.I':. The dog and the wolf are allied

animals. m-lf<; .,.It-~ f"'l.~oo-'1. l\1illl'l-

be allied
!. .,.IJRt.. This newspaper is allied with tbree
others. /'.11 :>11"1 hl\.11-:f ?'ll'l- :>11"'
:f :>C f_,.IJRt. )m2. .,.il"7"7. The conservatives and the clergy

were allied on the question of church schools.

!. :J-"7~)'1-. In America students pledge allegiance to the flag every morning. fi't.~~li
.,..,C':f tp.'l- tp.'l- 11111!1."1- '1~"7'f'm-
:1""7~):1-'f'm-1 J'.1Ar.ft2. :J-"7~ ""11'1. The soldiers pledged allegiance to their country. w:J-!I.C''Il ~1&-'l'm-
:J""7?f':f OOII''i"'f'ID-1 ' 11\l\oath of allegiance

He took his oath of allegiance.

~)'I- """'~ "711
[See also 'pledge']

:f 1ilt.'l- t.~'l'm-

This line of policy seeks security through

military alliances. fiLII 'IJ'.)-1- 711.11.. ll'l'



allocate !1.11!1.11
He allocated the money fairly. 11011-1 R
.,.1R. t.'>.:\1 !1.11!1.1\

allot (allotted)
!. OO!f.R. He allotted ten million dollars for
education. OFC "'l.II.M ilC 11'1-'I"IIC
'I- ' OO!

allegory '1"111\.
He sought to explain it by means of an allegory.
R'/"111\. h.I':C") 1\0D"'I\ll" ' 'l"ht.

allergy [fllm-)'1- t.1'11.1': 'l""!fl:f1'i"

1\tD-'1' f"7J'..C.A'l-'l-'i" 4'/lm-il_, ill\ IL_,.

hU)'I- '1-'I"IIC'I- ~ IL1':f 1-'IJ'. _,.11"7
,._,...,. )RC


:'H:f-1 t.llon4'RA]

!."'. He takes aspmn to alleviate
the pain. F -"'f-1 11"7il:I"1F"Ctl1

2. tl-"'1111. Food was distributed to alleviate

the distress of the starving people. ft."1il.,...,.
'Il1 lll":f :f"'c 11"7-"'IIA '/""'ii :J-!1.1\

alley mllil ""11.1':

There are many alleys in Addis Ababa.

2. lim. The teacher allotted work to each student.

t.ll.,..,tliD" ll.f1'11.11. .,..,.: F&- lim

3. hUll (.,.hUll). The profits have all been

allotted. '1-Cf- Rou-ft- _,.h4-~A
!. ll.l.. An all-out effort is needed to wipe out
illiteracy. oollf.ll"}'l-1 11"7~ 11.1. 'l't.-1-
"7.1':t."' .fll.C.A:>A

2. YA.,.4'.mR. He made an all-out effort to

climb the wall. "'.I':"''IID-1 1\0DID-"f'l- YA.,.4'.
mil 'l't.-1- t.!l.t.1

!. 4.4'!1.. How much time will he allow him
for completing the work? ~&-tDw'l 1\0DAC::
II '1"1 ,filA '1.11 J'..C."'-.1':11:1-Al

2. l\11!1'11. The precision of this instrument

allows us to measure very small things.
fH.U "'"'U.Y '1-hhll'i'H 0"1?" T:l>
:j.') fU'l-'1-'t ~1C':Y.. u-11- lloulllt'l- Yh
3. ouS'.O. How much should Iallowfortraveling
expenses? 1\00=J=\"lf mQ;t. J irt+ s oooPF..
11 ' l\1111~ ?
4. of-4'011. The International Court of Justice

allowed the Ethiopian claim. f~A9"" fi:.C

Y: ' 11'1- ' fh..'I-NtY't ' TY<fl ' of-4'011
5. hm. He does not allow himself a minute's
rest. 11&-{lo Y'tY: S'-4::1> bG'i''l- hf.h'l'?"
allow for 11.1\4.

This teacher is very stern. He does not allow

for mistakes . .e.o ouruc I Otil?"' I "1"11-t I 'io
w- I h.'h-t-'1-'t hYIA'i'?"

*The dress was made larger to allow for

shrinking. A11{lo {l.b-"'1-t-C ' l\'t'IY.m11 0
"'111'1- 114>:j. of-S'.C1 ofo{lof.

I. hUlA. How much travel allowance do you
get from your company? hlJ.q')yu f?":t-1

f1--fl I hOI!\ I 9"1' I ftJA ~OJ-?

2. Att. mQJ.. How much allowance do you

get a week? Ollrl+ Att.


UA :f"1 ...11U ?

make allowance for

I. "1?"'1- w-hT hh1q, Indeed, we must
"1?"'1- ' tD-h'l' ' "''h1q'l- ' l\1111')
2. l\hof-Yf'l- hS'.G1. We made allowance for
Jack's inexperience. ll)fh fA?"?"Y: l\tn
'1- hhofoYf'l- hS'.G"I't
no allowance oP""IQ-l- bAhA )om-

make allowance for his youth.

No allowance except for authorized personnel.

h-t-L4>S'.II'ftD- w&--t-'l':Y.. Oh-t-4>i: ,..,

q'!-' hiAhiA' ~ ....

allowed, not ~ hAhA
The boss served notice that smoking is not
allowed. hll:j.!Lw-
hAhA ouU''t-'t



alloy :j.y..,.
This is not pure gold; it is an alloy. .e.u
') g..n IDC:j. ' hf.S'-11?" l T-1:'1- ' :j. f.T ' h

all right
I. hT:>O.. His work is all right. F&-tD- h
'1';>0. '





2. l\1(. He said, "All right, I wilt do it". l\1( l

l\w&-'l'llflo hll
3. S'.'W. Don't worry; it will he all right.
h'l-..,~:j. t S'.'W f.IJ'<;A
4. OS'.W. I hope the hooks arrived all right.
ODl';'.hC:,; ' OS'....<; ' l\')~G{lo ' ofohof. ' hS'.
Is that all right with you? OH.U '1-h"''"''

allround 0..,.11- f-t-'1'"111'1He's an all-round sportsman. flaD<of\o

s f+'P

"111'1- l\ilTC-1" ... ~w-

allude h~"'
Don't allude to his wife's death when you see
him. il;f-1'fw- f"''.hi>'t '1"'1- h;f-'t"'O'Iallure h"'/.'1- 110
The sea allures him. h"'/.-l>'t Y.hO'I'IA
allusion f"''.~lt ~1c
There were certain allusions to me in his words.
hof-'01GtD- tD-h'l' l\~'t f"''.~lt h't'l'tY:
~1c ~nc

make allusions 1\"lvt

Don't make allusions to his wife's death.

f"''.hi>'t '1"'1- h:f"'t"'O'I-

ally v. (allied), ~ oneself ofoqnG

Our country will ally itself with another to
protect its people. l\1&-:Y..'t .'h11!1.'t 1\oPhll
hA h'I-IA ho\.11 h1C :>C '1-of-qO&-II:Y..

allyn. (allies) 'iS'.'i' ! ftnC f:J>A h.'l't

We need to find an ally if we are going to win.
l\'tY:<;ll''t'i' hLII"I't 'iS'.'i' "'1"11'1- hll11't
France and England were allies in the war.
OtnC~-1> l\'t"l/1.11'0 LG'tllf. ftnC f:J>
A ' h.'l't ' 'iS'.'l':f ' ~0~

almighty -.yA
He prayed to almighty God to save him.
.,Yflo l\"IH.h11.h.C l\'t'I.YY:~w- llllf

almond 11w-11
1. A +imperfect+ )OC. Heslippedandalmost
fell. h'IAtn'l- /I.IDY::j. ~nc
2. A + imperfect + M?" h1A4'G?". The
smoke almost suffocated me. "l.f"to 1\..f"i!"i~ s
?"'t?" t.A4>G..,.?"


*I almost said that he was a liar. 1\r"t- IIPif

~..,. ' 11"'111'1- ' :1>"1~


be almost ~,. fUll\ t.A+t:,.
It is almost time to start. Aoo)!ooc = 1..t1m- s
~,- ' fUll\ ' t.A+t:,[See also 'alone, nothing']


somewhere along



Somewhere along the journey I lost my bat.

ooo"J1.<'. ~f. q(;lr."'tl. m<f-11'{

[See also 'all, come, get, go, line, move, take']


alms ,.K"'P'l-

The hands of the beggar were outstretched

for alms. 11.,-,: ,.K"'P'l- lloo+OA l\)I:"J

(be) aloft fl.,Y. ~f. ~Ot':

The planes were aloft at the time of the air

raid. ffC ' Wt':&- ' 01-~<':1 ' 1..11. ' hf.C:T
~<:''fl ' fl.,,. ' ~,. ' ~o~

1. h - - - 1-1 l 1-"J. This tree will grow alongside the eucalyptus tree. Y,.tJ : 'ffi: hQihC

' .,.., ' f.<':;J/l\

He parked his car alongside the building.

ooh_<;aJo") ih"Jl\aJo 1-") t..fooP
2. 0 - - - .IIC!I'. There is a bank of earth alongside the street. 0""11'1. .IIC!I' fi.C h,.

c '


(be) aloof
1. 11!1'. We are not alone in thinking that the
situation is grave. o-);.:J"(Do ltll"L = ~aJ-- : -fill
"J f,..,,.., M' 11!1' t.Y.~II"J,.
2. ofl;.F
(suffix pronouns). Do you live alone?
11ii'U"J '1-<:'&-IIU 1

*Because of her shyness, she has the repu

tation of being aloof. 'lf.'J t.<f.C lllllf~
":f- 0111/l\1-'i'~:l: f:t-m+":f- <;:,.
hold aloof A.."JmC 1lil"" 4-DP

He held aloof from the crowd. hih11tl-



Meat alone is not the best food for children.

stand aloof

P' ;J 11il'aJo"J 11/l\]t.":f- f-1-lf II ,-"111

I. 11,. 1111- 0111/l\1-"1'~'1- .fof. Their leaders stood aloof throughout the crisis. O'f1


almost all alone


The house stands on the mountainside almost

all alone. n.., 1-~'1'11- 01-&-&-aJo 'I';JT
~f. f.1"1'A

"LJI, f 0069'EJ!:ftDAof-'{~'1- ' .fof.





2. 1-111- .fooo. One boy stood aloof from the

others. t."J.<': A~ h/1.11-'ll 1-111- .foou

stand alone mS?..C flltD-9'"

He stands alone among the scholars on Ethiopia. llll h.'l-f"kf h"'l.faJo4lT fl..:J'aJo
"J'l- outthA m~c fll.,.,.

[See also 'leave, let']

1. 0 - - - .IIC. We walked along the shore. oq
ih~ .IIC of-6-0D.<':")
2. 0 - - - """'t':T. Along the lines just noted,

I suggest we start the new project. hv-"l

01-111~'1- dt<lll":f- ou,.,.;;r. t..<Lll l\'1-

.r: ' l\").<':"J)';,-C '


3. 0 - - - '1'"1. We aligned the chairs along

the wall. m"JOC:'tl"J 0"1.<':"1-'laJo '1'"1 ~t':

*We walked along the road for a mile or so.

oP"J1'1."J f,H") t."J.<': _,,A fUI.\ 1~11")

along with h - - - ;JC

He planned the project along with his associates. l\'l-'1.") hiicltl"'fl :>C t.H;J)';


1. ...,,.,.., h'i! h.<':C1. You may whisper

in the library but do not talk aloud. ll.-1- '
ODl\ih'i!., ' aJoil'l' ' A;t-"JJI"ltlf.h- ' '1-":f~~":f-v- I "11 .<':,-Y":f-v-1 h'i! h.<':C;J ":fv- t.'l-~:>1~
2. ""'h 1111-. He read the story aloud. ;t-&
h-"J ""'h 1111- MOO
alphabet A.~A

The Amharic alphabet is different from the

Arabic alphabet. f.,C'i' A.~ hOt:11"1'
A.f..A f_,./lf


alphabetical fA.~A

Put the names in alphabetical order. ll'l"'fl"J

OA.~A 1-&-


alphabetize OA.~A 1-&- t.~t':1

Please alphabetize this list of names for me.

f,IJ") fll,- 11C11C



1-&- h.<':C"I

have an altercation

1. 1\il_,..1M". I have already eaten. 1\!1_,.~ 0
Ail' /Ill-

When he asked for permission to use the

car he had already used it. oull..'i''l''t 1\oPtD-{1
Y: 1\.m.f.:,O 1\il.,..1M" +m:,O'I"'I'I- )OC
2. .,.1.'1" (LA. Your agent has already called
on me. mb..AII .,.1.'1" 1\.A mJ'.-''fA
3. hlf.ll .,.1.'1". I've burned my fingers once
already. hlf.ll .,.1.'1" 1\'tY: "1.11. +llilil'/1114. Y:r:. We have already used up our canned
food. f-'C-'r: 'l""l'l:f't't Y:r: ""'~il)m5. ~'i' Y:r:. Is it ten o'clock already? ~'i' Y:
r: 1\tl-'1- {I'l-l- ' '1"11 1

May I have some of that also? hlf..l'9" '1't'li Am-{IY: 1

[See also not']

I. oPIP',1'. The priest placed the Bible on the





of:(to I OOK'"dttJ: I :,0,.l}.(t-") I 00r.Plf!.ftJI'o I

IIJ'. ' 1\'l' ~m2. foPP''J'b'l- "'I:,O~tl,l' 11:1'. Moses went

up to the altar. oo-{1. mi. oup'J'IJ'I- "'I
:,O~tl,I'ID- 11;1-


alter 1\mm
The death of the President altered the country's
history. fTt.ll.-'l't-1> '1"-l- fl\16-l>'t :1'6h

"'l'l''fi ....... ~ ' +""':!'""'"'

alternate (vt.)


I will have to have the collar of this shirt

altered. fll.ll't lf"7.11 1>/1.;1- "'lil.,.fC

*I will have my pants altered. 11-6m- : ll.'t-'1.

il-1-IIhAA~ li.LA;>/111-

1. AlD-'1'. Not much alteration is visible in
the village. oou'tl.6;1: ID-il'l' ofiH-9" 1\ID-'1'


2. "'lil+IIh,l'. No charge for alteration. 11"'1

il+IIh,l' 1\.e.hLl\.9"

altercate +.,.,:1'...,+
They altercated in the Senate for days on end."l oum(l'f 9"hC 0.'1- 1\ofiH- +'i'-l-
+ ....:!' .....,

altercation 't'I-Ch
The altercation between the two drivers led
to blows. fll-1\-1> oPII..'i' H[l":f 't'I-C
h h-'1-11 1\l.~ll'fm-

He alternates work with pleasure.

oup-,&.'1-'i' ouf.{l'l-'t ,I'Ltl-C:l'A

2. li.,I'Ltl-~+ + (verb). Most modern farmers
alternate wheat with barley. 1\ofi~'P'fi non
'i'<D-,I"t ~Ot.9':f (l'tf.'i' ~oflil l\.,I'Ltl~4! ' J'.Htl-11alternate (vi.)
I. -1-Ltl-~.,.. Hot days alternate with cool days
in Addis Ababa. 1\ 1\0'1 m-il'l' 'I"
:1'-l-'i' ' .,.11:1'~ ' .,......,.. ' J'.Ltl-~:1'112. ( ~ adv.) 0-1-tl- 0-J-tl-. Mary and her sister
will alternate in setting the table. "'1.6'i' ll.')
:1: 11-1-tl- 0-1-tl- m~A.~<D-'t ,I'H;>Jfll-

alternate (n.) 9"-l-h

An alternate was sent in his place. 0(1. fl;J-o
'1"'1-h +llh
alternate (adj.)
1. -1-Ltl-tl--1:. Tom and Harry do work on
alternate days . .f-9"'i' ?6 0-1-Ltl-tl--1: +'t
J'.IP<tl-1\2. f-tLtl-~4!. The skirt has alternate stripes
of blue and yellow. +"7.11- f-1-Ltl-~4! {1"'1,1'
'f.'i' tl"'1 on pour::f ' 1\11-'1-


have altered hll+f


The two teams had an altercation over the

umpire's decision. &A.fl ~ lt:-'i':f J lilt 1\



Alternation of crops prevents damage to the

soil. {lofiA't "'ILtl-~:,0 1\LC't h.,.-'1'1- J'.m

alternative (n.) /1.11 1\"'ltl-"1."

Is there no alternative to what you propose?
II_,.Mihm- dollofl /1.11 1\"'ltl-"1." film-'/" 1
have the alternative 9'"Cfti ' hl\ID'<

You have the alternative of riding or walking.

OLUI m,l'.9" Oli."ICII foP'/.Y; II"C"'l

alternative (adj.) 1\"'ltl-"1."

There are several alternative routes from
New York to Chicago. h~<D-1'-Ch mi. 'EII1
f"''1- ill!- 1\"'ltl-"1." ou')~Y..:f 1\11-

alternatively l\.,l'!
One must run and rest alternatively to cover
a long distance quickly. 1\'tY: ~'fr9" 1-11
'i''t O'i''I')T 11"'1!11~'1' l\.,I'Ltl-~4! our:'l'
'i' ' "'l~'i' ,l'ilLA:>A

although il + imperfect + 'I" I il + imperfect + 'I" ~n.,

I will be there, although I have very little time .
.fA'1 1.11. 0"1'1" h"'I'C O.lf't'l" hlf..l'

I don't know him well, although he lives next

door. '1-.lll.of: O.lf't'l" ~'t'>. ilrt- h~m

altitude h'i';f- I -l't-t-"7H
lt iS difficult tO breathe at this altitude. fllltJ I
h'i';f- I {loP-f'') 0 hll'l' ,;J& 0 ttJ>o
Ethiopia's tropical climate is modified by the
altitude. fh..'lf"kf 1 '1"?+ .ffC 'til-l+







amalgamation .r:-tlii.-10ur nation is an amalgamation of many

different races. 111<1-':f't f-lirt- '1-lll"':f
.f:-1111.-l- .,.,..

amass hh"7:f
The miser amassed a fortune for himself.
"""' At-11- 1111+ hb"7:f

amateur h"7-I'C
She is an amateur painter. 1t"7.,.C w'loll.


amaze hllS'.t+
Your ignorance in money matters amazes me.
1111 ' 1'tH11 ' 1-'lf. ' hA"71D-l-U I .fllS'.'t+'fA

high altitude h'i';f-

be amazed

Because of the high altitude he showed signs of

distress. hh'i';f-a>- 1 f-i't"' fouw?f+ 'I"

I was amazed at his indifference. O"I.I'.A1i

Ah+ ;f-fO+

Otn-1-~~"" IPI\/1 oPJ\"dd::':f


2. O'i'K-'1". He is altogether innocent of the

charge. ~II- b+.lOO+ hil O'i'K-'1" 't
K-.b tm-

I don't altogether agree with him. hll- :>C

O'i'K-'1" hl\11"7"7'1"

altruism Atl.l't-':f T-1-'1" "7(1-fl

Altruism is the opposite of egoism. Atl.l't':f T-l-'1" "7(1-fl t-ll't fODa>-S'J; T
?t-t tm-

alumnus f+.f:'l" '/"~-lAo alumnus of our school became the principal. f+'l"uc+ ll.;t-':f't f+.f:'l" '1"~-1-


I. IJ-11.'1.11. l o-fl.. I aro not always at home on

Sundays. ~..,_.r;- ~..,_.f: IJ-1\'1.11. (o-fl.)
~11.+ hl\1'1'1"

2. 'l"'t'LH.'I". I aro always glad to oblige you.


nm+c Jl.;f-.fA

amalgamate -I'+~+A
The two companies amalgamated to form one
big company. o-A-1> 1!-q't,rl"':f -1'+~-1-A


*To my amazement, he came to see me.

oP'/""1-1> 1.l00'1

amazing f"''..filS'.'t-1Ethiopia has made aroazing progress. t..+f"k


f"''..fllS'.'t-1- ' ~C'I"li' h.f:C:>A"f

be amazing hilS'.)+ ! 1-loP

It is amazing how fast he learned Amharic.

h"7C'f ~'t.l'.+ I O'i'T)+
IIS'.'t?A (MC"711.)



ambassador h'l"qllf.C
The Brazilian arobassador came to Addis
Ababa. f-flt-11.11. 1 h'l"qllf.C h-'1.11 hO



0.""1 +A'I" hAm-

ambiguity hl"7..)+
His statement is full of ambiguity. f(lmm-
oP"Ifl""i hlf"''.t+ )'.0~'1'11.


3. nm+c. The scar will always be visible and

will never disappear. mqll 'l"'t'l.ll.'l" 1111"7

He looked at me in amazement. 0oP1l.S"'

amber -o~u O.""i

The glass has an amber color. oull-f''l'-1> 11


A;f-H11U 'l"'t'LII.'I" oi.?S'.'f

-I'S'.'t-1: toe


amazement DD1l.9"

I. Om-1-~~m-. Altogether there are thirty books.

fJP~ I


h'tS'.' +A-1- b-q')y If).

I. hl"'1.. His statements on financial problems
are ambiguous. l'aA 11011. l--Ie f(lmm-
OD"Iil""i hl"7.. '


2. "It- f"''..f1q, He was left in an arobiguous

position by his friend's failure to appear
and help him. m.<;1j: ,......,.. ltf..l'la>-
OOD-1-.l-f> ' "It-





l. f"'i1+. His ambition is to become prime
minister. '1"'1'-1> m'I>~.J'. "'1.~!1'1-c 11oo


2. '1'~1'1-. He has plenty of drive and ambition.

1111- '1-:>'1-<; '1'~1'1- Yllm- ilm- ~m-







The student is ambitious for knowledge.

-1-"'l&tD- ' Mm-.,.'1- ' .,..,. ' ~m2. ll"''l" h'i' Yll. He has an ambitious plan
for building a plane. htD-C"''Wt llooF&-'1-
11"1'1" h'i' Yll h'l>.<:- hllm3. h'i'-1-,.. He has an ambitious program for
eliminating the slums. f.Vt 1}1: Yllll'l-'t
iiLC ll"'lii1D1J:' h'i'-1-... h'I>J:- hllmbe ambitious OIIJ9'" +oo1"
John is ambitious to get through high school
in two years. }l:'t v-11-1-.,. f.t.:)f't llv-11
T o quo:,. o IIOD<LJ./.:{1 0 II"J'l" 0 .J'.OD .../:l

lay in ambush Jt~,n .f.f

The soldiers lay in ambush for many hours.
OJ;f-1.1!',; 111111- {lq.f'":f. hJ:-'i'mtD- 4'1'
place in ambush h't'I.Yf.'i''l' Mt.:1
The general placed his troops in ambush
in the woods. :(~&-flo ID;f-1.1!',; "'iltm-
tD-!1'1' ' 111-t-m- ' h't'I.Yf.'i'm- ' hf.t.:1

ameliorate (vt.) hlflfll

He promulgated laws to ameliorate living

conditions. fl-l!"t v-~:1- ll"'llflfA ih"l

The agency is trying to ameliorate the conditions of starving farmers. J:-C~-1> llt.:;)-11
f"'l.oP:I"I''t-'t 106.jP":f. ll-~;1- ll"'llflfA

1\~ I


ameliorate (vi.) -t-lflfll

Our living conditions will ameliorate soon.

fl-~":f.'t rH;f- II'I>CII- .J'.lflf~A

His ambivalence made the final decision of

the committee impossible. "700");1-i: F.C'Jo

amen h"''.'t
At the end of the prayer everybody said
"amen", h"-ft--f: I 0::\1\ f frfriJD I (lliJoo I J\
"''.'t ' hll

fOD<LJ.t.:lf ' tD-lt~ ' h't'I.J'.il'l' ' hf.t.:1tD-

(be) amenable -t-mY4!

ambivalence "'IOD't;J-'1-

(be) ambivalent
*She is ambivalent about going to the party.
IDS'. ;rctm- oo'f.J:- hlloo'f.J!..'t hA'Ir.t.:m


ambulance h'l"ll-1\'til

This man is hurt. Call an ambulance! .e.u ft

m- -1-.,..J:-;J:A i h'l"ll-1\'til .1'-m&-

ambush (v.) A~'i'lfl ID;>

The Viet Cong ambushed another government

patrol. li.\1.'1- lo't1":f. 11.1\ fOD't"lP'-I>'t lfl

laws. IJ'tJ:" Me m-ilT f"'l.'l'~ ih1111

":f. llih;>:fm- -t-mY4! f>tr<; flo

*A reasonable person is amenable to persuasion. hil-t-'1'1-'t {lm- 11"'1"/IJIJ't- .1'-!1'1\A

I. -t-'t.,..&-1.1.. The tardy students ambled into
the classroom. '1-t-'l',; -1-"'l&jP":f. hf-1-'t.,..
&-1.~ IDS'. h'i'A 1112. hH1oo. The mule ambled along the rocky
path. 11'1>11-'1' ' 1111-t.:lt-'t,; ' OD't1J:' ' ~f. ' hH


People living in a country are amenable to its

~..("' I J\~(Do I


ambush (n.) Yf.Lmll'l- 11;1- l f.L"'

They lured the enemy into an ambush.
.m~'t-'t h:f'llm- ltf.Lm-11'1- 11;1- hil111-'tThey were killed in an ambush. 111-L"' -1-1
f. flo

amend hlflfll

They intend to amend the constitution.

ih1 ' OD't"IP'-I>'t ' ll"'llflf"' ' Yil'lflo
amendment f"'llflfY ohlt11

He proposed an amendment to the constitution.

llih1 ' OD't"IP'-1> ' f"'llflfY ' ohlt11 ' h+t.:ll
The court ordered that amends be made to
the woman. 'i'CJ:" fl. -I> 1111.'1-M' ltlt h 't
Jl.hLA hUH
make amends for if .1..~(11'1-)

His letter makes amends for his rudeness.


1.11-'lfl. 11A"/<;tD-'t .1'-ii'i''tll;f-A

amenity -t-11"'1"7.~'1The amenity of Addis Ababa's climate will

attract tourists. Y-'1.11 hiiiJ YfC 't11t.:
'1- -t-11"'1"7.~'1- MC 111'll'":f.'t 1-IIIJA
America h"'L&It

American h"''.<lta'l! 1 h"''.<lta't

Amharic h"7C'l'
Amharic is the national language of Ethiopia.
h"7C'l' fh.'lf"k1 il.h.<l-'1! !tll\' )a>amiable .,.m'I;EHe is an amiable person and everyone knows
him. .,.m'I;E- (tm- 111\lf) "7'tll" 1a>-4''1'A
I. f<D'I;E-H. They bad an amicable discussion.
fm'I;E-H a>-Y.Y.'I- hf.C:"I2. fo'tl\11". Instead of fighting the two nations
settled their quarrels in an amicable way.
o-11-1> .tt1e:Y. 11oPtahl\'fm- Mila>- hll""
"11111'1- 11tnil 'IY.If't 11MII" ""'t1.1:"
hllll"ll")'f- f.C:I\amid, amidst 11 --- oPVA
Only one column stood amid(st) the ruins.
11'1'<1-n: OD'/A h't.l:" 011".1:" il!l' <~'"'-A

I. ( ~ n.) "1-.1:"11'1-. The doctor examined biro
and found nothing amiss. do"-... oPCII"e
"" ll"'tll" "1-.1:"11'1- hl\1711'1-11"
2. ( ~ n.) 1Aif) )1C oPif'J. On entering
his house he at once perceived that something was amiss. n.-1: 1 (I)-itT 1 {L"JQ 1 h~


feel amiss





:r-c hll(m-)

Don't feel amiss if I criticize your work.

F<I-U't ii):,O"i' :r-c hY.I1AU
go amiss "1"4-+ 1 h1.,l1
She certainly went amiss in quitting school.
'1-II"UC:J:'t 11"71\'C:t!J. '1'4-'1- h.I:"C;JII:Y.
take it amiss :r-c hll(a>-)
Don't take it amiss if I criticize your work.
F<I-U't ii):,O"i' :r-c hY.I1AU
amity OJJI;E-)'fThe United States and Canada have lived
in amity for many years. h"'l.<<ta<; ta'i"-'1
/Iiiii" """"""" 11m'I;E-)'f- 'f C:'I'A

I. 'I'Y.'t-. The soldiers ran out of ammunition.
m;J-f.e'll .,.y.'t- hll4'11'fm2. """1<11. The discovery gave biro ammunition in his campaign. h-'1.11 111m- )
1C lla>-.1:"~ """1<11 lf)IDamnesia [l1hT,.A .....,..'1'1- ll"h't1'1- f
"'1."""1 f"711;1-0JII't "lY.A f"'l.1'1"1





amnesty ,..,.,c;'tThe Emperor declared an amnesty for the

rebels. 't"I-<P )1P'-I> 1\h;J"'l.P.'Il 11",.,.:'1-
f"'1.1f.C"I-I\'fa>- o oPif<;'fm-'t hii;I-OJ4t
I. 11--- ODVhA. Don't be afraid to express your
opinion. You are among friends. dlllofltJ1' 1\oP
"'IIli" ' h'l-"i'<l- l 110J'I;E- ' ODVhA )IJ
2. ooVA. There were many nice people among
them. Ml\- ""VA ill!- '1"'1- o'tl":Y. )11'13. h--- m-11'1'. You are only one among the
many who need help. l\C-'1:1" h"'1.111.f.A;J'f
.... hilll-l"'ll ' liJoll'l" ' h'tJI. )IJ
4. 0--- H1'Y:. He is popularamongthemasses.
11,.,1111- H't.l:" f.,_OJS'.f. )m5. 11 - - - 11-<11. Bees droned among the flowers.
'tP:Y. 111111m- 11-<11 MI1)11*London is among the largest cities of the
world. 1\'tf.'t h"l\11" ;l-1\1\:,0 h.,..,..:Y. h
't.l;.. ):f
among them 1\;J&They had less tban ten dollars among them.
1\;J<I- ..,..C ' iiC f"'1.1'tll )11<1-'fmamong -selves
I. 11ootahA + (suffix pronoun). We decided
it among ourselves. 11""tahi\:Y.'t mo't't't
2. l\CII 11CII + (suffix pronoun). They don't
even agree among themselves. l\CII 11C'I'f
.... ' l\'t\\'t 1'.1>11"7...11"
[See also 'other']
amongst h - - - ODVhA
I found the paper amongst my notebooks.
OJC:4'-I>'t hf.ii.,.C''Ii ' ODVhA ' 1'.1711-'1amoral "'ilt: 1il)'f- f'l-f.llm- amThe killer is completely amoral. )'I'll 1'1\t
"i'K-11" "'ilt: ' 1il)'f- ' f1-S'.IIm- ......... )liJo
amorous "i':,OC't f"'l.1All"
His amorous behavior pleased her. "i':,OC't
f"'1.1AKm- 11-l!.;l-m- h!IS'.o't;J-'1become amorous Ott::Joc 1 _,...,,lh
One look at her and he became amorous.
h'tS'. t.Y.:t'l- 11"i':r-c .,..,.:h
amorphous :r-c11 11.11
The amorphous clay became a vase. :r-c11
11.11 n11.:m- l\"h'l K"'l' If)
amortize l\fh"-11 ...,.:11
He amortized tbe loan over a ten-year period.






CIJo/1'1' ll.fhd./1

.... ~(1

amount (v.), ~ to
I. II'). His debts amount to 50 dollars. 6-'1
m- ..,II" It iiC f. II'<; A.
How much does the bill amount to? <h.<'tll-
ll"t-l- '''OA.l
2. -1-<t.m~. Riding on the bus without paying
amounts to cheating. Ohm--1'11-11 ltf.h'i'/1-
OD'/.1: h.,'i'"OCOC f.<
does not amount to much 7t.r111J9" i'ID"
His knowledge of Amharic doesn't amount
to much. f(l- f"'C" 'f-11-:1- 7.!1"oflq!l"
amount (n.)
1. oom"}, What is the amount? oom). 9"'1
fUll.' )CIJo!
2. 'I';J. I paid the full amount. -11- 'I';Jm-'t
hd.A.h3. oflq-l-. The amount of evidence against
him is great. 0(1- ~f. f<I'~Om- fou.:JI"
o(Jq-}- h'i' f/1 )CIJo

I. h"l-~. He used a loudspeaker to amplify
his voice. 1:11"11-"t 11.,.,..~-l- 01:!1"6 .,.,..


2. hilt:-&-. Will you please amplify that

statement. f-1-......,Chm-"t 7.111: hil&-&3. O"'l.~Q H~H~. The preacher amplified on
the theme. Mh.tJJo he7.1l.,"t O"'l.~Q 11~

amplitude h'i'-1-':'H
The amplitude of his generosity is the subject
of many songs. fii;J/1)., h<;:-1->';)-}- filii"
HL'l''f- he7.ll-l- )tJJo
you will be amply rewarded. h<;:-1->'; 'I';J
*They were amply supplied with food. 04:
P""'il -1-l'l'l':l:'ftJJo )OC
amputate <t.~m
The doctor amputated his leg. oh h.- 7."1
'1-"t <t.~tntJJo

no amount of r'JfD YUA + negative verb

No amount of discipline could lessen his
exuberance. f-1-):J':J'm-"t ou")L(I-"t P""t!l"

amulet h:t-il
She hung an amulet around her neck.
~f. b:l-il h"ttnA.'I'~II'f-

the whole amount lJoitI ordered 50 pens for the class and I need the
whole amount right away. llh'i'll- ..,!1"<'1 il
be t.1111: )OC u-11-"t!l" hu-'1-.,. 7.LA.;J

I. hll.l'.l'l-1-. That amuses me very much.
f.U OIIJP" fll.l'./l-1->';A.
2. h"'<l'. His foolish mistakes amused all of us.
f"''f.&Q llihi-., ~":f-"t"tP" h"'<l'"t




amuse oneself t-(t.") 1\llF.{I+

[See also 'inordinate, like']

The students amused themselves by imitating

the teacher. -1-"''&l"'Ji OD!I"U'I-"t Oou<l'/11:
l\ofOD{I/1- ' &-lt'fCIJo") 0 hllJ'.(I.,

amphibious Ofilll!l" Om-;)!1" m-IlT f"'l.'l'C

The frog is an amphibious animal. 7."t.,&-&
-l- Ofoflll!l" Om-;)!1" m-IlT f!l"-l-'l'C <;-}ample
I. 04:. Five dollars will be ample for my needs.
ll'i'~,_, hP"Il-l- iiC 04: )tJJo
2. I'll.. The ample room held all the furniture.
(ll.tJJo h'i'A. fn.-l- 7.:J'tJJo"t 0'1"~ '"
ample supply of 04:
Take an ample supply of food for a day's
journey! ~"t 1: <l'"t .,.,. 04: P""'il f1l
amplifier 1:!1"6 .,.,..,
The amplifier broke down in the middle of
his speech. O"t"'"''l- ouuhA. 1:!1"6 .,.,..
ftJJo -1-0~lf

amused (adj.)
I. fi-.1'.1'1-1-. The amused spectators applauded
the play. fi-.1'.1'1.,-l- i-""A.IJ:f -l:f-l-'1-"t o
'i'"ofi .... Q h.l'.)"'
2. .1'.11;1- fou~o.r. The child listened to the
story with an amused smile. A.)l: 1 ;1-&11-"t 1
.1'.11;1- oou~o.r L~"':l- I h'IODtn

I. ""'1':1-. He did it only for amusement.
fU~tJJo 11""'1':1- I il!l' )CIJo
2. .1'.11;1- I ou.l'.l'l-l-. With amusement, the
child watched the kitten chasing its tail. f 1:""
:J: 1 "11\.~1\. 0 'i'"&-'f'"t I /IOOfll 0 /l:1-ltf:
f: I 1\.:q": I. 0J'./l:f- I i-OD/Ih-1-

He looked at me in amusement. ooo~(l:,.O 1

3. ooY..ll~. There is not much amusement
in this village. filf.IJ I OD')Y._C I fDoil"r I -fl
If" o ODJ'.(I!J' 0 fllf"

our failure. l\ll-t-"7&tiJo ftDS'.:r.1-R't-1- 9"h1.l''l-





.,. . analyzed

the poem.


anarchy "IC"IC
After the death of the king anarchy broke out.

I. f"'L.fllS'.M. My friend told me an amusing
story. '\S'.'i'IL f"'L.fllS'.ll'l- tDII. 1\m.:-t.OS
2. 1\P"<I:OS. The man's certainty was amusing
for we could see that he was wrong. f-1-VI
-1- oPif)-1- llM"<;tiJo;r, f{ltiJoftiJo 1\C"l
m'i' ~OS "711'1- 1\P"<J:OS ~nc

I. 1\1-Y:. Is there an apple for me? 1\1-Y: ;r
.,. II10S 1\'flll\11- l
2. (zero). Is there an apple for me? ?'9" 111
OS 1\'fllllu- 1

anachronism '1.!1.,..,. fla-tIt would be an anachronism to speak of

George Washington riding in an automobile.
}':C)\' '1'111-"1-f-1- flODIJ.<; 'tS'. o illl- ""
...c ' fla-t- """"'

analogous ( ~ n.)


A bird's wing and a human ann are analogous.

ftD~ ' h1-~<; ' f{ltiJo ' /;.)\' ' of-ODia/tf.~T ' hll

analogy "7oPia{IA
The analogy between your problem and mine
surprises me. ,0-t-<; f~1- 'f"lc "7oPia{l
A I\IIS'.1-4''i'A
draw an analogy between }tootailll

The teacher drew an analogy between the

heart and the pump. l\ll-t-"7&tiJo Ait1-<;





I. '1-1--t-<;. He gave a thorough analysis of the
political situation. Ill\ ?'1\i:iltiJo u-~;1-

f-1-":l.ll '1-1--t-<; h ... ~"

2. 'I"C""<l-. The analysis of the water proved

that it Was pOiSOnOUS. gtJCOD&-fDo I fDo:-fDo I O'D
C11 ,1'1\fl'l- ODif)-1- l\t::J1m

analyst -t-1-;t-OS

His detachment makes him a good political
analyst. 11\A-t-'i'~-1: '1''1- f?'lltt, u-~;1-
-1-1-;t-OS hY:C1 ;1-A

I. -t-~-1-~. The teacher analyzed the cause of

h1-1-._... '1"'1- fl:\11 "IC"/C -t-h-1-11

anathema ,..,n:,.
The priest's anathema was removed when the
governor promised to obey. h'J~ 1 11((1)- 1 ll
OD:J-H11 :1'/i\ lli\1CJ f<l:{lo fDo"IHT -!-If~

I. l;.<;.f-"7.. Anatomy shows how the body is
constructed. l;.<;.fo"''. {ltiJo~'t- 1\1-.0..'1- 1\1-S'.


2. flltiJo~'t- 1\P'.:.C. The anatomy of an earthworm is much simpler than that of an animal.
f'I-A f{ltiJo~'t- 1\P'.:.C hl\1-llla't- f_,.l\11

1 1\J''I- :r.Y:"" 1\J'

'1-iM'IOur ancestors were warriors. -1' ~oo 1 1.1+
!1"f1- (I\!F'f1-) .... ~....,... ~""'
Kinship is based on a common ancestor.
1111'/"Y:<; .,.,,..~:,. f"''.lf~,. 1\1-Y: 1\J''I-
;r,Y;-ou 1\J''I- ~,.
*Scientists say that the ancestor of man
was the ape. laf-1-tll+'f {ltiJo f"""'fDo h
111-)!C" ~,. Y.llll-

ancestor :r.Y:"" 1\J''I-

ancestral fHC
They still have ancestral properties in this
province. OH.II m:r.'lf. .,~:,. tiJoll'l' I\
11-1-9" fHC Cll't- 1\'\:ftiJo
ancestral home r:,.(IJ-A~ I h'JC
The ancestral home of the Emperor's family
is in Shoa. 01-P' ~11"1: f'l-tiJoAY: I\
1C I if.- I (1)-il"r I io(IJancestral trait fHC
Curly hair is an ancestral trait in that family.
OH.II IL-l- {lofl tiJoll'l' hCIIII l\1-C fH

ancestry :r.Y:ou 1\J'.fo'f

Many of the early settlers in America had
English ancestry. .,.S'.9" ll.A 1\"7.&11 'I
f. hll.t.<l-'1- ll9''f fil11"9'~ :r.Y:ou 1;.
.l'+'f ~;..,..,....,.,... <;:ftiJo

anchor (vt.)

"""'.n;r. "'ll

The sailors anchored the boat.

f)!ACJtiJo1- o ODA.ft;r, o "'ll-






anchor (vi.) 1Q

The ocean liner anchored at Massawa at noon.

OOCh!l ' Oil.l:"ll'f ' ll't'f- ' 11"6'1' ' 11J:f

anchor (n.) ool!\.n:,.

The sailors dropped the anchor. oocho'l',;
001!\,"h"} ' "'lllay at anchor ODAih4:"J Til"" : .fooo

The ship lay at anchor in the port. oPChll-

001!\,"h"} 'I'll- o CDS'.Ii" 'If.. 4'":1.1!\
anchorite IJ.h;f"'
The anchorite lived alone fu the desert.
IJ.h:l"'l!"'" ' 11".1:"~ ' 0'1 .... ' .... il'l' ' -llil'm-"t '

ancient (n.) f.l:"~ (1.,.

The ancients considered the flight of birds as
an omen of good fortune. f .1:"~ M':f CDC:
:f ll.O"" 'If. 1.11. 1.1:" ).,. 1111.,. 111"
1- )0C

anecdote -t-~'1He told anecdotes to the children. 1\.ht'i-1>

-~-~"" ' )1&-'fCDanesthetic f"''.fil-1-'i' oo.<:-;)t'JThe amount of anesthetic they gave you was
according to your strength. f"''.fil-t-'i'm-'1 oo
.1:";)).'1- ' fllm-ll ' oo:,.?"ll ' oom'l ' )CDanew
I. li'IS'.1'i. She had to learn to walk anew
after the accident. liS'.;> CD- 0:\'1 ll'IS'.1'i
006-DD.I:"'I o 001!\00.1:" o )O~IJ'J2. '1-' ool!\h. The architect planned the
building anew. OOI/'1.11.(1. .h'll\m-"t f)S'.
"-"'" ' IJ-' ' 001!\h ' )m-

angel ool!\hh
The angel told Mary that she would have
a son. OOI!\hh- "7CfM CD'IY: 1!\"l:
l\'IS'.?"'J-CDI!\.1:" ' 1\n(I&-'J-

ancient (adj.)
I. h~"l.. Why did you invest so much money
in that ancient building? 1\ILIJ h~"l. .h'll\
f..ll'l'l fill!\ 1'1H-fl liM hCD"'Il !
2. T"J.:t-'1!. I am very interested in ancient art.
'1''1:1"'1! ' h.) ' '1'011 ' 0"111" ' f!IS'.il-1-'i'l!\
3. f'T"J-1'. Ancient man used to live in caverns.
f'l''l'l- {1.,. O'l'lf "'"il'l' f..'l'C )OC
4. h~-l- foPtiJ. Marriage is an ancient insti~
tution. :>11!1' 11'1''1'1- fOO"' 1!\"7.1:" ).,.
[See also 'vintage']

angelic ooJ!\hlJ'I!
His angelic appearance astonished everybody.
001!\hlJ'I! ' 001!\h- ' o-11-'111" ' hilS'.).,.

I. (zero.) I brought salt and pepper from the
market. 11101 """'" OCO-' hoP"'o2. -'i. I brought salt, pepper and butter.
"""'" OCO-''i :,.IL hoo"Ju3. -?". I brought salt, pepper and butter.
"""'" oco" :,.ILII" hoo"'u4. -1--. We travelled day and night. 1\.'l- -t+'1 ' -l"'l11'1

anger (n.) '1.<'..' your anger cool before you do anything.

liM: Mil" )1C 11"7.1:-~"lll 01..'1- 'I
.<'..'I-ll ' f..-11~.1:"1!\ll
rouse (one's) anger ltlltkiiJ
The insult roused his anger. il.l:-11- hil'IO"'m-

and so forth
I. 1\.11-':fr. All my uncles, aunts, and so forth
were there. h'l--f-'fll" hhilof-'fll" tt.ll-l-11"
l\11..1' ' )0""
2. l\'1-'1,.1' fDDlt{lll-'1- )1~:f. They were
singing, dancing, and so forth. f..HII""" l f..S'-'1(1.
l\'1-'1,.1' ' fooft(III-'J-'1 ' )1~ ' fS'.C1- ' )0C
and so on M"fll'l foolt(III-'1I need paper, ink, and so on. CD~.,.'!- +1111"
c; ' M"fll'l ' fODft{lll-'1- ' fil/..1!\1>:'1!\
[See also 'then1

anger (vt.) h<;U l hil'k"'

The nasty remark angered her. hilmfl..m-
hil-t-ff'l- ' h'iS'.-'1'1His boorish manners angered the host. f-Ill!\
"l'i o-'il:m- IJIIIL-1>'1 hil'k"'"'"
anzer (vi.) -1-'iS'.S'.
He angers easily. 0.,.'111- f..'iS'.-'11!\

angle (v.)
I. 1\J"'/IJIJCD- '1"11~. She angled for an invitation to his PartY. by flattering him. l\(1.'1 0
OOS'.I\1!\ o CDS'. o "1-fl"'f ' l\'1-'l.m&-'J- '1!\;l""liJIJ
.... ' 'l"h~:f
2. [Ooo'lm-l''i Oll.IJ1 't"' hmouS'.]
angle (o.) "7l\H'I
The two walls form an angle. u-11-1> "1.1:""7'19'
:f 0"7l\H'I f..:>m"711from all angles hli-A-9" h.:ttiJ&

He considered the matter from all angles.

1-'1~'1 ' llo-11-11" ' h~"'""i ' -f-001\ll-t-m[See also 'obtuse']

I. f<ll"'. She gave me an angry reply. f<ll"'
""All llm:f~

He spoke to me in an angry voice. 0-k"'

:J'A ' -t-..-...:~
2. f-1-<;FJ... The angry child dashed a cup to
the floor. f-1-<;FJ..OJo A'J': o\.tOJo"J mllil-





(be, become, wax) angry

I. i"<iU. What are you angry about? II?""J~

~,. ' f-1-<;.<'.~hm- !
He began to wax angry. ooCiY.Y: )!out,
2. -~""""' The merchant became angry with the
boys for breaking the window. ~ ;JJ',.OJo A
;(_,; ' oP{l!>-I>"J ' 11.111111-1- ' -~""""'"'"'"
feel angry -t'IJU
He feels angry whenever he sees her. '1.1''1-
<II'I'C f.<;MA
[See also 'dart']
anguish "'""J<I>'IShe was in anguish until she knew that her
husband's life had been saved. f'l!l"J ;,y.m
'1- oP'I-t:'i' llllh;I-OJo~ ~.:II II"'""J<I>'I-
"" ' ~ll.::f
angular "'ll\H<;'f!

The machine has an angular shape. oob..IJm-

"'ll\H<;'f! ~CK" hiiOJo
animadversion ~+<l.:l"

He softened his animadversions on his- rival's

character. 1111 i"aJ'I'It:OJo m'lf. .fllllJo"J
~<1>.(.;1- ' 11111111. ' IV'..t:1<Danimal
I. li"JM (pl. li"JM'I-). He heard an animal
moving in the bushes. h"J~ li"Jilto 1141'1'
"J<I>to+il ' i"ll"'IOJo
OJoil'l' '
There are many animals in this country. flrt.
u Me ,.~~.,. ill!- li"Jilto'l- hil-

*"'"'" '


2. h.fD"t:., Lions are carnivorous animals.

h"JIIo\:f F ;J IIA haJo-'9':f <;'I'OJo
Wild animalS r.tJ.C


There are no more wild animals left. f+-1-

fii-C ' ht:-'1!'1- ' fil-?"
[See also pack, stuff']
animate (v.)
I. h.t.>t. A smile animated her face. L 1"1;1- L
:,..,-, hL>tOJo
2. 1of.of.. Love for her mother animated her
work. Ft:.OJo"J li"J~'I-"'t:. f1of.of.'l- f<;

3. ;,y.m:,. llm. People believe that the soul

animates the body. ll9':f llh>tt. ;,y.m'I-"J
f?"'l-ll'l' ~'I'll <;'I- iJIIOJo .f?"<;ll4. ~?"<1>'1- llm. The speaker's arguments
animated the discussion. fi"<;;Jt:OJo hchc 11
,.,_,._, ' ~,..,.,. ' llmOJo
animate (adj.) ;,y.m;l-'1!
Zoology deals with animate things. Jl9'11-"l[
1111 ;,y.m;l-'1! 'i''l't:.,.:f , ,..,,. , ~,.
animated (adj.) f-1-":1.":1.+

The animated discussion pleased us all.

f-1-.,_.,..,.,. ' ,.,.,.,.' 11-'l:f"t"J?"' hll.<'.lli""J
be animated

I. -t-Hfm. The soldiers were animated by

their captain's speech. m;I-F.c,; lllf?"llil-
"J"'"'C -t-H Ill"
2. -1-"J<I>to+ll. Windmills are animated by the
wind. f)of.{l aJ'I"""9':f f"''."J<I>to<l>{l-'1- II
~of.ll "lf.A ~,.
animation f;JII 11."'1.'1He spoke with animation about his plans for
the city. 1111 h-1-"'I<D- .I'IIOJo"J ~~~~ II
;JII 11"'1.'1- i"..-...:
animosity '1''1!1'
He could not hide his animosity toward his
neighbors. M.:IL.,.,; .fii<D-"J '1''1!1' 1\..<'.il~
ankle <IIC""'1""1""'1.'1Did she sprain her ankle? <IIC"l"'l""l""'L;I:"J m
II?" h'l'l-1
The woman wore a silver anklet. ll.'l-1'"" h
i!C fi""'t:. h'I"IJC ' h~C;JII:f
annals H.<; ;1-t:h

The annals of Ethiopia were written in Geez.

fh.'l-l'"k.f H.<; ;1-t:h fi"l\LOJo ll"'c!ll ~,.
annex (v.) <1>'1<1>11
The enemy annexed the conquered territory
to their country. mu9',; .1'11.111~'1-"J h1C
>t1t:.'l',. ;JC <1>'1<1>11annex (n.) ~'1'.1' 1 -~""""'It: ;,-,ll
They built an annex to the library. IIlLi" ""
11;,'1'-1> ~'1'.1' (i"""'"'lt: ' ;,"JK) "'"'"
annexation ou+'I+A
The annexation of Texas enlarged the United
States. f-!:htoll ""<I>'I<I>A fh"''.t:>t"J"J "'
~,. ' hllof.OJo

annihilate .1!"9"'1""/m-'t l'unof.

Caesar annihilated the enemy anny. <llftC f
m'l'l-'t tnC .1!"1/"'I'"Ym-'t hmof.

I. 0'11\. They are celebrating their thirtieth
marriage anniversary. IPel./t~m-1' 't-oo:,.
f;>ofi!J' 0'11\:fiiJo't .l'hoflc!-112. f'IOD'I- O'IA. Your birthday is an anniversary. fofomll.l!"hO'I- -t't f'IOD'Jo 0'11\
Anniversary of Restoration f)~)T O"'A.

Last year, all Ethiopia celebrated the 25th Anniversary of the Restoration. fli\LiD" ,.oo
'1- ODI\IIJo h.'l-f"t.:.l' ?.1' M"llofo'I'IIJo't
f)I\)'Jo O'IA hhO~
annotate "7-flt-&.1' 1\L
He annotated Shakespeare's plays. l&hll"l:c
111\of.:fiiJo -1;.1''1-l!"'f- "7-flc!-&.1' 1\L
I. hll;l-m.,.. They just announced that on the
radio. .l"t't Oo!..l!"fo 1\h ho-'t hii:J-m
2. 11111. They announced their engagement
last night. ""-1-i"'-:J-:fiiJo't '1-<n'l-'i" "7
;1- 111113. om)!. The Emperor announced that full
authority would be given to the prime minister.
,..,...,., ~.,P-1:





P'AirJ"} Am-l-i\1.

"''..tll'l--1- ll't!."''..h'l' om)!:

4. me!-. The servant announced the names of
the visitors as they came in. h 1ih-1- ll't"l.l':,; {1.111- II"Y:fiiJo't h't.l!" q't.l!" f.m
c!- )OC
5. hO{l~. The trumpet blared, announcing
the king's arrival. f't1-u>o't ""'9""1'1- 11"711
{IC ' 'l'-l-9"q11Jo ' h9"q~.,.
6. )1~ (of-)1~). The capitulation of the enemy
was announced this morning. fml\'1- ll~
ODIIm'l- ""' 111.'1- of-)1~
announcement ,...,ll"'i I "711;1-m<ll.l'
The announcements of deaths, marriages,
and births are published daily by the newspaper. IL'i" M'i''l-'t I :>ofi!J''t I M'l-'t
f"'1..1All-'l- .....,ll"'il"l- ("711:1-m<ll.l'l""'f-)
Of611-lo R:>IL"'IIJo 4\f. .('.m"'llannouncer ofo'i":>& ' "711;1-m<ll.l' -l"'i":>&
The radio announcer confused the dates of
the two events. &JLI'" ofo'i";>&IIJo fll-11-lo't
11-l>:J-l"lf "'""" .1'."7;1-

The announcer spoke in a low voice. '"111;1m-t.l' ofo'i";>&IIJo .1!"9"11-'t 11:,. h.I!"C'I

annoy hOft"'Was that drunk annoying you? .1' hltc!-9"

.I'Oft"l'"U )OC l
be annoyed

I. of-Oft"'-. He was annoyed to hear

plane would be delayed. ha>-f!T'Ilf-l<'t (1.{1"7 of-Oft"'2. ofo'i"!.!.. He was annoyed with his
because his dinner was cold. llc!--1<
Oh1ih-l- ofo'i"F- ) oc


that the

annoyance "7mh
The annoyance of mosquitos kept her awake.
fmq '1-'t'l':f "Ymh h'lllof-'1' h'l'lannual (n.) 'IOD:J-'1! ODI\'do.'IThe institute publishes an annual. .I!"C~-1<
'IDD:J-'1! ' ODI\'do.T .I'H;>lfA
annual (adj.)
I. 'IOD;J-'J!. This is an annual banquet. f.IJ 'I
OD;f-'J! 0 "lofi"Jf 0 )OJo
2. OJ'ouofo h't!.. f"'1..1'S. Com and beans
are annual plants. O,f.ll-'i" q41i\ 0.1'""-1<
h"l!.. f"'1..11' 68'1''1- ""'"'"
annually O.l'""io
Annually, he receives ten thousand dollars.
OJ'OD-fo OP'C if. ofiC f..,.Oi\A
annuity (annuities) hOI\
An annuity is paid to all wounded patriots.
lltlhll-'1- hCO'l'lf 11-11- hOI\ f.hLi\:f'I'A
annul (annulled) If~
The judge annulled the land contract of the
two penple. 'l'i'IIJo fll-111o't (ll"'f- fODo!.
'1- IIJol\ If~

annunciate, see announce

annunciation f9"llt-:f
The Archangel Gabriel made the annunciation
to Mary. 11..,. ODAhh- 1-fiClo.A II"YC
.1'9" f9"11t-:f ' )1c!-'lanoint .,.q
The coronation is concluded when the patriarch anoints the Emperor. fHID".f: .,...._,.
~ P'C'I'I- :r'I-&.I'Ch- -,.,.,.. )1P'ofo't
{l..,.q,. J'.Ll\"71\




He anointed the sunburned places with salve.

answer back 00/11'1(11'1-)

Pdlf. J.':f'tn/ltD-"t il'i'~ 4>1f:f'q '1>11'1-


The father punished his son for answering

him back. A)!: il/lao/l(l/1'1- h. II ' I - - "'"'"'"

anomalous J.'A-t-1\oof.
Rain in the desert is an anomalous occurrence.

0.11 11<;il J.'A-t-1\aof. ~"'"

anomaly J.'A-t-1\aof. ~1C

A heavy downpour in the desert is an anomaly.
09"~<: Roll tD-il'l' hll~ 11t;il "'"'lA
J.'A-t-1\aof. )1C ~"'"

anonymous illl" J.'Ai"liLO'IHe sent them an anonymous letter. ttr Y

answer (for)
I. 0..,'1.1.~'1- i"tnf4>(0'1-). You will have to answer for your mistakes. 11'1'4-'1-11 O..,'IL)'I-
2. ouAil l'lm. She was called before the bar
to answer for her crimes. 11-t-hl'll'l:Y..O'I- m"t
)!A aoAil "h"t~'l-1'1'1' 'i'C~ IL'I- 1-tn

3. "h"tf. - - - M/1111. A piece of paper answered for a tablecloth. rm<:+'l- 41~? "h

Ai"liLO'I- f.ii.IIIL 'IM'ftD-

"tf. tn<:A.q Ailil h111111

answer (to)

be anonymous

The house answers to your description.

*The author of the story is anonymous.

f:J-&IJ. lldiL illl" t..r.:J-m'l>r

[See also 'call, duty']

another (adj.) /1.'1

I would like another book. /1.'1 OOl\"dl'i'

(pron.) /1.11
I don't like this book; give me another.


Y.U"t ' OOl\"dl'i' ' h.ALA1tD-9"

In another h - - - 0:\'1

/1.'1 ' iltn~

Where will Ethiopia be in another ten years?

h.'I-I'"A:J.' IJFC """"" 0:\'1 f'l- '1-


IL-l> IJ"ti" 1/lll ;JC,.,A

answer (n.) DDAil

Have you had an answer to your letter?
1\f.ii.IIILU ooAil h1TU l

What is the correct answer to this problem?

/IlLII 'l'J.'<fl '1-hh/\,.tD- ooAil M~~tD-?
In answer to fl - - - oPIP~+
The doctor came in answer to my call. 0'1'&




[See also 'guess1

f.C ... /I:f- l

In another ten minutes, I will be through.
IJFC 1.4::1' 0:\'1 "h""C...IIIJ-

ant 1-"t.ll"t
The ants invaded the food. 1-"t.ll"t 9""111-

one another (is expressed by the stem of reciprocity). They saw one another frequently. il

antagonism 'l''lil'
The antagonism between the two villages led
to murder. Oll-/1-1> ao")f.C':fo aoohA J.'

,. 1.1i Y.1r;r. )0C

answer (v.)
1. ouA(t, He answered the question satis-factorily. 'l'J.'<fltD-"t O"''J'Mil'l- M>,:\"t
tiD I\ (I

2. ooAil l'lm. The student answered the teacher.



/ltD- 'l"'il' "hilh ao;~f.A h.f.<:..,'ftD-

antagonize f'l''lil' IID"tLil h.~<:O'I.

Her rudeness antagonizes everyone she meets.
i!A"I<;'I' J.'1Til''ftD-"t
"tLil .......~CII'I"PA

u-tr f'l''lil' oo

1-"''&tD- ' 'lili""''&tD- ' OOAil ' l'ltn

3. All. He answered that he knew nothing.

Mil" h.'ltD-'1>9" hi\
4. '1"'1(11'1-). Will this answer your needs?
f.ll 'i''li'I-U"t Y.'I"'IAVA l
5. h.<:IJ. Will this answer your purpose?
f.ll 'i''li'I-U"t J.'<:IJAVA l

she answered the knock on the door.


il/11-"t\0.'>. ~.II hL-t-:fo

The maid went to answer the telephone.

1<:'1.:1; ilAIJ."t 1\.,"t"''l- ~1.:Y..

Antarctic h"t;I'Ch1:h
The Antarctic is always covered with ice.
h"t:f'Ch1;h ll-A'I.Ii OO<:P. "h"tf.-t-lfL)

antecede h--- o.c.'l- ' 'l'<:

Shakespeare anteceded Milton. lthil1:C f'l'
<:"'" h"'l.A-t-"t o.c.'l- ~"'"

antecedent h - - -o.c.'IThe witness told of an event antecedent to





't +hoi-f. f)Ool-'1- f!l"'tll,.'t hil+.l:'oo

, . J'IJ)o:J>fl-

I. :,0.(-oo h.l'.f-l-. His antecedents once lived
on the Red Sea coast. :,..(-oo h.f-Hi hooo

The attendance was greater than we anticipated. f>t-1T,. .b111l 1Ill11~m- Ollf. ~oc

the robbery. !l"ilh-1- hH<:'i-,. 0.1.'1- il



<;'!- oo~.'l- +f. < 'lei" f.'l"-1- ~oc

2.'I- ;t-6h. No one knows the antecedents of the mysterious stranger. flltJ"J 1
l\'t"l'l il,. f .bf.ID'I- ;t-6h f""'..l'"'"
:,. ' h.'t.l:-!1" ' (tiJ)o ' fll!l"

I. '1..11. hil+l.oo. You antedate a check written
on May 3rd if you put May 1st on it. "l'tP'I-
V'il'f- f>t-II.I.IJ)o't "l'tll'f- h.'t.l:' ' 1111U '
1l'I-K"'i'O'I- f'lih-'t '1..11. ;1-il+.J':"''IIU
2. ooowt-'1- +1.oo. Automobiles antedate
airplanes. ooiJ.<; ' ooowt-'1- ' hh.f.l!"l"ll't '


antelope .1:-ltll
antenna h.'t-1:<;
The antenna is placed on the roof. h.'t-1:<;,.
"16ftiJo llf. ' >1-S'.C~&\

anterior, - part ( = adv.) hiDS'..I.-f:

The anterior part of a fish contains the head.
f~"' ' ,1.(1. ' f"'l.1")'1J)o ' hiDS'..I-1: ' ~ ....

The American Revolution was anterior to

the French Revolution. fh"'UII't 1l'MI'I'
ht.<:'tltf. ' ofi'MI'I' ' 4'1.00
anthem, national ""' fib111l 001ftJDoC

The national anthem of Ethiopia is sung on

many occasions. fh.'l-f"t..l' .b111l 0011





in anticipation flOD10D.-,..

He cut more wood than usual in anticipation

of a long winter. f"'l.OO"'a>- h<:!l"'l- <:'lr
!I" "'""" -fill- 000100'f- hiD'I-I!'a>- f
Ollm b't..,'l- 'IL<:m

antidote .,Chlf
Milk is an antidote for some poisons. m++ c
ll't'l't.l:' oocJfl- .,chlf ~m-

antipathy 'I'II/I'
The old man's antipathy to tobacco is well
known. 11.,"111.,. 11'1-!I"IJU' .l'lllfm- 'I'll
"' ' ,,.... .,. ~a>-

I. >t-~111\6 P;t-. The North and South poles are
antipodes. fll"'L't<; fl.fHI '1'&\;t-l"l- -1~~~116

P;t-l"l- <;lfm-


Love and hate are antipodes.

-;::,.c., 'l'llil' +:J><~-t <;lfm-

antiquated '1..11. .1'11.1.0'1Most science books written twenty years ago

are now antiquated. h?.l' ~"";t-'1- 0.1.'1-
f>t-114-'1- h.11q':'l"'ll fl)f.'til OOII.b'i'T
Qu-). ...:,.,. 1.11. .l'llt.IJ'fm- ' .,.,,.


anthology [M'I'!I" i f;t-6h f:,Ot<; f/1.11-

l-11" '

anticipation oomiJO:,O
Anticipation of the battle made the soldiers
nervous. tnC~1:'t oomiJO:,O ID;f-S'.C''Il't


be anterior +f..oo


anticipate (vi.) h(lfl

K"Jo.J::l- ' il1lil1l]

anticipate (vt.)
I. >1-il'i- 1>.1..1:1. She anticipates great pleasure
from her visit to Ethiopia. Oh.'l-f"t..l' '1-'fl'S

:J: oflrt- l\'t1.!1"'1-1.ll'l- >1-ilol. ;f-I.C:>IIl2. +1.-. The Chineseanticipatedourdiscovery

of gunpowder. M' IJ-1-.1:' hooP' t.;t-l-'t
oo~.'!- iJ'f.<;l"l- +.1:-ooiJ)o') ~oc

3.,. h<:II. He tries to anticipate

all my needs. <;:111-J:'t u-11- lt&\mf.+,.
11..1'<:II f.'l"ht.&\
4. hil+.1:"1" OlD+. Our interlocutors anticipate much of what we say. li,.f.f.-1: h.ofl<:,.

antique (adj.) f'J"t'l1 bought an antique vase. f'l''t'l- .,llC'

1quantiquity (antiquities)
I. f'l''t'l- '1.11.. Adulis was a port famous in
antiquity. h' O'l''t-l- '1..11. 11~':' ID
1.1l ~o.:l-

2. 'J''t;f-'1!~'1-. The Tourist Office has several

posters showing Ethiopia's antiquities. fi:6
il'l- .~:-c~'l- 1111- rt..'l-r-t.n 'l"t;t-'1!~'1-
f"'l.1&\lt- P'bll' OO"III"'il""f- h.ll-'f-

antithesis >1-:l't.t
Hate is the antithesis of love. 'l'llil' f<;::,Oc
>1-:J> M: ' ~a>-





The antlers of the oryx were plaoed on the

walls of the hunter's home. fAm-.:.&11 .,..,
1'-"4- ' AJI")"' ' 11.'1- ' tD-/1'1' ' "1~"1'1 ' IIJl. '



"Hot" is the antonym of "coldn. .,..:,.

f ({ 4'11:1'~ ' 1-:l'&.t ' )tJJo


m."'m-") ' A'll{l/lm-

The blacksmith held the heated metal on the

anvil. 4''1'-"'"" f ;>lim-") 11~'1- oollf.
'If. All+oomm-

1. il:JT. We waited in anxiety for news of his
safe arriva1. 0~'\il oP""JQ-J:'l /I..OUiliPJT
011:>'1- h")mqo:,. toe

2 . .,...,...-,.. Her anxiety about sucoeeding led her

to work hard. b'lll."7'1'


.1'11'1- .,.

.,..-,. m")h&. 7.")~'1-,..:. 1#'1f-t-lfO~

The anxious person was walking up and

down. f-t-lfO~,. (lm- tD!f.ll.f.<; tD!f.;J-"4-
f.ODII./111 toe
be anxious



I am anxious to see the new book.

AJI.(lo") ODI\'m'i' 11"7f'l- 'i'l'il'llu2. (I;>. He is anxious about his future. ll/1
mY..t.'l- t-C:m- f.{l;>A

He became anxious when his daughter failed

to come home on time. A)~: 01..11 mY.
11.'1- ' qJiou"!q;t ' {l;J

I. "7")9". Any mechanic can fix that. n-,
"7")9" "2.l!th /1.1'J'ODtJJo f.l-IIA
2. 9"")9". Barren soil will not grow any wheat.
"l"")~ ' OD<I.T ' M9" ' 11").<'. ' AJ'0:,0A9"
3. "7")'i'm-9". That boy can wriggle out of any
difficulty. .1' A"J!: b"7")>;'m-9" "4-"le m-11
'I' OH.<'. 1\.J'ODA'J' f.l-IIA
4. "7<;'fm-9" /1.11. Any job is better than this


JP ~

Come any day you like. 0-'.11"1110'1- .,.., c;

any more
!. bh")"IJI.U. He cannot bear anymore pain.
bh")"'JI.U ' M9" ' ihDD9"' 11.:1"11" ' Af.l-A9"
2. /1.11.. Have you any more pepper? /1.11 oe
0<1. A/lUI

Have you any other question? /1.'1 'I'.1'41

A/Ill l
any pi ace



6. (zero). Did you find any books there? hii.U

ODI\'m'i' A1Tu 1

any other 1\.1\


Diarrhea made his anus sore. -t-:,0"7'1' <;:")




1\.~ I jP6- I ~


5. A")Jilo. We did the work without any

difficulty. JP&.m-") ,I'II.")Jilo "4-"le .U.M


You will find a radio any plaoe you go.

f'l-9" ' 11'1-'t~ ' <1.'1.1'" ' :1"1'11111
not any (adj.) M9"
I don't have any bread. M9" Jill fii'S9"
not any (pron.) 9"")9"
Keep the cake! I don't want any. b.IJ.") 'I")
T A~e1m- l M9" AA-'.A"I9"
[See also 'better, man, minute, moment']

I. (lm-. Will anybody be at the station to
meet me? 7.~") /IOD4'0A h"lfl..l'm- f"''.
1'S (lm- f.'r &.A l
2. "7")'i'tJJo9" (lm-. Anybody can do that.
"7")'i'm-9" (lm- 1\.oP&.tD- f.l-'IA
not anybody "'119'"

I don't know anybody here. 7.11.11 "7")")9"

[See also 'else']

1. ll''i"9". I said no, but he did it anyhow.
7.~ Af.IM9" AA !J.'S ! ll''i"9" A!!.~1m2. 7.")!f.M9" 1111-. You will have to make
your way through this crowd anyhow. h").J'.M
9" 111111 11-t-(IO(lflm- ih1111 oot,bA "7
ll'i' A/11111
3. .1'9" II') f.ll. I would have gone anyhow.
19" ll't y.u h't~ toe

anyone (1mIf anyone needs help, send him to me. heJI;J-

f"''.-'.A"' (lm- II.<re aJ!f.~ 'Ibm-

1. A")Jilo. Did he say anything? A")Jilo



2. t1e. Is there anything left over?


)~C. I am so hungry I will eat anything. 0"1,- 111\t-R~ ,-,,- )~C 7.0'11\114. ,--;,-,. Is there anything for me here?
MI.U II~ ,--;,--, 1111 1
5. f.l-11~,...,. You could buy anything at the
bazaar. hou.1'.11"'- f.l-1\"'h,_.., .,....,.,,_ '1:'f'IIIU
anythlns else /1.'1 )~C
Would you like anything else? /1.'1 f,.'l-.1.
A~fl>" )~C 1111 1

3. ,...,,.

not anything r'l9"'

I can't do anything in this case. l'."t.I'.II.U h

II') ,--,,- "1!!:~"1 1\Al-A,not for anything l\r'lr" t"JC ofll\o

I wouldn't do that for anything. 11,...,,.

~c 1111- .l'"t"t h'l.l'.c~ ....,.

1. ,,. II') Y.U. This may or may not be
true, but we will .look into it anyway. _e.u
l'.fl>")'l- 1\.ll'"t,- 'IY.ll'"t,- Y.l-'IA I y,-
II') ' Y.U ' )~"'-"t ' l'.<;"'t-1\"t
2. ftl') ll''l'. She did not want to come anyway. ftl') II'<:' ou,-"1'1- hA.I.Ml-,.
3. Rf'l-"'"'""'" 1\"tl\C. The answer is wrong
anyway you look at it. Rf'l-"'"'""'" h"tl\C
11'1-0DI\hof-fl>" ODAII- llihof-'1- ' )fl>"
4. 1."1.1'. + (verb). He does his work anyway
he likes. P't-ll>""t l'."tJilffl>" Y.P't-A
*Sooner or later, you'll have to buy a car
anyway. fl>"ll-,. 1\J!:t':,. R.ll'"t ""IL<; ,
OD"J~'I- ' Y.<:'C11'1A

anywhere f'l-,.
I don't want to go anywhere tonight. If"-
"1;t- f:r-,- 1\0D'/.J!: hA.I.A"',01'11 go anywhere you like. f .1.1\"'UR'I- :r.v.

[See also 'else']

1. of"IIYY.of"fl>". They live apart. of"MY.-t-m-
2. R --- AI')'!-. The eruptions of the volcano
came about one hour apart. t?t.IJ.+ 1 1'1"&,. ' OD.I."tJI'I- IJ"t!!: l'l'\'1- ' AI")'!- ,.
.I'.Cil )OC
3. llf11il'm-. They viewed each idea apart.
;r.,"tJI"tJI.-, mlt11 II filii'"'"" ""~"""'"""
be apart

1. of"t-t-.,.. The two houses are a mile apart.

11-111> IL.fol- h"t!!: "1Y.A Y.t-t-:1'11-



2.-t-0'11\m. We are four years apart in age.

R~!!:""L ht-'1- '\OD'I- l'."tR'II\"11\"t
apart from h " 011-I".,.C
Apart from newspapers, he reads very little.
h;>H.'"l- Rllof".,.C 1111-,- I\Y)11
The book interested me apart from the plot.
h;t-611- 011-t-.,.C ""1\".hf. Rm:t'I'IOJ- 1\11.1'.
[See also fall, keep, take, tell']

apartment h;rC-t-"1
Our apartment has three rooms. h;rC-t-"1l"t 111\V'Il'l- h'i'A )OJ-

apathy "11..1111)'1After his father's death, he displayed apathy.

hili> h'l"i> R:\'1 "11..1111)'1- Y.;t-Y.O'I-

Apes ate up the grain.




aperture .,.JIJI
A window is an aperture for letting in air
and light. ""111>'1- hfC<; 11C'I"t "11l~R.Y
.,.JIJI )OJ-

apex h'i'-1".,.


The apex of Mussolini's reign was the conquest

of Ethiopia. f-o\1\.t f"'~'l- ,,...., h'i!of"
"' J'.ai f.l'.~l'lm- h.'l-l'"t."Y"t om~~
1.11. )0C
f"'L~Al\" ,. ... ~~,
A collection of aphorisms is found at the
end of the book. 0""1\".hf. .,...,~lf 'I
Y. l'.m-)'1-"t f"'L ~AI\" ,-o't/1. hi\

aphorism :r.m-)'1-"t

The apples are five cents apiece. fl'..I'"IJI
;r,- 'I':> 1\,.11'1- o't"tof:,. )fl>"
we ate an orange apiece. l'..l'"tJI"tJil-"t h"t
Jl"t!!: 11Ci>lJ"t O'l"t


apologize Y.:tc:t- mf.,.

1 Y.:tc:t- 1\0D)
He apologized for being so bold as to speak
to the general. J!,~t-11-"t .l'.'l't': ROD<;~"'-
Y.:tc;J- mf.,.
She lost her temper and apologized in the
same breath. -1"-t.'l':t- Y~m-'l- y.:tc;t- 1\0D)"{I apologize for troubling you. Ill\ hll'l'~c
11-u y.:tc:t- h!!:C"'A~

apology Y.:tc;t- ""mf:t 1 Y.:tc;tThe boy's apology conciliated his angry father.

fA"/f. Y.:tc:t- oumf:t .1'11-1:1 1.1'.'1-

t.o.:.r.wYou owe me an apology for being late. OODH"/
f'l-11 Y.:tC:t- A'l-m.f.oi>'S MilA

apoplexy f"7.'1'A 0"11:1"

He had an attack of apoplexy and cannot

go to work. f"7.'1'A 0"11:1" .,.~P'-1'0'1- it
II~OC P'&- (1.'1.!!: hf."lfA'J"

apostate .,,...,'l''l- fh-'1 ""'"

The apostate from Islam later became a

famous churchman. I?.M9"1 'IM'l''l- f
Mw- ....... 0:\~ f :f"IDT fiL.,. hCil-1:.1'
1 IJ!11 "~

apostle m'I'C.I'
Jesus had twelve apostles. h.fll-lt OP'&- 1111'1- m'I'C.I''l- ~o~'l-

apothecary oo.(-;>t'l- <1'"'1"7.

The apothecary gave me the wrong prescription. DD.I:";>t'l- <1'"'1"7...,.

DD.I:":>t'l- ilm'S



1. [0'1'1'1- r:"''w-n n1..:- 1"1-P' fl.
'1"'1- ' 7-.1~ ' hll"~h ' ODODAh'l-]
2. 9"1111.. To her husband, she was the apoth-

eosis of womanhood. flQAtf


a 'A!l.

fll.'l- ' 9"111\. ' <;')-



This news appalled us. Y.ll m&. hlt~~1m1

be appalled .,.lfo.:
We were appalled at the thought of another
war. 1\.~ tpC~'l- f.~"IA -11111 0"'11'1-11
7-.1lfOc ~oc


I. f"'l.J'il:t:t. I saw an appalling accident in

the street. 0""11'1. ~y. .f"7..1'il:t:t h
~;J ' hfll2. f"t.l'/1111. There was an appalling number
of victims after the earthquake. hOD&.'l- ""
1'i''I'Tm- 0:\~ f"t..'/111'1- -1111' f.,..,_-'1.

apparatus """16.1'

An apparatus made of bowls and pipes is

used in making arack. l'.1lt&-'i" OD/IIl.l'
\J/ICI)o ' OD"I(.J' ' ht:'l: o 11"'/m-n!'l- ' f.m:t"'/A

apparel A-lilt




His apparel was splattered with mud. A-ll

11- ~.f. "'!':l' .,..~..,.'1'.,.0'1- ~oc

apparent "'AX"
It is apparent that he did not understand
the question. 'l'.f'l:w-1 7-.1-'IA.,.t:'lw- "'A


In spite of his apparent desire to do good,

be fails to help the poor. ODA\JII" P'&- II
oPJP&-'1- ~~~'I- .fllw- llDPitAII" .(-1\
l-1 ' fl.t:-'1 ' hY.:I"J'.II"
His apparent sincerity fooled us. :Jo"'''S ""
9"1'111- h:t-11111
be apparent ;t-f
His contempt for her was apparent in his face.

l'.!l1 """"' o.c.-1: Y.:t-1> ~oc

make apparent O..,A.K" }\ODAb+

His poorly written letter makes it apparent

that he would not get the job. ""'1'6: f~-11'1
IL hl\1\4- JP&-w-1 l'.1~"'1.1'1'S 0"/A
X" J'ODI\h:f"A


I. f + perfect (affirmative, negative) + Y.

ODii'\A. These stones have apparently fallen from the mountain tops. MrUJ .1:"1:>
l'""lf ' h.,.&-&-.... ' '"i~ ' 'If. ' .,.1hlllla>- ' f
ID~<k 0 f.ODii'\1\He has apparently not changed his mind.
mllfl-1 .I'AIIIDm f.ouMA
2. (relative imperfect) + f.ooMA (or t.f.ooil
All"). He will apparently reduce taxes. "1-11
C f"7.<1'1lt f.ODMA
Apparently, he will not come today. If&. f
"''_OD"' ' l;f.ODitAII"

apparition "'t:'l"'l- -


He does not believe in vapparitions. fltiJ~'f"

'1- ' h.l''/"1'1"

appeal (vt.) f."'ll'S M

The lawyer decided to appeal the case. mO

:J>w- .f."lll'S 11"'111'1- mil~
appeal (vi.)
I. II""~- The prisoner appealed to the judge
for mercy.l'.lt.:'l'w - 'l'l'w-1 II".Rt:'l- II""~
The Red Cross appeals to philanthropy.
"'" ' ODit'i'A ' fO~ ' h.I:"&-'IJI'l-1 ' l'.C-'1:1" '
2. 110. This book appeals to university
students. Y.ll ""X"m~ fl'tlLCfl.-1: .,...,
t.9'"lf1 Y.MA
3. ~it hll. Blue and red appeal to me, but
I do not like white. il"''.l''l!'i" <I'Y. <I'll"'/
'1- ~it Y.II-'I'A I ~"I!' "11 hAID.(-9"



4. "7~h. This sensuous music appeals to

women. ,.e.u tlt'Plt-l-") fO'/J.,PlPf --~

2. oPA.b<; hllqflll. You have to pay more
attention to your appearance. l\oPAhU'I ~

ll.of-':1'-'t ' ,_.,CIIA.

1\qfl(IU fflllm T't:J><I: .,Y:l:"' hl\110

5. f"''.oP/Ib'l- ~1C liL. Many newspapers

appeal to the crowd. 1111- ;>':f 1-&-avt

3. nm-~'1-. A man in your position has to be

careful of his appearance. Q")+ v-).;J- fit

.b1111 f"''.oP/Ib'l- ~1C Y.ll''l.ll6. II"'L'l- lim. It does not appeal to me at all.
fl'i'l\.11" II"'L'I- hY.IIm'SII"
Appeal to his conscience! ..,II.'O<D-'t t.'t-'1.
~lim- hY:C1U 't1l:<D-

4. -o:,. .,11'1-. His sudden appearance startled

her. Y:'t1'1- 11:,0 .,11.,. hllf.~1"1'15. oP;J-f'l-. It is his first appearance on the stage.

[See also 'conscience']

I. Y."'q'S. The appeal was denied. Y."'ql'


2. hiL-J::J-. The students presented an appeal

to the president of the university. .,.....,~,.,:,: 1\
1'-tli:Cit-f:m- T&.IL'I't'l- hiL-J:;f- h.,.t:fl3. oPmf:t. My appeal to her pity met with
no response. lt'l.t.!";l-lt'lA.:.S oPmf-t r1
II" ' 'i'~ ' hA.I'Imll"
4. II"'L'I- ,..,.11.,.11. He wound up his speech

with an appeal to everyone's patriotism.

fv-11-'tll" fU1C <;::,OC II"'L'I- 11"""'11"'11
')"1"1'\-'t o f.ODf.OD

-o:,. hi\. He appeared at the last minute.

"""""l:lf'l' ' f.-1:.+ ' -o:,. ' hi\

2. ;f-f. When we reached the top of the hill.
the town appeared below us. blot:ofl;f-<D-
""1'1' ' flf.t:ll't ' 1.11. b.,..,.... bfl;J-il":f
') ';f-f')
3. oonJ. He promised to be here at four, but
did not appear until six. IIOP'C l'l't'l- t.
"'"'11\v- 1111- ~nc 1 ~1c "''t t.llb
OP'&- ' v-11'1- ' l'l't'l- ' hA.OD"'II"
4. .,.l:fl. The defendant failed to appear in
court. 1-bltll' 'i'CY: n.+ ltY..,.C-fl .,.t:

5. "'"' This paper appears every Thursday.


;JH.tlJ I '100o{l I '1DD-{1 I ,.e.mlfJ/A

ODI'II\. He appears to he very sick. 11"111"

f:J-OD"" 1-""MA.

It appears to me that the program is a failure.

7.'tf.~ ' TC"''&-oo- ' <D-Y.-:,0 ' ftl'~ 1-0DIII\

appear as tr'i


ODJ.!"~h I



1-0DIII\" :J-f

Mary gives the appearance of being busy,

but she gets little done. "'L& fll"'l-"'f.'i' ""
M 'I-:J-,1'1\':f l "''t P'&- mofl hY.IA~'I-11"
keep up appearances o-~:1" ~ mfl+

Keep up appearances whi1e you are looking

for a new job. h.Jlll P'6- 1 CJ.:t-L.A.., 1 o~;f-U"t mofl:t

outward appearance oPb\h

The outward appearance of things can be

deceptive. oP/Ab hltlt':f 1\.tl''t Y.':f~IA
make an appearance 1l:t-




II -o:t lilA
put in an appearance 11:'fo hi\

I do not want to go to the party, but I had better

put in an appearance. (IJ~ 1-fl"lf'(l)- ll~
1\0D'/.Y: hiALIA"'II" l "''t ofl:t 11/A Y.lf II

to all appearances

*He was, to all appearances, dead. h'tf."''.:J-f


f'1"1- f.oPMA.

[See also 'majestic']

I. hllt:f.. He tried to appease his anger by
offering him money. 1'tH11 flODIIm+ ofl"'
<D-') ' 1\.,ofll:Y: ' 'l"bl:

2. '1'117'1- ht:II. Chamberlain appeased Hitler

at Munich. ii'II"IICII.'t oo-tb ~f. f'L'I-IIC
't '1'~7'1- ht:II

[See also 'hunger']

appellation hm&-C


He appeared as the king in the play. 111:,1'



At least make an appearance! 11.,1")11 11.,1")




give the appearance of (relative tense)

appeal (n.)


nm- 1\I'I<D-~-1: ODm').,.:,. hl\11'1-

")'}-<p-' ;



I. oP/Ab. I never judge by appearance. 'I'IIII" ' """"'b ' h/A111"'1-II"

The appellation "Habasha" is not liked by

Ethiopians .... nlf f"''.llm- hm&-C 111>.'1-f-A-.1'


H'tY: hf.rof.Y:II"


He appended his photograph to his letter of

application. h.,ODII\h!l'm- ;>C C:of..,t-4-

1 h.I'.I'H
appendage 'I-TA hit&\
The tail of a cat is an appendage. f ~:;-on:,.
t. 'I-TA hit&\ tm-




appendicitis f-rc'i' h1~:,. 01i:l"

Appendicitis requires a surgical operation.
f-rc'i' h1~..,. o1i;r- -tP. T1'0 .l'll4.

I. -rc'i' h1~-r. His appendix is inflamed.
-rc'i' h1~-t>1 h'I":I"A
2. -1-"".,cl OD"JII"'i. The appendix of this

book deals with the genealogy of the kings.

ffltJ I OIIX"thfi: I .,.Q;I.11"U: I OU"1{lftl I {1:1'\ I
t11";1"-l> fHC "11.1': .1'-'01.!.11\

appertain -t-oullh-1These are the duties that appertain to your

office. S/.IJ .('1-1-1 fl"t. ' h'i!A f"'I.ODII
h-r ' 'l~.l.t-r ' tm-

I. f9""111 'i!~1-r. Our boy has a good appetite.
Alf:f-1 '1'1- f9""111 '1'~1:,. hii<D-

appliance """lcl.l'
They sell all kinds of electrical appliances.
.,o;:ftD-11"' ' 'tM:,. ' fl\.1\.h:,.&h o OD"'&
.1' ' Y.lf"'ll(be) applicable oPt.
The rule is not applicable in this case. OtlU
MY. ~y. S/.IJ S'.111 hJ'.oPt.'/"
applicant houAit:f'
There were many applicants for the job.
111".!-<D- 1111- hODAit'l':f' tO~

I . .,.,..11\b!l'. Fill out this application blank!





2. oum<f'l"'. The application of the penal code

to this case is incorrect. OH.U .,.~,.. 11\,e.
Om1~11'1 oo:J>~

.h"l oum<f'l"' ll.h-t--r


3. OP"6- ltY.. "7f~JA. Serious difficulties may

arise from the application of this law. .e.u1'
.h"l Ol"t. ~y. .,'I'A h'i! .I'll :f'"Jc
II_.I.TC Y.:f'~A

4. hoPt.C. The application of what you know

will help you to solve new problems. fl"':l"
<D-<f'<D- ' hoPt.C ' o :f'"JC::f' o OD<j!
.-,...._ ll.,"l'r:,. .1'-l:II?A

2. 'i!~1-r. The lively boys have a great appetite

for amusement. 14ll"'ll A]f.:f' h'i'-t-'1 f""
'1':1" ' '1'~1..,. ' h~:f....

5. .,.~..,... If you show application to your

studies, you will succeed. 1\.."J-,.-uc.-,..u ..-~-1- r

have an appetite t.O(m-)

6. .,...-,._,.-,.. By application to his work, he got

a better job. 01".!-<D- ' ~.('. ' ooo:,._,.., ' foflfll ' l"t. ' h1'r
7. f"'l.<f'q ou.r:;.>~-r. This application is made
of various ointments. f""L+ll ODJ!";)t+

After a walk, I have a sharp appetite. b1ic1ic

0:\~ 0"11"' J'.C0'1A

[See also 'hearty, sharpen, spoil, stimulate,

I. h""0""0 l 0"1"11""q hJ'.t<t. When he
finished speaking, the crowd applauded. 1"1"1
~1 ll.""Cll .1.1111- h""O""O (0"1"11""
q ' hS'.t<i')
2. hS'.t<i'. I applaud your courage. 'HI11.,1J1

applause "V'11""q
He was greeted by applause. O"V'11""q .,.
bring applause ~,;u.q"} h..,.t.L
The speaker's measured words brought applause. -t-o;;>&<D- oucfll f-t-o;1t.:fm- :J'~

..,. ' "V'11..,q1 ' h-t-.:4-

apple -1>4-.h 1 7'1"'

11;1-S'.C"I .1'-llltA?A

f"'l.ovt.m- hAl' AI' '1-q-!':f' tmletter of application "7DPAhf!

He appended his photograph to his letter of

application. h.,ouAh!l'm- ;>C C:-1'"1.!.4-1
make an application ftoPi\h.,.

We made an application to the court for an

investigation. rcout. 1'.1-'I.S'.l:"l ll'i'C.I': fl.
of> hOD/lb.-,.,

applied (adj.) .,..,qt.'

He published a textbook of applied mathematics. .,..,qt.' f.h./111 ODll".h'i' h/1-t-ou
apply (applied), vt .
I. oPt.. I had to apply all my strength.
O'l-1"' IJ-1\- ""1".!-:,. ' t0l:11~



2. Mit:. The nurse applied a bandage to tbe
wound. ~Cf).. 1 1111-'J 1 04o"lf 1 h.llt:":f
3 . .,.m.,.OD(O'I-). You have applied this rule
incorrectly. f.II'J 1 f.'Jil 1 Oll..lo.,.'l- 1 .,.m
4. OP'<l- 1 llf. 1 h.'l'll. He knows the rule, but
does not know how to apply it. f.'Jti-'J 1 fm4''1'41\ I ~1C I .,., I 1\'Jf..'l- I l.'Jf."''..J'ID-1\111- '

S. 4'q, He applied iodine to the cut on his arm.







apply (vi.)
I. h""llh.,.. I would like to apply for a job.
P'<l- 1 1\'J.C:.IIm'S ll""llh'l- 1\I.A;JI\rr
2. .,.,.,1\h.,.. What I have just said applies
especially to you. h.rr'J 1 f.,.'i"1Ch-'l- 1 0.,.11
f. I h_')_,.-, I f.OO'I\h:f"<l\

3. K'i". This law applies to men and women alike.

f.IJ I ..lo"J

1\tD"Jf'.":f'J" ' 1\fl..f":f'J"



4. h."Jqil~'l- h.l\m- The rule does not apply

here . ...,.,. I 1.Jf.IJ I h_"Jqfl~'l- I fi\111-'J"
apply oneself "''l.1t"l 1\cpl\

He applied hlmself to the task of getting rid

of the slums. 'l't:-lo'J rrll- 1 fh.,...,m--, 1
oll"lf"lf I h'i!<l\ I 1\..,'J''(.-l[See also 'brake']




I. ll"oo. The Emperor appointed him judge.

'J"!-IP I ~1P''io I " " ' I h_f."C11D- I
2. ou.:m. The teacher appointed me to score
for both sides. h.ll.,...,&m- 1 1\rrl\-lo 1 011-:'l- 1
1\'JY:....,.C 1 ou.:m'S
3. OJII~. Appoint a time for the meeting!
1\llfl(lqtD- I 1.1J. I OJII'J

appointed (adj.) f.,.OJM

The time appointed for tbe meeting was
8 o'clock. 1\llilllqm- 1 f.,.mMm- 1 1.11. 1 rrll
:,. 1


appointee f.,.ll".,. 1 limThe official gazette contains a list of tbe names

of new appointees. ~;J&'I- 1 ;Jtl."'tD- 1 h.-'1.11 1





I. 4'mC'. Did you make an appointment with
the doctor? h.!. h..,... 1 ;JC 1 +me' 1 M'..t:"llll
2. ~'1-. The Emperor made several appointments to the office of judge today. -,.,.., 1 ~



He got a good appointment in a business firm.








apportion h.hUII
He apportioned the profits among the partners.



appraisal f1"".,.
His appraisal of the damage was less than
fifty dollars. ff.t:(ltD-') I 'J''(.'I- I f10D.,.ID- I h


J')(l ' h.f."C1


make an appraisal "IOD-r-

He made an appraisal of the deceased's

estate. f"::..'li'J 1 'Jilt:'l- 1 1"".,.
I. t..-~u~. The teacher appraises the ability
of his pupils. h.ll.,...,&m- ,.,...,&l"'ll'J 1 ":f-11:f" I '""~11'i"A
2. 1"".,. He appraised the property for taxation.
1\"JilC ' h.h'(.l.<l\




appreciable 1-AII
There is an appreciable difference in the results
of the students who study and those who do not
study. O"''}'i" O"'J'm). 1 .,...,&l"l- 1 m-m.
'1- 1 onl}hA 1 "I-AII 1 flf~:~ Al'~'l- 1 All

appreciate (vt.)
I. OJf.f.. We appreciate a holiday after a year
of hard work. I}') f." 1 ~ou:,. 1 bqf." 1 fP'<l- 1





2. lf';J {tm. He does not seem to appreciate

what I have done for him. llf.t:"lrrl\'1- 1 ~1C 1



3. 0"1'1" 1 1.11 1 h.l\(m-). I would appreciate it,

if you could come. ofl>Tooat fllflr l.ll

4. h.f.~4'. A frivolous person will not appreciate a thoughtful book. h.ll.,.itlltl- 1 4'1141\ 1





S. h.ODII1t. I appreciate your kindness. 11111 f. "I





~ . . ., .


~'1-11 1 h""II"I'JYI\rr
6. h.IIOJf.f.. New buildings appreciate tbe value
of land. h.-'1.'1.11 1 ..lo'JI\l"l- foot.'I-'J 1 'I';. 1 f

7. .,.1~HO. Everyone can appreciate the danger

of war. ..,.,.,.m-'1" 11m- fi'C~'I- 1 f"''..S'IIh
'1-1\m-"J ' h.f.;J

11..1~Hil f.":fiiA

8. .,.ll..,(m-). A musician can appreciate any

differences in sound. .,...11.4'>;' 1 01."'1" 1 ool}
hA I J'l\111f.II..,'I'A




appreciate (vi.) cp;J Q;LODl.

This land will appreciate as soon as good
roads are built. f.'"l'i" 1 oP11Y.:f 1 01-IP~
1." I flf.U I OD<l.'J- I 'f';J I J'.Q;I.'/"6-f>.

appreciati on

I. 'l"il:>'i". I do not expect any appreciation.

'1"1'1" 1 'l"il;>'i" 1 hAmQO~'I"

2. hY:'i".,.'l-. The children's concerts foster

an appreciation of music. fih,'i"'I- 1 1>111C'I- 1
f ....lf.:J-1 I hf."'i".,.'J- I ~~:J":J"f>.
3. il"'/.'1-. She has no appreciation for art.
lib.) '1'011 ,.,,. il"'/.'1- fii'I-'1"

appreciati ve

I. hooll:>"i. She does not seem very appreciative

of the kindness done for her. 111"1.~111'1- tJJo
1\:J- hODii;J"i h'J-oo!IA'I"

2. .t./111-1 1-+Qf.. The appreciative audience

cheered. .t.IIR-1 1"+Qf. flf).'J- 1 h,_.....,f!""
':f h"'-0"'-tl-


I. fH. The police apprehended the thief.

?"11.11- I\,QtiJo1 I fHtiJo

2. 1"~'1(tiJo). +He fully apprehended what he

read. 1)00tJJo1 0..,.11- 1"~'1tiJo
[See also 'danger']

apprehens ion
I. "".1'11. The apprehension of the thief was

announced over the radio. fi\.Qm- ODJ'1t



2. "'liD~. Apprehension of the fundamental

principles of health is essential. """'~:J-'1! f
m.'i" hmQfl~ Hf..1 "'liD~

hiiLII1. )tiJo

3. 'i'CV'l-. The roar of the hurricane filled

us with apprehension. f'tiD"flo )4-fto ""
'jj'J- I lj:CV'J- I h/11.~111
be filled with apprehensio n fl"l9" (l;J

He was filled with apprehensio n about the exam.

Ill\ ' L1"'i"tJJo I fltiJ'I" 11"/.f- )fiC
have a clear apprehensio n of fOD~.IJ+



He has a clear apprehension of arithmetic.




(be) apprehens ive


}!1 1111


apprentic e

tiJom.'I-> ' ~oc


He is an apprentice in masonry. 'h. ft.


1"'6- ' 1"1\"'/"'/~



I apprised him of the danger. ill\



approach (vt.)

I. mf+. How shall I approach my boss about

a raise? hll.+\1-1 Ill\ 1 1.'1"11 .,_....,,p 7.11..'1-

2. M


Who shall I approach about it?

Ill\ 'I-'ll' "'111


Have you approached your father about

letting you have a bicycle? !Lilhii.'I- 7.1'1.1
II-AU hQ'J-U1 M:>1Clt'l'tiJo l

3. hf.~1. How would you approach the

problem? ':f"/~1 7.11..'1- ;J-f.C1'1'1\U l
4. ( = intr.) 1"+6-~fl. The painter used a
green paint that approached what he wanted.
.,.1\'1" +!LtiJo hil- h"''.LA1tiJo :>C f
' h~1~1.. ' .,.11,. ' .,.q
5. f.Mt(fi'I-). As a poet, he hardly approaches
Keats. fl1tiJ"''.)'J- b.'I-111 hY.f.Cilfi'I-'1"


approach (vi.)
I. +~fl. They approached cautiously. fl-r1.+-t

2. """1. We cast about for something to do

during the approaching vacation. 1\0if.ODifJtD-
f~~'i''I- 1.11. f'/"11P6-tiJo1 1\"'I"IT'I- h


approach (n.)


The enemy fled at our approach.

floo.+~q':f1 mil'!-


2. HI... He invented a new approach to the

study oflanguage. 11!\''1!\' -r'i"'I- h'l.ll Hf..

3. h<\''1". Our director has a straightforw ard

approach to the problem. 'l.<l.h1"6-:f1 ill\ "I'll' f"'lfiDIItiJo/:1. h<\''1" hll'l'tiJo
4. f"''.IDIIY: DP'11Y:. The approaches to the
bridge are under repair. mf. Y:t>.Y:f. f"''.ID
11.11.'1- ' OD11Y.':f ' fi0Dtn11 'If. ' 'i"'ftJJo

approbati on

Our plans have the teacher's approbation .
h~'l:f't 1111""'1<1tiJo1 Y::>'i' ' h"l"i:tt>.

appropria te (v.)


John was apprehensive about his test marks.


appropria te


appreciati on



I. oPf.O. The city has appropriated fifty

thousand dollars for a new library. h.,...,,..,.


i!C on
11.11.11 IL1" ODl\ih'i''I- ...,,.11
2. IDilf.(fi'I-). My son has appropriated all my
ties. AJ':. ' h6-li-Ml1 ' 11..,.11-"i


3. 11.!-h- ml'l.!'.. He appropriated the most
comfortable chair in the room. h'i'll- m-1'1

approvingly 11""11.,.,+
She nodded approvingly. 11""11.,.,'1- ' o!-11.')

f"''..~"fm-') ' hv.ll- ' f.&\~ ' !1",; ' fll'

.!'.of. ' .,... ' ll..l'.&~:f

)m-') m'JIIC 11.!-h- ml'l.!'.

4. hllll. The government appropriated land
for a military base. DP't"ll"-1> lltnC I'lL
c ' f"''..ll''t ' (1;1- ' hllll

approximate (v.)

'I' '

appropriate (adj.)


The remark is quite appropriate. h.i11"ff-1:

lll\m-)'1- ' ~ll ' )d)o

I. 4J'Y:. You will need your parents' approval.
fmll)>::fll L:l'Y: f(ILA"I?A
2. li.Y:<;.f. 'I-. The audience showed its approval
by applauding. 1\.Y:.,..., li.Y:'O.f.-1>') 11"1."
oiJQ;l,l) ~IlK

3. oPfl.,.,'l-. He misconstrued her silence as

approval. 11!1";1-'l''t l\'t.l'. oPfl.,.,'l- 1\.Y:
c~ llrt.h-!-'1- 1-<:'lm-

*This plan has the teacher's approval.


l\~Y: ' l)(lof-"''&m- ' of-.1'."1!1,&\

on approval

*They sent me the book on approval. IJf.fl.,

.,'S &\DP&\(1 L~.l'.m- DPI\'do4-'t IIII-A'S
[See also 'meet']

I. li.K.!'..,.. The senate approved the treaty.
f.h"l oom(l'f !l"hC IL'I- (1!1"!1")-1>')
2. l\.DPI'I1). The teacher looked at John's
work and approved it. 1\.rtof-"''&m- f)>:'t't
I".!- ' li.J.'Ao ' l\.oP(I~)tJJo

3. .!'.~.!.. Do you approve of kissing in public?

IJJ\..J'.I)I)f. 0 DDI\1\11"') 0 '1-.J'."Iof.I\IJ l
4. "-"'-"-(11'1-). He approved his request for

additional money. fmf+aJo"t TID.4fll6


'JHofl "-"'.1'.11'15. of-11.,.,. Her fatherapprovedofhermarriage.

1\.IJ:J: ' ll;>ofl!l''l' ' 1-11.,.,
be approved 1-.,.IJf.)'l- ll.~"f I 1-.,.1111

Your application will have to go through the

proper channels before it is approved. "'""&\
h!f'll of-4'1Jf.)'l- h.,"l"f-1> (hoo.,.IJII-)
lld.'l- ll~!ll",; h'i'll-:f IIII-A DD!/""1
,. ' l\.1111'1-

approving f""11_,.,,_
The speaker was answered by a chorus of
approving shouts. .1.1111- ll"'ofl&'l- IJoP(;Ro
1i 111-'0;>&m- foort.,.,'l- DP&\11 l'lmm-

I. of-:1'&11. The translation approximates the

original. '1-c...- h'I''Om- f.:l'&IJA
2. fUA )IJC. The crowd approximated a thousand people . .1.1111- 01'-'C 1(. fUA )IJC

approximate (adj.)
I. ( = adv.) 11"1!1"'1-. The approximate time of
the trip is ten hours. f1-1'm- 1.11. 11"19"'1-
01'-'C 1'1-t'l- )tJJo

adv.) h'l"ll 1-.I'.A. The approximate

length of the room is eight feet. fh'i'll- C
11DP'I- h'l"ll 1-.I'.A rt!l"'t'l- ""'"' 1
2. ( =

UA f.ll''O&\

The painting is an approximate copy of one

by Rembrandt. 1"~11- h'l"ll 1-.I'.A ~'l"ofl
.!-., .... ' f.,..!-.... ' I"~&\ ' "1&\1)"1." ' )tJJo

I. fUA. He will stay abroad approximately a
month. h."JJ!:' me YtJA ID"~ h.'JC
2. 11"1!1"'1-. Addis Ababa is approximately
midway between Asmara and Nairobi. 11"1!1"
.... ' l\.'1.11 ' l\.111) ' lll\.1'-'DP.!-'0 ' II'Of.C'!l
li..,IJ,. ' 1l<i>o!- ' ......

approximation "1!1"'1About 93,000,000 iniles is an approximation

of the distance of the earth from the sun.
hou~'l- l\rth Bdof. film- C.,.'l- "19"
'1- 93,000,000 .,,_&\ fUA )m-

appurtenances 1-"""'6
He showed me the house and all appurtenances, such as the garage and the servants'
quarters. IL-l>')<; l\'t'LV.!I" fooh.<; .,.,
"'1..1 IL-I>'t i fiihC IL-I>'t foPI\1'111-'1-'t
oj-Q;l..,& ' V.ll- ' 11.1\f'S

April "'1..1111
apron iiCT
She wears an apron when she cooks. ,....,..,.. il
'1-,.o!- iiC'l' ;J-ifC"'II:f
tied to someone's apron strings

He is still tied to his mother's apron strings.

~ ..

' hl\'0-1> ' .,., ' l\.&\61"1!1"

apropos of nil - - -


Apropos of your vacation, what will you do?

1111 ~t:'i''I-U )~C !I"') &\;1-.I'.C"I ll.rtii?A l



I. 1-41. He is a very apt pupil. l'.ll- 0"19" 141 I T"l6 I )Ill"
2. -MO.. That is a very apt remark. 0"19"
1"10. ' ftl') ' hil1".1'f+ ' )Ill"
be apt to

+ negative imperfect + hS'A>C9".

A careless person is apt to make mistakes.
"IY-1111 (ltD- ii.01"T /tf.IP&o hf.4'C9"
2. imperfect + f.ll'<; A. He is apt to come in
the middle of the night. Ooo't 4.4' 11.11.+ 'I
f. J.'.OD"' f.ti'<;A

aptitude iltn:JHe has an aptitude for foreign langnages.

flD-"fl" Me :t'l-!1/l":f ll"""lC iltn:J-


[Ill";) 111-~

11:1- IDS'. 1\.'1 f"''..


IIJ(l~O+ ' +A:J> ' !1.9"!1. ' IDJ.'.'l-9" '

Arab o.:11
Arabi a ro.:11 Me
Arabic o.:11'f
Arabic is close to Geez. o.:11'f 11"1611
(be) arable lll'.C~ II')
The land in this region is arable. fH.II hi!
IJO. oo.:,:,. lll'.C~ f.ti'<;A

arbitrator hii:J-&-4:
The quarrel was resolved by an arbitrator.
'I'll- ' IJII:J-&-4: ' OD'i'Tdo. ' .1\17
arc :til+
The fortification is in the shape of an arc.
9"111- ' O:J>iiT ' :JoCK" ' f-l-IP&- ' )ID"
arcade [09"(1(1 f-I"S'.1f. 1-'i'"'"'f. :J-111'-:f]
arch (n.) :J-11+
The city erected a triumphal arch in his honor.
h-1-"l'l' /Ill ' h11-l- ' f~A :J-ilT .1\.fOD
arch (adj.) 4'1-S'.'f
The arch rebel was Patrick Henry. 4'1-S'.'fm- 1
OODfJ'f ;r+6l1 ~'1-6 1 )0C
archaic f'I"'-T

There are many archaic words in Amharic.

IJ"lC'f ' 1111- ' f'I''I-T

:J''IT ' hll-

archangell\.4' ooAhh
The archangel Gabriel made the annunciation to Mary. 11.4' ooAhh- 111Ch.A
il"lC.I'9" f9"ilt-'li't )1&-T
archbishop 11.4' AAII
The archbishop gave the blessing. 11.4' AA
flo ' 11-&-h. ' .......
archeology hCh.l"ll-:1[
archipelago -1-1-&-IJ:f S'.tl..f:f

arbiter hii:J-&-4:
He was chosen arbiter for the border problem.
1111 IDil). ~f. hii:J-&-4: ll''f .,.,...:m
I. f-Moo S'.ll. A good judge does not make
arbitrary decisions. 'No Jl'f f-MODS'.I\ <;:

2. Ool.:l'JI. f"7..1q. He is an intelligent, but

arbitrary ruler. 11AII )m- i .,.,. Ool.:l'JI.
f"7..1q ' 111; ' )ID"
arbitrate hii:J-.:4'
The judge is going to arbitrate the dispute.
Jl'fm- mll-1- IU'ii:J-C:J> )Ill"
arbitrate between h.hllll""l
The committee will arbitrate between the
company and the striking workmen. S'.C'l-
h-IJ't.f'aJo't<; I /"&- I .f'.f,_,...,. I IP&o-f"'l':f I

I. "1''11- f)S'.ol.. Who is the architect of this
building? fH.II't .01-l\ "1''11- f)S'.ol. .,.,.
)ID" 1
2. ODIJ' Is Afework the architect of Africa
Hall? .1\oi.IDC:J> ' f)\<;:61) ' .1\JI&-11 ' ODO'I-JI./11

I. f.O'tl\ '1'011. The university has a school
of architecture. l').lfCII.-tm- f.O'tll '1'011
+rue+ IL+ hiltD2. f.O'tl\ .1\IP&-C. Some people think that the
architecture of this castle is Portugnese.
.1\1-JI't~ ' (IS":f ' fll.ll ' "l't11 ' f.O'tl\ ' .1\IP
&-C ' f?"C-1>:>11-:f ' )ID" I 111\ID" ' .1'1111113. f.O'tl\ .1\IP&-C HY.. Greek architecture
made use of columns. M6l>:f f .01-l\ hiP
&oe HY. 09"ill\ ooom4'9" 1 )OC


archive(s) 0011111 fi.'I-


He filed the document in the Foreign Ministry's

archives. 1'1~.11.'J h"'""l' 1-Jif. "'Uli-I:C ou
11111' fl.+' h'l"~tJJo

archway f:,OII+ ac
The archway by the palace was decorated
with flags. m1. fl.1" ou'J"IP'T f"''..l'll1Q
tJJo r:,-11:,. ac Rl'l't1.:,. ~~~., .,..,_t!>.A

Arctic 1\Cbtb
The Arctic is always cold. 1\cbtb v-A1.11.
.,.11:J-q ' ~IJJo

I. li"Jo.. He is an ardent defender of human
liberty. li"Jo. fl'ltJJo AY; ou11'1- 1"b<1-lJ


2. "1f.lll;'. He is an ardent nationalist. -11/ll;' f01C II"'L'I- .l'lltJJo l'ltJJo ~tJJo

*She is an ardent lover of music. Aoo-fl.:l"
f ;J/1 'i':,.c /\'I 'l-

ardor f;J/1 II"'L'IHe expressed his ardor for knowledge in a

beautiful poem. 1111,..,.+ .l'lltJJo'J f ;J/1 II
"'L'I- RtJJoil "IT?" 1111!.

1. 11C-I>. He gained strength by arduous exercise.
11C-I> l'.'J:,OII:J-11. 0"7.1:-~"1 1-AR'I- <Q.ou~
2. RIIJr bQJ!". The arduous lesson made
him spend many hours at work. 0"1!1" bQ-'1.
'1-?"oc+ 1111- 1.11. T.,..+ 'If. 7.'t'l..l'm4-

I. 114-'1-. The area of this room is 150 square
meters. fii.O h'i'A 114-~ ou.f 1\!1"4 lJt.
"'L'I-C' ~tJJo
2. 1\lJQfl. The area around Addis Ababa is
densely populated . .1'11.11 1\RQ 1\lJQfl
1111- ' .ft1111 ' 1\110'13. ll'i'.:.. Bananas grow in tropical areas.
""'11 R'I":J-'1- ll'i'.:.l"l- f.R:,O'IA
*His major area of study is history. 01"/lf.
f"''..l'm.,..tJJo :1-&h ~tJJo
[See also rural, urban']

arena (11-<l.l'tJJo'J



f'I-"IA oumJ11.&

.1' ' 1':1")

argot AI' 't"I"IC

The argot of thieves is meaningless to other
people. f/l.l'l- AI' 'J"I"IC 11/l.~l- +c
1-11" ' hf.I'IT?"


He argued with his sister about
who should wash the dishes. lt.ft'l"'l?t "7'J
7.'J1."'1..1'T11 b7.1-l> ;JC 1"<Q.:J"<Q._,.
2. 1"h<l-b~. One side argued for a larger army,
and the other argued against it. 1\'J-'1. m1
'J '1-A:,O /PC 1'1<1-'1!'1- l'.'JJI.'l"~tJJo l'l.h<lbC /l.'ltJJo 1."1'1" aou?mil" 1"h<~-h~
I argued that it would save a lot of time.
1111- 1.11. .1'1"C'i'A....A 11\L 1"h<l-bCb3. 1"".7.11". He argued his case before the court .
01-JI- 'i'C.I:- fl.+ _,.CI' 1"".7.11"
argue into h"'flf)
The boy couldn't argue his father into buying
him a new bicycle. A:( 1\Q-1> 1\JI.II flll
h/1.'1- 7.'JJI.111-II'I- IU'"IQQ:ftJJo 1\Ail'/1!1"

I. hchc ">:,.?:,.. I don't want any argument from you. lJ'J1" ;JC Mil" hChC
(">:,0op:,O) 1\AI..A"I!I"
This form of argument is not admissible.
f.IJ ~~-~+
hchc 1\f.l...,..':-!1"
2. fODb'lb.l' ?"h'J.I''I-. Cancer is a strong
argument against smoking. "7"'-II'J /IDD:J"
m?" flJ'JI'lC 011:1" 11C-I> fDDb'lb.l' ?"
h'J.I''I- ~IJJo
3. ""411. That is an argument in his favor.
.1' ' 7,(1.') ' f"'/.1."1'1' ' """11 ' ~IJJo
4. ou4f. The laWYer presented an ineffective
argument. mR:J"tJJo 1\T;Jfl .I'ArT~ ouar


have an argument 1-tiJI\

He is in a bad temper because he had an

argument with his wife. b"7..11-l> ;JC 1111
1""1'1 R"'!l" .,..,..,. ~ac

argumentative 1"<Q.:J""'t.of:
It is difficult to get along with an argumentative person. b1"<Q.:J""'t.of: (ltJJo ;JC IIDD"I
qq-}- ' 1\ll:f;J<I ~IJJo

I. 1.~:,.. The soil in this region is arid. RII.IJ
1\lJQfl ' hi."- 1.~:,. ' ~IJJo
2. f"7.1'111.11'1-. Geography is for him an arid
subject. l[/1."1~ /1(1. M.1'111.11'1- 'l-11"
IJC'I- ' ~tJJo



The aridity of the climate is bad for the skin.

fl\f"" 't11~+ .~:-c.,.+ 11-JJI ""TS: ~tJJo



arise (arose, arisen)
I. .,.)"1. They all arose at the same time.
rrtr'l" Q't.I:"H .,.)..,..
2. ., The border problem arose some
time ago. f.l:"'tO~ l-Ie h., ol'f
'1- 11!1-o!\
3. 1t;Jmou. As soon as the opportunity arises,
I will start work. b.(-o!\ 1\'t'l;>mou~ I"
&-<JJo't 1.1..'1"&-llrr

arm (n.)
I. 1.~. He has lost an arm. 1\)l:'t .,..,.CIJI.A
2. 1111'1-. Can you carry the package under
your arm? 'I':,Otr't 01111'1-11 I"C A'l-f,H
.... ' '1-:f'll\111
3. OD.I'.11.Y. The arms of this chair are low.
fll.ll m"tOC "".1'.11.J'f':f lf:,O J'lr <;'I'<JJo
arm in arm ll~ All~ 1 +J'~HID"

He walked arm in arm with her.

1.~ 111.~

.,_J'f,H<JJo hit. ;>C 'tJI.

carry in one's arms h.,L

arisen, see arise

I. DD'I\'t't'l-. The priests form the aristocracy
in some countries. 1111<;'1- Q't'l't.l:" Me
<JJoil'l' ' hOD\o,')')')o ' h'i'o!\ ' f.S'.fiDtl-fr
2. "'""l'i''t'l-. The aristocracy has begun to be
interested in land reform. ODIJ:fi:~.J: 1 lh\ 1
fiDlflf o!\ ' "".1'.1'1' ' "f.'l"l'l'o!\

. . ' ,,.;r '

aristocrat Q'IQ'lMany aristocrats lost their life during the

French Revolution. Ol.l'titf. """'l:J-'1!
llfDo'l' '1..11. 1llfo Q'IQ.f:f ;r,y,ro;r'f<JJo't

She was carrying a child in her arms. a.n

;J-:,Oo(. )OC
have on one's arm h'lmAmA

She had a basket on her arm. :,Oc""l'l- h

'tml\'1''1 )OC
hold In one's arms :Jw+L

She held the baby in her arms. a.U't ;J-4'

put one's arm around 1t+L

He put his arm around her waist. dl1!J.'t h

take one in his arms h+L

He took her into his arms and kissed her.

t,:,Ofl; .....,,..

I. f1.'1-)'l-. His pose was aristocratic. u-~;J-<JJo
M'l-)'1- )0C
2. "'-ouR.T~+. Her pose was aristocratic.
u-~;r'l' f1.ou(J.')o)')o )0C

[See also 'enfold, fold, give, length, link, lock,

arithmetic .b.it11
They begin teaching arithmetic in the second
grade. .b.it11 "7il.,....,C hu-11.,.'1 h'i'o!\ f,

armada f,..C ouch11 'i.l:"

The enemy armada is passing by our coast.


ark ouch11 1 .ttouc

Noah made an ark for the flood.

'l"~ 0'1'
4-'1- <JJo;) '1..11. h't.l:" ""Ch11 (dt""C)


Ark of the Covenant



The stone tablets are kept in the Ark of the

Covenant. K"'l-flfi Oh.'l't :J-!1'1- <JJoil'l'


with open arms


He welcomed her with open arms. O.l'.il;J- .,.


fm'l'l- ftnC ouchil 'i.l:" OQa.&-:f't

'ICi!' 1.}'111. )<JJo

armament fiPC oout6J'

The Ethiopian army acquired modem armaments. fh.'l-f"kJ' r ...c 11&-'1!'1-

r ...c ......,,..J'



armband .,....,
He wore an armband made of silver. h-oc
f.,_,..&- .,...., h't.ll. 'If, h.I:"C'iA

arm (vt.) hil:Jom4'

The Chinese armed the guerillas with modem
weapons. J!'f.<;<JJo.f't f.l'.l."' 1-'l''l..l"'lh

armchair 'l"'ll m'I"OC

He relaxed in an armchair. 'l"'ll m'I"OC II

HfiD<;''I! r ...c ou"ft.Yf':f\''f<JJo

;arm (vi.) :Jom4'
The country armed for war. t.1t..,. II,..C)
'1- ;J-m4':f

armed (adj.) r ...c ou"ft.J' f.I'H

The police caught an armed robber. ?'11.11-

, .,.11....

r ...c .,....,,.., f.I'H<JJo't 4'"711




*Each lawyer came to court armed with facts.

1..1'1'111''1. mO:J' ~C"Im'i' )~C f.~ <;:
c~ IL'l- 4'<:0
be armed
I. ftfiC "'"'16Y YH. Were the robbers armed?
.,....,'l':r; ftfiC oP"f/'.Y f.HtJJo )OC l
2. -1-h'lhll. He was armed against the cold
with a heavy coat. '11-ll'i'tJJo"l' 11C~ om
t;:.!-!1" l>'l- -1-MhlltJJo
[See also 'tooth')
armed forces ftfiC '11-11-"f

The armed forces of our country have good

training. Y1<~-"f1' tfiC '11-11-"f 01.11"11
armful (of) ~.]><;: .,

He brought in an armful of books for me to

read. 7.:,0t;:. ~P-f'r OJJK"dtt;:. ~ A'1J.S~11 h.
armistice ftfiC "7.f!l" !1!1"!1")'1-

(be) up in arms 0'11.+ tl'l.

He was up in arms when he learned the news.

ID<l.tJJo")' ' 011"'/ ' ' ' 01'.<'..'1- ' tflol..
I. tfiC I ftfiC 11<1-'l!'l-. The defeated army had
to lay down arms. Y:&\. f+oo;ND c fllC oo
"'"''"'""~' ' "7!l<:h11 ' )0<:0'1He fought in the Italian army. Ot.."'II..Y"l'
tfiC 11.!-'l!'l- tJJoil'l' -1-'1':>
2. f!l" ~c tfiC. Did you serve in the army or
in the navy? 1'1A1Ahm- O?""X"C toe ~
"'" ' IDJ'.!l ' OIJ.:hC '11-A l
3. ID;I"S'.C)'l-. I am joining the army. m;I"S'.
C)'l- ' oP"IIJ1: ' )tJJo
4. ou'\'l-. An army of children ran down the
street. f.:hY';''l- oo'\'l- """~'~-'!. ~f. , <!'Ill"
aroma 11:1"

The aroma of coffee is very pleasant. ff't''i"

11:1" ' 0"111" ' t.!lS'.I(';f ' )tJJo

The Americans did not violate the armistice.

arose, see arise

t."''.i'>lJ'l'';f ftfiC "''.f!l" il!I"II"H"l' t.

around (prep., adv.)

I. II - - - IMY. The earth moves around the
sun. oo.:.'l- OB.hf. tMY 'l-~6-II:Y.
They were sitting around the table. Om<:A.
~tJJo ' 11"<'-Y ' -l-4'!1"mtJJo )OC
2. hll..ll. Is there anybody around? Ml..ll
lltJJo ' t.ll l


armor [OtJJo'U' ' htfiC';' h"l-<1-.<'.. lltJJo

)'l-1' 1\ooMhA f"''.l\0!1 f11<:'l- t\11!1]
armory ftfiC """'"'' "lll"lf IL-l-

The armory was raided by the rebels. ftfiC

oP"f/'.YtJJo "l!l")f IL'l- Ot.:>"''.P..l""f -1-HM..

3. 0 ---

He has hair growing in his armpit. 11-R'i: mil'l' li-,..C O:fo!I,A

He tied the rope around the tree.

O~f.. ~f. t.ll<:tJJo

4. ll"i'>YtJJo"l'. The tree was 40 inches around.
~f. ' 11"/'.YOJo"l' t.CIJ t..'t"f )RC

arms"""'"'' I ftfiC """'"''

Everyone who could carrY arms was drafted.

oP"fi'>Y II""Y11 f"''."f-A

o-tt- -J-oollooll

All arms have to be turned over to the police.

"'l"l''i'tJJoll" ftfiC oP"fi'>J' 11?"11..!1 oo<;h
11 ,MO-lbear arms ftnC ODUf~Y .fff
A grown man is allowed to bear arms. t.lJII
oPtn"J I f~~(l I (tCJ)o I flflC I ODt&f I 7,'}
JI..Y.11 f..t.4'~11:1"A
take up arms ftnC ODUf~.f ,1..1' r 1-'iUf

They took up arms to defend their country.

o~<~-'1'"'""~' 11ooh~hA
HtJJo T'i..,.,.



armpit 1111'1-

r....c """'"'' ,_

(be) under armslltfiC)'l- :l"m4'

All men were under arms. fl9'if u-& AID
C)'l- :1"'1'4'tJJo )OC


She lives right around the corner.

IL:t: Ah oo:f"m.I.YtJJo ~f. )tJJo

6. YllA. I have around 20 dollars. ?Y 11C
YllA t.ll'f




He is around forty years old.


ACQ ct-ooT 1Y.fPI ~

*Is there enough coffee to go around? IIIJoll11" f"''.ll<:!l It';' f.~'i'A l

around here RILU 1 hltQft 1 lUlU

There is very little activity around here on

Sundays. ~,.~ ~,.~ Rll..ll t.lJIJIL (~
11..11) ' ~"l':fo!l:J'I\.OJo ' 0"111" ' 'l-'t11 ' )tJJo
all around
I. 11"/'.YtJJo"l'. His land is fenced all around.
r~ oo.:.'l- 11"<'-YOJo"l' ;1"-rt;:A
2. OYIIR'l-. There are mailboxes all around
the city. Rh-1-"'/tJJo tJJoil'l' OYIIR'l- f?"il
:1" "7m<I-4"'7.Y "1'1'1':f hit-

be around O.,.A- '-~it

An unfailing friend will always be around in

time of need. 1\<JJotof-,. <D'Il' o:f-le 1.11.

O.f-11- Y.~eltA
be around again F.l.fl

Christmas will soon be around again. 1'1

o:,.eo- .r.~ltA
have (a coat} around IIJA 'hU"'
She had a coat around her shoulders. '1-blf
'I' 11.r. "-"" "'A 1\Y:e:J toe
somewhere around here 1\H.Y.. hltllR..
He lives somewhere around here. Mlll- 1 1\
ltfJO. I .r.'f&-A
with someone around
*Don't use bad language with children around.

AJ!.":f- 1 '111-0'I- 1 r-aA.,., :1'11'1[See also 'circle, clock, up')


I. .,.....,..... The mother aroused her son early.
I A!.1 I 0"711'1 .,. ....,. ...>f-.,.
The hunter aroused the wild beast to anger.
1\'1")' I YtiJo<'..<JJo1 "tS'.T .,. ... .,.110'12. 1\~~(0'1-). Her strange behavior aroused
my suspicion. J'A-1-11-~ IJol<:f''l' 'J'e"'<'..


[See also 'ire1

arraign b'i'CY: IL-l- 1\.,.~0
The prosecutor arraigned the tramp on a
charge of stealing. .lt"l 1\llbfJ<I<JJo 1 011.-tu
T CD1~A I bo\ 'I-CIL<JJo1 h'i'eY: IL
'1- 1\_,.~0,.
I. 1\H;J~. I arranged it in advance.



\1. 1\H;J~IJoT

The maid arranged the table for dinner.

~~.11.;1: m~A.If<JJo1 111\&-'1- 1\H;J~
2. 1\~~~- I have arranged to meet him at
5 o'clock. OOF&- 1\"tY: ll'tT I\1Y:"t
~~ ' 1\Y:C"I.J'IIIJo

3. ~~~. Who arranged the books? -x-m.::

'li"t "71 ~~~ 1
4. ~~~~~~ (-1-~MII). The classes are arranged
according to subject. b'i'll-'li r-1-~'1-
0'1-'l"l!e-l- 'tY.)T -"'~-"" t<JJo
5. b - - - ;Je 1\11"7"7. He arranged the piano
music for the violin. M:Y'i'<JJo1 .,...ll:l' b
li\'"1\."t I ;Je I I\11"7"7<JJo
6. mM. The parents sent an old man to act
as go-between in arranging an appointment.

CDII]f.":f- .,.mt!'<JJo1 1\-CDi\1 h1Y:

l\"7'f.'" 1\b[See also 'match1



arranged (adj.) r;~-.,.~

The meeting arranged for tomorrow was
postponed. fl)~ f:f'_,.~,. MlllfJ of-1\IIL
arrangement "7~&-~'1The arran~ement of the furniture in our
new house(took a long time. '1.11.11- IL:f'":f'1

fDoil1" 1 I f7-:J"aJo




make arrangements 11"7~+ l;.Y..~"'
They made all the necessary arrangements

to leave the following morning. 0"7"1P'1:

111.'1- 11-\IY: I\IILII1.<JJo1 1f"ll''l- ,.


array (v.) ~~
The general arrayed his troops for the battle.
~1<&-11- CD:f'~t!''li1 1111lC)T 1\~&-~
be arrayed


She was arrayed like a queen. 1\1~ 1"1F

'1- hif11e:l' toe
array (n.)
I. IIA'i'. The troops were formed in battle array.
CD;f'~t!''li Otnet'l- IIA'i' -1-H;J")f.
2. 1\:J>l"":f-. The array of silver on the table
was quite beautiful. Om<:A.If 1\Y. ftO<(.'I-
b11e r-f-w<(. 1\:J>l""'f- ~- toe
array of -R,..
We were impressed by the array of scholars
who came to the meeting. 11111111fJ<JJo 1111-
fi.:I'<JJo1T -r"';f-lf<JJo 1\M)n

*The arrears of his debt are well over a thousand
dollars. lt1 Y: i( 11e fOIIm r-hLJ'
1.11. f-1-1\IILO-l- M 1\110'1arrest (v.)
I. YH. The policeman arrested the thief.
7"11.11- ' l\.fJ<JJo1 YH<JJo
2. "7~b. The bright colors of the flag arrested
the children's attention. ~"7-''li ffJ1.1'.&-<JJo 1
.,.1\'l"":f- rA]!.'Ii1 11"''1- "7<:113. 1\.r.oo. Filling a tooth arrests decay. f'l'e
111 "'"" "711'1"1\T OOOII0/11 ,.,.,A
[See also 'growth')
arrest (n.) oo:f'lle 1 "".1'"11
The arrest of the director was announced



in the papen;. f-'1.<1-h ...-1- OD;f-(IC (oo.1'1J)
0.:> 11."1 ...11\ll
be under arrest T J'H

You are under arrest because you ran through

a red light f'l-&.l.h oo11&.'1- lll\"'llh ...
make an arrest .fH

The police made two arrests. ?"ll.(l':f IJol\

..... (ll"':f S'll"

I. ""J':lll. We waited for the arrival of news.

'll.l"':f"l fOD'I>flJ-1>"1 ' FA"'"I h1<: ' 1

"JCfD< 0&.1\- 1.~ hS'.l1fD<

I. milo!."lTC. Hold the arrow against the bow
when you shoot. ll'l-m.:m-c Wil.I."IT-1-"1
h.,.ll-1> 'If. hilS'..,.I.U J'Hm2. .,.11'1-. The arrow points north . .,.ll-1> IDS'.
(1"'"1 J'OOI\h;J-A

I. f"""I<IS' 4-11&1t. Our arsenal makes only
rifles and pistols. fOD"t&f 4-11t:lt:f"l f"''.




fH.'i'm-"1 ""J':lll ""mqO'!>"I


2. OOJ':l'if. The bulletin lists departures and

arrivals of all buses. "711;1-w-t.rm- fhm-1'

2. fjDC """I <IS' .,ll"li' 11.'1-. Only a few rifles

were left in the arsenal. O"'C """I <If .,ll"li'

11'(1,;"1 Oofl-


ODJ':l'if f.Ht'.li&.A

3. fODJ':l'if '1.11.. He timed his arrival to

coincide with the President's visit. h'f' <I-lVI"I
-1> 'l-O'S'I- ;>&. 1."1-'1.1"1m!l"ll'l- h1:C1
fOOJ':l'/ffD<"j ' '1.11. ' ODffi~
4. ""11""1'1-. His arrival caused a lot of excitement. fl\- ""11""1'1- 1111" .,C.,C .l.m<:
arrivals 1."1.,1'-':f

There are several new arrivals at the hotel.

Olr-1:11- fD<ilT 1111" h-' 1."1.,1'-':f hllensure the arrival h.Y.~f\

This money will ensure your safe arrival in

Addis Ababa. f.U 1"1H11 1\llh h-'
hoq OS'.!I"11 S'S'.Cll7A

[See also 'new, tardy']

I. S'.lfl. When will the teacher arrive tomorrow?

hll-1""7&m- 11""1 '1.11. f.S'.CIIA l

Did they arrive at a decision? It"If:


2. ...1\lt(ll'l-). Mter yean; of hard work he
finally arrived. h1111" -too-l- Aof.'l- 0:\
" 0"""'-l'if ....1\ltll'l-

arrogance 7.11&'1- I '1-bll'IHis arrogance comes out in every speech he

makes. O"'L...'S'.C1m- .,.,.,c o-11- 1.11&'1-
('1-bll'l-) f.:l'f.O;I-A

arrogant 7.11<1 ...'1' 1 '1-bfl"">;'

Mussolini was a very arrogant dictator. -(1
il.); 0"111" 1.11<1 ...'1' ('1-bfl...>;') h!l"q

1n ~oc
arrogate (to oneself) 0&.1\- 1.~ hS'.l1
The governor arrogated to himself the power
to punish violaton; of the law. ih., ...,.

11.-1> fD<ilT T4!'1- moo"ll!'l"'f 11!1' f.


arson fll.'l- "7:1'mA m"I)!A

The two young men were accused of arson.
Ool\-1> ID"'.,.'f 011.'1- "7:1'mA ID"I)!A

I. h.~ T011. He knows a lot about art. ill\
h.~ Tfl11 1111- fm-:I'A

This building contains many works of art.

OILU ih"ll\ fD<ilT 1111" fh.~ T011 P'
&.l":f hfl2. Tfl11. The public speaker cultivates the
art of pleasing his audience. """;>&m- .r1:
ay,;oo':f"j "711S'.I'I!J' T011 S"I-117"1\A
3. H.l-'.. He has the art of making friends.
WJI~ f"7'i'&.'l- H.l-'. hl\m4. 11A7'1-. The witch deceived the girl by her
art. m"llllf.:t Ali'1l-'l.-l>"l 011A7:1: h;l-1\

artery (arteries)
I. S'.V" '1>'1. It is dangerous if an artery is cut.
S'.V" '1>'1 h""Omf'l hS'.1'1' ~,.
2. 'l''i' 00"111:. Churchill Road is one of the
main arteries of Addis Ababa. f'I'C'I:A 1-'1
.,. hh-'l.ll hoq 'l''i' OD"I11'-'f h"l'l.

artful f"7"POCflC
The cheat uses artful tricks to get people's
money away from them. h;l-'lf. ff'lm-"1
1"1H11 (loom-(11: 0"7"POCOC H.l-'. J!.m


*The Japanese excel in artful arrangements

of flowers. li':r'f:f hOq OODS'.CS'.C T011
h"7"17" f.A:I'fl-




1. 1.:1'. Many valuable articles were stolen.
ofltl- .,.:> fll'f<D- 1.:l'l":f. -!-(1<:.,.
2. l\'tof>K". I am not clear on article 3. l>'tof>K"
V'1l'l- O"IAK" I>A1q'fr
3. &"dtott:. There was an interesting article
about it in the newspaper. ilt\(t.. h"JS: f
"'LJ'(IJ'..{I'I- ' K""'"'i' ' O:>H."'<D- ' llf. ' -1-R"r.':
4. OD(I-!-l'o9"C. In English tbe definite article
is more often used than in Amharic. I"JIPJC
01 f.A'I> 01.'t"lll.11>1 f-1-a>(l) OO(I-!-1>9"
C f.OAm-'t 1..11. f.)1<l-A
[See also 'definite, indefinite, leading, toilet']

artillery (n.)
1. bq~ OD"f6f. Our artillery was effective
in destroying the city. bq~ OD"f&f:f.'t h
-I-"7<D-'t tl"7'1'of.'l- i1't1
2. OD~.L7f':f.. The artillery is usually some
distance behind tbe lines. oflti-<D-'t 1..11. ""
~.L7f':f. htnC "J"tqc 0:\11 <l-'1> f.llflheavy artillery bq.J:- """16f
The Russians favored the use of heavy artillery. OD!l!>qm-n ' Obq~ ' OO"f6f ' OOtn

articulate (vt.) O"IAR" -1-'01<:

Don't mumble; articulate your words! h~.,...~
9"C9" i O"IAK" -I-'01C
articulate (vi.) T ;JmOD
The arm articulates with the body at tbe
shoulder. h't~ h1lw-H :>C f"'L:>m
ODfll< ' '1-h~ ' ilf. ' )fll<


articulate (adj.) :J""'.f.

The legs are articulate limbs. 1."1t!':f. :t""l
"" l>ltll'l- <;'fw*He is a very articulate speaker. :1'11'1- ""
Ctn fOD'01C :f-11-:J" fti<D- (ltD- )fll<
use articulate speech AM +'1''1~
A baby cries but does not use articulate speech.
ih!'t fti'I><'IA 1.'t"l[ flf.-r- l>f.'01C9"

artifact (ltD- .,,:.'II )1C

Artifacts made of flint were found by the river.
bqA......,. f-1-"'~ (lw- "'<l-'II )1t!':f.
Om"t11 JIC -f-1")'
1. H.l'.. He makes use of tbe artifice of flattery. O~tlll H.l'.,...,A
2. 'I'Oofl. She displayed a great deal of artifice
in decorating her new apartment. hJl{lo")
t.;rC-I-"7'1''t Oh<;:-1-'i' 'I'Oofl l\1.m:f.w3. ( = adv.) lt't1'1- Ollf.. His sincerity toward
other people is an artifice. fltt.ll-:f. (ll":f.
'l>'t f"'l.OD{I(I<D- lt't1'1- Ollf. )fll<
1. (ltD- "'<l-'II. Are those flowers artificial?
MH..I' I>Oil:f. (lw- "'<l-'II <;'fw- !
2. hAofl fAll'). She has an artificial smile.
hAofl fAll') .L1"1:t" 1>11'1-

.,.,..,. I


artillery (adj.) foo~<;:

The artillery fire leveled tbe town.

-1-lt(l h-I-"7<D-'t l>a>J'.oow-


1. 'I'OO'i'. The weavers of the toga are good

artisans. lf"7~1":f. 'I'~ '1'007f':f. <;'fm2. QA )t~. The silversmith is a good artisan.
ofiC 1><;:<'1~ 'I'~ q(l 1.)!' )m-

1. I>Ctll'l-. This artist is famous for his
statues. f.IJ I>Ctll'l- o"'.:.'fm- .hm-A-r-:f.
11)'i' II'S:A
2. fh.) 'I'Oofl nm-. There is an artist colony
near our home. 1.'i' 11.'1- l'otn1ofl fh.)
'I'Oofl 1ll":f. OD')J'.C )\(1
3. "''ill.. Afework Tekle is Ethiopia's most
famous artist. l'o.La>C'I> -1-htt. f:J"a>of> f
1>..'1-f"kf "''ill. )fll<
4. 11..,.. He is an artist on the harp. 1.1l- fO
1'0 11.'1> )fll<
artistic ( ~ abstract) 'I'OO'i')'IHer artistic arrangement of flowers was
admired by everybody. l>oq fODJ'.CJ'.C 'I'
00':');1: 011-tl-9" -1-J'.)of>
as (conj., prep.)
I. II + (imperfect). Did you see anyone as
you carne in? 1l'l-1q (lm- l\U?A !
2. 1."tJ'.. I regard it as important. 1.'tJ'. 1>11
.1.111.. )1C l>.l:"C1. ML'I'<:'I'fiiiHe is late as usual. l.'tJ'.-1-flooJ'.m- H"lf.:tA
Try to act as a brave man would. J'.of.C 1l
m- 1.'tJ'."'LJ'J'.C1fll< tiOOP'.l-'1- 'l"hC
2. lltl + (verb). As he is leaving tomorrow,
we must hurry. )1 (lfl"'l.~~ ooof.m't l>tl
3. M9" 1.'t\\ ofl + (imperfect). Dark as
it was we could still see tbe sign. M9"



t."J\\ ""11"'1 O.IY"J II"Ah_,"J "''f'l-

t."J:fA )0C
4. -II + imperfect + 11". Much as I like you,
I will not marry you. 0"111" oflm.(-1111" h
Young as I am, I have experienced life. tJJifJ
,. ofi!Y"}!I" ).C'"} +ll"l&'l'llo5. 0 + (abstract). He serves as gardener
and as chauffeur. Q;l-hAH')'l-o; 011'-I..C)
'I- Y111"l'IA
we left the house by the same door as we
had entered. 01Q"JO'l- OC -f"DDA(I"J m"'"J
as a 0 + abstract
As a child, he lived in Ethiopia. OA~)., 1>.
'1-f'kY m-11T "l"<':
As a poet, he hardly approaches Keats.
01"1"'U'l- h.'l-11"J hf..O.C110'1-11"
as ...... as 7,"},1:.
Is it as difficult as you say it is? 1\"JT t."JJ':.
11"'1-llm- hQ.(- )m- 1
*I want a box twice as large as this. hH.II 0
IIT'i' ll'i' f"'l.A "'T"J 7..1-A.:>IIoas for 0 --- 011-A
As for him, it is all right. 011- Oil-A J':.W
)m As for you, I never want to see you again.
h"JT"J "I"} JI"JOO';' 'lf,ll 1..11''1" l'.A

gain ascendancy over hi'hL

The soldier gained ascendancy over fear.

m;I-J':.'I- 'i'CV'l-"J hlf)l..

ascendant (n.), be in the

1. ~fit Y.~. His rivals were in the ascen

dant, and he lost his position. TaJ-'1-'I<Il"'li
7.Yftr 1111~-'1- I"A"')."} h"l
2.;e ~,~:.His fortunes are in the ascendant. 11-11., t.f.J':.<:;e ~,~:.
ascendant (adj.) 0"7,1:."1 'If, Yll
The prime minister visited the ascendant
nations of West Mrica. m:,.'l,e "7.~11~
O"''J':."I 'If. Ytr'l-"J fll"b&--11 hUll h
1t::f"} .,..01'

1. oom-at+. The ascension of the mountain
requires much effort. T&o&-a:J-1' J oum-11)..-,.
-1111- T<':'l- f,mf.:I'A
2. IIC1'1-. Christ's ascension is a church holiday.
fhC11.Y.11 IIC1'1- fVf,"''"l"'l- O'tA )m-

I. oom-"1'1-. The ascent of Mt. Everest is difficult. <:11'1-"J T<l-6- ODm-"J'l- 1'.11'1':><I
)m2. oooo"Jm:t>. The sudden ascent of the elevator made me dizzy. fhit"Jh-'1- 0.(-"J1'1-
ODOD"}m:,0 l'.JI<':'S

as if

*He acts as if it were very important. TA

:,. Y11""1111'PA
*He talks as if he had been there. t.H.Y 7."}
,1:.)0<': IY"l" ym&-A
as to - "} t."JJ':.IY)
As to your brother, I will see him later.
m"J.(-11"11"} 7,"},1:.11') 0:\'1,4''PIIo-

[See also 'even, far, long, much, often, see,

so, soon, such, though, yet']

I. aJ"'. The path ascends the mountain.
ft."IC """J1JI. 0 ....&-&-m- 'If, f,aJ"'A
Yohannes the Second ascended the
throne. -'1"1"7'1! f'<h"J11 rt-of."J 'If. .,..,.




I. h<:.:>1m. He tried to ascertain the truth of
the matter. ft1'1-"J t.m-),...';')'1- 11"7<':.:>1
T 'l"h<':
2. h"l&-. Ascertain what really happened!
f.J':.<':11m-"J )1C 1'."16-

ascetic (n.) ooo;'S

Ascetics prefer to live in the desert. OD<;?f':f
11".(-<: 0-'1 m-ilT OD"l"C ' f,ODC"Jflo
ascetic (adj.)
I. fQ.h;l-'l!. His mode of life is very ascetic.
f).t:m- o-l!.:l' fQ.h;l-'l! )m2. f-11:1''1-. The monks live ascetic lives. oo)
lf'l\9':f f-11:1''1- ).t: f."l" &-flo

ascribe to

The Roman ascendancy in England lasted

for centuries. t:"''m-n 07."}"/II.JI:f 'If.
f)O&-'J'm- "1~'1- 11-1111- """"''~- .,.,

I. h - - - fT)"f )m- hll. The police ascribed the automobile accident to fast driving.
?"ll.ll'li h.J':.:>m- f.J':.<':llm- O'i'T)'l- hoo
"J-'1'1- fT)"f )m- htr
2. 0 - - - ll"h"JY'l- )m- hll. She ascribed



her success to hard work. f""m.:l: OD?t;'t-

flhQ~ Ft. l"'h"t.f'fo t..,. hll'f-

*The alphabet is usually ascribed to the

Phoenicians . .J.J'.A"t fd.m-1-'t- 1-"t-l:.f"".f"t

<;If..,. .J'.QIIA
Don't drop cigarette ashes on the floor. fliDI\

f(IJI"o!- '

May I ask a question? 'I'.f-1: Am.J'.:r> l

He asked a favor of me. ~;r )\"t.ll!l.C"/11

+ mf+'S

ask after tnt'.,.

He asked after your health. m."tt't-1i"t mf+
ask for

ash(es) hOD~
1\-' II.J'.


hOD~ '


The floor was covered with ashes. mA& h.

OD~ -fliJ' tflC
be burned to ashes hooY.: IT)

I. mf+. He asked for permission to go home.

mil. IL't- 1\""Y.~ L:l'~ mf+
2. Ll\1. Did anyone ask for me? fd.A1'S II
..... hi\ l
ask in


*Mr. Parker is at the door. Shall we ask him in?

The boy was ashamed of his tears. A)l: fl

"tll-tc ;rchc )l!l.~ ""'"'" 1 .1'-"'R-

)\"tfllllf.... l
ask of
1. mf+. I only ask of you that you clean
up the room. fl"'m.J'.:r>ll h<i!ll-"t 1\"t~:l"ll
.II ilil' t ....
2. hlllf1t:. Have I asked too much of you?
ill!" hlllf'1Ch-ll l

The house was burned to ashes. R..fl


[See also 'smother']

(be) ashamed hd.t:
"7A+o\- hLt:
be ashamed of oneself hLt.

You needn't be ashamed of yourself. You

have done well in your exam. f?";l"'i!Cfl'fo
t1C fill'" l L_,.'OII"t 'No .,.C.,.YA
ashore mil. .IIC!J'

He jumped overboard and swam ashore.

hODChil ' Hll- IDI'. ' .IIC!J' 'l'"f
be ashore hoPCb11 mtJ.
The captain has been ashore for two hours.
111:1:). 1111-ll'f- (1'}'1- .filA hODChil ID
Cl'- tflC
go ashore m1.. flihC 'LF.
We were not allowed to go ashore. mi. fl
.ftC mt:<;: 1\"t~"tY.~ hA-tL+!l.A"tl"'
ashtray OD-f-CI>lf

The ashtray is full of ashes. (fll.lft!-)


cl>lf..,. h""~ ilil' t..,.

Asia MJ'
aside +c+

All joking aside, I want my money. +A-'1. +

C+ 1"tHIL"t J.d.A:>I\11aside from
I. h - - - flll-t+c. Aside from this there is nothing else we can do. hH.II flll-t+c A t;!l.C
"' fl"'"t":f-11"" t1C fill'"

2. h - - - 11.11. Aside from that there is not much

to it. hll..f 11.11 l"'"t?" .filA f+t:IIJo
t1C fill'"

ask mf+

Ask at the ticket office! -th.'t- ""lf""i"" ll

t: m.J'.:r>

[See also 'excuse, extension, hand, marriage']

askance, look ~ fl'I'C"'t. i-""1\h-t

The students look askance at the plan for

voting. ~!"'~ lll\ OD(Im;l"lf..,. .fll....., )\
;r>~ -t"7&l"'fi fl'I'C"'t. .J'.ODI\h-Jo;l"A

(be) askew -~-"~"""" 1 -1-"t:>!l.!l.

His hat is askew. QCt"'IIJo -t"t:>J!...A (-t"'

(be) asleep
I. -t>;'. I must have been asleep when you
came to visit me. A't-m.J'.+'S flODtiJII 1.
H. _,.'Slfi .J'.II't;A
2. (foot) !l.tHH(..,.). My foot tingles when it
is asleep. J."ltl."t (IJ'.t11H'S .J'.mt:>;'A
fall asleep h"t+ll'l- l .,.,.. I J."t:r>A<i! .fHIIJo
He fell asleep during the sermon. flllilh-Jo
1.11. h"t+II'II simply couldn't fall asleep. l"'"tl"' A.,.>;'
hAil' A h-I'"
I fell asleep while driving my car. oulJ..t; (I)
.II J."t;r>A<;: .fH't
(be) fast asleep ~"t .fl\ J."t:r>A<i! m(l!l.IIJo

He did not hear the burglar because he was

fast asleep. ~., .fll J."t:r>A'i' mll/'..'1-
lllltflt: IL'I- IIClt&IIJo 11.1Q hAII"7..,.1"'
lay asleep .,..:;:

A drunken man lay asleep in the doorway.

!l.1f4- 11.1'- -t'i'
[See also sound']
fllht: (1....



2. 'l'l. Most writers aspire after fame.

I. '1"1ll. The judge has a solemn aspect.
,II>;'IIJo I (.,;J I Yh I '1"1ll I /'ohdJo


The aspect of the countryside is


CXtfCffiC}y attractive. fQ,_,'J.;. I tp..JI,:f" I }..:E-1 I

.,&-h. I ~ ....
3. /'o1P&-C. This house has a southern aspect.
~u 1 IL-l- 1 fJ'.IHI 1 /'o1P&-C 1 l'oh..,.

*The Emperor is a man of dignified aspect.






every aspect ho--A-r ft1AC


asperity '1~h 1 :t'A

He answered his critics with asperity, fu:r4-'1-'t





asperse l'o.,
A true friend will not asperse his comrade.




aspersion m"'L'ISuch vehement aspersions cannot be ignored.

l'.'t.II.U 1 Yll 1 bqJ'." 1 m"'L'I- 1 f"'l.:J-11<;: 1 l'o

cast aspersions on h1-"'L


He cast aspersions on my reputation.

't I 1'.1-J'.L

asphalt l'oMA'I- i C:.'t'rr

The road is paved with asphalt. ou't1Jl.
MAT (c:.'t'fr)






Some students were aspirants for a scholarship.


.,,,.. I



I. l'oUY. He loaded the ass before going to
market. 1RY b""'t.ll. Rol--l- l'oUYtD-'t "'i~
He insulted him by calling him an ass. l'oUY

1111- 1 I'IJ'.R..,.

2. -1:'1'. He gave him a kick in the ass. <l:lll''t 1


I. R'1~A l'om:t'. The enemy assailed the castle.

mll'l- "l'ttl''t R'1~A l'om:t'tD2. l'o"'J'.L. The student assailed me with
questions. -1-"'i:tD- R'1'Y4: l'o"'J'.L"t

assailant J'.11.111l
The injured man did not know his assailant.
f"'(IIIIIJo ' (IIIJo\L ' J'.11.111l11Jo't ' l'oii<D.,.....9"
~<;:(1 1.11~
The assassin escaped.




~,..,.I ~RC


1-'1'- }lonf\m

assassinate 1F.l\
His former friends assassinated him. fcf'S:f"
'lJ'.'I'~ ' 1J'.~'I-

assault (v.) J'.RJ'.R

That man assaulted me. y 1'1..,.


assault (n.)
I. '1'?'1-. The assault was repulsed with heavy
losses. '1':t'-1: 1111' 1-.11'1- ltl'.t.l'l R:\11 11.

(be) aspirant for Lll"l 1 "'"""'

There are many aspirants for the position
of mayor. fb't-J:q~-1-'t 1 P'A"''t 1 f"'l.LA




We have considered every aspect of the

problem. '1-.11\!.'t I bll-~11" I /'o'tl\C I -f-ODAb




2. J'."11f,q, He was charged with assault.



assemblage ""1'1111'111
He was responsible for the assemblage of
facts. out.'Jfl":f't 11""1'1111'111 '111.1. ~RC
*This is an assemblage of important people .

:J-1111:r- l'll":f f"7.1'f.R'I-


(be) aspirated '1-'tof. 1i 1 -t-1'1.,

The 'h~ in 'home' is aspirated. II"JD tJJollT
f"7.1'f11Jo I u I tUR11 I '1-'tof.'li I ~I'I.,A

aspiration 9"'l''IHe has aspirations to be a doctor.





I. -t-ou'f. Many young people aspire to be
dOCtOrs. 111f' I iD"'.P.:f I mh.P" I lloPIY't I ~

.... o;:~

assemble (vt.)
I. I'IRI'IR. He assembled the pupils in the
auditorium. -1-.,&l"~'t Rl'o.ll&-11 1 11Joll'1' 1'1
2. h"IIIJmon. He assembles cars imported from
abroad. bdJo"" ' fODtJl' ' ""h.~l":f't ' Y,
"''I'_, A
assemble (vi.) -1-I'IRI'IR
The pupils assembled in the auditorium. "'""'
&l"'li I Rl'o.ll&-1. ' IIJo(l')' I -1-I'IRI'Itl'

assembling ( = verb) {IJ'1"l'I'P"

In the factory we saw the assembling of the
parts which make up an automobile. 114-11
61JIJ)o I IJ)oll'l' I fOOh.'i" I h'i!ll-:f-1 I 11..1'7"1


is an asset in business. hl'll":f- ;JC fOO"I

qq:,. :f-11-;J- 111"11." P'<l- m-"'"'1. ~..,.

The bank's assets amount to a million dollars.


I. 11111'1Q. He spoke at the lawyers' assembly.
llmll4':f- 11111'1Q 1"1"1C l\1.~7
2. '1-QI\.. The U.N. General Assembly meets
tomorrow. f-J-QII-1-'1- oo1"1P':J-'I- m~'l'l
'1-Qll. ~7 ,P.(tiii'IQA
3. li'H. The assembly of elders meets at the
governor's palace. fl\11..,. if11 l\7~ 111:
..,. ' "Ill. ' f.I.~;JA
assent (v.) lilt l\11
She assented to my request.
lt' M:f-'"'i



assent (n.) IIP"P"~'IThe governor's assent is needed before the

bill becomes law. ~4:4< ih"l ll''l" h.,...,.
"'"' 11.1.'1- n~ 711:"'" IIP"P"~'I- Yll
give the assent +ll"''"'t
He gave his assent to her marriage. 11?11ll'
'I' -J-11"'1"'1

I. -J-h<l-h~. The lawyer asserted that his client
was innocent. mO:J"tu- ~.,c.,..;;:m- -rof.+~
1\,P.I.IIP" I'I.A -J-h<l-h~
2. ht:.:nm.By revolting, the colonies asserted
their right to govern themselves. II11CI"ll''l'..,.
'If. 1100~..,,. ~'"'i .,~.,.:r11"'111-J--'II.C Y'l'l'ro-1 oo11't- l\~1m-

assertion f-J-'i"1~
His assertion is questionable.
""4'11A Y-'1"1;1-A



I. 100-J-. The official assessed the house at
$10,000. QIIP'A"'). IJ.-1:1 IIOP'C lt 11C


2. .._~m. The club assessed each member

20 dollars. hllfl< ll,r1-'11JI. l\QA 'If. VY

1. 1\:J. Good health is a great asset. '1"1- m.
;f-'1~ l\;J ~ ....
2. m-"'"'1.. Ability to get along with people






l\11.- "''.II.M 11C


assiduity '1-?'1His assiduity was noticed by all. f(l. :,.;J't-

1111-11- H11." f;J-m4' ~..,.
He is assiduous in his work. OP"&om-



1. ""1.11(-J-oof.ll). He assigned two men to
guard the prisoner. l\ll~'i'ro-1 li1'Lm114<
11-11'1- (tl":f- oPf.ll
These rooms have been assigned to us. ~ Hl
II h<;:ll-:f- Ill;' -J-ODI."II'I'A
2. mM(-J-mM). Has a day been assigned for
the trial? '1--'11' ll'i!CI." n.:,. f"''.:J-f.ll'l-
4'1 -J-aJIIS::A l
3. 1.111.11. They assigned all the new children
to the various classes. l\-'l-'1./l'll1 A]t.:f-
A I' A I' h'i'll-:f- aJoll'l' 1.1\S'.!)..'fro4. l\1-'I.YH?;i!' 1\HH..,.. The teacher assigned
us two lessons for Monday. l\11-J-"'/t:ro- 111'1
7f o-1\'f- '1-P"IIC'f- l\11.-'i"H;J)!' l\HH1
5. h~m~. Mr. Jones assigned his home and
farm to his creditors. "'1.11-J-C ]t.111 11.-1:1
..,.. llclfro-1 lll\11-'lt:l":f- t.11m~
6. l'lm(-J-I'Im). He performed the task assigned
him with diligence. f-J-I'Im"'"1 P'<l- 11'1-;J
.-,..I L"J..OD

I. 1.-AI.-A. The assignment of the various
jobs is taken care of by the foreman.IIAI' AI'
P'<l- f"'/.1.~1..,. 1.-AI.-A lll\1P6aJo
2. F &-. The boss gave me an interesting
assignment. l\11-"'"'" f"''.YII1.11'1- P' <l- 1'1

3. f-J-ODI.III\'1- P'<l-. He used a subterfuge
to get out of the assignment. h-J-OOI.III\'1-
P'<l- 11"'11"'11'1' 11A?'t- .l.m~
assimilate (vt.)
I. .,..,..,.. He assimilated the customs of his
new country.



IA"7Y: +uOD

2. ( ~ pass.) hl'lro-~-1: -J-'I'dtl.. We assimilate

some kinds of food more easily than others.

l>1'1"tK' l''"'lll:f hl\.11-'ll f.A'I> hAID-~

.:l':f-1 0.,.1111- f.'l'dt-'1113. fH. The girl reads so much that she does
not assimilate it all. A~ -on- h"710
!1. f-1-~"1 11-11-1!1" A,.f-11 l>Aif'll:f!l"
4. oPmm. Plantsassimilatenourishmentthrough
their roots. ~8'1',. I''"'IQ'fOJ-1 OFC'il''f
..... f.O""'IIasslmilate (vi.) .,..,.11.,.11
Swedes assimilate readily in this country.
il'I!K-'l':f MUJ h~C 0.,.1111- f..,.l\.,.1111assist (vt.) <:-'1
Who assisted you in preparing this report?
1-1111 &rc,. ll.:l'H:>JI.' f<:-'111 .,~..,. 1
He assisted the old lady in crossing the street.
1>1!'1.:1: OD1~-'I.1 ll.:l'<IIC'I' <:-'1,.
assist (vi.) .,.,7
The father assisted at the birth of the child.
.bY). {l.miiK- l>Q,.\1-0J- MIJ'CD- -1-~'S.Y. ~

assistance l>C-'1.:1'
He did it without any assistance. 111.
l\C-'1.:1' ' w&-ID-





assistant (n., adj.) <:-'1,.

My assistants are available if you need them.
<:-'I-Hi1 h.l.lllV'fOJ- 11.<:-'1.11 f.:fi\11He is assistant manager. ~4:,.. 1 Ft. 1 hll'hJ
]1.'. ~ ....
associate (vt.)
I. t.~ooJ'.. We associate Egypt with the Nile.
"l-1111'1 hOQf. :>C M'~!l"-'1111
2. ( ~ passive) Odtllll- -1-ffH. In America we
associate Christmas with giving presents. Oh
"'l&II f1'0 O~A OdtllQ:f-1 lltn.:l' hoo
llm,. :>C f-1-ffH ~..,.
associate oneself t-lt-1" 1 1til111
I don't wish to associate myself with what
has been said. 0-1-QIIOJ- ~~c &-1'1.1 liM
q l>ALA"l!l"
associate (vi.)
I. -1-'1--'17. He went wrong as a result of
associating with criminals. hm1~11'l''ll :>C
hoo'l-.'17-1> f-1-~"1 -1-0IIlf
2. "!Tf.H ~O<:OJ-. We didn't associate with
them very much.11H- "l.H. 1 h~f\o 1 ..?C 1 ..,,.
-,_~,. l>M0<:1!1"
3. "11"f.~,. l>J'.<:1. He has always associated
with political groups. II-A1.11. hrM:II "7
"'OC':f :>C "111'~,. l>K"C'\A

associate (n.) -1-QQ& 1 'iicii

He was an associate of mine during the
summer months. OO:>OJ- m&-.r-:f -f-QQ&\1.

He planned the project along with his associates. l\'l>-'1.1 h'iiCIIl"'ll :>C l>H:>~
associate (adj.) -1-QQ&
He is associate editor of the school paper.
f,.!I"IIC,. 0.-1> 001\'dt.,. -1-QQ& l>H
:>]/.' l\(1. ~ ....

I. "7"10C. I don'tthink I will join the association.
f"7"10~ l>QA f!I"IM l>f.OD!lii'S!I"

2. "11"f.~"'- I benefited much from my association with him. h(l. :>C QII'S "111'~,.
0"1!1" -1-m.,.!l"h3. "1-11<:,.. The United States is an entity
rather than an association of states. 1t"161t
h1K-~,. '""' Me l\1)[ fu~c::r- "111
<:,. l>f.J'.A:f!l"
4. oo'f'A.. His association with the embezzler
blemished his reputation. hl>J'.&- 01\..:J'CD-
,;JC I OD'f't\o I 11'i"aJ-"} I h.1-F.,d.,aJ5. ,.11.:1'. The city brings many pleasant associations to my mind. h.,.'"l'f'"} = il,r. ~ 11H- 1
f"''.J'IlJ'.Il-1> ,.11.:l'JP:f f.;l'm(l.>;'A
assort Af
Assort these buttons according to size.
MH.t11 1>11&-C':f l\1J'.foom<;'fOJ- llf'fOJassorted, adj. ( ~ adv.) OfM-1>
A box of assorted biscuits costs five dollars.
h1K- "1'1'1 -llllh-,. Off.~-1> 1>!1"11,.



assortment, ~ of AI< AI<

This shop has a good assortment of merchandise to choose from. ,r.u 1 tt-:to 1 ft.oPr'l.
'I' f"''.J'Il:fA -IIH- AI< AI' lf.,."' if


I. 1>11"0'0. Her kind words assuaged my grief.
f-f-<;~<::f'S ooAI)!I" :J'A hdtH~ l>li'<;'O'S
2. l>O<:J'.. Nothing will assuage his anger.
_,"'CD-1 !1"19" l>J'OCJ'.OJ-!1"

1. 100.,.. He is not such a fool as you assume
him to be. 1>1-1- l\1J'.!I",.~!I"-I-OJ- f-111
filA of:A hM'-119"
The maid did not come for a week; I therefore


assume that she quit. ~<:.11.:1: II"JJ:- II?"

"t'l- ' 111141\0D"''I' ' P't:-oY'r ' 11:1'11'1' 111'- '

2. f"'LA .,,..,. .I'll. You assume his innocence before hearing the evidence. .,ll<:jfm"t ' houii.,TU ' 11.1.'1- ' "tl\..lo ' )<JJo ' f"''.A '
.,,..,. ' Tf.'IIIU
3. ooltA- 1 ;l'f. He assumed a humble manner.

T.ftTo; 0 ffltD- 0 ODIIflo 0 :J-f

4. hiiODIIfl. He assumed ignorance of the law.
.lo.,."t f.,.l'm-:, hiiOO(lfl
5 .I'll. He assumed the direction of the office.
fR.I!' Ft:-oY'r hoot:-c .I'll
6. -t-+1111. I cannot assume any responsibility
for that. IIIU' ,."t,. "llloi.)T A+I1A
[See also 'throne']

assumed 11.11
The writer concealed his identity under an
assumed name. 1\d,.l.m- .,"t)-l>"t 1111.11
II,. lfol.)m-

He is living under an assumed name. iloue'}

ii<JJotn J'.'ft:-A

assuming that h1oo.,. 11:\11

Assuming that he had stolen the money we
called the police. 1"tllil'"t llC!IIA .flil"t



11:\11 ?'11.11 mt:-"t

assumption .,?":,.
Their assumption that the war could end soon
was wrong. tnC)-J> .Y.II- 1\..l.ll?" ,I'.'I'IIA
f"''.ilm- .,?";1-:fm- ll<h_,.T )11C

I. h?")T. I have full assurance of his honesty.
1111 :J-"''h-1> ,_tr ~,.H. hil'1
2. -11- ~?")T. He answered all the questions
with assurance. 'I'.1'-lll"'ll"t 11-11- 11-11-
)',,..),. ' 00{1{1

3. 07 ~.."J1fii. The flood victims received assur~

ances of government aid. ftJJo~ DPTA-l-A
~ ' hS'.:J ' fS'.<;(lq:fro- 0 flJ"T ' hOO"J.,
F'l- hCJ!:J- ~"tS'."'LS'.CII:fm- .,<::1~""1

.,.ll"''fm4. 116-11 oo.,..,,.."t. The young lawyer lacks

assurance. OJIIJ-h 1 mfl.+ 1 n,e..ll oPT"''
OO"J ' ,1'.1-J:-ii'I'A
give usurance hG;J~m(il'l-)

Mother gave me her assurance that I could

go to the movies. ho;-t: mS'. ll.l., ~"tS'.
M.t:.- hl::J~m'I'A'1

have one's assurance ( = active) h.~;J1tn(AT)

I have his assurance that he will pay on time.
11"1.ti.<JJo ' f"''.h'i'A ' OO!Y\<-"t ' hl::J.,tnA'I'A



He assured us that he would be there. MI.U

h"tS'."'L~'1 hl::J~mA"t

Nothing can assure lasting happiness. fHA'iA

,.. S'.ll;l-"t f"'L..'<::J.,'I' ?""t?"



assure oneself h.~;J1m

The man assured himself that the bridge was
safe before crossing it. hoo?l"1?- 1 fl"T 1 (I

I S;A_S;f/. I




assured (adj.)
I. 116-11 foo.,..,oo"J. The speaker's assured
manner impressed me greatly. fi-tf;J&tJJo 1





2. f.,.I'!IIC'I'. He has an assured income of

500 dollars a month. 11fm~ f.,.l'liiC'I' h


,.11'1- oo.y. 11C ~a.

be assured t.,oo~
You may be assured that your son is safe.

S'.'W ootr)."t


rest assured I h.Tm,

Rest assured that I will be there!



~ "t S'.


asterisk fl>h11 ?"Ah'IPut an asterisk after all foreign words!

hqc)J:- :1'11'1- 11-11- 11:\11 fl>h11 ?"Ah'l-

astern hooch11 :\11

Another ship anchored close astern. 1\")S:
DPCh.fl h/1.11'1' ' OOCh.fl :\11 0041\.ft~ o

asthma hll.,
(be) astir.,...,..,.,.
The town is astir with visitors. h+"'' f..-h 11
~c 1-.fll:l"'l' .,...,,_:1'11'1'

astonish hilS'.)+
The gift of ten dollars astonished the little boy .
fOP'C 11C lltn;l- '1-"t if."t A~ hilS'. )+ro-

be astonished fliiJr +1~00

I am astonished that he did not come.
1]{100?""11> ' 11"1,. '


astonishment hJ:-o;-1''1He expressed astonishment at the invention.

11'i'AIIof.m- hJ:-o;4'-l>"t





1. '-:1!'"1 hll1t:ou. The Americans' landing
on the moon astounded us. fh"'Ult'l':f

il.f. ' .,t!'i' ' '-)!'"1 ' l\111t!OD1


I will be at home. '-0.+ M"'IIIJo

3. '---- ilf.l 0--- ilf.. I will waitforyouat the
entrance. '-"""IIU'm- ilf. '-m11:,0?1\1Jo
The bus stops at the next comer. J\aJo.,.flo-fto
0"'l.4''1'1\m- ou;f-moi.Y ilf. f..f.,A

2. hll.<'.~1m. The news of Kennedy's murder

astounded everybody. fh.~'L ou1J'.A n'i'

4. h. We have not arrived at a decision yet.

llm-1 IJoll- hll.<'.~1m

1'i' '

(be) astray


Her thoughts are astray. h<'l!l.

10 astray




We are looking for the cows that have gone

astray. fm4-+1 il.'l":f OODol.l\"1 ilf. ~1


' hAJ'.t:ll1'1"

5. 1\. At the moment I have no permanent

address. 11'1..1"'" *"'l. h~ll-"if fii'S'I"
6. H1~. We were at the tailor's. 1\1111 114.

m- H1~ ~OC"t
7. (zero). It happened at night.





The children are at school. A)('li 1-"'6 0.

lead astray h<'l<'li'

The similarity between the two situations led

him astray. fiJoll-1> IJok;l-l":f ouou<'IIIA h

+ ' .,..,,.

<'1<'11-m(be) led astray .,1m

+ (negative verb). I do not have

any money at all. '1"1'1" 11H11 fii'S9"
2. O'i'l\.9" + (negative verb). He has no
patience at all. O'i'l\.9" +6"1F+ fi\11Jo9"
3. 9"'i'Aq+. If you are at all worried, you
shouldn't send your child to that place.

The boy was led astray by bad companions.

A"K. bou'!'G: 0\J'.,.I":f 1'1''1" .,1m

astride, sit ,..., h.'lL&-tu ++oum

He sat astride the log. h1oi.MP "11.11. il
,. ' .J-4'oum

astrology hii'I-C'II-1{. l l>b11 4/.mllMagic and astrology are occult arts. '1'14/.il.'i'
l>b11 4/.mll- (hii'I-C'II-l[) lim-e 'I'OII:f


An astronomer observes the stars. fb'l'b11+

athlete nre1-"'

1 '-ll?"e.J-"'

?"ei'"' 1iA.,+ M"f

astronomy hii'I-C''l'"'l.

atlas h'l-illl

astute 111\'1'


asunder, see drive, split


ate, see eat

The best athlete received a prize. 9"em- II

' b'l'h11+1 ' f.OD<!'/"11-A

He is an astute merchant. -fiAT

'l"'i'Aq'J- f9"'l-11:> bll'~ A)!'tJ1 <DJ'.H.

y ' (1;1- ' """h ' fl\11119"
[See also 'cost, first, last, least, most, once,
time, will']

atheist ['-"1H.h11m.e ""'l'-1-1 f.,Y'/"1]

astronomer fb'l'b11+ oue.,.-;


at all
1. '1"1'1"


The rebel found asylum in the neighboring

country. ooup,...,. o.,_.:o.+ Me '1'1'S~
+ ' M"f

1. 0. He came at three o'clock. OHm'S
ll'l+ """'

He could read and write at the age of four.

ot.t-+ 'l"""" .,1011'i' oo11-;: f.:fA ~oe

I was astonished at the size of the city.

Obi'"Ym- +~>.:,O~+ 1'.<'.141 ~oe
2. '- I met him at the station. '-"'IU'"'" h1

1. tJ'I'. The atmosphere is now a subject
of careful study. IJ'I'IIJo h1Jo1 0'1'1.<1'41 0
OPffifi-l- I "~ I ~(l)o

IJo~;l-. The atmosphere of the room is

pleasant. fh'i'll- IJo~:f- f"'l..I'IIJ'.II+ ~,.
[See also 'tranquil']


atmospheric fhfe
Meteorology instructs us about atmospheric
changes. fhfe mqf. '1-'l"tJe+ 111\hfe
""1\'I'ID'I' .l'llt:'IA



1. 1'il.,_ '111. How can I atone for my sin?
b;IILh-1: h1.<'.'1- 11ldt A1q '-:fii.IIIJo l




2. 1\{.oo. How can I atone for my bad behavior? OD'J'Il: 1\J':t:.H:'J I\'J.1'.9"'J 1\C

atrocious 1\{l_,..of:
The murderer committed an atrocious crime.
)<j:{l 7.111'- fwt:.m- ID'J)';A 1\{l:J-of: )ID"

atrocity (atrocities) "1'1'

The atrocities of the enemy are revealed in
this book. fml\'1- "1'1' 011.11 oox-m'i' m-11

atrophy oooo')oo'J
Paralysis of the arm resulted in atrophy
of the muscles. fh' oo{l/IA fm-'J!I'll'":f
') ODOD')OD') ' l\11h-J-/I

I. 1\J'J'H. He attached a sample of cloth to
the letter. h.I'.-IMO.m-9" :>C f""C41'J <;ooc; ' 1\J'J'HID"
2. oo.RO (-J-oo.I'.O). He was attached to the
Imperial Bodyguard for awhile. 11'1'4:'1- 1-11
Oh11C HO'f <D-11'1' -J-ouJ':{t )0C
3. O.h"' I\11J'H. We had to attach Mr. Parker's
salary to collect what he owed us. "'t11-J-C
:rchc 1\f. J'II'J'J 7'JH11 11"'111
hoi.A .1'.'1"11-'J O.h"' "'111J'11 )0l.11'J

4. ftm. You attach too much importance to it.

h"'tJ'11oi.A7tD- 01\f. h'i' J'/1 'I':> '1-{lm'l'
be attached to mF.F.

I am very much attached to that child.

n'J A., 0"19" 1\ID.I'.'I'/IIJo
attach oneself 1"1-J.;T

He attached himself to a political party.

IJ'JJ': f?'M:IJ 11-J':'J :>il- -J-1-.IIT

I. oo.c....,+c. The two had a strong attachment
for each other. ,.fl-1: hi: 1 Yfl 1 ooL:J-+c r

ID"'J O'l'f.'l- f7.1'.11m- 11/1-J-<;)+m- oo

ll''t-'J 9"h'JJ''I- 1\J':C"'l h+.:o
He was attacked from behind. h:\1\ID" -J-oo;f2. 1\m:J-. The enemy attacked at dawn.
tnl\'1- ' .,_.,..,_ ' 1\f. 1\tn:J-

Measles is a disease which attacks children.

h-'1'~ A"lf.":f'J f"'tJ'tn:J- Oii;f- )mThe dog attacked the cat. m-lfm- J':oo-I;:J:'J
1\tn....'l3. mt.l.. The disorderly mob attacked the
President's residence. .:JoT ,f"ll ..01111 1 fT~
11.-'l'J-I>'J 11.'1- mt.l.
4. M+. The leopard crouched ready to attack.

)11>~- 11-n~ 1\Y:'i'fii-A

5. -J--J-<;h-11(0'1-). Some insects attacked our
garden plants. 1\'J.Il'JJ': )'i'fl'l- 1\'l-hA+!I'":f-'J
., -J--J-<;h-11-11')
6. O~f.A )4'.1. l Hllol. (-1-HIIol.). The news-

paper attacked the senator's speech. ,."JH."l

m- f .h"' oom(l'fm-'J 9"hC 0.'1- 1\
qA 'J"'"'C O~f.A )oj>ol.

He was violently attacked in the newspapers.

0:>1"11D" ' hf.'i' ' -J-11/Iol.
7. 1\"'.l'.ol.. The hungry boy attacked his dinner
as soon as it was served. f.,.&-flm- lA"/: 1 1l.
il--l> I\'J.I'.4'l.OII'I- mi!JID" 1\"'.l'.ol.fD-

attack (n.)
I. "'''I':J-'1-. In the attack many soldiers were
killed. O"'''I':J--1> m~."J- 1111- ID;f-.l'.l':":f '

2. oom-,.?+. The German attack on Russia is

considered a blunder. f;i';C""'J ou111>11'J
oom-:>'I- 1\').1'. h'i'-1-'f 11.1.-J-'1- )!.'!&mil-A
3. ID"1..J'. The general massed his troops for an
attack. :(.~il-11- m;t-.1'.1':,;') IIID"1..J' 1\'JJ':
)'f- {IR{IO

4. mt;&-. The soldiers resisted courageously the

enemy's attack. m:t-F.t::ri fmt\+'l 1 mt;&-
O)';"''J)'I- ' -J-!f/!1/oo-


He had another attack yesterday. '1-II'J'I-<;

2. ""J'l'1!io+. She is promiscuous, so don't form

any attachment with her. Ah11h11 (l,'f- 1111
tl')":f h!l- :>C 9"'J9" "''J1')'1- 1\;f-

a.oooo- -J-)P'+ )OC

have an attack of -J-)'"1(0'1-)

He had an attack of fever. mqm- -J-)P'+


0'1- )OC

attack (v.)
I. .1'.0.1'.0 l -J-<;)oj> l oo;f-(-J-ou;f-). The thieves
attacked him and robbed him. 1\.(l,; 1.11.<:-R
ID" ' Hl.f-'1He justified his shooting the criminal by
saying that the man attacked him. m'J)';II'i'

I. 1\71"'. He attained first prize. n.l'.'f)'I-'J
iiA"7'1- M'f'
2. h - - - .l'.l.{l. He tried hard to attain his goal.
h"'R- ' /IODJ':l.11 ' 0"19" ' -1-"'"'l.

He attained the mountain peak after five hours



of climbing. t-.9"11'1- ll't'l- .I'UA hi''l

H 0:\11 hi'~~ro- ""l'i' F.t'.ll
3. IJ')lJiol '1"1\ro-. Grandfather attained the age
of 90. ID"tF.- h.l'-1: Hm'O -too+ U'<;'l'ro-
attainment "7"17'1-

The attainment of complete happiness is the

goal of some religions. J'"tJ!"tF.- YJ/."7'1''1-
'tl\"7 'i'K-9" F-11;1-"t "7"17+


attempt (v.) 'l"ht'.

Don't attempt too much at one time. fJ"tF.-

' hODm't Ollf. t.+'l"hc
attempt (n.)


They failed in their attempt to climb the

mountain. +&-&-aJo"J s 1\oPaNJJ-l- ,!!..~.,..:,.

<lf.<l!JII'I'ro- 4'<'.

An attempt was made on Sukarno's life

several times. ll-IJC'l'"t {IOD"/F.A 1111- '1.

""lfD'I- 11'1-LA"/ ..,.H.:I'U"t A11 1111
II 1'ii"70DF.3. 1.1\0D. I still have some things to attend to.
1'0 f9"1.1t"7'l'ro- '1'4:+ "1--'11'-ll' hll-'1
I. 0011+. Attendance is compulsory. 0011
"IS'.:-" )lJio
2. O'l-9"uc+ 4'"t 0011+. Attendance in
school is compulsory. o+ruc+ 4'"t 'l-9"
uc+ IL+ 0011+ "IS'.:-" )ro3. f-1'17 ih1111. The attendance at the last
three meetings has been very poor. IJM-+
V'll'l- 1111111Jl"ll' 1\f. f1'17ro- ih1111 0
"19" Mlli''i' )OC

be in attendance
1. n~~lfJr. There is always a mechanic in
attendance in the garage. 9""t"lli9" h.:>&"11' oo!Jth hf.:-""19"

li ..,.h~ 1'F.c1 )OC

make an attempt 'i"h~ JF..bou

2. mO+. The nurse is in attendance. )C!t.

At least make an attempt to pass your exam.

take attendance il.9" m&-


ll..MII 1.1-'0ro-"t ll"7ll'i' 'l"hC

The teacher takes attendance every day.

I made vain attempts to reach him by telephone.

hll1'"7&ro- Of4'lo- 119" f.m&-A

OIIAh 1\);J"/t'.fDo Oh"t-1> F.h9"hattend

I. 1'17. His inability to speak English puts

him at a disadvantage when he attends conferences. fCil- h"t"/11.11'1 ou<;1c .I'll""

!I'll- "1-fJll. 1\f. 11.1'1 ".f"lc 1\f. f.'l'll
'I' A
2. 1"'7<'.. I attend business school. "t"IF.- 'l-9"
uc+ IL+ 7."7~llo3. 1-IJI.ll. He attended a seminar in economics.
011111' 9""1~ '1-f"UC:-"'1! "1-IJh. 1\f. 1-IJ

4. t.hoo. What doctor attended you? J'houu
mh.9" "7)ro-!
5. h(t;.l'ouoo. Three nurses attended the patient.
V'll'l- )C{':f 01i.,.'i'ro-"t hll;.l'oo..,.'l6. h1ll1ll. She has many servants attending
her. 1111- f"'L..'1ll"l!l.+ h1ihc-ll' h!l.+



A company of nobles attended the

king. 1111- IJIIIJ-I'li' "t"l-.,."t u~oattend to

I. hhO<'.. The child attended to his mother's

warning. A:q: M"-1> fllmll'ro-"t "711m"t4'4:
.1' LhhO<'.
2. A11 -Rh'" +lttl'/oPY.., Attend to your music
if you want to play well. ~ h..("C1tl ftoP

attendant (n.)
I. 1-h:-" f.. The prince accompanied by his

attendants came to our country. AD-ftc b+

h;.l'f-~ .:>C IDF. h1~lf't OD"J

2. mfJ-1:. The attendant at the zoo is sick today.

fh~'l!-l"'l "7'1'&.1' mfJ-1: qil. :-""J.A
gas station attendant R."}fl"} 4-:(m-

The gas station attendant spilled some gasoline. IL"ttl."t 4'l[m- 0."ttl."t hl./111
attendant (adj.)
*The war and its attendant evils are described
in this book. fi'C)'I- .l'llh-1'1\'l'ro- m"t.f.
:f OH.U 001\"m'i' m-11'1' 1'1A!tA
I. 11"'1.'1- 1 DP'tl.ll. The bright colors of the
flag arrested the children's attention. F-"74'~
ffJ"tS'.&-ro- 4'll'l"ll' fA;i':~"t 11"'1.'1- (oo
"tl.ll) "7<'-h-+
2. 'i'l\1'1-. The advertisement will capture the
attention of the buyers. f"t"IF.- "711:-"ID-1:.1'
ro- f11Cl"~"t 'i'l\1'1- f."7CIJA
3. film- 'tf.) All<;. The speaker was the focus
of attention. -fo'i;J~tiJo fftm- r q._e.~ Afl'i
"7<'.4..1' )OC
4. m<l11. Some people's attention is easily



diverted. sM"JI." nl"":f mlt11 o+IIA- m

1. 1\.11 """&-/1\
5. -t-ou/1\lt":f. A pretty girl gets more attention
than an ugly one. .f"J}>: /1\"lf~GI.- hf."J.:>
J'./1\'Jo 1111" -f-OD/1\It":f ;M~II":f
Attention please! 7.1llt":fo- M9"m- I
*No attention was given to my advice. fDht.
-1-+IIJ'. hi\~"f9"
Attention I (military command) -1-m"J+'Jo I
attentions oP~(IOJf''l-







packages, and other attentions from home.

m;J-1.1:,; 1\-1-llh-'llftJJo 1.11-'IIIJ"":f l 7.:1"1"
";f<; 1\.1\-":f OD:f""{liiJ'l"":f ' hOD{l~).
attract attention dtftfta'} 1\Rm-

Any moving object attracts my attention.

f"''.."J+lt+ll )~C 11-11- mltiL"J Y.il11'1'/l\
*Can you bring in the dishes without attracting
attention? lll"":f lt.l'\<11 lt.ft)."J /1\:f"""""'
'1-":flll\11 1
*I tried to attract his attention. m1.~ 7."JJI.
.l'il-1-0Jo/1\ 1\.,1.-G"I 'l"hChbring to the attention


Any change of residence must be brought to

the attention of the police. hl.-&-"lf 0-t-Amm
"1.11. 117'11.11 .,/l;f-IJJ'Jo .1'114./A;>/1\

his attention . .hltll-"J 1\0D.,Gh hC)."J )It

pay attention
1. A11 -fill- Jt.lloom. IPiease pay attention

to the teacher. hll-1-.,&tJJo"J /1\11 111\":fo-



Don't pay attention to anything he

says! 7."" f"''..l\tJJo"J h."l-ll.,
3. -t-m"JW .,&-. Pay attention to what you
are doing, or you will hurt yourself. f9"'1-"'&tJJo"J )~C -1-m"J'Jo+ll P'&- .1'1101\IU'
&-llii"J ."1-1-JII\11
4. 'l'"t:J-4: l\I.G~. Youhavetopaymoreattention to your appearance. 1\0D/1\hii'O 111\IIOllll
h'i'-1-~ 'l'"t:J-4: .,1.-G"I hl\1111
not pay attention
I. ":fll hi\. Don't pay attention to it! :Y.II
2. hM9" h/A41.mG9". The warriors paid no
attention to their captives' entreaties for mercy.
9"CI>'I';FlfOJo 9".:hG."I- h'JJI.I.G"!IIlfiJJ< .1'+
Gll-."1-"J (Aoo<; hco'l',; hM9" h/l\41.m
3. I'C 1111-9" hllfOJo. The passing crowd
paid no attention to the sick child. -1-11114-0Jo
.:h1111 O'li-1-~0Jo"J /A~ I'C 1111-9" hi\


call attention to

show attention l\!10(11+)

1. hlt!lO. I have called attention to that

repeatedly. Ill\ """ 1.;>"1"'1. 1..:>"1"'1. h
ltlliL )0C
2. J\ouAh-1-. He called my attention to the cat
trying to catch the mouse. 1-""":1: hf.l\l."J
1\DD.I'"IJ ' /I."J-'I"hC ' hODI\h-f-'{
*I called his attention to it. l."JJI..I'/1110'1- )

The boy shows his mother much attention.

/1\:q': 1\M"-1> 11"19" .l'll1111:f""IA
[See also 'center, concentrate, focus, snap,


catch one's attention J\'JJLoPi\.h.,.m- rAh

'1-. nm
She looked away when I tried to catch her
attention. 7."J1.-'l-""llh-f-'{ 9"/Ah'l- 1\0D/1
m-1- ll'l"hC 4-:t:"J HUJC h1.G~":f-o'{
draw attention to h.il1'tHO

He drew my attention to my mistake. ll.:h-1-i:"J

get the attention

1. ?."JJI.h:f""-1-1\0Jo h1.G~. A teacher must know

how to get the attention of his pupils. h"JI."
009"11C T"?Gl",; l."JJI.h:f""-t-11-'1- .,1.-G"I"J
.,m'Jo hl\0'12. dtltll-"J .,Gh. She jogged his elbow to get

attentive '1-1-

l /I\Q9"
The attentive student learns his lessons quickly.
h (/1\QDD<) -1-"16 ."I-9"11Cof>"J O'i'"i')."J-


be attentive to (guests) 007..111 hll+'i1S!.

The girl was attentive to her mother's guests.

/A:E-;t fl.'O:t:"J l."J"IP..":f 0"'1..~11 :f""ll-1-'0
"11." )flC
~ /Ail 1111- hJI""m 1
II"J:I"+ hJI""m
The teacher listened to the student's story
attentively. l\11-t.,&OJo f-1-.,&tJJo"J :f""&h
/A11 1111- 1\Jioum
The children listened attentively. /1\}>:'ll O"J
:1"+. hJioPtJl<

attentively, listen

attenuate (vt.)
1. hmh. The harsh climate of the desert

attenuates the health of those residing there.

ffla,. ..,,.11,.. 1fC m'l,e MU' f"''.
'l''I-'Jo') (l!P"'f tnS 1tJJoiJA

2. ( ~ intr.) OD~OD~. +stretching attenuates a

rubberband. 'IM:h 1\.Hl f.OD~9'";A
be attenuated
hOD. The power of the kings became


much attenuated in recent times. h:t>c-n

'1.11. ID'I.U n1P';f''Jo .-,,eA 0"19" .,.
2. OD~OD). His body was attenuated by disease.
(l"'"~"" nn1i:f' 1 oo'}f"'l" ~nc

attest (to)

Your work attests to your ability.


P'&-U "'fll-;f'U'} _r.oo(lh&-A

2. h~.?1m. The auditor attested to the correctness of the account. .,.41"1"l<ltJJo f.h.llfl-'} 1 '1hhi\,..)'Jo


attestation :l'A
The attestations of all witnesses are checked for
accuracy. ff"(lbc-,.; :l'A 1 rNr '1-hhl\,..


f.,f.1'1 Aoflll 1\oflo\ mt. fl..,. hCM:1


The queen is attired in red . .,..,...,"" +.e n

+f. 1\ofl{l'I'A

I. m'l,e. His unfriendly attitude discourages

visitors. (ltJJo 11\0DtJJof..f: tn'lf. 1-ofl'S!P";f'}

I don't like his attitude.




attorney for the prosecution ib"'l hilhll6

The attorney for the prosecution hopes to get

a conviction . .h"l hllh'l<ltJJo fl.,.hllif. 1\
,e 1\.,111.~1: .,.llof. 11-C.?A
attorney seneral m:Jtl\.,e. 0..4-lL ih""l

The attorney general asked the judge to acquit

the defendant. m~l\.1'. 0:1'11. .h"t .,.M
1f. fl)l\ 7.'}-'1.11.,.~ '!,..,.., mf+
defense attorney f-Th/t"li I tnfi..+
The defense attorney is a famous lawyer.
f.,.hllif. mn:l' "11),.. mfl:l' )fll-

I. .,~h. The glamour of the East has always
attracted me. f9"P' &-~ fll-0'1- 9"'} '1.11.9"
7.'}1-..,~h'S ~ ....

2. llfl. What is attracting the flies here?

MLII "JI'}fl";f'} f"''.llofl Mf:)tJJo l
.,-.~'1- 11~'1- f.ll'IA

Her dancing was the big attraction in the show.

fl'l-e7..e-f> '1.11. 0"19" I f"''..,ChtJJo f!l.
'l'}ll )flC
have an attraction for J\Jt~
1'}H11 11"19"






Money has a great attraction for him.

(be) attired 1\fl(l


oj>mC"tJJo .,.., {)f.oj>Cofl

2. ~1~ 1 1."/":. Please be my attorney during

my absence. 7-'lhll'} 1 7.~ flr\.1\u-fl'Jo '1.11. ~

attraction f"''..,Ch

He came to church in inappropriate attire.


show up at the hearing. fh-IJ')1fll- mfl:l' n

A magnet attracts iron.

[See also 'attention']

attic ["1<11tJJo P'C 11\tJJo fl:f']

attire (n.) Aoflll





3. 1\ll.,.S'f'l-. What is your attitude toward
cheating? Ill\ .,;1'1\A 11\U hll.,.1f'l-

I. f"''.ff"C ! f"''..,Ch. He married a very

attractive girl. 0"19" f9";1'9"C A"/": 1\1'1
This film star is very attractive. .eu"'f I.A9"

T-'1''1' fl"lf" f9"'1-.,ch ""'

2. .,&-h.. The girl's voice is attractive. fA"/":;1:
1:9"6 .,&-h. )fll-



He made me a very attractive offer.

f"''.f~~ 1:C1:C hoj>~flA'S


be attractive 1\111.(1.,.

4. h ~:\'}. He stood there in a threatening

attitude. 11"'1.1111.&- 1\~:\'} MU' oi'OD
5. oo'}l.ll. We must maintain a firm attitude.

The layout of the streets is quite attractive.

41&-'1' OO'}I.ll f.H'} ' oool'f'Jo hl\ofl'}

Typography makes the printed page more

attractive. 7.'1-9" K'dtof.'} ffHtJJo'} 1K'


hOD A.

1 1\0DA

That attitude is characteristic of her.

fC!l. 'tf.~.,.,.. m'lf.'l' ~,.

I. mfl:l'. The company's attorney failed to

fDD'}1JI. ' 1\oj>ffll 0"19" ' 1ll1.ll;I'A

make attractive h./toP~

fl.I'.RA'I' 1119"&-A.

attractiveness tJJofl'Jo
The municipality is in charge of the city's

attractiveness. Ah.,.DI/OJ- m-o+ ...,1\4- """H

;J'If IL-l-


attribute (v.)
*He attributes his success to hard work.
fF&-m-1 ""illt-l- R-l-:>-1: 1"11"11-T ~m-


*He attributed intelligence to his colleagues.

fF& ~.l'.'l''l> O'l'of!l":f ' ""ll'';"lfm-'t ' Y.

1. tta.c.e. Mercy is an attribute of God.

P" a.~+ f1."1tt.h11m.c ~..,.
2. ""llf". The crown is an attribute of royalty.
HtJJo.l': 0'1-F~T ""llf" ~..,.

attrition "7-'lhP"
The long siege turned into a war of attrition.
li~1CP" 1.11. f.,..l'.~1l1Jo oPlJ011 1.11.
"7-'lhP" ,nc~+ 11'~

by attrition {Lfil\

Metal becomes weak by attrition.



'I .l'.lt"7 Y,IJ'';"A

(be) attuned to llaa.l'.

His ears were attuned to the noise of the big
city. ](.r:m- f-l-A.,1 h.,."7 m-h;f-';" "'i
"''.;f- liP"P.;f-A

auction <h&)>:'
His property was sold at auction. 111.:1: R
<h&)>:' .,.ifm

The audacious boy rushed into the burning

building to rescue the child. 1.-M- A)!' m
flo.1 ll"7-l-t:'i' f.,.+"'mlltJJo IL-l- m-(1


*Today I had an audience with the minister.

~"- "' .,.+11llm- M:>1-1<'S
give an audience (I..Y

The committee will give you an audience to

hear the plan. 7.:t>.l':t11 li"'/'IDD'J' 1.C'I-

The Emperor granted him an audience.

'~'~-"' ~11"1: .,.+11llm- M:>1-l--l-

I. l\.1':"7'fl". The auditors sat in back of the hall.
l\.1':"7t;""'li l\'1&-lf. m-il'l' hRll-t-:\'1 .,..,.


2. .,..._"1"1&. The auditor checked the account.

.,...."'"'tltJJo <h./111-1 ""~-~

auditorium (f'l-llh.) l\'1&-11

The auditorium in which the celebration was
to be held was small. R'tll- f"'LI.Rf"R-l-
f'I-Qh.m- h'l&-11 T't11 ~RC

I. ...,.,..~. The boss failed to augment my pay.
hli:J-11. 1.'1"11.1 /IY,Q;l.f"CA'S +t:
2. l\111.1. He augmented his income by
writing speeches. 1"1"1C R""R'i' 1tltJJo'!

Everything augurs success. u.trr ~1C foo

lllt+'t .,.(l<f.


august "'C"7 '1"1ll


Ras Imru is an august personage. &oil 1.?"

-1- "'C"7 '1"1ll ~'llfm- ilm- o;lfm-

audacity .l':'i't:-lHis audacity to ask me for money shocked me.

1.l!.1 11H11 1\.mY.:t> .l':'i'~-1: l\ll.l'.~1m'S

audible f"''.Jl"7
He spoke in a scarcely audible voice. o:Y...,c
R"'Lil"'' .I':P"/1

;>C ll""1';""fT ill":f R.,...,.'lllol.~tJJo 'I

Y. Y,mQR., ~RC

augur .,.(l<f. hoollh.,.

audacious .r.<f.c

3. ""1';""f-l-. People were waiting in the hall

for an audience with the governor. h11CdJ-

R"'Y.:f" Y,i1"7VA
grant an audience T4"1li\- }\):J1l.lD"

attribute (n.)





I. f.,.iiRiiR .01111. The audience was asked to
remain seated. f.,.iiRiiRm- .01111 1..,..,..,..
mR+ 1.1-'l..f.Y. .,.mf+
2. .,..,..Ait:Y.. Thetelevisionaudiencein Ethiopia
is still very small. h..-l-f-11:~ m-(1'1' hii-1P"
f-l:lloli.'fn .,.ooAI}:f R"'f" l\~(1.,.,. ~m-



aunt 1\hil-laura oP"JLil

An aura of holiness surrounded the saint.
:t-'1-il ""'!Lil RR.I':., 'IY. Y,;f-Y, ~RC

aureole f11CV"t hhii.A

The aureoles are always painted in gold.
f11CV"t hhii.A 11-A1.H. mC:t-"7 +liP"

auspices .l'::>'i'
He traveled abroad under the government's


auspices. floP"J""IJV-1-



MC 't.f.
auspicious Tllof. f"''.ll'l'

Our team made an auspicious beginning by

winning the first game. 11-t.-.,:Y., fou)!oo
6Yw-"t "1'1'"'/.Y R.,lh<;: Tllof. f"''.ll

h)!.,ODC h/lf

1. 11"'1- fll'li. The austere life of the first
pioneers was remarkable. f4' f. !I"-Hi llof-6
l"":f 11"'1- r1111 ).t!' f"''.t.~'l> ~nc




He is an austere person.




3. l>ll:hl. The austere look on the judge's

face frightened the criminal. f.lll;',. l>ll:l-6-
hliTYf'l- m1)!11l;'w-'t hllf.~~m,.
austerity t.-11-'1- fll'li ourn

Austerity is characteristic of monasteries.

f~.ll!l" ).(!'
oPY,. I )OJ-

t.-11-'1- fll'li oorn fTII

relime of austerity


ffl'lflT )of!"

Because of the war, they had a regime of

austerity. biPC~-1: fT~"' ":f"'c fR~R'I-
).t!' h.?m_,'f,.
1. 7.,.~.,.>;'. This is an authentic signature.
,I'.U 7.,.~_,.>;' oi.C., ~,.
2. f"''.;J-oo1. I heard an authentic account of

the wreck given by one of the ship's officers.

1111 oochtl- hliiJRC boucbtJ- oob-1'l'":f
l\1/1. ' f(lm,.1 ' f"'/.:J-001 OD"'/1""& (I


1. 7.,.~.,.>;'~'1-

1. f"''.;l-oo1. The news came from an authoritative source. H.'i"OJ- 1 f.,...,TaJo 1 h"'l.:J""oP'l 1
!1"1"1" ~ ....
2. fh~'l'n'l-. The officer spoke to the crew in
an authoritative tone. oolJ..'l"). 1 lPt-.,..'f~'l 1
RM'I'n'l- :I'A T'i'~&-'1',.
authority (authorities)
1. I"A"'1. Do you have the authority to sign
this contract for him? .1'.1111 ,.A A'I-I..C
!1"11'1- I"A"'1 hiiU 1
2. f;J-ou) 1 ODt:Jf. What is your authority
for this statement? AU..U :J"A f:J""oo) 1 oo
t:JfU Mf.-1 ),.1
3. !1"1"1". I have it on good authority that the
minister will resign. h;t-oo) ,-,.,_. 1 7t'l1.
ll.,u-'1- "''.tll'k- 1"6-"'"1 RUJI. .I'.II:I'A
4. !1"/lhC. This dictionary is the best authority
for English words. 117.1"111.11>;' :1'11'1- .I'.U
oo11~R :1'11'1- hll-11- fRI\m !l"llhC ),.
5. Ym'i' 11.'1> l 0'1'<1:. He is an authority on
labor problems. n.,.&-.,.~":f ":f"'c Ym'i' 11.

Everyone recognizes him to be an authority

on Ethiopia. 1111 h..'I-NrY 0'1'<1: oolf).
1 .,1!1" URII'I'A
authorities QAJVAIIJ'l

Apply to the proper authorities.



III"A"'1 hooAh'fauthorization I"A"'1

We need authorization before we can act.

11.,1.-t:"' boolf'll":f-1 RoL-l- I"A"'1 1.
1'1.llm1 Ylii..A;JA

He had no authorization to sign my name.


The art historian

authenticated the painting. fi"MA ;J-6h

0'1'<1:,. f/"1>111 7.,.~.,.>;'~'1- ht:;J~m
2. hliJ'.4'. The court authenticated his claim
to the property. 1111-1: ,I'.~IJ>;'A .,11-1:1
'i'Cf.' IL-l: hliJ'.4'11'1-

1. 1.6-ll.. He always wanted to be an author.
nm'l-c ~ll. ourr1 .eou'f ~nc
2. hou1"'-. Are you theauthorofthis scheme?
fii.U "'"'1'1 hOD1"'- h1T ~~~ 1
authoritarian .l."t"i" 'il&-"1"

South Africa has a authoritarian regime. 1.1111 h'i'6II 1..11"1" 'll&-"1" '

,..,.. 1>11,.





Ill"' llool..t:!l" I"A"11


1. 1.4'f.. The board authorized the spending
of 10 million dollars for schools. llCJI. 01"
C "''.II.M 11C 11'1-!I"UC'I- IL+":f tD
..... 1.1'1.11'1 1..4'1.

The dictionary authorizes the two spellings of

this word. oo1J~R :1'11-fo ,I'.U :I'A Yll
"'"1 11-11'1- 'l,l'.~'l- hRR'i' ,1'.1..!1-.IIA
2. I"A"11 lim. The President has authorized
him to sign the treaty. ,.11-1 h1'1.1..C!I"
Tt.H..II1-fo I I"A"11 ll'l'-l';l-A
authorized personnel fTI..4'f.ll'f,. "'6-T~":f

Only authorized personnel may enter this

office. fTI..4'f.ll'f,. .,.6-.,.~":f 11!1' hH.U
R.t!' ......,IJ,.. ,l'.":f-1\11-

avail oneself of U'~(O'I-)

*The authorship of this book is uncertain.

auto oo!J.'i'

f~ll f.Rf.m'l- ~.:h

The teacher asked the student to write his

autobiography. hiiT"'Mm- .,..,,:,. f~ll
't f.Rf.m'l- ~.:h l'.'tJI$~ mf+m-

*The kings in the Middle Ages were autocrats.
OODIJhll'i'm- ' HOD"t' ')-,.l":f ' ~~it' f/l.llfD-'
P'~"'') ' ~0~'1',.

autograph (v.) llou-') R.I.

The film star autographed his picture. f ol.~
!>btl- IIODo't OS:.f"l~~ ilf. R.I.

1. h-r-a7i:b. This is an automatic device that
turns the heat on and off. .e.u Ot&.,. ,...,..-,.
f"'l.ll-r'i' f"'L..'mof.. h.Y..,-I:h """'<IY ~,.
2. Yll ' QII0.-1> "''I''I'C f~CII. Breathing
and swa11owing are usually automatic. ,.,..,..,.
ol.ll'i' oP'f'J' hitqo;'m-') 'I.U Yll ' QII0.-1>
"''I''I'C f"'l.~Cil- ' 'i''fmh,..,..,.O.~


! oo!J.'i'



An autonomous nation chooses its

own ruler.
2. ~11-'t


h"lC ft-ft."J oot, f.oPCITJA

f"'l.TJI~. This department

is autonomous; it appoints its own officials.
f.U h~~ ~11-'t :fll- f"'l. TJI~C 111\11'








f~ll't h~WH ~R~'I-

This country gained autonomy last year.

f.U h~C f ~ll't h~q11 ~R ~'I- Qllol.m-
'tOD'I- ' h~'f

autumn oobc
l'.llh :J-l"'P' f.Y~

:>'l'!I"U't bY:~ v-1\- ~'1-"'""0'1- f.1Q~

avail (n.) -r:,O!I"

Of what avail is it to study Chinese? fiJ'f.'i'
') ' !1/')!1/ ' .,'l''i''l- ' ~') ' -r:,O!I" ' hllm- l
of no avail tt:~ fi.ll

His efforts were of no avail.




11 ~oc
to no avail Ob"}-J:

The hunters pursued the quarry to no avail.

hJI'l''fi f"'l...'Y:l>-'1-'t l'.'tllil Oh't-1> ~1
IIY:JI. ' '1'11-

available (adj.)


After the fire, every available car was used to

take the injured to the hospital. h:l'mll-fD-
0:>.11. ,.,..,.JI.'I-'t (ljP:f mh.~ o.'l-
II.,Y:O:II f~'fm- oo!J.'i' Oou-11- .,..,

be available T1T

When will the doctor be available? mh.""' oo


~-~o;:~ l

The dress is available in three colors.


01"11'1- ' ~I' ' ~I' ' +11"'1'1- ' ,.,o;:~

I. 'i'JI. An avalanche of rocks blocked the
highway. fY:'t.:>f. 'i'JI oo')1JI.') H;>m2. T'tif~~:f fOO:I'- h!I"C. An avalanche
destroyed the village in the Alps. h~-rll
ODUb~ ' f!l"'l-~'fm-'t ' OD'I~C ' T'tif~~:f '
fO.:I'- h!I"C hm~"'''l-



His avarice helped him get rich. fll-


..,. ' QIIR,;J ' IIDDIJ'') ' O:JifD-

aVariciOUS Q;lr.::,0
The avaricious old man gave no money to the
poor. """' 11"'1"1/1. IIY:'Ii ~'tHit h

avenge TO+II
He avenged his father's death. YQ-I>'t ~!I"

auxiliary O:JI'I-

avenge oneself on Tfl+A

The general sent auxiliary troops to the front.

O:JI'I- tnC m~

You should avail yourself of every opportunity

to speak Amharic. h"''C':' IIOD'i'1C f"'L..'


In Europe, autumn lasts from September

to December. OhfD-C';r oohc hoollh.:~





"l'tQC ilh

He avenged himself on the enemy. mil..,'t


Money will not avail you after you are dead.

~!I" oo11.11
The avenger was a member of the family.

h'l"'l-h 0:\11. ~'tHitU hf.m:,O!I"U!I"


avail (v.) m+oo


_,.If. ho..,. 11o- h'tJI.




I. ,_.o;-;. Churchill A venue is the main street
in Addis Ababa. f'I'C'fA ,_'l'i' fiVl.ll
}1,flfl I ff'lj I 00")1J': I 'jQ)o
2. OC. Hard work is a sure avenue to success.
m'Jhf!" oPJ"&-'1- f1-~:>1m f~~'t-
flC I ';aJo

Books are avenues to knowledge.


f,)fl>o.,.'t- oc 'i''l'fl>o

avert an accident lti.;J


He averted an accident by applying the brakes.

'i't.l-'J 00DJ'11 IJI'.:>IIJo 'I)

aviation .l'fC "7oPI\II'l'

Aviation is important for Ethiopian commerce.
.l'fC "7""1111'1' llh.'l-f"t;.l' 'J"I.J:- 1\11
4.'11. )fl>o

avid .,..,.
He is an avid reader.

average (v.)




*The rainfall averages 30 inches a year.

be avid 1-111010

f11'i'R- "7~h'l' ""m'J IJoD't- U'l\lt

h.'J':f )fl>o
*He averages sixty dollars a week. fltr-t+
"7~hll' 1!lfl>o FAit 11C )fl>o
*He averages six hours' work a day. Of4'). 1 f
"7.U'&ofl>o II.J:-11'1- ll't'l- ,I'UA )fl>o

The merchant was avid for gold. );>.l',.fl>o II

*The cost of our lunches averages one dollar

a week. llll"lt':f'J Oitii"')'Jo fll"'i'ID"'fl>o

I. t."71JJ'.. The average of 4, 5, and 9, is 6.

fl\&-'1- I ft-11"11'1- I fHm'S t."71JJ'. II.J:-11'1-
2. ool]hl\1;'. The average daily temperature was
30. f.,.l- ooiJhl\1;'
3Qo )OC



Your work is below the average.

F&-U h"7~hll' 0;1-':f )fl>o

4. oom)l;'. He is above average height. boom

H' 41oo'Jo 01\J'. )fl>o
on an average h'l"-\ 1 "'-I.A.
It rains on an average of once a week. h'f"lt 1
,_F.A Oitii"')'Jo 1\'J.J:- 1.11. J'.H'JIJA


"'j") I ;J-~h I ODgtj:

&.aJ- I


I f07.1P&.l1Jo I




1. ifif. He took a devious route to avoid

busy streets. f+"'-'i'i+ 1 oo")1~ 1 Aouif"li 1 o
11"&.1' 00')1.(- '1.1'.

Why is he avoiding me? 1111"'} J'.iflfl;'A 1

2. t.IIW11'.. Avoid that by all means! 011"'}11"
t.'>.:\'J ,I''}'} t.IIW"II'.fl>o

3. h - - - &-.,., This peaceful tribe tries to avoid

war. J'.U M"7' )1.J:' hiPC)'Jo IIDP&-:,0
be avoided


The main part of his speech was that the danger

of war must be avoided. f'l"'l"'l.._ tt:~ 1 'i1C 1
toC'i+ I f"YJ'ODITJ.Q)o I 1\Y.,;J I 0DaJ1Y:' I 1\t\
0'1- f"7.A )fl>o

on the averase 0"71\hll' {l.;f-1'111

On the average, I go to the movies once a week.

0"7~h'l' {l.;f-(111 01111"'}'1- 1\').J:- .,..,
WJ'. ' {1.):"7 ' ~'f.-'11\11-

avoidance oomo:,O
The surest way of keeping slim is avoidance
of fattening food. ttoo:,:Om'l 1 fJ''iaJo 1 HY..
h"''.J'W'i'C 11""111 ""mo:,O )fl>o

(be) averse (to) m'l

He is averse to hard work. hfl~ 1 JP~~mi\A

aversion '1''1!1'
His aversion to poetry is well known. t\"'IT,..

*Mr. Brown is a lawyer, but writing stories is

his avocation. otil+C 11:&-aJo'l 1 mfl:J> 1 'i


t."71JJ'. d..lt11 1\'J.J:- 11C )fl>o

average (n., adj.)


wc:,O J'.II1011JA


,1'1\IIJo ' '1'1\!J' ' f;f-ID.,. )fl>o

have an aversion to m-\



The spectators avouched that the man was

injured. -f-oPAIJ'11 (lfDo!LIIJo """"{11\o'J

avow 1\0D'i

He has a strong aversion to eating pork.

He avowed that he could not think. {1..1'11

.1'11"7 I":> oP.flll't- 0"111" J'.mi\A

11 ' hi\OD!J'I\o'J ' hOD)

avert fiC

avowed (adj.)


She averted her eyes from the wreck. 0"1"1"



)1C 'tJ'.S:'J rrc t.F.

*His avowed intention was to rob the bank .



A~' 1-'i'1~







dollars as damages. '1'1',. h!l"lt 11C lilt

I. -1-mflfl.,.. We await your reply. ODI.\illl't

2. mfl.,.. Many pleasures await you. 1111- S'.
11;1- f.m11:,0YA

awake (awoke), vt . .,. ... .,.11

The story I heard awoke my interest. fii"71J--l-
;f-<lh 'i''l11:'t .,.11_,.11,.

The photo awoke old memories.



'l"t-lo -l-11;1-11-'t .,. ... .,. .......



awake, be (become) h't:,OI.\'1- /\.,..,.,..

Are you awake? Let's go on a walk! h't:,OI.\
o;:u 11.,..,.111 -t-~.- h'tif&-ifc

He received the Haile Sellassie award.

'I! ~.1'-11 ........ ~~.'t 111.\"7-l- ..,..,.fill
[See also 'presentation']

(be) aware



I was aware how deeply he felt the death of

his mother. fht;1: '1"-l- M YIIA h

be aware of om+
The government was aware of the activities
of enemy spies. OD't"IP'1: fm'l+ Ml'-:f't
hY:&-1+ ym-:,. ~nc

[See also 'fully']

be (become) awake to
I. 't., ~,.. He was awake to danger. 1\h
S'.:> 't"' ~fiC
2. S'.~ll(fl+). He became awake to the fact that
his girl was seeing someone else. mJl)l:. 1 hi\.-\ 1
(1,_ ;)C ' OJ'I~~o}o ' h'tS'."/:OD~";f < S'.~(lflo}o

keep awake (vt.)

I. h't:,OA'i' ~"'"'" The cannonade kept us
awake all night. fooY:of. M-!1";1- 11.11.-l:'t fl
-~~- 1,'):,01.\<;: ~"''t
2. h'lil-1-'l' hi\,.. The annoyance of mosquitos kept her awake. ftJJIJ -l-'t'l':f "7mh
Mil-1-'l' M+
keep awake (vi.) ~:,..,_ .fof
She willed to keep awake. ~:,.;1- 1\0D.fof-l-

(be) awash (= trans.) m-;) h'l'l\.,.1\.,.m+Th_e street was awash after the sudden downpour. fiY:'t1-l' ~f.ll'l' 1ft;?" fl"""'ir
DD')1JI.') < ,_;) < h'J'I\.,.1\.,.,.

(be) away
I. hll.ll Til f. I shall he away for some time.
'l"l"C 1.11. hll.ll hi\YI\IJ2. "'""1" 'tS'.. I shall he away from Ethiopia
for five months. '1!1"11-l- me bh..-l-1'-A-Y
"'"""' h'/.'11\IJ3. 'tS'.. She is away on vacation. M~o;:+ 't
4. ~+. The sea is two miles away. llih"" 1 vII+ "7.1'-A .1'-C:I'I.\

*When his best friend is away, he never fails to

stay awake ~-1-.P. 1 4of'

He needs the stimulation coffee gives him to
stay awake. ~:,..,_ h't'l..fof. ffl-t; "7~:1'<1:

Y Yil4.A1'1'A
awaken .,. ....,. ...

backbite him. f:,0C11 m.<;:q: flll.llfl-l' 1.(1.

't .,.,.,') 4.X:'I" hY.-t-m-!1"

awe (v.)


The majesty of the mountains awed us.

f-1-&-&-m- '1"111

The noise awakened me. ""1i+ .,. ....,. ...~


awe (n.) hh111!':J'I! 'i'CY+


I. ( = verb) n:l',.. The abrupt awakening

was caused by a noise. fl.e-1"1.-,..


award (n.) 111.\"7-l-

'tS'.-t-(1"7,_ -t'1't1tll.

awake (vi.) ~:I'

I awoke at seven o'clock. ll"tJ!" fl'l:,.


fl""1i+ !l"h'tY-l- ~fiC


award (v.)
I. ifi\OD. He awarded him first prize.
~o}o ' 111.\"7-}o < ifi\OD,.

The sight of the Emperor filled him with awe.

't1-P' ~1P'1:'t flf 1.11. hh11C';f-'l! "'
cY+ '""'"

2. oo't:l'-l-. Their awakening to danger saved

their lives. 1\l'.S'.:> OD't:l';f-'f,. mf.OJ;f'f~



2. 'll;~m(ll+). The judge awarded him 50

feeling of awe 1\J!"'i.f:tThe glory of the sunset filled his heart with a
feeling of awe. fB.hf. 'I'A.,.+ ,.11+ A
11-'t flhY:t; .foo}o .,..,.,.

awesome hil4.6
A great fire is an awesome sight. -l-1.\:,0 :I'm
~ hilu +c~+ ~,.



(be) awe-struck .,.,.~.,.
He was awe-struck at the size of the building.
fih"Jllm-"t '1-A'I-H Qf 'LH. TS'.~4>

I. 0"19" f"'L..'II:f>'l-. I saw the accident and
it was awful. hY-;Jm-"J hfiJo'l- I 0"19" f
"'L..'II'I-'1- ~oc
2. hll:l'<J:. He died an awful death. 1'.11:1'<1:

h.,_.,_,_ ' ......

3. ODIJ't::. What awful handwriting you have!

,..., ' 'tf.~-l- ' OD'J'fl: ' l'h~ ' JP;-ih.l-'1- ' 1'.1111 I
4. fQIIO'I-. He is an awful liar. fQIIO'I- mli":J-9" ' ~,_
5. hllmiL. I wouldn't wish that awful job on
my worst enemy.
h.l'lmfl. F6- Atlf.
ml\-1:9" Jo.Aou"fm6. Ah fi\.IIID-. That was an awful mix-up.
f Ah fi\.IIID- 9"ll:f>A:f>A ~OC

I. h4-'f. I am awfully tired. h4-lf S'.h'I"':'A
2. 0"19". I am awfully sorry that I hurt your
feelings. Mll4>f9"h-ll 0"19" Ml'i"IIIJo

4. mAlt'f... He has an awkward gait. h<!"''""

.11- mAlt'f.. ~,_
5. fot.,fltfi:C. His unfortunate remark was
followed by an awkward pause. T111. YA
!T~m- hiiTYf-1> f"'L..'il'i'C 119":1'"J
*The child is still awkward with his knife
and fork. ihflo 011.1\'l''i" 011"-lt hYY11
1'i" hA,IIm~9"
The shoemaker needs an awl for his work.
'"1."7 11.1-m- 111"&-ID- mll.l.. YII"-A1'1'A
awning "ICI'-71
The awning keeps the sun off the porch. "ICI'-11"-
Ot:"JJIID- 'If. Omf. 1\"JJIJ'.a>"l J'.hllh'IA

awoke, see awake

awry, blow ~ h"J:>S'.S'.
The wind blew her hat awry. ~4-11 QC~"''I'
., ' h"J;>.J',.f,.Q'fgo awry TOIIII"
Our plans went awry. 7.'1-JI":f-"J TO'Iil"

behave awfully

She behaved awfully all evening. f"7f.1Q

mQJ'. ll:l'ilf. hou1f'-f
awhile 11'1'<1:'1- 1..11.
He was here awhile this afternoon. If~ hll
<t-l- 0:\11 11'1'<1:'1- 1..11. 1.11.11 ~oc
I. 1Al1111". Is he so awkward in everything he
does? 0"7,,&-m- IJoll- 1\"JS'.H.II 1All'

ll' '

~,_ 1

2. f"7f.ou":f-. The meeting was at nine which

is an awkward time for some people. il-fl{llJaJo
llih11ofl 0"7f.ou":f- 1..11. 011'11'1- ll't'l- ~oc
3. "1&- 11.11. This bottle has an awkward shape.
f.ll mc-11 "1&- 11.11 fiT~ -l-ey;- hllm-

ax ""T<!Il.Y
He split the wood with the ax. 7.11- 6"J"'--I>
"J Oou'l't:ll.Y 4-llm
axiom 7......, I y;-f."o}>
It is an axiom that no one lives forever.
"7"J9" (lfDo ll.IT"J IIHI\119" 7."JS'."7f.'l"C
7.-"J ' (JP;-S'.-'1-) ' ~,_
axis H"J"I I 7."J11C'IThe world whirls on its axis. q.Ar OH1'=l
(07."J11C:I:) 1\J'. '1-"lih.:h&-ll":fazure fm&The azure sky had only one cloud. fm&-fDo II
.,,. 'h"J-'1,-l-' ,....... '-11!1'' ~0<!0-l-




babble (v.) +I>'I+L
The baby babbled all day long . .h!). .,.).,.
-tr 1\.1>'1-1-'i' 'I'll
babble (n.) .,.e,_e,-;1The babble of the stream was very soothing.
fm"t,. '1-C,_C,-;1- fou'tLil ).CI);I- f.
1l'l' ~oe
babies, see baby
baboon 111-)!1!"
The baboons destroy grain. 111-)!1!" l\UA
baby (babied), v. h'tMbO
We all babied father when he was sick. htJ;I-":f
't O;f-oooo ' !Jdl":f't,- h'tb'lb11


baby (babies), n.
!. a.n. The baby is crying . .h!). .I'll :r-Ite.
2. fouQ;~.,:lf A~. Which one of you is the
baby of the family? foo...,.:lf A~ .,,..,.
:y..,. <;":fv- l
baby bird fm<;: "'tm'IThe baby bird was attacked by a horde of ants.
fm!(,'t "'tm'l- f'l-'t'l't ooq'f- m.:&.'I[See also 'change, deliver, newborn baby,
babyhood a.nH
The boy had no illness during his babyhood.
A"Jt O.h!'t~-1> ' ,_,_,_ ;,oo,- h

babyish f.h!'tH
He outgrew his babyish habits.
!1-~'1- ' m'll''t ' '!-;toll.



bachelor m't~ 'lm.

Even though he is thirty years old, he is still
a bachelor. tPillt q.oo+ n.r.r~m-9" h.Vw




bachelor's degree fR., Jb


He received his bachelor's degree from the

University of California. fll 1o. '1..,,: .1'
1Tm- biJI\.I':C't.l' l'tliel\.1! ~m-

back (v.)
!. b - - - )!etJ ~m-. Our garden backs theirs.
f ... .1''1-llA'f- tl;l- b)(l- .)'."etJ ~m2. ~1L. He backs his friends in every arguhelle m'1,1'1?t f.~



back away

*Protocol requires backing away from the

Emperor's presence. fl'}"N"' )1P"-I: ~+
lt'f-~e m~ :\'I ll't J:-'1-'tJ:- Tl!"-1'1>11\ f.
back down

I. +m. After threatening to hit me, he backed

down. 1\.0D:1"'1 M+ 0:\'1 +mm2. m~:\'1 hL1L1. He claimed that he could
fix the engine, but backed down when asked
to do it. '1"-K-'t 11\m.,~m- ll":f'lllv- 1111-
~oe lll't'L"'&.m- llmr:r- .,,. m~ :\'1 hL
back out (vt.) m~ :\'1 ~J:-1' hm"'
He backed his car out of the garage. m~ :\
'I ~J:-1' oo!J.<;m-'t b;>&.'fr hm"'
back out (vi.)

I. hL1.1.1! m~ :\'1 h/1. He promised to help,

but backed out at the last minute. /lODe'!'!-
:I'll\ 1111' ooo...,,:lf ~4::1' hL1L1
(m~ :\'1 1'.11)
2. l\"Jt't hm"'. He tried to back out of
the agreement he signed. hLl.oom- m-A
l\"Jt't 11.,,...,,. 'l"b.:
back up a bit m~ :\'1 't~'l- h/1
Back up a bit; I can't get by. '1-1-11
'I 't~'f- OA I '111\'i' hll\":fll\,-



back (n.)
!. )!etJ. My back aches. )!etJ\L't .l'"""'ol\
He wrote something in the back of the book.
00D!\'m4- )!etJ 'If. h'tJ:- ~1e l\L
2. ""~14..1'. He hung his sweater on the back
of the chair. l.&.11-'t Om'tO~ oo~1.L.I'
'If. .....,.11....
back of hand

He has a scar on the back of his hand. ll"lt 'I

~ I




back of head "'1~&--lYou cannot see the back of your head.
-l-IJ'J ll"''f-l- ll.-l-"{-Ar
back of knife fO..I\IJ'



You cannot cut anything with the back of the

knife. 00.'\'Pa>- ~'J~ll ?"'J?" A-l-'ilC'I'O-l-
back to back ~C'I II~C'I
They sat back to back. ~C'I II~C'I .,.4'


behind one's back

I. 011.110-l-. She slandered me behind my back.

0/l.llrJoO-l- ll."''"'f"i
2. bll- ~114'. They did it behind my back.
b~ ~11-l'a>- ~~.~....,.-r
3. f 4-'l'"i. His hands were tied behind his back.
1-lt f.l.'l'"i :l'ilr: ~oc
in back of the house h0.1: r ~C"

There is a garden in back of the house. bO.iJ

'\r: .1'-l-bA-l- 11:1' l\.11
In the back

I. b--- :\~. He put it in the back of the car.

bDDIL'i'a>- :\~ ll.lloJ>ouma>2. b - - - Oil.,.:\~. She put the wardrobe in the
back of the room. fl'J-'1--k'J bb<;:ll- 0111-:\
~. l\.~<'.1"{-

take on one's back hHil

She took the child on her back. A~'I''J li.HII ";fmturn one's back on

1. ,,.. 11./lt" hi\L. He is unable to turn

his back on any suffering creature. flP".:J>J'.
~.e .I'll "'''J'i':fa>-'J?" 'i'tn-C 11?" 11
/'r> ' "''ll'i' ' li..P.IJ''JII-l-?"
2. 4.-l:'J ll.~<'. (0-l-). He refused to tum his back
on his friend when he got in trouble. 1\~':'m-
,_.,c O~<'.flO-l- 1..11. 4.-I:'J 11.~~.-.o-rr
[See also 'bend, carry, fiat, go, hump, pat,
resistance, run down, seat, talk']
back (adj.)
I. f:\~. The back wheel of the bicycle came off.
fllllb/1.;1: f:\~ ' ..,.., aJII-l'
2. Oll.,.~CIJ .I'll. The back rooms are dark.
Oll.,.~C'I .1'11--l- h'i'fr>"{o ""11"'1 'i':fa>3. b'\r: .I'll. They gained access through a
back window. h=iC" Ql\dJo oulllt+ A."'ll- 1
!1'114 . .1'111.. Send me all the back numbers of
your newspaper. f;>H."l"'frJo'J .1'114--l-'J 1.-l-'1"
"'f rJoll- ~hA"i


5. M.l.. He received 500 dollars in back pay.

ll.?"ll-l- ou-r- 11C M.l. ~'1"11 .,_4'011
back (adv.) Y:r:
They met in Addis Ababa back in 1946.
Y:r: ' Oiiif\98 't.?" li.JI.ll l\.0'1 a>-il'l'
.,.1'i'"i.,...,. ~nc
back and forth aJ/iY I aJJl,lJ
The pendulum swings back and forth. f"IY:"''I
m- fl't-l- 1.~:1' a>JI..I' a>JI.IJ _emqmqA
be back +ool\(l

He is not back yet. 1'i' li.A.,..,..II(l9"

[See also 'there']
backache f~C'I ih""?"
Backache is his chief complaint. fifiJ9"" f'""".
107C~m- 1 f'j!CQ 1 ,nou,m. 1 ~mbackbite l\."'1
When his best friend is away, he never fails to
backbite him. r:,Oc11 m'l)t 011.110-l- 1.(1
'} ' "'1"'11:'} 1."'1" ' h.P..,.a>-?"
backbone ll.bCIJ&
His backbone was broken when he fell.
Om~oJ> '1..11. ll.bCIJ&m- .,.flO<'.
It takes backbone 4\,&..'1'~+ 1 ~m~~A.
It takes backbone to stand up to such a big man.
1-'J~H.u .I'll -l-A:,O (lm- 11ouototr .,.
&-'l'~T .P.m.P.:J>A

backdoor f'\r: ' nc

They exited through the backdoor. 0'\C: OC

I. oo~11. The stars of the American flag are
sewn on a blue background. fl\.'"UIJ'J {l'J
~:,. '1~"'1 !>b(l"{o f.,_(l<f.-l- Ofl"''.l''l!



2. ou~lf. This book tells about the background

of the last war. ~IJ ~ oPK"dt'i: il"-hLt- 1
IPC~-l- ou~lf .P.'i'1&-A
3. A?"?"Y:. She has a good background for
office work.llllr: F&- '1'1- 11\?"?"Y: ll.~-l4. "'flr>;J-. His background includes courses in
French and German. "'ffr>:J'a>- I.<'.'JII.P.'i''i'
~COD'}';''} .l'm:J>A~A
In the background b - - Oil.,.~C'I
There were mountains in the background of
the picture. bFbll- Oll.,.~C'I .,.&-r:"'f ~0-1keep In the background (vt.) l\.11111
He always keeps his young son in the back-

ground. l\"" T"Jif.") A)I:"J 11-i'\1.11. l\")'11



stay in the background r"'7,.e.~,.e.n:,. I {1;1'-. J'H i

IDS'.' :\i\ ' II'~

The mayor's wife tried to stay in the background. fh>J-f:qtD- "'LilT f"''T:l'J.l.OT
11;1' ' iiOD.I'lf ' (IDS'.' :\i\ ' iiDDII'")) ''l"h<::f

backwards and forwards m" h~C All

h 'IC

He knows his lines backwards and forwards.

T'F'IJC-f>") m-):,04' h'IC l\llh 'IC J'tD-:l'A

[See also 'bend, lean']

backyard '\C'
There was no grass in the backyard.



9"")9" "'C AA~0<:9"

backhanded fiiOIIJ
He likes to makes backhanded compliments.
fiiOIIJ 'F'll;J<; "'/:,O<:it J,l.ID'IA

backing t::>'i'-

bacteria <:<l::l'"J

*There is a large backlog of unfilled orders.
iltl- J'A.,."::.i\ fP'&o 1D-1l'i'- Ail

back rest oos>.1.&.J'

The back rest of the chair is broken. fiD")0-1-

back seat, take a - O:l':f II'~


Bacteria causes milk to sour.

T o ID.,.T")

He has the backing of the president. fT t.IL'I"J

-1> ' :;J'i'o ' AiltD-








1. h4-. He heard the bad news over the radio.
h4-tD-") ' ID(. ' ht.Y:f" ' ll"''
2. ..,'i'. I have a bad cold . ..,'i' 1-"Jof."J
3. OD'J'G:. There is a bad smell here. l\ILIJ oo
'I'll: 7i:l' Ail
That's not a bad idea. f oP'J'fO': thfJ.-R

The boy was led astray by bad companions.

He will take a back seat to no one. h"''"J'F'

A)l: h""'I'G: '\J'..'i'll':f 1'1''1" "'11m

O:l':f 11.11'") AJ,l.LA"19"

4. 07i.,.'i'. A bad tooth can cause acute pain.

backward (adj.)
1. fAl\9"C' illliiT f"'L"l-Y:iiiD. Backward
children need a special kind of schooling. f
Al\9"C' ofllliiT ii"'L"l-Y:i\'I'ID- A"/l.:f f.,.il
f f"''ll.,."''C Hf., J'llLA;J'I''I'A
2. ( ~ adv.) IDS'. :\i\. The backward movement
of the car was halted by a wall. ooh.<;'l' IDS'.
:\i\ llT'tY: "I"Jil Afo"''T
be backward IDY.. :\l\ +~

The people there are very backward. fiLJ'

A1C llll':f 0"19" IDS'. :\i\ ' of>C.,.'I'A
backward (adv.) IDS'. :\i\

He walked backward, and then he tripped.

IDS'. o :\i\ ' h.,.&-ODJ'.. o 0:\i\ ' .,.J'..<;of>L

An inclement ruler contributes to the back'11C 1\"JC
wardness of a country. "'-*~

") IDS'. :\i\ ' f{lof>&-A

1. IDS'. :\i\. Can you say the alphabet backwards and forwards? A.S'.ii-"J IDS'. :\i\<;
ID!l. ' A.T ' ATiiiD- ' T:filiiiJ 1

2. fl\"J"IAA. He fell backwards. fl\"J"IAA





<fo009" o 1\.fODIIJ o

Bad eyesight handicaps him. 'lJ.l.~ 07i_,.'i'

ooll'-,. ~"):,04-T ll''l'O:l'A
5. 1-'l[. Reading in poor light is bad for the
eyes. OJ'..oflqq ooofl&-T "''"JOil il'lJ.l."J 1-'l[

6. f.,.O'Ilf. He is tempting fate by driving

with a bad tire. O.,.Oi\lf 'l"'' 1 0""'J'IT 0
1q l\)1: AS'.:> J.l-1-T:l'A
7. 1\J''i'. He uses bad Jangnage all the time.
rJoi'\1.11. 1\J''i' M:>1C J.l-'01&-A
8. J'A.,.IIJ&o. Please excuse my bad Amharic.
lli\A.,.tiJ&otD- A"''C'i'\1. J.l.:,OC;l' AY:C"I
9. qil1.. If you are bad in school, you'll go to
bed without supper. OT'F'IJCT O.T tD-ll'l'
qil1. hll'"lh l\&-T AJ.l.liTIJ'F'
10. A'I-A. He came at a bad time. OA'I-A 1.
11. fOliO II. This bad apple upset his stomach.
fOliO/ltD- -!>of. li'JI.") ' AfaODOD(IJo
12. 'I':> flll. He was arrested for passing
bad checks. 1':> flll 'lih llilllm .,.J'H
bad weather fh.fC DPTG:.)+

Do you contemplate any difficulty because of


bad blood
bad weather? Ol>f~ oP'J'f::~'l- :f-Ie Y.f.C
itA 111111 T1?";f-I\Ul
be bad


The locusts are bad this year. 1>10"1 OII.U

't""T h'i':I:A
call someone a bad name

2. OU'J'f:: l>J:-e1. The barber cut my hair badly.
l\1-e hh-1-IJIJ\< l\1-<1.1 ""'1'1:: l>J:-e1
3. OoP'J'f:: l>\\:\1. He sent me a badly written
letter. OoP'J'f:: l>\\:\1 f-1-l\.1. 1.11.110.


He called me a bad name because he was

mad at me. 0"1?" 1-'i"P.11'5 hi\ tO<: 1'11.0'5

4. 0"1?". She wants it badly. 0"1?" 'l-.I.A1'1'

ll'f5. 0-)Y,.A. The soldier sank to the ground,

feel bad
I. tiL1)'1- I>A-1-h"''tJJo?". I feel bad today. Per-

badly wounded.

haps I shouldn't have drunk so much yesterday. ~to 1 tiL1)'1- MM"'/'5?" i 'l-'i"1'l- 1

1-111\'i'AG: "''-"'

Badly cooked food bloated his stomach.

1111- qAm"' .l'.lfl\'5 )Oe

2. l>H). I feel bad about your loss. hi\S'.U111
u 1--'1'1- Ml'i"I\IJo

*The car runs badly. ooh.S'I' 01.111 1>'1-

go bad 1-0~if

Fish and meat soon go bad in hot weather.

't"''i" P' :> Ooo-_,.'1- l>fe OJoh'l' .fir-

go from bad to worse fl)(lm-"} 7t.f+OI\if


His business is going from bad to worse.

1"1-'1. fq{lm-1





not bad ?"1?" l>Y.A

How are you? Not bad. l\.11.?"1 tu 1 ?"

1?" l>AA
too bad

Too bad that you couldn't come. l\OD9"'11J

T 1>1\oP!J'AU ,l'lt11'i"A

bad blood 'l'~il'

There is bad blood between the two families.


bade, see bid

badge l>e"''
The policeman wears a badge on his arm.
?"11..1'1- ll.h1'1. ~.1'. he"'/ l>J:-e'iA
badger 1>0/tQ;L
They badgered the speaker with interruptions.
1"1"1~1 1111- "-" O"''ol/<:'1' 1-'i":>tlm-1


I. h4-'l'. This team was badly beaten in football . .I'.U fi-J:-1 Oll."'e \\h h4-'l' 1if1G: toe

0-).I'.A hl\4r.hl\

01.111 .f'AO{II\m- ?""111 11'-'1.1 t<f.m'tJ:-?"

be badly off 1-'f"'l<: l 'f1<:(m-)

They are not so badly off; they still have

money in the bank . .I'.U11 ,I'UA l>A-1-:f
1~?" !

l>1Jo1?" l\,q1h 11H11 l>~:fm

They are badly off this year. OII.U 't""T

0"1?" :f"';,::f'I'A
take badly Afl-1 t"'(m-)

+He took his loss badly. ff.<:I'IO'l- 1--'1'1-

Afl-1 t"'ID-

[See also 'behave, treat, use']

(be) bad-mannered oP'J'f:: mqY,. l>ltf
He is generally bad-mannered with his employees. Om~~~.,. 0"'6-1-'l':r; ~.1'. oP'J'
,;: mqy. ,l'lt,I'A

[See also 'grace, half, humor, language, luck,

manners, mood, repair, shape, taste, temper,
term, worse']

OIJol\-lo 0.1-1'111 oPIJhA 'l'~il'


bad-tempered "'"'"
He is a bad-tempered old man. "'"'" 11"'1"11\.

baffle "16- 1>1q

This algebra problem baffled me. 1/.U fl>Al':.
116- '1',1'.,. "16- )>1q'5

bag (bagged), v. '1-<:0

The trousers bagged at the knees. 1'1-tliD- l\.1AO-to ~.1'. '1-e!I.A
bag (n.)
I. Pelt. She took some change out of her bag.
htlelt'l' ID-{I'J' 11C11e 11H11 t.m"''f2. h<:m_'l-. Put these oranges in (to) a bag.
MII.U1 11e-to1J'l"f- ll.b<:m_'l- ID-h'l' l>
J:-e:>:fiD3. P.1,1' l ]1:),1'. The bags of wheat were piled
on the dock. fh1F. P.1.1'!P'f- o-eh11' "''
t~-1..1' 1-h?"<:m- toe


4. 11/.\11'. Farmers bring gristtothemillinlarge
bags. ~0"-l"l- 0-l-/.\/.\-l- 11/.\l"l"l- f"'/.4.
"1" l\U/.\ <D'i'""" IL+


bag and baggage ~11

He packed up bag and baggage and left.

'ill-'t m-l-/.\11-


the budget this year. ""1"1Fi> H1.1:"1!"


1 hiiTilhll (h:l"'i")
2. 4''1' h.I:"C1 ,.,._. Can you balance a
stick on your head? 0"1"1-l-1\-l-U 1\f. H1"1
4>'1' h.I:"C~U "7.,.11" -l-l-1\1\U 1
3. hm.tll.o'... She balanced a trip to the moun-

tain against the chance of a summer job.

baggage 'ill 1 1i""t"'l"lI want to send my baggage on ahead. 'ill.1

0-l-.1:-"''.f 1\0DI\h l\4./.\;JI\rJ.
He put his baggage in a cart. lf1"1l"'li1 :>&


m.r.. T&.&.,. ll'lic'lic _,."1-l-'t'i" f

ho'..ll"-1- JP&. f"'/"17-l-1 b.J:o/.\ hm.tll.o'..l4. hltllll(ll+). His kind act balances his rough






[See also 'bag']

(be) baggy ll4- M

His trousers are baggy.

bail 'PII-l-'i"



fttf.. ofl!l.A

1 f~1Hil 'PII

The judge released him on 2,000 dollars bail.

.tl'f,. OrJ.II-1- l( ilC 'PII-l-'i" 1\4>4>,.
Since the trial will not be held until next
month, he's out on bail . .,..til' l\llh"'J.oP"'
, . IDC O'i'C.I:" IL-l- Ill\"'' f. :I" f. 011
H11 'PII Tlllt/.\

balance (vi.)
I. /.\h oPifJ. Does the account balance? .h.
ftfl- ' /.\h ' f.OD"J/.\ 1
2. -1-hh/.\ t<D-. These scales balance. Mil.
u "''.~'l"'f -1-hh/.\ ""'"'"

3. +-r ~ 11ft<> .r-oo. The dancer balanced on

her toes . .tl1ll'f'P 4>'1' 111\ 0'1'~ .,.


balance (n.)


He weighed the gold on a balance.


He found it hard to keep his balance in the


bail out
1. ,.;),., h4.llll. The sailors bailed out
the boat. ODChO'f,. h~/.\..,. ,.11'1' , .
;)<D-1 hol.llll
2. 'PII rr<r l\114.:1". His friends bailed him
out.;'11 'PII rrt,. hll4.i>+


strong wind. OhQJI. t<l-11 <D-11'1' "''.~l-1

oumool- hll=f:>& rrto+
2. fOD14.11 l\C:>:I". His balance kept him
from doing anything foolish. fOD14.ll- l\C:>
:1"'fll" f"'lf.o'..Q t~C l\1.tlfi.C"I

bait (n.) ouftll.J' ll""lil

l "7:1"1\f 11""111

Bait is placed on the fishhook. 't"' II""f1l

ou'Jm.,. 1\f. ouftll.J' 11""111 f.l.o'..;J/.\
He catches fish with bait. Oou'Jm.,.,. 1\f.
"'1:1"1\f ll""lil h.I:"C1 't"' fmll".tl/.\

I. :>~<'... She knows how to bake good bread.
'No .tl(l OD;J~C ;1-<D-:#"1\T
2. mOll. She baked the clay in fire to make
a pot. "'ill!!" 1\0DJP&.+ lfhl\,.1 Ol\ft-1- m

baker .till :>:>&

This baker has good bread. f.U .till :>:>& 'I'
.;... I



3. 4>&. Pay one third down, and the balance

in a month. (l.(l,., hrJ.'t h4./.\ 4>&,.






4. fT<'.ol. "LH.. I will be away for the balance

of the week. IIT<'.ol.,. fft11"1-l- "LH. m.r..
tD-"1" ' l\~.tlllrJ.
keep one's balance .,.,. oflh- ,foP

A small child has to learn to keep its balance

before it can walk.M1 /.\"J': ou&.oo.J:o h
OD!J=fr I fld.:t- I +If' I oflflco I OD ...I}P I 00/:\00Y: I
lose one's balance "Y.IJ).''J It+

He lost his balance and fell.



11-f- m

recover {one's) balance

bakery .till


IL-lThe bakery is closed on Sunday. .till


, . IL-l- l'uh-.1:- 11-l- 11"1 t,.

balance (vt.)
I. hiiTilhll I h:l"'i". The government balanced

He recovered his balance immediately.

....~.... 0:\1\ dl.ti.J',..,. "'"' hi\
[See also 'hang']


balanced (adj.) fTI.I\1.11

A stable currency is necessary for a balanced


economy. 11-1-~11~11 ll.l>'l""'t f"'lf.ll'l'aJ'I'
~"tH-11 Yit~/A;JI:t.
I. il1~+. I have an apartment with a balcony.
il1~+ YlltD- ll;rc-!-"'1 1111=-t
2. G:~. We had seats in the first balcony.
0"".l""&YtD- G:~ """'""""l ~O&"t
I. ""11"1. He has a bald head. ?flo ""11"1 ~tD2. ?II 0&-. He is bald, and yet he is still
young. ?II 0&- fLII'"tP" ~<; lA~ )tiJo
3. ~11"1. The mountaintop was bald. f-1-?&-tD-
""l'i' ~~~"' ~oc
be bald +oPc\m
He was bald at thirty. 0"'11<\ ~.,..., -~""""'
"' ~oc
the bald truth Is ~~~...., 1\oP.,~C
The bald truth is that he is a thief. ~~~...., II
OD'J1C I h(r I fa,q I ~(Do
bale (v.) 1111&
They baled the currency in large bundles.
~"tHII-1- 0'1-l:t.l:t.~ '1'~/:t. liM-+
bale (n.) '1'~/A

They compressed the cotton into bales.

'l'tn-"t IIP"4'tD- 0'1'~/:t. liM+

2. f'l"tit P"1i+. He attended the ball given

by the minister. "'ttit'k- IIH;J)I:'l- f'l"tit
P"1i+ ' 'If. ' -~-~'
3. '1'~/:t.. I want a ball ofyarn.ll"tl:" '1'~/:t. h
C 11~/:t.,;JI\11carry the ball ;1\A.~:,. r +ifhoo

You can always count on him to carry the

ball in an emergency. P""t "1.11.11" Ollit'f'>.
f. 0 "1.11. 0 ""'11\of.~'J- 0 ll"t~"'tlfhP" 0 /:t.'J--f-"'100
"tO'!- '1-:flll\ll
[See also 'roll"]
ball ad llm'l1i 1'1'11"

The ballad commemorates the king's victory.

llaJ'Ilf. '1'1'11"' ,.,..... 'fl:"l:t.' OD:f'llfLY' ~(IJo
ballast P""t"''i'
A ballast of heavy stones keeps the rails in place.
flt-&+ ' J:""t,;Jf. ' P""t"''i' ' dt-'1.'1- ' hll;l-tD- '
ll"t'lf.~.4"~~ IIC-1' f.f.ll'l'l:t.
balloon .t.'i'
The child likes to play with his balloon.
.hY). ' O.t.'i' ' OD""ldl'l- ' f.aJ-'1/:t.
ballot (n.) fP"C""l m&4'+ i 1:"!1"6
Have all the ballots been counted? fP"C..'I.tD-
aJ&4'+ ' 11-11- ' 1-<lr.'I'Z:I:t. !

How many ballots were cast for their candi-

baleful hf.
The wicked witch gave the child a baleful
glance. IIC"I-".7. llit"'l-1-'i' i:t.)l:"t Ohf. '
~f.") 0 oj-ODI\h-1-:ftiJo
balk (vt.)
I. 11"1-l:t. 11~&~(0+). A heavy rain balked
our plans for a hike. ""'rf.ll'i' 11.,-11 111iC1i
c no&"t"t ~~~x: 11"1-l:t. 11~&~-fl"t
2. llhlf~(o+). The police balked the robber's
plans. ?'ll.ll'll fl\.lltD-"t 11~1:" llhlff.o+
balk (vi.)
I. 111'1" olloo. The mule balked, and nothing could make her move. 11~11-'1' 111"'1 itll
oi'OD:f P""tP" 1\.Yith.JI'l- 11/:t.iJ'IIP"
2. <\"'l"'l 4'&. When tax reform was proposed, the committee balked. :1-hit ll"t'l.lflf
1:t. dt<\-11 04'&0 "1.11. ~c~- <\"'l
.., 4'&
I. '>.it. They played ball all afternoon.
0:\11 ' '>.it ' 1\.""ldl-1> ' 'I'll-



dates? 11-t-oo&-""'iJ''ftD- it"t+ J:-!1"6 1-IIm !

take a baiJOt nml.+..,. ; ~'r(J I {llfl

Let's take a ballot to decide this question.

f.ll"t"t "1-'lf. 1\0DaJII"t Om&4'+ J:-!1"6
I. oPJ:":'t+ fll'~ ~11+. She put balm on
the wound. 4litll- 'If. onJ:-:>t+ fll'~ ' ~
11'1- ll~t:1:fO'l2. "'lit:f'11f. Sleep was a balm to his troubles.
ll"t~l:t.'i' f:f1~ "'lithlf ~IIC
balmy liM<\
The balmy weather is good for his health.
llitll<\ llfC 1\m."t~-1>"'l"'l'l'l:t.
bamboo lfP"0-1'
Bamboo grows in Ethiopia. lfP"0-1' 011.'1-f'Ay tD-it'l' f.O~III:t.
[See also 'shoot']
ban (v.) m~ 111C tD-it'l' ll"t'lf-111 hllh
II l 111~


The government banned the book. oo't"IP''I-
ODI'i'dt4- lD!l. 1>1C aJoll'l' l\'t-'11-1fl b
llbll (or OO't"IP''I- ODI'i'dt4-'t 1>1!l.aJo)
ban (n.) l\1-'1

The ban on importation of automobiles

was lifted. oob.'Ol":f tD!l. l\1C aJoll'l'
l\'t-'11-111- f ....!l.l.1fDo l\1-'1 ..... lfl.
The court decision lifts the ban on the book.
f'I'C!f.' 0.-1> aJo<'l~ fODll'dt4-'t ' l\1-'1 '
banai..,.&She made a banal remark. ..,.&- l\11..,..l'f'l-

banana ,..,
band (v.), ~ together ..,.fJOl.
The people banded together to fight the enemy.
<h111t lllll'l-'t IIODfD<;J'!- ..,.fJOl.
band (n.)
I. '1'11""19". I need a new band for this hat.
1111.11 IJC~"' l\11.11 '1'11""19" l\J..A;JIIIJ2. b.l..'i'. The white plate has a blue band
around the edge. )Q;k <'l<h't ,.C.I'aJo't 11"'1
.1''1! 11.1..'1! l\IIIJJ<
3. "'111/..J'. I bought a black band for my
watch. 1111'1-1;
"'111/..J' 1qtJ4. l\IIC. A tight armband will interfere with
circulation of the blood. fm04' fll't!!.' II
.e l\IIC f!l.ll"'t ODH'I'lDC YfD<IJA
5. f..,.H..+ ~!!.'.The band played all evening.
f'oo-~t,.:t-m- =tJ!" 9""7i1:1' Ooo-h- +-Lm+
6. ~!!.'. A band of robbers attacked the trav.
elers. f1l'i!of:f ~!!.' OD't1!!.'l',;'t l\m:l":ffD<


iron band fofl~:,.. dt~

The iron bands around the barrel broke.

ORC"''./1- ,./..1' .J'flfD< f11l.'l- dtll.!l.'
[See also 'decorative']
bandage (v.) Ml. ! 04-lf Ml. (:J-Ill.)
I am going to the hospital to have the nurse
bandage my cut finger. f..,.<ILl.mfD<'t "1-i;'t
l\ll:J-"'I"'L'P l\'t!l.':J-IICA'S lD!l. dtb.ll"
0.'1- l\'t-'lfltJ-

The injury was local; so his leg was bandaged,


and he went home.

f!l.l.llfD< fl't!l.'
fl:J- 111- lllllf) l\"1~ 04-lf :J-11.: "'
!!. 0.-1> 't!l.
bandage (n.) 4-lf

The bandage is narrow.




bandit 11'1':1"
Jesse James was a famous bandit. J;.ll. J:,ll"
II 11H' 11'1':1" )OC
banditry fD<'t11!!.''0

Where there is no law, banditry is common.

.,., b(l,ll fD<'t11!!.''0 .eoqA
bane, be a

'1'4-'1- l\oo"J

Wild animals were the bane of the mountain

village. ..,.6-6-aJo 111- 1\tl:ffD< oo't!f.C
'l'of.'f- ' f"'L.J'OO<flo ' l\fD<.l.9':f ' )0~
bang (vt.)
1. Jr.Ci;J. Don't bang the door! OD1f'1JtD-'}
2. ro.+. He banged the book down on the table.
OOI\"dtl-'t bml.A.q,. 111- "'"""'"
3. oo:J-. He banged his fist on the table.
mt!A.IftD-1' r llaJcftl oP7t&4. l\;J"". I banged my elbow. llC~'t l\;J


bang (vi.) .,,. 1111- ..,.H;J

A stop for the door keeps it from banging.
""111..1' OO"Ii/' ' b..,.O~fl'l- .,,. 1111- boo
H;J'I- Y!f.')'PA
bang at!l.O!l.O
He banged at the door to be let in. IIOO"Ifl'l-
O~'t !!.0!!.0
bang (n.) !!.'9"6
The bang of a gun could be heard from a
distance. fmoo'tlj"fD< !!.'9"6 h~:t 1-11"'1 '
with a bang
I. !l.'aJo 1111-. The box fell down with a bang.
"f'l'). ' Y:IJJ< 1111- ' lD!l.4'
2. l\.,.,1". He always shuts the door with a
bang. IJ-A1.H. O~'t l\.,_,1' 1-H;J'I'A

I. l\;JH (..,.;JH). He was banished to the remotest
province. 111119" -t-:,0 mF.. lf")m- m.:Jtt\f.
q'f-' ....;JH
2. l\lltD1!!. (fl'l-). The doctor's talk banished his
fear of illness. fdtb..,.. 't"I"IC llfl 011
;f- f)Ol.aJo't 'i!CII'I- l\lltD1!l.fl'l-


bank (v.) 4'.1111

The wind banked the snow against the doorstep. )of.(l. Ol.P-fD<'t !"aJo 111- 4'.


bank (n.)
1. Q"}h. I keep my money in the bank.
~"}Hil. "}

Ooa"}~-'J. .IICi" ft.4.C 41AA


The ship ran aground on the sand bank. fl

Q.l.C m-11'1' R"'I.Y~ t.if'1'"7 1-11;1- oo
Ch!l. oot,:J- .I'H"f-

*The water rose until it was level with the bank.

m"}lf- 7-llh t.'i' f.~of. 'I"A:I:A
make a bank of earth hLC tiLAA

The engineers made a bank of earth across

the road to keep out the cars. ooiJ.<;J"'j;"} 11"7



go into bankruptcy hi\~

The firm went into bankruptcy. f"l" Y:C

)('+' M.:

).Q"}h t.ll4'?""1111J-

2. f<D"}11 .IICiJ'. He swam to the nearest bank.

4'.:11 m.1111m- fm"}11 'lei" 'l'"f
3. 41AA. There is a bank of earth alongside

the street.


'1,1'. t.4.C .,.


[See also 'farther, flow, overflow']

bankbook fQ"}h f..h.<'l11 f.11.,.C
He lost his bankbook and cannot withdraw
money. fQ"}h f..h.<'l11 1.11-J-1.."} llll"'ll
~"}H11 II..I'ID"' t..l'-"f-A?"

1. fll"..,_'i' (111..11. The students carried a banner with "We want better schools" written on
it. _,..,&J"'j; f_,.lf II :J-?"1/C:J- ll.:t-
7."}4.A;>II"} f"'LA fll"..,_'i' (111..11 ,I'.H
..... .,.(11142. (l"}f.~ 'tl\"7. The banners were waving
in the breeze. (I"} f.~ 't'I"7J"'j; Rtof.ll ,l'.m-11
01111-' ~RC

banquet f7.t-+ "111"11"

The Emperor gave a banquet in honor of his
guests. .,.,.,., t~P'-1> 117."}"11'-,.; h11C
f7.t-+ "111"11" t.f.t:'I-

[See also 'wedding']

banter 1..11
The boy's banter made the girls laugh. fA)!:
1.11 Alf~t;l'-'j;"} t."':l''i'm-

baptism hell+<;
The baptism was performed in the new church.

banker Qll Q"}h

Foreign bankers are permitted to have banks
in Ethiopia. ffD<"f!' Me Qll Q"}io"f- I;.
:t-f'"k.l' fDoll'l' Q"}h 7."}-'l.'l"t-'l'm- ,1'.4.

bank note ~"}Hil 111C

The government brought out new bank notes
recently. .,...,.,,..,. R~C11 t.-'1.11 ~"}Hil
(-oc) t.'l-'1" t.m"l
bankrupt (v.) t.M.:
They are underselling us in order to bankrupt
us. M'"} 11"7hllC 011~_,.;;: 'I':> Mf"'tr
bankrupt (adj.) fhl'lt:
A bankrupt firm is not solvent. fhllt:
c)('+ MIJ)o"} ll.h'i'A t..e"f-A?"

hCll'l-<; f_,.4.1\00fDo Q.ll.fl-

., m-11'1' toe

11._,. hCM;.I'

1. t.moa4'. The priest baptized the child.
<Jill- .loY)."} t.mou4'm2. fhCII:t-<; ll?" (lfoo. They baptized their
son, John. fAif'fm-"} fhCII'I-<; II?" }>:
"} ' -RIIm- ' (lfoo-:Jbe baptized hell+<; .,.)..,

She was baptized when she was a month old.




bar (barred), v.
1. 4'0:4'0:. He forgot to bar the gate.


OD4'C4'C .:<'1


2. H.?. A fallen tree barred our way. t."} Y:

He became bankrupt through too many

3. hllhll. The director barred smoking in

the classroom. 'l.t.h-1-1- 7.h'i'A m-11'1'

be (become) bankrupt hfl~

business expenses.

f"}..,.(- Pt-111-

m"'-. r il

IIR'IR:t- hilt:

1. oohflC. Their bankruptcy reduced them
to begging. oohflt-'l'm- hA.oa<; t.f.t:<'l'fm2. f"l"IY: 11.<'1<1-. There were ten bankruptcies
last year. 't?"<; OP'C f"}"IY: ll.<'lt- f.
C{l toe

f<Df.4' 'l'i' OD"}~.II"f-"l"} H;JfDo

"7f1Lil"} hllhll

bar (n.)
I. f11.:+ H"}"l. The bars in the window show
that it is a jail. Oooll!o+ '1,1'. .l'tr+ fil
.:+ H"}1"f- f7.11C n.+




2. R-<; n.+. Let's meet in the bar in an hour!


.r: ll't:t-

<D-11'1' 7.(1-<; n.+ )."}~<;"i

3. 'i'C.I:"" 11.'1-. She was called before the bar

to answer for her crimes. 11-t-ho'u'l:f-0'1- m"J;e
A oPA/1 ~"J.i:""'l-11'1' 'i'C.I:"" 11.'1- -t-m.:.:fo
4. oP{I<;hA. Poor health may be a bar to
success in life. fm.'i" OlltiJT A).G" DDI\lt
'1- oP{I'i"hA ll.ln Y.lf-'IA
be a bar
I. h1S'... Foreign birth is a bar to becoming
President. h~ h"IC (tm- oPtJJt\~
T &.IVI"J'I- hoPU'"J MilA

2. hllhll. Disparity in ages is no bar to

marriage. 06.1:"""'1. t.l\oPoPIIJm"J :>11!1'
be admitted to the bar 0"1'-fl-1-'i r l't,")Jlw&-

Mter passing his law examination, the young

man was admitted to the bar. fon"' .1.-t-'i"m-, IJI\4. 0:\'1 lDIIJ-1: {lm- 0'1'1l:J.'i"
~")/I.P'ilo I of-.I..,.S'..II'I[See also 'soap')
barbarian (adj.) f~""~'l'lfTo emasculate is a barbarian custom. oo(llt
11 1~-~'l'l- I A"l.l:"" ~"'"
barbarous f"'l".f'i"
The barbarous treatment of prisoners was
described in the newspaper. fMt~"iP:fo f"P
.f'i" hff11 O:>H.IIJm- 'If. of-11\l\
barbed wire IJIIII"II 1 'iill
The soldiers placed a barrier of barbed wire
across the road. m;l-Y.e:~ 1 fflllil"ll 'iill
"'1111" 00U")1/I. "" "''~barber l\1-C hll-t-IJIJS'The barber cut my hair badly. l\1-C hili'
lJIJf. l\1-&.") oP'J'fl: h.I:""C1 <fr.~m'S
barber shop fl\1-C "'111-t-IJIJJ' 11.'1The barber shops are closed on Sunday.
fl\1-C "'111-J-IJIJJ' 7uh-.l:"" ~d>.l:""
f.H:>IIbare (v.), - the head IJC~ M"'
When the flag passed, the men bared their
heads. II"JS'..:J. 1 '\'1"'/m- ll.fA'i' ll'l''ll fJ
C~IIJ:fm-") M"'"
bare (adj.)
I. IJP.. You should not run around in your
bare feet! OIJP. 1 ~"'CII 1 ""H'I'lDC 1 hMIJ


He lived in a bare, little house. '1-")'11

IJ.'I-' tJJo{I'J' I 'l"~





He fought the enemy with bare hands. hm'l'l-

~)!:") ' of-'1':>
2. (6).:.41'1-. In hot countries, men and women
go around bare to the waist. 0'1"-"''~- h1<:
:r- m"JP.:fo'i" hm11J:fm- OilY. 6.:.
ofl;l-:fm-") S'-~113. Mll-t-'1. He was elected by a bare majority.
foJ-oP~mm- OMil-t-'1 f.l:""l'"t 11A"'i ~m4. 1'111J. The top of the hill was bare. f;>tl-m-

:>C ' qp. '


"11\IIJ ~nc

5. f-J-6-<fr.-J-. The Ethiopian landscape in the

north is very bare. fii"''."J 1 h.'l-f"Wf f""
&.'1- ' ,.,.,...,....... fof-6-<fr.-J- ~"'"
*The room was bare of furniture. h'i:h- f'O.
'1- ~... I hA~O~m-9"
*The trees are still bare. lft::=t:i ,c; :,.OmA
*These are the bare facts. ~:J.op film- 1 ~
m-~-t-'1 ~1C S'-11 ~m*His pay affords him only the bare necessities
of life. S'-'1"11- h~~ IDS'. h'i' hfA'i'l'"
bare of goods QP..

The store is now completely bare of goods.

OUJ'..ofl-1- ' hrJo") ' qp. ' ~tJJo
be bare of fiiO'I-1'"
The chicken yard is bare of grass. f P.<:'l''ll 1
ll;l- "'C fiiO'I-9"
lay bare 1Am I 1l.l.

The doctor laid the burned flesh bare with his

scalpel. P.h-J-'1- fof--"'mllm-"J P' :> OM
IL'I'I' 11\mm- (1LLm-)
look bare +&-41.+

The walls look so bare.


-1: """'"'"
bareback 1\.IIJ(m-"J)
He rode the horse bareback.
") :>1\0lD-




barefisted OIJP. ~~
The two boys fought barefisted. rJoll-1: A}!
:fo OIJP. ~:fm- ' of-S'..IJS'..IIbarefoot IJP. ~"1'1-"J
Children, don't run around barefoot! A}!:fo 1
IJP. ~"16-:f-rJo"J mll.f'i" 1 lD/1.11 h'I-H'I'ID'I- I
barehanded IJP. ~)!:")
Don't pick up that hot pan barehanded!
f :>II """'olf 1 tJP. ~~~~., ,.,,..,..,"'"

n .

I. 'lou A. The ship is barely visible. ""'Chfl- 1
'IODA S'-:l"fA




1111-. He barely managed it.

1111- 11"~1\..,.


3. "!AT M':e1. They gave the facts to him

barely. :,.hhM'ID-'t ~7e "IA'I" M':e7m-

4. 1\:,.'t'li. He barely escaped being beaten by

the mob. h.h1111- J!"11~q 1\:,.'t'li t.ool\m
*This room is barely furnished. h'f:.& 1 flt.t&



*He is barely ten. OFC flouT i\.,'9"1\BJo ~m

[See also 'crawl']

~fl:'li ~'t~e<l!
'lm-'l''ftD2. ( ~ passive) T'l'lm. +I fell down the steps
and barked my shins. ~.:JI"m- 'IY. om~:fo
bark (vi.) '""'li
The dog barked loudly. m-lfm- o.-,y.A '""'li
bark commands 0Q;h1i+ 1 +7t.tflt ()m

to dry them. 70<1-l"'li

The officer barked commands at the soldiers.

oolt-'t). 1\m;J-~I!''Il O..,.'li.-,. :,.~~11 lim

bark (n.)
bargain (v.) Thtl-h<:
I bargained with him about the sale of his
house. Ill\ IL1> 'li$'1!" he"" ;Je Thtlh<:'t ~oe

we had more trouble with the old car than

we bargained for. O.t.c-1.'1' oolJ.'i' ll"h't$
:,. lt1111~m- MY. :f"!e 7mOD't

T"- ..,"JC. This book is a bargain .


,:.,.-,. 1\00JPtl-:,. $11\"I'IA

2. ='li:,.. A bark of a dog could be heard
from afar. fm-lf ..,.'li.-,. h~:fo 11.11"7 Y.'lf'IA
take off the bark 1\m

bargain (n.)
ODX"tftfj! I

..,. t.'l'ftD-

The bark of some trees is used for making

paper. n"''tJ!" ~fl::f A"'"l" (:foe,c.:,.) m

bargain for


I. :foc,c.:,. ! A"'"l". Those sycamore trees have

a thin bark. MH..r mcltl":f !Ill :foe.r.



I )(Do

2. "I"IC. The guarantee was part and parcel of

the bargain. '1'11.-,.'i'm- f"I"JCtD- oowt::J-'1!
h'i'A ~oe

3. 1111"11"~:,.. According to our bargain, you

were to pay half this month. ~'t~ llii"II"~;J-:f

't .,.,~'t 011.11 me

drive a (good) bargain

:,.h<i:I\'S ~oe

He drove a good bargain at the store.

Thtl-hl!' h""<l! 70f
in the bargain -9'"

The new houskeeper proves to be a fine cook

in the bargain. t.JI.!I.. "'"fl.-,. 'I"~ fD'I"
IL.-,.11" ' .,..-,.
make a bargain +lllPftlfl

Let's make a bargain to help each other with

our chores! IIP'tl-:f't 1\0D<:-'1.11.-,. ~'tll"7"7
strike a bargain +lt."''"7
He struck a bargain that each one was to pay
half. ~.ll't-'1- "1"71i ~'tJI.h'i'A Tll"7"7
[See also 'seal']
barge f'f!"~.-,. ooeh11
The barge which was transporting stones sank
in the river. J!"'t;JY, Tlfh'l" ftO<:m- f
'1!"~:,. ODCh11 fiJ'tlfo tD-11'1' {!moo

bark (vt.)
I. 'lm. The farmers barked the trees in order

Take off the bark before you bring in that log.

n't "l't .t: h"Y"Iq:,.u o.r.:,. 'lmm-

barkeeper fll-'i' o.:,. ql\o.:,.

The barkeeper is a rich man. ftl-'i"
ql\0...,. 1!11;1-11" lim-



barley 11111
I like beer made with barley. f11111 m'l



[~IIA'i' fh11.-,. "71l.,"""'i IL.-,.]

barracks 111-c
The soldiers' barracks are built of concrete.
fm;J-~1!',; {ILe h.t:'t;JY,'i' hii."'L't-1'-



1. ..,~. They are going to construct a barrage
across the river. Om1,.,. t\f.. 1 ..,~ l\.."J)'flo

2. hqJ!" Tlt-11. The enemy barrage began

at dawn. m'l:,. 't;J:,. 'IY. hq,t: Tltll

I. Oe"'LA l Oe"'/.A. We drank a whole barrel
of beer. t.'t.t: ., OC"''.A fltl- m"''t
2. t.'i'. The barrels of the cannon shone in
the sunlight. fou .1!"4- h'i' 08d>Y. 111:7
't t.'tl!.q.:.,
[See also 'lock']


1. out)"). He sold his barren mare. out)'}
IJ11.l-m-'J ifm

base (v.) oow.:-t-On what did you base your figures? f4l'J'C
11C11CIJ'J 9"'J 1\J.l. """'t:.rhm- I

His wife is barren. ot.ll-1: oolJ.") ) 'l-

be based +ooF..fl

2. IJP.'i' m'i'. Above the three thousand meter

line, everything was barren. hi" II:,. I( "'/.:,.
c h'i':l' OIIJ.l. no.:m- IJP.'i' m'i' ~oc
3. IJP.. The Red Sea coastline is barren.
f+J.l. IJ<hC mt:'i' IJP. ~..,.
4. "L'"J""l. Barren soil will not grow any wheat.
"l"'J""l . "",:.:,. 9"'J9" II'J.e. h.I'O:t

The division is based at Fort Benning. h'i'll

tn<~-- ~::c-r o.n., """""Y:!l..IA
The tax is based upon income. ""111~ f+oo
S'..Om- h'JS'.. ~O.m- -o~:,. ~..,.


barricade (v.) H.:>

She barricaded the door with a chair. OD1f1JtD'J OID'JOC H:>'lfmbarricade (n.)
1. ooh;J-. They quickly made a barricade to
keep back the enemy. mll.r'J 1\DPhl\h/A
-fll- oflllm- oPh;J- hOlt
2. oo"}1~ = ou1f'1j'. The barricade was placed
there temporarily, not permanently, OD")" =
O'D1f1_faJ- I f-t+OOtnaJo I l\'t,raJo I )tD- I Jt
'J)( IIHI\4:;1- hM'..I\9"
3. ""il'i'h/A. The students erected a barricade
to keep out the police. ?""ll..(o:r;-, 1\oPhl\h/A
T"76fl':r; ' OO(I'i'h/A ' W-1--

I. "7~11'. The soldiers placed a barrier of
barbed wire across the road. m;J-s>...::r; filii
'i\"tJ I 7i(1 I Ol/1)f I 00'}1S;' I
I lP.;..
2. ~S'..ofl. The enemy was strongly entrenched
on the other side of the barrier. ml\:,.0 O"l~ft
.t.lf~c os>..9"-o -111 ~oc
3. oo(l<;h/A. The Sahara Desert has been a
barrier to trade. fil.h<l- 9"Y:t: 0'1 II'J"IY:
""il'i'hA tl''l' ~oc


barring (prep.) IJIAS'...:il 011-t--+c

Barring accidents, the train will reach Chicago
at 12:00 o'clock. hS'..:> IJIAS'..t:il 011-t--+c
1111---1-- OIIY:II.r (lq:,. 'f1J1 J.l.S'..Clt/A
barter (v.) 1\IDm
Indians used to barter furs for guns. II'JP.:f
f.t.m-.:. 1\.,..C omoo'Jif J.l.llm-'"' ~oc
barter (n.) fl.? oPI\'l'ID'J' 'J"IY:
Barter was practiced before money was introduced. 1'1H11 bODIP,t.-1: Od.T t?t.4" ou
1\'1'111'1' 'J"IY: ,e.w.:.o-r ~oc

base (n.)
I. .,.,,..::,.. The base of the statue was still
standing. ouw.:.r hu--19" oil
.,. ~oc
2. t"'4..C. The government appropriated land
for a military base. oP"J-JF-i: r AtnC liLC
f"''..ti''J (1;1- hllll
3. uos>..a"' :,0oP9". Pepper is the base of this
SteW, 0C0&






base (adj.)
1. 2l,t't;:. To betray a friend is a base action.
'lS'.."''J oPh'l-r l\.l''i' -1--"IIJC ~m2. -1--.l-. Iron and lead are base metals. -o.:-r'i'
7.Cltll -1--.l- oflt:-f:f 'i''fm3. ( ~ n.) m.:-'1 ~~c. No needful service
is to be looked at as base. .,.,,.,..,.,.. '\J.l.
~.-.. hll.l..l\'1. F<l- 7.'J.V.. m.:-.11 ~~c
"":l'f:,. fiiO.r9"
baseless """'.:""" 0.11
This is a baseless accusation . .eu ouwt:T
0.11 hll ~..,.
basement ?"Y:C o.-r
The basement was flooded by the rain. 9"Y:
c 11.-1> 011'i'?" i--'1'11+11+
bashful '\J.l.'i'of..C
She is bashful in company. hilm- :>C ll.rll'
'J ' '\J.l.'i'of..C' ~'If
I. """'t:;l-'1!. One of the basic difficulties of
Ethiopian agriculture is land tenure. ht...-ri"A-.1' fClf oPWt:;l-'1! :f"lf:';f h'J-'1. f
-.:.-r J.l-11;1- ~..,.
2. 'l''i'. He quoted his basic reasons for the
decision. 1\m-lt~m- 'l''i' 9"h'J.1'-r-:r;., m+il
He is basically honest. """"'.:"" ;1-"7~


I. 1-=.11 llih"t. He washed his hands in
a metal basin. ll}(,;"t hil<:'l- 0-I-U'&. 1K-~.11

llih"t w-11'1' :l'mO

2. lrl\4'. The Awash river basin is being
developed for agriculture. fM'1i IfII.,_ Ill\

elf. P'&..


1\J'. ~ ....

l. ouwil,:r-. We cannot continue on this basis.
OII.IJ OOU'l:T ~"t.,.'l'~ h."t':f-~9"
2. "711<::(. What basis do you have for that
statement? 1\lf.IJ t,.qq~u 9""t "711<::( .hiiiJ 1
3. oo,_fl~ :,,oor. The basis of this medicine is
oil. fooK-:>t-1> oo~O'O' :,Ooo9" HJ!.'I-

He likes to bask in the sun. BmJ!. .,..,.:,. J!.

2. DP!/"!1'. He hit the ball so hard that the bat

broke. 1\!l."t O"lJ!.~ 111\0D;f' OD!/"!J'w-

I. h9"':f'l-. What happened to the batch of
papers on my desk? hm<:A.~\Io 1\J!. no
<:w- fm<:_,.'l- hll":f:r- f'l- ~<:II 1
2. o-K-"t. A new batch of Peace Corps volunteers arrived today. h.-'1.11 fMII" ~K-
~~-~. ~t.. ~q

*She made another batch of cookies. 1\.1\ illl

h-'1- U'&.':f

bath f~ll oo:J'mtl..t' 1 f~ll oo:J'mtl..t' w-;>

Have you a room with bath? f'll\ OD;J-m
OJ $1\IJ)o h'i'~ hl\11 1
Your hot bath is ready now. f~l\11 oo:J'mO.
F oo-:,0 w-;> -1-H:J:E-:l;~
take a bath "11\ :t"mfl

basket :,Oc"'i'lPut the laundry in the basket! f"'L:I'mllw-"t

~illl l\:,OC"'i-1> w-11'1' l\11.,.9"'1'

basketball f:,OC"'i'l- 1>.11

He likes to play basketball. ftj>C""l'l- 1>.11



:,.c"'i'l- w-IlT ,....,.~

bastard '1.,..1\
He is said to be the prince's bastard. llll-
o-tr VI\ ~w- J!.q'l~


baste tolltoll
The tailor basted the hem before he sewed it
permanently. ~illl IIA.w- mCH-"t hooll
"'"' 0<1.'1- tDIItollw-

bat (batted), v. 1\;J

He batted the ball over the fence. 1\!l."t q'l'
<1- 1\J!. . h.lf"IC' II;J'Inot bat an eye 'lJ!.'l-"t ll"tl>."t A~II0<:9"

The prisoner did not bat an eye when accused

of murder. liii<:'O'w- O~'i'll ~.11,1'.~'1-

0:\11 ~1\ll"t :l'mil I

bathe (vt.) Amo

Bathe the baby in lukewarm water I ihY'l-"t II




He bathed his wound in alcohol. .,lltr"t 0


bassinet fiht"t :,Oc"'i'lThe baby SleepS ifl a baSSinet. tlJ.').


Take a bath after work! P'&.ll"t bQ;J.<:IIh


bathe (vi.)~~~ :l'mO

bass [tD'i'&-9"<; 1C<;<; fto"tK- K-9"6]




bat (n.)
I. fl\.11.'1- tD'i'. The bats flew about to catch
insects. fl\.11.'1- roc::f ~'i'll'l- 1\0DJ."H
tD/lJ tD-'1.11 0<:<1-

I couldn't bathe this morning because the

water was cold. ~~~
aJo;5o8Jo +11:1-lf
1111~0<: ~11\lo"t ~:l'mil t.~!l'~h-9"
be bathed -1-'1'1\.,.1\.,.
The valley was bathed in sunlight. If114'w-
oom.e ilcn -l-'1'11:,.~*~


so bathlns 'P"f'

We went bathing every day. Of.,.').



bathing suit f'l'<; ~illl

Put on your bathing suit and go for a swim!
f'l'<; ~illlll"t ~Oil<; to~ '!'<; 'I..K-

bathrobe foo:J'mtl..t' ~illl

I need a new bathrobe. A-'1.11 foo:J'mtl..t'
~illl $114.~~,.~

bathroom fOD:J'mtl..t' IL-lThe bathroom is large and new. fDD;J-mOJ

IL-l> II<~.<; h.-'1.11 ~.,.
bathub Ml\ DD:J-mtl..t' ~"t'l 1 fOD:J'mO.
F ~"t'l I q'l'
Do they have a bathtub or a shower? $1\'l'



fD- f~'l ou;J-m!U' 1't.ll (Q'l') ~ID- tD

f.ll f<flll" ou:l"m!U' l

Watch out that the bathtub does not run over!

fou;J-m!IJ'ID- 1't.ll 'f"tt.+ l>' .,.

battle cry +l.C.Y.

The battle cry of the patriots frightened the
enemy. .('Cfl'l''li +t.c+ m'l'l-'t hltflt.

[See also 'lose']

battalion lfll:l'
The battalion saw action in Korea. ~A:J"CDo
fli>C.t' T'I"'':I;Pt.

batter (v.) U.ol.

The waves battered the rocks on the shore.
'Mflll- q,n~ J!C!I' f)fl~'l-1 :l:'l''l':f

batter at 01-,.A


The firemen battered at the front door.

fl><'l'l- hf.:J Th'l>il'-'li fd.'l- lld.of>'t
flC fl~f.Pt. .l'.fl.l'.fl-'1batter down



The firemen battered down the door. fl><'l'l-

hf.:J Th'l>il'-'li ODlf1.J'ID-'t (lQfl~'l-

batter (n.) 11..'1'

The cake is made from batter. 11lth-of> fT
;nt.ID- hll.'l' ~ID-

1. Q'l-<1. My car has to have a new battery.
ouh..o;-\1. h.ll.ll q'f-.: .('ltol.Pt.;>;I-A
2. fou~"-"' q'f-.:. Four batteries began firing
on the enemy. h<l-'1- fou~"-"' Q'f-<ll":f m
'1'1- 'If. Tltll hol.-1>
a battery of ilfto
A battery of microphones surrounded the
mayor. flh'J1:qfD- 11-<l.t' 1111- f~l1"6 "'11'
.(' ~flC

battle (v.)
1. ;1-~11. The little ship battled against the
storm. '1-'t!( ouch11 h"'1611Pt. :>C ;1~II:Y..

2 . .,.:>.1'.11. They battled for freedom for many

years. 11~11~'1- 111111- '""""'~- T:>.l'.ll-

battle (n.)
1. IPC~'I-. The Egyptians were defeated in
the battle of Gura in 1875. fl!$f(l:~ ,...,.,.
ll"mt.'l- n-,.,:. IPC~'I- "111P.:f ~A II').
2. ID-1....1'. He heard the sounds of battle from
a distance. ffD-1.J' ~11"6 h~~ ll"''
3. .,.:>~11-. The battle for freedom lasted several
years. ftll~'l- T :>~i't' flCh'l- .('II- -too
:1"'1- ' mll.l'.

battlefield fiPC "'1..111

fiPC~'I- "'LJI

The battlefield was littered with corpses.

fiPC "'L..Im- (fiPC~'I- "'L..Im-) fl"-<'1
TCh'i'hC: ~flC

battleship fiPC ""Ch11

The navy has six battleships in commission. ~f. A Ill".:. 'If. .t'11- ll~ll'l- r
IPC ouchl':f hll-'1lt~~ 11i't' hll+ll
The child bawled because it could not find its
mother. Pt."K. l'.o;-oJ>') M"' ll~~ 1111-


bawl one's wares 7t.f'~1i 11 }t.")Jli\. mf+

The peddler bawled his wares in the street.
(1-~ 0 flf.(.-J;OJl>'t.llll mf+




bawl out tDt..l'.(fl'l-)

Your father will bawl you out when he sees
this mess. f.ll't't 11ChCh ~~C II..(' f. h.
q'f-u f.tDC~11VPt.

bay (n.) Mm.

Massawa is located on the shore of a wide bay.
11"6'1' lld. flll'~

Mm. .IIC!I'


bay (adj.) .11"'1

The farmer bought a bay horse.


.11"'1 ' ~If

bayonet <'l't)f
The soldiers fixed their bayonets on their rilles.
tD;f-f.l:'li 0 <'I'J)f'fm-') 0 ffiOD"J)f:fm- 0 '\f. 0 (Ill-

bay window [m.l'. ,..,_. .(';>.1'.11 ""lll>'l-]

bazaar -1.11c
You could buy anything at the bazaar. hOD.1'.11
~ fLII"11im-1 .....,.,,.. '1-:Y..A ~flC

be, see is, was

beach JIC!I'
They built a fire on the beach.
7.<'1'1-' M.I'.JI.

flQ.b~ .IIC!I'

beacon fmf-11 ou11&--lThe beacon showed the ship where the port
was. f<Df.fl- OD11&--l- mf.ll- ,1'110-l-'t II""
Cbfl- ' hOD/lb.,.
I. P..?. Beads are used for making necklaces.
P..? .l"t1-l- "1'1' Y."'&-0;1-A
2. )m11"111. Beads of sweat showed on his
forehead. fll11 )m11"111 -rtQ~ 'If. f.
;f-f. )OC

This bird has a yellow beak. Y.":f- m<;: 0.
"" h'i' hil-lbeam (v.) .1.1> hO&She was beaming with joy.;f- 11~-l- .1.
;1: ,1'0&- )OC
beam (n.)
I. hm-;J-c. The beams of the bridge are rotten
through and through. fY:AY:f. hm-;1-r:":f-
Q;~.C{lm- O!l11o'l'I'A
The roof was supported by steel beams.
"l&,l'm- f_,.f.14.1D" 011<:-l- hm-;1-r:":f- )0C
2. C11&-11. The steel beams are riveted together.
f11<:-l- ' C11&-ll":f- O&li.-l- ' .,.,l'f.H'I'A
3. mC11. Drill a hole in the beam! mCII-'t
4. '""&-. The searchlight sent a beam of light
into. the sky. q,.~,. f11CV't '""&- mt.
o'l"''f. ' 4.)m4'
beam of plow 'l"LC
The beam of the plow broke. '1"4.~ .,.

bean Q4:11
Beans are sown in the highlands. Of.;> Q4:
[See also 'coffee bean']
bear (bore, borne), vt.
1. <DIIf.(.,.mllf.). She is too old to bear children.
M<:)(-f h-l-mAY:?"
Where were you born? f.,.<DIIY:bm- f-l-
2. .,.lfbOD. The donkey bore a very heavy load
hU,I'm- 0"1?" bQY: "l")T _,.lfbOD
3. !I'll. He has to bear the whole burden
himself. ifh"""'t u-tt- h&-11- ""ii'A h/10-l1 cannot bear to look at him. O'tY.~ llfm-

4. ;f-1"'. He cannot bear any more pain.


bh't"l-'l.U ?"'t?" <hOD?" ll.;f-11" hf.":f-A?"
5. hHII. The letter bears good news. 1.11-'IO.m-
'I'~ <Do!. MI(I.A
The document bore the Emperor's signature.
(l)JI. f't'fo"' )11"-f>'t .1-C"'' MI(I.A
6. h!l11". The money bears 5 per cent interest.
1'tHII- h?"!l-l- OOD-1'- <D/IY: ,l'il1"1A
7. h4.&-. This tree bears fine apples. Y.U ~<;:
i>of.l"":f- ' 1 4.&-A
8. hll(m-). The director bears a good name.
M" hll'l'm-'l.o!.b~

* '

bear (vi.)

*His claim to the land does not bear close

examination. O'I'"J:I"cf: {l.OD~ooc oo~~ s
f.1Q"lA "'1111> """'<:.}- film-?"
bear down <D"'(O-l-)
The car bore down on him. ooh..'i"m- s llm
"10-l- )OC
bear on
I. .,.,.lib.,.. What you say may be true, but
it does not bear on this problem. h't.,. f?"
-l-llm- .t.m-).}- ll.lf't Y.":f-IIA "l't Y.U't
'fo-'lf. ' hf.OD/IbT?"
2. -f-dli'. Her sorrow bears heavily on her.
.hH't 0"1?" -l""l"S::f'A
bear oneself t-(\o"J


The soldier bore himself well during the battle.

OfD"1..1'm- 1..11. m;f-f.-1- &-11-'t 0"'1.1Q
bear (one) out ?"!lhC ' lf)(ll-l-)
Call up my friend. He will bear me out in what
I say. ~.1'."111-'t '1'&-ID" t IIAIJ.-l- ?"!lbC f.
bear to (the right)

+'1 S'H

When you reach the top of the hill, bear to

the right! to<:11;f-m- ""<;: !1-l-f.Cil +'1
U't ' .1'11
bear up &-11-'t .,.'lr."'m<:
She bore up well during the crisis. o":fo"lo~
m:J-.r &-P,'t 0"'1.1Q .,.'IL"'m<:":fbear upon )l}

These are matters which bear upon the community. MII.U <h1111-'t f"''.)IJ. 'fo-'ll'"

bear with ;f-1"'
Please bear with me a little longer! hQbU't
T't"li ' ;f-1"''1
[See also 'arm, cross, fruit, grudge, mind,
pressure, relation, witness']


bear (n.) .J:-11
In Europe, there are white bears. flh.m-l!";r
~"1" ' ~11 ' hll

(be) bearable il.;f-1.,..:,. f"''.i"A

His ache was bearable enough. atoo,.. fl.
:M.,..:,. f"''.i"A ~nc
beard m.?"
I am growing a beard. m."'"t


bearded at."'/?"
This bearded man is my uncle. f.U m."'/?"
(lfD"\1- ' h"l--1: ' ~ ....
I. t.>'l?". A soldier should have a military
bearing. ID;f-S'.C ffD"T~C<; t.>'l?" ll"'l"
:..,. Y'ifA
2. ~1\. She has a queenly bearing. f"t"II"T
~~~ hilT
3. "l"t"f'~.r. His foolish questions have no
bearing on the problem. Y<I'<:Q'f'fD" f"'lf.
<:tl- 'I'Yirll'"'f h"'f"!~ :>C "ITt"'~:,.
bearings t.'JotiJ"'i
The ship lost her bearings in the fog. R"l":>
"I ' fD"iJ'I' ' ODCb!l ' h'JotiJ"'i'l'"t ' <'1-J-"'f
dignified bearing ""'CD? '1"1ll

His dignified bearing is admired by all. "IC"'I

1"1(1- ' 011-11- ' f-1-S'.~.,. ' ~ ....
have bearing on Toolth,.
This has no bearing on the subject. f.U 1-JI\<
"t t.f.ooflhT?"
bearish fQll1.
His bearish behavior made him many enemies.
fQll1. mQ\< 1111- mi\T t..u.n.r
beast hfD"<I. 1 h:""~
He hates that beast of a supervisor. ,.f't") h
"'""- (t.<:oo~) .,..,.tiJtiJ& hf.IDS'.fD"?"
wild beast hfD"<I.
The wild beast attacked the hunters. hfD"<I.
.... ' hJ!'l'<J;"t ' .,..,..,lt-1\'l'fD"
beasts ho!-'I!T
There are tracks of many kinds of beasts in
the mud. "1":1'..,. fD"il'l' f111t' 'lf.~:,. t.
o!-'1!:,. .Lll"l hll
[See also 'bnrden1
beastly fhfD"<~.~.r
The murder of the child was a beastly crime.
fihY). ""1S'.A ft...,..:.~:,. .,..,qc ~nc

beat (vt.)
I. S'.RS'.R. The robbers beat the man and
robbed him. <1'"'/'l'<J; (lfD"\1-fD""t S'.11.1':RID-
2. oo;t-. He was beating a drum. hOC" f.
oo;t- ' ~nc
He was beating the dog with a stick. fD"'/f..,.
"t ""-" y.oo;t-,. ~nc
3. <;m. She beat the milk until it foamed.
h:4- llllh.mtiJ ~<:ll ID-1--I>"t <;m";f..,.
4. t.lhl.. We beat them in today's game.
"~"""'" ' .....,;~- ' t.lf)<;:<;'l'fD"
5. t.ll<;<l'. Nothing can beat horse riding as
a sport. RiiTCT :1~ "IAn,rt f"Y.Yll"t
.,. ' fll?"
6. h{l(l. The men beat the woods in search
of the lost child. f m4-fD""t A"/: 'I'll:> (l
'l'"'f ' ""lltfD""t ' h(l(l*1 saw the wallet first, but he beat me to it. Pc<'l..,."t ou'f.oo&f hf.'l'.,. ~nc
~1c "l"t l\{1- <1'~1"'S
beat (vi.) oo;tHis beart began to beat faster. Atl- R-lf.A
y.oo;t- , 'f.ooc


beat against

1. oo:J'. The rain was beating against the

windows. 1f<;"tl- oo{l!>-l>"t oo;t-ID2. t."'l;t-. The bird beat its wings against the
cage. m~ h"t.::m bm<;: 1.1>:..,. :>C
beat around the bush .&JC -'IC r h.ll

He did not answer my question, but beat

around the bush. 'I'Yir\1-"t t.Aoofl(l?" ~





(be) beaten back

The attack was beaten back. <D:.!-fD""t {lao


00{1{1 '

(be) beaten down ( ~ tr.) ""1.""1.

+The wheat was beaten down by the rain.

11<;"11 ' ll"t.O..fD""t ' .....~..... .~.....
beat off hQ::
He tried to beat off the bees that were stinging
him. f-)~4--r nn~.r"t "tP"'f li"'IQ<:c 1"h<:
(be) beaten off oo{l(l-:,.
The enemy's attack was beaten off. fmi\T1
~11-1-'1' ' 'I':I'T ' OD{I(l.T
beat upS'.RS'.R
He beat him up because he insulted his mother.
ll<;-l>"t llliMnn-r Y-RS'.n..,.
[See also 'hot, path, pulp, retreat, time, wood']



beat (n.) J':li:J'

The beat of the drum was heard from a
distance. fhOC"DJo J':li:J' h~'i'"Y toe
The policeman's beat is around Churchill
Avenue. ?" f"'l.H'PtD<:DJo O'fe:fA.
b.l)qo. )DJo
[See also 'heartbeat')
beating J':-IIJ'.q
Beating is forbidden in school. J':-{l.<'.q o+
ll"tle+ IL+ 1-hA.h!I.A.
suffer a boating .,.if),!.
The team suffered a beating last Sunday.
IJ-J';). q{I,I.DJo 1-m.J': .,.jf),l.
take a beating i"~O.t'.O

The thieves took a beating. Ml=J; .,..<'.0.<'.11Beatitude 111\.~

His Beatitude Abuna Kerellos died some years
ago. 111\.~ 1.11-t of:ell-il h'l'-t+ ~""
:t-+ ' O.L+ ' 1.<:4beautiful
I. _.., ;<!. She is a beautiful girl. _..,;<': Alii"~
<:J': t:f
2. aJoofl. The necklace is made of beautiful
pearls. :6tD- I haJo-fl I /r/A I f1"LJ.1'6- I ~d.J"
He expressed his ardor for knowledge in a
beautiful poem. l1~.,..,.,_ YllaJo'J f ;Jll !I
"'1.+ 0DJo11 "1'1'11" ~ilK
3. fl.oo+. The ceremony of the coronation
is very beautiful. fHIJNI. O~A. b.hqoe
OIIJII" f.<'.oP4' , tDJo
4. fllfJIJDC. The ceremonial costumes were
beautiful. fh11<: O~A. A.11f\:f f"'l.YII"~

5. - What a beautiful day! l.'J.I'.+ Yll


make beautiful h./loP

The priest's melodious voice makes the service

beautiful. filii- M YllaJo J':11"6 'I-.111\DJo
'J Yllll" &-A.
beautifully 1.1111"1!"
She plays the flute beautifully. 'P1i'J+ loll
II"&- '1-ltD;t-ll:f
beautify (beautified) b.!
She beautified the room with flowers. h'i'II-'J
Ql..oq l..!l1.m:f.,.
beautify oneself h.rf! ;:f:-f
Women have always used cosmetics to beautify


themselves. 1\-l':f 1.11"1!" lloP:f"f+ 11-A.

1.rt. OoP\\\V' Y.m4'"" , toe
beauty (beauties)
I. '}~<;. Her beauty beguiled us. '}~<;'!'
Beauty is only skin-deep. .,-,~., 11il' 1.
2. DJoO+. The necklace enhanced her beauty.
.h1111- ODJoO:t ~y. DJoO+ "'"""<:~+
We are always finding new beauties in his
poetry. o:,.~.,. rJoA.1.rt. l..JI.!l DJoO+ 1.<;~

3. (~adj.) _..,;<':. She is really a beauty.

01.DJot+ OIIJII" _._,~ <;:,..

[See also 'personal']

beauty parlor f'}~<; 1111-'J
She goes to the beauty parlor once a week.
tD.<'. '}~<; 1111-'J OIIII"'J+ b.'JJ': 1.rt.

became, see become


I. illl + (perfect). He didn't come because

he was sick. lll\::f"ODOD h.Aoulflr
2. llll + (relative imperfect). Because my
brother is coming from the country, I will go
to see him. tD'JJ':"'/. lt~e IL+ illl"''.""
IIJ ~,.,. ~~.llliiJo
because of

I. llil- 1111-. I did it because of her. till 11

\1. b..<'.<:"lrJo+

2. !lllil- 1111-. I don't want you to do it

just because of me. !Ill~ 11lltl 1-'JJ':;t-.<'.e
~.,. ' b.A.LA."III"
3. h--Because of his age, he stays
at home. h~J':"'/.Y'I'DJo .....,'(.:,.. f.,.t"' lolL


,.. DJoli'I'A.
4. ( ~ conj.) !Ill. Because of the high price,
I did not buy it. 'I';JDJo DJoJ': !lliiJ't 1.

beckon m4'il
She beckoned to me to follow.



become (became)
I. IJ't. A Iamb becomes a sheep. mfl+ 0"1
Flour becomes dough. .11-i:+ 11-IJ' J!.IJ'<;A.
2. flq(DJo). He uses language which does
not become a man of his education. Oil- +

II"IIC'I- ' S'.t.)f ' Yll ' (taJo ' ll.'i'1C ' ,..,,.
111avt ' Y.'i'16-l:t.
3. h..,t.(11'1-). A white dress becomes her.
)"'}' A-fill ,I'II"CII;l-1:1.
*What became of him? f'l- S'.t.ll l

*She has a becoming smile.


be becomins +ll"7D7

This dress is very becoming to you. f.U +ot

.11 ' 11"19" ' Y.ll..,..,"if"'

bed (n.)
1. 1\A;.J. I want a room with two beds.

2. DP<JJot.)f. In the dry season the bed of the

river is completely dry. 1111~ w&-'1- fiD
"tfl< ovaJot.)f 11~1\.9" Y.!I.C:J'/:1.
3. ovJ'.-fl. He has a bed of flowers in front of
his house. hfl.-1> ~+ lld.'l- fhl111 ""
S'.il ' hllaJo
get to bed H'

We did not get to bed until 2 A.M. hllh /1.

11.1> IIM'I- 11~'1- Y:t.ll h/:1.1-..."tll" )11C
go to bed-~'"'

I went to bed late. h9"11:ri -~'"'~

The doctor thinks I had better go to bed.
dth.OO< ' 111'... ' f"''."if/:1. oPif).") ' ,l'll"'i'/:1.
lie In bed-~'"'

Don't lie in bed all morning! fll.4:"} r tJD&f'r

1'~1'11 h;l-C~Y:
make the bed h/:1.~ Mm~
The maid made my bed. 11.-'l;J: h/:t.~\1.
"t Mm~:f
put to bed hll-1-"'
The mother put the children to bed late in the
evening. h'i'-1:1: A,l'.::r;"t ovif '1- 11.1:1. h'lfaJo
send to bed hll-1-"'
The mother sent the children to bed early.
h'i'-1:1: A,l'.:'ll"t 111.11. hll-t-...:rstay In bed


The doctor recommended that she stay in bed.

dth.oo- h"tY:'I-+"' hHH

[See also 'change, double bed, flower, head,

hustle, tuck, turn']

bed (v.),






We will bed down here in the woods. Mlll ""1

IJ aJoll'l' h'i'S'-"6-II"t

I. ~f.)."t h'1'11t.l1t.aJo. The glare of the
searchlight bedazzled him. fll,_q,. iiC?
") ' ~f.).") ' h'1'11t.l1t.ID"
2. .., t.h. She bedazzled the audience with her
charm. +ovAIJ'1l>t I11D"I1;J: ..,t.hll'=f,.

bedbug '1-"fl."t
Spray powder to kill the bedbugs! '1-"fl.)."t II
..,'1'4-'1- ' oP!f.1t'l- ' hC'l>.IJJo

I. fh/:1.~ A-fill. You better air the bedding today. q,:. fh/:1.~ 1:1.-fl(t-"t il;l-'i'~it
m-~ ~m-

2. ov~;J-. Straw is used as bedding for horses.

11111 114-t.(':f ov~;J- Y111.,11A

bedlam f.,C.,C 11;lThe streets were a bedlam during the riot.

11-fl'l'11'1' ' 1.11. ' DP")1J'.:f ' ~flo ' f.,C.,C '
11;l- ' )11~

Bedouin 11t.1i"'


The Bedouins live in the Sahara Desert.

11t.1i'l''ll Ot.l1:f lldt&- ' 9"!1."(. fl.'l ' ID"Il
'I' '


(be) bedraggled


My dress was bedraggled when I carne in from

the rain. 'll'i'll" ov.f~ 11111 1:1.111\ +""'
"'"'" )11C
fA~ 416-"'
She takes care of her bedridden mother.
YA~ 416-... h'i';J:"t ;J-Il:f"ll"..,ll:f
be bedridden hh/:1.~ -~'""6-1
Because my mother is very old, she is bedridden. h'i'-1: 11"19" 111\t.r-f- hh~






Go to the bedroom and bring me my coat!

....~;- n.+ ' 'I.Y:'i' ' 1>-t:"t ' hll""'/:1.~
~ 11 --- h/:1.~ hm111
The nurse sat by the sick woman's bedside.
hll:l-..,"'1.'1' 111111+"''1' 1\'1- h/:1.~ hm1
11 +oJ>ovm:f

bedside, by the

fh/:1.~ 1:1.1111
The bedspread is red. fh/:1.~ 1:1.11(1- 4'Y. )IJJo


fh/:1.~ 1111
The bedsprings are not very good any more.
fh~,. 1111 hh1.,'Lll hy.m:,.,..,.





bedtime, at ~ 11.+':' II.A

I drink warm milk at bedtime. 1.\1-'i' Ill.\ '
fL'I ID1"'1- l'.tn"'/111bee 'Jil
There aren't many bees in my beehive. Olo

4':: ' fJJoil'l' ' il,. ' 'Jil ' fll'l"

queen bee f'l11 1 hm-&When the queen bee leaves, the bees disperse.
-,,.;r. J'.O.,.o;~~<
nil t.IJJo&.


beef fO~ I" ;J

The doctor told me not to eat beef.

"" ' O.L'J- ' 0.-I>'J ' hK"i[

That happened before Ethiopia was christianized. t..'l-f"ti:Y fhCII'J-o;') YJ'-"7'1"'1- boo
4'0~ hll4'1:'1" fir) )1C )IJJo
2. II + (negative imperfect). Sweep the carpet
before the guests come! 71.'l..,P..=Ji ~~~oum-
ll;J)I"fDo') '


fO~ I".? h'l-il'l hll'1

beehive +t::
I shall smoke out my beehive tonight.
:Jo ' 4'6:\1.') ' h'l'.. /111-



been, see be
1. (native) mil. My sister brews good beer.
f~ kl'l- '1'-1- m'l '1-m'l":l'll:f

2. fl&.. I would like a glass of beer. h'J!:

ilC'l'"-1' !L&. hLA,;J/111beeswax ll'l"
We sometimes make candles from beeswax.
h'J'l'J!: "I.U hll9" '11.'1' l'.o;O)I"II'J
beetle 'I''JH.~
The beetles have eaten all the leaves.

before (col\i.)
I. ( ~ prep.) h + verbal noun + O<L'I(or hll4'1:'1")
Clean the house before he comes! bOD'/""1


:f "1-mii-'J 11-11- OA-IIJJo:J-1.\

befall (befell) h.?m""

Whatever befalls them, they are ready to meet it.
f"'LJ';J'I'"7:fiJJo'J 11-11- 11.<'1!1/.,..'1- ' 1-H.?~

befell, see befall

befit 1"11"7"7
You must wear a dress to befit the occasion.
II"I.UIJJo 11-~:Jo f"'l.ll"7"7 Ail(l oPI.\011

before (prep.)
1. h - - - O.C.'J-. I will be there before two.
hll9"'J'I- ll't'l- O.C.'J- 7.11..1' M'i'llo2. ( ~ conj.) II + (negative imperfect). The

telegram should be here before evening.

/IJ'.OD1i ' -1:1\."1&..,... l'.II.IJ 001:~11 hiiO'J3. ( ~ adv.) <L'I- II<L'I-. She stopped before
the -gate. h'l'o;IJJo OC <L'I- II<L'I- ol'oo:f

*The question before us is very complicated.

f4'~0A'J "l-JIJ'. 0"19" f1"fDIIIlO )IJJo


3. h + imperfect + J'.A:t. I would starve

before I surrender. l'.:('J h'l"ll'l' J'.A:t '
o.::>il A .... ,.
before (adv.) hii.IJ O<L'I- l hii.IJ ' 4'S'.9"
I have seen that film before. Y'J'J <LA'/" hH.
IJO<L'I-hJ'.'fi'I'IIIII have never been there before. hii.IJ 4'S'.'I" '
7.11..1' ' ~:( ' h'IIJJo-l-9"
before long O:tCil "I.U IJJoil'l' I O:tCIJ- l h
'1'4:'1- "I.U 0:\'1

Before long, he will be able to help you.

o:tc11 1.n IJJoll'l' 11.<:-'lu J'.:f'IA

Before long, we will have saved up a hundred

dollars. 0"1-Cil- ou+ ilC l'.o;m&.-l-"7/I'J
I will see you before long. h'l'-1:'1- "I.U 0
:\'1 7.'J1o;':'II'J
[See also 'ever, night, shortly, yesterday']
beforehand hll4'1:'1"
I knew it beforehand. t.ll+Y."''. hiJJo</1'1'1111befriend 'IS'."' lr)
He befriended the new student. IJ.'L{Io ' 1"
"7& ,;JC 'IS'.':' lr)
beg /IOO)
They begged me to help them.

7.')1:~-'l:fiJJo '


The children begged for coins. A}('li '1'&.

'Jh ' /100).

*I beg to differ with you; the situation is not

that way at all. J'."'-C:Jo h!:C"IA'1o; ' ...,
1" ;JC hl.\11"7"7'1" I 11-k:J'IJJo ' O'i'K-'1" '
l'.'JS'.H.J' ' hJ'.S'./1'1"
*I beg your pardon! J'.:tC:Jo
beg off ID~ I :\1\_ I Jl.fl

He was assigned to help us, but he had begged

off. 7.,..., 7.Vl.t:-'1 """"!:P ) oc 1 )1C "I
') IDS'. :\'1 ' h/1

[See also 'question']

began, see begin

beget (begot)
I. <llS'. Abraham begot Isaac. .t.oflC'/!1" f.





2. hhh-1"11. Idleness begets crime. I"&- II.

'1-H m"t)!A"t J'hh'I-'IA

beggar 11"7'S
There is a beggar at the door. 11"7'S l\OC <I'


I. 4'<;. I don't begrudge him the honor.
Ohil~ hA4'<;0'1-ll"
2. <1'..,(..,.). +I begrudged the money it cost me.
J't"'!Jo'l- 1"tHofl <I'""'S


begging Aoo<;
Their bankruptcy reduced them to begging.
ouh(l&o'faJo hAoo<; .t.ll.t:<\'faJo

begin (began, begun), vt.

I. )!not:. She began work on the project
right away. f:l'4'1l.aJo'J I"&- ""1"6-'1- m.o:.
J'aJo ' )!oot:"f.
2. .t.!l/!1/oo. Two friends began the club three
years ago. v-M 'lll..,.'l""f. hOIJo'J f'l

to v-11'1- '\00'1- ""**-'~begin (vi.)

I. of")!out:. Life began many million years ago.

ihf.m'l- fofo)!oot:aJo hill!' "7.11.\"'J '\
"""". 0.!.'1-. ~ ....
2. )!oo,: l -1"~"1. Where shall I begin? f'l- A
)!ll"c 1 (or hf'l- M"' 1)
3. ofo!l/!1/oo. The club began two years ago.
hOIJo f'lt. !Jo/l'fo '\OD'fo ofo!l/!1/oo
begin to A + imperfect + ~..,.
It's beginning to rain. fl..H'111

begot, see beget


to begin with

1. ooy_oot,y )1C. To begin with, we have not

enough money. OD"f.OD~f J )'lC 'i Ref: 1'1
Hofl fll'Jll"
2. hv-flo 011.'1-. To begin with, I want a
competent man to have the job. bll-h- J Od.-l-
"f.ll-:1' J'llaJo ......... 1"6-fDo"t li'J.O:.f.11 '

.1>11111-'12. "7lh. Her beauty beguiled us.

3. hhll.l'l-1". He



beguiled us with stories.

-l"l+"f. ' .t."'ifDo+ ' .t.hll.(lofo'J

begun, see begin

behalf, on ~ of hill 0 --- hll" ll''l'"
He worked for weeks on behalf of the organization. hll ll.'C~ llilli' <\!1"1'1- u>&o
I want to thank you on behalf of our organization. Oll.'C~:I'"f."t hll" ll'o 'l""l'l"l
<;"{ov- ' l\II.A;JII!Jo
on one's behalf llll

He intervened in the dispute on my behalf.

1111~ ohchc fDo/1'1' trJA:l' ,q
His friends intervened with the minister on his
"'L~h~'J 1'."711

behalf. 'lll.'l',; liM


I. ooAIJll" li"""QC 11.11"". Did you behave
today? 'ft. ooAIJll" li"""QC ll.~oo?A ?
2. mQf.'J 1 .t.<\oot:. On my honor, I will do
my best to behave. Oofo!l'll'S oom'J mQ\1.

11"7<\DDC ' :l'A '


3.... &... How does your car behave in heavy

traffic? OOh_<; I 00'f0'fo ' OD'J11l.' 0 '\J'. I 0D

beginner )!"76
He is still a beginner. 1'i Y..fl76

I. h:l'llll. They beguiled the enemy into an

ambush. m'I'I-'J .t.:J'IIfDo ltll.ll.ffloO'I- 11:1'


I. foo)!oo6J'. This is only the beginning;
the worst is yet to come. ,.e.u foo"f,.OD&fm-
~fDo f 1<; fQ(l J'.OD"'A
2. foo)!oo6J' h'i'A. I missed the beginning
of the race. ffDoll.'~'J foo)!oo6J' h'i'A
3, hY.."""ODC. Our team made an auspicious
beginning by winning the first game. IJoll.'<;"f."t
fOD)!OD6J'fDo"t ' "l'l'"'LJ' ' 0"711')<;: 0 ojoflof.. 0
f"''.l'l'l' }>)!"70DC .1><\f



'fou>&o/l"f. 1

He behaves like a fool. ll"tll.4:A f.u>&-A

*He doesn't know how to behave. oP~tar r
mQJ'. Wl-ll.'II'I'A

Behave yourself! .1>'1-QA"I

behave oneself badly OD'l'G: mll.e. a h.ltf

The little boy behaves himself badly in school.

'1-"tn:. A~ '1-ll"tJC'I- 0.'1- fDo/1'1' ""'I'
t:: mQJ'. J'<\J'A
behave well hi..O

She behaves well in company. (lfDo (l.'l'"C


also 'awfully,




1. mq)'.. He was commended for his good
behavior. l'aA ooAttr mil~ = TODfi'Jio
2. h~&-1'1. Account to me for your behavior! llh~&-Hu ?"h1-,l''l- lim'S
3. u-).;1-. His amorous behavior pleased her.
'i':f>ct f"''..U\ll' IH;l'ro- hll~(l;l-'1[See also 'indecent, presumptuous, rough')
(be) beheaded h1-11:1- .,..,..:m
In the England of former days, a pretender to
the throne was often beheaded. ~r: Ol'.1-"1
11.11 h1e ID-11'1' Odt(l'l- H-of.'i- f.1q'i'A.
f"''..A nro- t.1-11:1 f.4r.<':'l' ~oe
behest .,.,qq.r
At the behest of friends, he decided to take a
rest. O<DJI~ "7"1qq.r f.,.~.., 6<':'i'-l- II
"7~<':"1 <DM
I. h - - - :\11 I h:\11 I h - - - O(l.,.:\11. The boy
was hiding behind the tree. A.1!: h~'i' :\11
.,.~11~ ~oe
The dog was running behind the car. w-2fw-
boo h.'i'ro- :\11 f.r:'l' ~oe
He sits behind me. h:\1111- "'"'"'"'lA
The bridesmaid walked behind the bride.
~11m-;,: h .....'li&-'1' oll.,.:\11 '1-Y:~ ~oe
2. Fe. He hid behind a bush. '1'!1/tn Fe

be behind
I. "'~ :\11 .,.<':. Mary is behind the others
in her sewing. 16 OA.11(l 111..'1- h/1.11-'ll
"'~ :\11 .,.e:l'll"'f
My watch is ten minutes behind. fl'\1: ' OJP
e ~4!:J' til~ :\11 4'e:l'll";f
2. H1r. The mailman is behind his usual
time today. ?'ll.,.'i'ro- ~&. ,1'/I<D-l-r:ro-

3. ~14.. The Congress was behind the President on the last bill. ooo .....:lfro-"l '
<':4!:f> 11,1'. ?"he IL-l: T&.II.JI11:1 ~1of.'fiD
behind the house O'ir: 011-A.
There is a garage behind the house. O=lt: I n
11-A. I fODh_'i' I "7~?",1' I h/1
from behind h:\llroBe was attacked from behind. h:\lltJJ- .,.oo:1'
[See also 'back, leave, time']

behold (beheld) hf
At last, they beheld the Promised Land.
Ooo .....:lf :f-~11-l- Me1 hi'
behold I .r.'liro-A.u
And, behold, three soldiers appeared! .r.'liro-A.
U I "'11-l- <D;l'~r;";f 11:f> hll(be) beholden to ro-11;1-ro- .,. ....,....
I am beholden to you for your advice. l'al\
(lm'Ji'S ?"he ro-11;1-U f.{l...,'i'A.
behoove, it behooves
I. .,.,0. ~ro-. It behooves a child to obey his
parents. A~ /I<DII}':'Il ou:J'H11 .,.10. ~""
2. 'l'<':(0-"1-). It behooves you to work if you
want to keep this job. ,I'.U')') P'&- ,I'.H
u /IOO~f-"1- ' h4.11"1U OOP'&-'1- f.'l'e117A.
1. tt:lftoC. Men, women, and children are human
beings. <D')J'.";f (1.-f-"'f'i' A.)>:";f (l11h'
'i'tn-C ' .,,....

2. UA.a>-'i'. God's being is beyond the comprehension of man. fl'."IH.h11dt.e UA.a>-'i' h

(lro- tro-.,.'1- 011,1'. ~""
3. u-).;1-. Her whole being thrilled to the
beauty of the music. oof\m- u-~:1"-P ~ Ocro-H.
:J"(I)o I dJo0..,.. I 1-0D{affi
come into being 1-W*oo
The Boy Scouts came into being in 1908.
l'.{lt,ro-'1- O!ilf "too.,. ?".lt<':-"1- .,.!11!1/oo
[See also 'human']
I. ooiiA.(> M"f. He kept belaboring the point
after we had agreed. h.,.ll"'1"'110-l-?" 0:\11
1-.111'1 I ODIIA.(> ..,,.,.,, hll!ll<':tn?"
2. h"1~4.. They belabored the candidate with
questions. .,.<DJIJI&tJJ-1 0'1',1'4: h"1~4-lbel a ted fH1f
The belated letter arrived at last. fH1ftJJ-
11.110. ' ooo .... .:lf ' ~<':()

I. M"'. Every time he eats, he belches.
0011 '1'e .1'1"fA.
2. .,.of.. The volcano was belching smoke and
ashes. 11.111" ~ ,.,,:.m- 'T'lt~ 1 t.ooY: ~1"
of. ~oe

beleaguer bOO
The enemy beleaguered the city. mil-l- h.,.
"'IID-1 bOO

I. lf.l.). His appearance belies his feelings.
oPAh- 11"1.-1>1 ,l'.if'i')'I'A.
2. J.m-H .t.I\ODIT\-1 hl\f. His cruelty belies
his statements. "l'"IJ~m- :Nr 1.m-H hi\

belief 1.f"H
My belief in him was seriously shaken. Oft.
1\,1'. $11"1 1.f"H fl"'f" -l-<1'1itA

He never expresses his re1igious


11'11\m- f'IW''I'l" '1- 1.f")'f- ~Alt t.ym-

[See also 'superstition']

I. .t.oP). He believes in God. l11."1H.hildo.C
He believes in a lot of exercise. 011tf" f(tm)'J- 1.1't>ll:l'll. $'!'";A
2. oPill\(m-). Will they come tomorrow?
No, I do not believe so. )1 ~ooartt-- ? h.
3. ~""-!-. They believed him to be insane.
~-fl.e' I )aJ- I ofll\(1}- I 100-IJ
make believe

I. hllou{ll\. The boys made believe they were

fighting the enemy. A]l.:'ll m'l'l-1 f"7. '1'"1-
.t.(loP{li\2.0Dilll- :J'f. The girl liked to make believe
she was a queen. AJI"~t:'l:t 1"1P''I- ""~~'~
oP:J'f'f-1 'folD.':" )flC

believer h.,"1

2. :l'"l'"A. The cat has a bell on its collar.

.':"""'); h1~:t 1\,1'. :l'"l'"A A'l'lring a bell 'hi hll(m-)
His name rings a bell. 11.,.. '1-11 ,1'.1\'1A

bellicose fmfl'1)'JHe has a bellicose disposition. fmO;o;),;'f- m

q,e. ' hl\m-

belligerence mil """-fl"'

I cannot understand his belligerence about
such a trivial matter. 1.1'1.11 'Ill tl.,,l'.t:
q )~C mil .,..,_fl.,. h,e.~q"1r
state of belligerence mofl

A state of belligerence exists between the two

countries. fl!l-tl-1> h~r::f' oPIJhA mil t.fl

belligerent mil ro.IIJ:"

Some nations seem more belligerent than
others. h1.'11.1:" ' h~r::f h(l,ll-:f ,I'.A-l-
mil ' ID.'IJ:" o ,('.ODill\1\-

bellow (v.)


The ox bellowed when the farmer hit it.


I flOD:J'"(I)o I




bellows (n.) ro<;'l!

Use the bellows to make the fire hotter.
1.1\-1>1 fl.,"l.I'.J:" OtD<;'i! -1-m<l'f"

belly (v.) -f-)'1The sails bellied in the wind. if&-m- fl)'i-ll-


belly (n.) IT.!:"

The faith of the believers was shaken by the

capture of the holy city. f'f> .1:"11'1- h-1-.,

""Y'H ' y.,'l''ll1 ' oP").f.ll ' .t.<;;>mbelieving, convert into ~ .t.l\ou)
Can I convert you into believing that the earth
is round? """'~- hil ""ITS:1 '11\f""t

u ' l.:f'll\11- 1
belittle A1\o.M




l h1!'1lflf

When I found out he was a Frenchman, I felt

like a fool for belittling his country. .1.<:11\'
""ITI-1 ' IJtD-l-11- ' fl:\'1 ' .t.~-1-1 ' 0.,1\o,ll
II. h.I.Cho

He constantly belittles my efforts to write

better. K"ih.l.-1:1 1\.,lflfA f.,.l'.~m-1
Tt:'l- 11-A'I.II. Y1!'11ilf A


He kicked him in the belly. IT'!. '1,1'.



bellyache f'I<Cm'J- "'""'"

His bellyache prevented him from going to

school. fof<Cm'J- "'""'" '1-f"IIC'I- 0.'1-

' hll<!'t:m-

I. f +noun (or pronoun) + )m-. Does this
book belong to you? ,1'.11 ' n+ ' oPK"dt'i'
2. "111'-)'J- )flt:m-. He never belonged to any
political movement. hf"1f" 't,I'.)'J- f?"fl
1;1! 1.1-l-11.4'11. ' ;>C "111'-)'J- hA)flt:..,.,*He too belongs to our club. 1.1l-f" fllfl
q:f") hqA )m-

*You don't belong here.

~tl.tJ :r

ootr1' J\,1

I. .<'.IDA. The bell doesn't work. .I'.ID/1- h,l'.



*This book belongs on the top sbelf.




bend over .,..'lOll

gave him benediction. {lm-tLm-


He bent over to pick up his wallet. IIC<'Ifl,...l

11.,'1"1'1- 1-'IO!l hi\
bend over backwards fot;r:'AaYJ I f}o/r I l\~l,1

She bent over backwards to make sure that

he was always pleased. S'.h >.'1'1.1\fDo f"''.




'I !lillY) "'"" Qt'.IJ.'I-

benefactor f.?.!. I <'.'1'1He was the benefactor of many artists. f1U,.

hCthofol-o S'.;J.!. )0C

He is rightly called our benefactor. t'.'l:l"lf.,.m~CD- r RO'f.1Q 1 iom-

"t +-flA-

be bent

I. ( ~ active) S'.-1-. +Her head was bent over

the books. ""'i'-lt 'If. t-!l.'I S'.'i':l" )0C
2. nu.. He was bent on mastering Amharic.
h.,c>;' Of.ll"11 h"'C-fo 1\.,m'l> "'t'.
(one's) back is bent .,..Otn

beneficence l-t::l"
His beneficence relieved the poor. '::fi!:I"CD-

l-/t'.'l'l-'1 ' ?.JI'ffDo

beneficial m:f>"''.
Fresh air is beneficial to health. 'll\ hf

The farmer's back was bent from years of toil.

h11rt- "OD:f"'l- A-1-'1- ' ,.,.).., 100:.fDo '

c 1\m.'1~'1- m:J>"''.. )fDo

be beneficial m+oo

[See also 'effort']

I hope your holiday will be beneficial to you.

f~t'.'i''l- 1.11.11 >.'IS'."''.m'l>ll"ll _,.h-1- h!'.C?

bend (n.) m?"qq 11:1"

The bend in the road was straightened recently.
""'11.11- 'If. Yll"'" m?"qq 11:1" O'I>C

II- .,._,-;

*There is a sharp bend in the road here.

>.tlll 11:1" ou'11JI. OJ:-'11'1- ~'l''i' f.'IA

bended, on ~ knee .,.'lOCh!>

He begged for mercy on bended knee. .,.'lOCh
1> , ?".ltt'.'l- , 1\oP)
beneath (prep.) h - - - I"C I 0 - - - I"C
I put it beneath all the other papers. h/1.11-,;
mt'.-tofolo IJo[\o I"C ' 1\ll-I'OD'J'IJ.'IHe was buried beneath the tree. M4- I"
c .,.4'0<'.

He walked beneath the canopy of flowery

trees. 01\0Q., qG:l- 'I'll I"C .,.t-...,S'.
beneath (adv.) h:l"l- l hO:I"lWhat you drop will fall upon the step beneath.
fll"'l-'1'1\fDo )1C h:l"l- 0"7.11""'" S'.t'.

!I" 'If.


The fortress commands the plain beneath.

?"'1i1- hO:I"l- YllfDo'l O'LJI 1\oP'Il"'m


*The work was beneath him.

l-11-:1" 0"111" 11'1>



Yl\ )OC

[See also 'dignity']

benediction 11-t-h.
The benediction is part of the church services.
11-t-h. h'I>JI<l. h'IS'.?/fDo h'i'A )fDo

He received benediction. 11-t-h. .,.4'011

give benediction ll:l.h

Since the man is a good Christian, the priest


beneficiary (beneficiaries) .,.m:f>"''.. ! .,.oj>q,e

My brother was the beneficiary of the insur~
ance policy. m'IJ:-"7. f.ltf.m+ 'l'll'l-<;..,.
.,.m:f>"''. (.,.4'Qf.) )0C
All the children are beneficiaries of the new
playground. A]>:,; u-11- h'l.h O.,.tvt-fDo
fou"'.mil' "'1.'1 .,.m:f>"''..l"l- <;'f..,.

benefit (vt.) m-too

Rest will benefit a sick person. clt'.'i''l- .,J:"
<'."1 1\0'Ii.,.?/ f.m'I>.,A
benefit (vi.) .,.m-too(O'I-)

He benefited from his past experiences.


ff.t'.liO'I- ' )1C '1-ll"llC'I- lli\IY)fDo


benefit (n.)
I. 1''1>11". I do not expect to get any benefit
OUt of it. hrt.U I i'1C I f?""lll'lfl-ttD- ; 9""'19"' I
'1''1>11" fl\'111"

2. 11AK"'"Ili". Benefits accrue to society from

better education. h.,. 'I"II '1-?"llC'I- ~11<'..,.
{111 11.:\W"I<; Y1'1A
3. 1t1A..,A-+. Does your insurance

include medical benefits?


va..em+ 'l'h'fo<;

II f.lth?"<; h1A"III--l-'l ,ea..?"t-o:\ l

4. mt::l". My new friend showered many
benefits upon me. JrtJl{\o 1 m~:( .... ,.,. 1 me
:1" hf.t'.1A'1
5. 01 hJ:-t-1'1-. Tonight's show is a benefit
for crippled children. tJq.:...,. ll"''i'l- '1-cJ.
,.,.. f"'1..1"f.... 10. f"7.fDol\fDo ' hill\
ll'IIJ.A 1\IY). A")('f 01 hJ:-t-1'1- )fDo




be of benefit m+oo


The trip was not of much benefit to us .

M'l" J'UA hAtno!>OD't'/"

I. fDoC11. Henry received a bequest of 500 dollars
from his aunt. ~'t6 1Jh11-1> J''/"11'1- .,...,.

for the benefit of

ofiC fDoC11

I. 1\A. Speak louder for the benefit of those in

the rear. :\'1 '111-'1- 11'1-A '""h 111\U T'i"~C
2. 7.01;1' llou(lofJ(tofl. She is holding a great
fete for the benefit of the hospital. ll.hh.'l"
(J.of> 0 A01;1' 0 IIOD{lofl(l1J. 0 ;1''\ol- 0 "lofl"tf" ' ;I'

2. ).qH.. His philanthropic bequests have

created museums and libraries. Oft. 2 r".ft::J-

Iive the benefit of the doubt

*He gave him the benefit of the doubt, and so

released him. ~~'1- t.m&-"16 111111'~ IJAT<:

R"711'1- 11-1>-l>a>-


I. R1 h.l:"&-"1.. A benevolent person will always
give money to the poor. 0') 11.:&-"1. lim-
IJ-A" 11.1:-"Ji J'.oP'I.fDo;I'A
2. f~"l~'l-. His benevolent smile showed me
that he forgave me. f~"l~'l- tl.~"l;l'fDo't q
fu- "1.11. J'.ol-C;I' l.'t'I~<:~A'f omol-u-

I. T11"7"'1... The sick child was taken to Harar
because of its benign climate. t. f'l- T11"7"'1..


R'li_,.,.,.,. A"J': m~




He has a benign smile.




bereave (of) M"'

The accident bereaved him of his entire family.
hF.;Ji& I oPI\ I fl.+ I (tflo"} I h.{).IIJ(I)o

+ f'I"TR'I-

bereaved (adj.) noun

The bereaved mother showed little sign of

aftliction. A)':'l' f'I"TQ'I- l.'i"'l- h't-'1"{-'1" f
I" :l'J'. 'I"Ah'l- h'lllf"{-'1"
be bereaved OIIJfU

r h.H~

He was bereaved by his mother's death.

Rl.'i"-1> '1"'1- fT~"' R"''l" h1t'l' ~RC

bereavement fHooJ:- '1"'1She was in a state of agitation due to her

recent bereavement. Rol-Cit- R~<:iiQ'I- fH
ODJ:" .,...,. ' 'l"h'tJ''I- Tifofl&- ' ~RC

berry 'i't.

't't'li ' -1>J'J'. ' 'i't.l""{- ' J'.!f,A

bent (n.) Til'l'l"



l" ' hllfDo

benumb M~llll
The cold benumbed my fingers. ofiC-'1. "'.f.
'In ' M~Jiq'f,.,.
be benumbed


The shrub has small red berries. "''~'*"'"'" '1-

bent, see bend

He has a bent for painting.

1"11~-l- I ftlD~(l

l.'i"'l-1'"'1' A)':'l''t 1111 ofiA"I'i"fDo ~,p."{-,.,.

His benevolence led him to work for the

church. ol-'t~-1> O.T hc11tJ''t't 7.'tJI..P

make a bequest

He made a munificent bequest to the university. 111'-tliCI\tfDo ;1-'lol- 'tofl<:'l- h

The mother berated her child for his rudeness.

benevolence ol-n'I~II"IA

).qtl,l""{- O.T ""llhC'"{-'i" O.T "'"i..h

'l'.f."{- TP'CT'I'A


My fingers were benumbed by cold. "1-Hi R

ofiC.I:" 'l"h't,f'l- ~'t11HfDo ~RC

bequeath t.m<:(l
He bequeathed me his gold watch. fmcol- (l

berserk, go

~ ou'l ol-m- h"'

He went berserk at the terrible news.'-1:

CIJ'"1 I aJ~ I (1{1."7 I "J..IJ. I ODI\ ; :,Om- ; l\lf)

berth (f)oo'{;t- h'i'A

I found a stranger in my berth on the train.



l.'t"l-'1 (lfDo

I OD:.S::f" I




beseech (besought)


The prisoner besought the judge to be merciful.

7.11<:,.,.,. -'~"'"'" l.'t-'l,&-&-11'1- ' ~~-~



't-l>'t t.m<:(l'f

It hardly beseems you always to quarrel

The artist bequeathed his talent to his son.

with- your sister. li-A1..H. h:J\..,-l-11 ;JC

"""1'1'1- h,MQII'I"

t.C-1:11-1> "{-11-;J-fDo't IIA)I: t.m<:il

I. oq(O'l-). Danger beset his path. oo"J1'1.
t.Y.:J roqo'l- ~..,.
2. t.'l'bO. Many doubts beset him. -11,. 'J'C
"lt. t.'l'bOIIJo
be beset

I. -t-m<:<:. In the swamp, we were beset by

mosquitos. 0<:"1<:1- ll'i'o!- OmiJ '1-"J'{
2. -1-'l'm. This task is beset with difficulties.

,.IJ . JP&-

I OtiJtiJ I f+'Ptn I )ID3. ( ~ act.) Am?. Sioce there was a drought

last year, we were beset by famine. Ql\4f..Q)o
'tOD'l- ' J':C:J> ' ill\~0<: ' <:~of! ' h'l':J>-I'<;A

beside (prep.)
I. b - - - .,..., l .,..., . Please put this trunk
beside the other one. Y.ti"J"J li"J.ti.:J> h/1.
l\_(l)o I


.,...,. I

WhO is that standiog beside your father?

y t.IJ'l-tl .,..., fiJ.fiDIIJo ..,., ~ .... l
2. 0 - - - t.m1ofl. She would like to live beside
the sea. t.m1ofl 1\0D'l'C '1-/..A:>II'f
3. JIC. The cat lay stretched out beside the
fire in contentment. J':fiD-1:;1: <:b;J- l\11'1-
JIC -1-H<I-II'f
4. 0 - - - /..'1- 1\d.'l-. The teacher put a check
beside the correct answer. 0'1-bbll'i'IIJo fiDA
II d.'l- 1\d.'l- t.ll.,_..,6..,. II"Ah'l- h
5. b - - - IIJo"'.". That's beside the poiot. Y.tJ b
)"J~ I



*Mary seems dull beside her sister. "'16"J h

7...,;1: ;>C lt.fmJIJ':~'l- M !Lll 'l-ou
beside oneself

*He was beside himself with rage. O"J.I'..'I-





....., n-r- ~oc

[See also 'mark, question']

besides (prep.)
I. b - - - 11.11. I have three other hats besides
this one. bH.tJ 11.11 1"11'1- IJC~nJ All'{
Besides his wages, he gets tips. bY.'I",. 11.11
1-Clf Y1'i'A
2. b--- 011-t-+c. We spoke of no one besides
you. IJ"J-t- 011-t-+c ill\ "'I"JII" t.llmo!-"JII"
besides (adv.)
I. hii.YII" 11.11. We will have games and
danciog and food besides. l'."J""lm;f-1\"J l'."J
S'."Jiti\"J I bii.YII" 11.11 l'."JOIIII"J
2. hii.YII" OilY. 1 bH.tJII" OilY.. It is too late to

go for a walk. Besides, it is starting to rain.

1ic'lic 1\00'/.J': H"'f.;I:A l hii.YII" 011,1'.
1\.H"J-11 ' ~..,.
He is a good worker, and besides, everybody
likes him. 7.(1. '1"1- wo~--t-'i' ~..,. I bH.tJII"
Ollf. l111Jo rNr ,l'.mY.'I'A

besiege bOO
The English besieged Emperor Theodore at
Magdala. 7."J"li\.I':Y. AI -1:9'J':C'li"J oo:,.
Y.ll llf. bO!I.:fiiJo
be besieged with

*During the flood, the Red Cross was besieged with calls for help. 01-C'i' 1..11. f+Y.
ouli+A "'1-,0C .fl'.CJI;f- 'I'Y4l 1-<:/..11'1-

besmirch t.1-Y./..
The newspaper besmirched the director's good
name. ;>ll.nJIIJo f'Lt.b-1-<1-"J ODAIJII" 1111"

besought, see beseech

bespeak t.ltf
His good manners bespeak a good upbringing.
oPAIJII" mill' '1''1-"l l'."J-'111
..,. YltYA

best (n.) II"C'I'

We want only the best. II"C'I' ftJ'~..,.., of!
i1' ' l'."Jd.A:>II"J
best (adj.)
I. II"C'I'. The boys acknowledged him to be
the best football player. b-t-""'1''11 flolt-
II"C'I' -1-i'l''f ,., ..... ODI}')."J AJ('f 0
m4!11'l2. f:J>C-11. He betrayed his best friend. f:J>C-11
3. fOI\m. This is the best beer I have ever
tasted. b+oollb-'1- Ito!- flolt- ,l'.tJ fO
Am )CDo

4. bflolt- f-1-lf II. The best student was appointed monitor of his class. bflolt- f-1-lf 1\IIJo -t"'16 fh'i'A All? tJ''l' -1-0D<:m
best (adv.)
I. f.OA'J' l fOI\m. I work best in the morning.
,I'.OA'J' fll"wo!-IIJo IJI-'1- ~IIJo
I can illustrate this best by an example.
,l'.tJ"J 011"1111. fOIIm 11-II~IIJo l'.'f-111\flo
2. bflolt- t.of!Atn. I like this book best.
f.tJ"J ""~~"""'~' bflolt- A-liA"" l'.mY.'I'I\flo
3. bo-11-11" f.OA'I' t.ltii"C'. Who reads best?
hflolt-11" Y.OA'I' t.ltii"C' f"'U'~-11 "'I~IIJo l

4. 0"111". I like it best this way. 0"1!1" f!l"tD
S'.IJJ< li'J.II,U (LII"t ~IJJ<
best of


I have had the best of teachers. !I"C'I' hh.,...,

611'l- )0-1-o'S
(the) best part of an hour J\"}.(- r {1'\T YtJA

Driving to work takes the best part of an hour.





floP h.'I




YUA ,l'.m!IJIA
at best '"14. r fl.A
The book, at best, will sell 1,000 copies.
"!of. tl.f>. lt't.l:" lf.U OOll"m~ 011,1'.
h.!'. if'I'?"
for the best
*Let's hope for the best. f.,.lf II ,l'.oo"Jf>. 11
ll't .,_!Iof. M'.I:"C"'
*Don't cry; it is all for the best. h:f'A~Il 1 oo
""l:lftJJ< Y!l"&-t>.
get the best of someone
I. h:f-1111. We have to be careful that he does
not get the best of us. l\'t'IY:f'AII't oom
'tof>~ hll11't
2. Ohchc <::f-. I gotthe best of my teachers.
hh.,...,&9''li't ohchc ll<::f' ~oc
had best

you had best phone your father to tell him

where you are going. fol ll'tS'.!I"T~.I:" II'IT
u -o+F.m-A ooAI'J.r i'aJo
make the best of something fi"!J!i\fDo") Y
ut>. .,.mof>ooo:,.
We do not like our new house, but we will
have to make the best of it. h.ll.""'t ll.:f'l-'t
't h'ttS'.tJJ<!I" i fll') ll''l" f.,_!l'll't't YU
A ll'tmof>!I"O;I'II't
one's best f.,.;FI\liJo ! O..,.;.r:l\m-

I DPffi1'

I'll try to do my best. f.,.!l'II'S't 11"'1.1:"<:"1

ll'l"ht:-11110n my honor, I will do my best to behave.
0.,_!1'11'1 ""m't m'ltL't ll"''ft""C :J'f>.
l\1'11111to the best of
Answer to the best of your knowledge. f!l":f'
IJJ<of>tJJ<'t YUf>. OOf>.!l
[See also 'bet, do, far, knowledge, level, next,
none, second, seller, suit, very']

best man "'1.11.

After the woman quarreled with her husband
and went off, the best man brought her back.
<l.TI'"'I' h'l!l. :>C .,_"'A:f' ~'I "'1.11.

I. iflloo. The Emperor bestowed a medal on
him. )i''tll'.l'. "'1.'1.1'. if11-:,.
2. l'lm. The rich man bestowed thousands
of dollars on libraries. '1111\;>IJJ< 11,. if. 11
C 1111..,. oPl\lh~:,. {lm

bet (v.)
I. .,.m&-<:S'.. I bet five dollars on the black
horse. '1'41-1- .1.<:11 O"'t>.ti.Y Yif'tof.A
11\L 'III"IIT 11C l\m&-<:JIIIu2. l\C"'m"' )IJJ<. I will bet she is never going
to pay him. ll'tS'."''Th~lltJJ< l\C"'m"' )'S

bet (n.) tJJ<CC.I:"

When are you going to pay up that bet?
Y't't tJJ<CC.I:" f!I"Th~IIIJJ< ""'"' )IJJ< l
make a bet +m~~,g

Let's make a bet about who will finish first!

"'''t 4>.1:"'1" ll'tS'."''.""Cil l\'tm&-<:.1:"
your best bet f"''.Y'I'"'tl
Your best bet is to try for a scholarship here.
f"''.Y'I'"'U ' liH.U )I\ T!I"UCT ll"''"''f..,.
OO'f"hC )IJJ<

I. h'l. He betrayed his best friend. f~C11
2. hmof.. She has betrayed my confidence.
O!l. 11.1'. f)O<:'S't l\!I")T hmof.lotJJ<
3. ( = pass.) :f'tof>(OT). The boy's face betrayed
the fact that he had been eating chocolate. 'I'
1>11:,. .1'.011 ll'tS'.)Ol ht>.)l: d.T :f'm+


4. 1111\(0T). His mistakes betrayed his lack

of education. f .1.1\"'''l'tJJ< ll.h.,..folo l'olloo
"'1-1-'t 11111-0T
5. h;>llm(OT). His foreign accent betrayed
him. ftJJ<"f!' Me l'ltJJ< ooll').'t M:>1~

bestial fl'otJJ<&.)T
The fighting was carried out with bestial
cruelty. iD"'.J'tJJ< f.,.S'.l:11JJ< fhtJJ<&.~T "f!'
It~ o.,.,..11o:,. .,.~,. ) oc

I. h'IT. She reproached him for his betrayal

in bitter words. !Ill hJI., h!I"C&- .,..;-,;:lotJJ<
2. "'''I'S'.f>.. A broken promise is a betrayal of
trust. :J'A't "''m~ l\!I")T't "'''N!.A )IJJ<



betroth Me..,
The father betrothed his daughter to his
friend's son. All'l-\lofDo 1 4.'1- 1 A)I:'J 1 ll'i~'O'

"'" I


'I" I f'J"'.I': I P'&. ' 11..1"1"'1U I (11..1';1-AAU) '
3. -l'm<i'oo. I got the better of him in the
swap. OAfDofDom- 1 '-~ 1 -l'm<i'!l"h-

be betrothed

had better

I. "'""'""' Mary and John are now betrothed.

*You had better return before dark or you

will get lost. ll.l'o..,A'I" 1 11'1-ooll(l .l'olfiiA l





2. ,...,, His daughter was betrothed to a doctor.

I!.'I- I A )I: I lido 11.1"' I ,...,..,.

betrothal "7"'-'1His betrothal was announced in the newspaper.

.,..,., I



They did it better after a little practice. h'l'-1:

AI"''/".I': 0:\11


I\.I':C1fDo I


*You ought to know better than to play with

matches. Oh11&'1- oo<i'lll: 1 '1"1- 1 1\IIODIY

.,.,:,. I


better than h- -- r.,.ifit

He is a better man than his brother. hm"t Y:,..

f-l'lf II

... . , . '


be any better -l'lfll(fDo)

Is your father any better? AII'I-U 1 -l'lfll'l'tJJo l



be better off -l'lfll(fDo)

Because of his asthma, he would be better off

in a different climate. llhl1"7tJJo 1 AfC 1 ll

f-l'lfll )0C






be better off if 11


*The sooner the better. .P.II- lliY'J 1 .l'olfiiA

+1' Ot\f.








[See also 'all, think']

better (v.) Alflfll
The government is trying to better the farmers
conditions. oo")..,P"-1: f'lfl~,~") r u-J:.:f"


11,1'. ' )IJJ-

betterment oulflfA
He labored for the betterment of mankind.
illl (lfDo 1 A"f": 1 oolflfA 1 1111' 1 ~h?.A

be better -l'lfll(fDo)

The sick child is better today. .hooi"'-I''O'tJJo 1



It takes the better part of the day to get there.

better (adv.) f-l'lfll1 1\.I':Co)

"' I

011..1' ' hChC

the better

the better part of the day h"'ID11i


He had the better of me in that argument.

*The better I know him, the more I like him.

better (adj.) f-l'lfll

Don't you have a better room? f-l'lfll 1 h'i'

1\IIHJ 1 '1-mof.IIU

have the better of one h--- +ifit


+ imperfect + .l'olfiiA

This house is too small; we will be better off

if we move. ,I'.U 1 0.'1- 1 0"11"' 'I-'J'Ii 1 )fDo 1
0.'1- 11'J<i',I'.C .l'olfiiA
change for the better -t-?f'ifA

His work has changed for the better. P'M

between 0 - - - ooiJtJA
The car was caught between two trees. ou!J.'i"


feel better -l'lfll(fDo)

Do you feel better? -1'1111-VA l

get the better of someone
I. 1\lf).C.. Fright got the better of him.
'i'CV'I- I Alf).C.fDo
2. A'l"'f ! 1\;1-1111. He will try to get the better

of you in every business deal you have with

him. bC(l. 1 ;>C 1 09";1-~1"'" 1 0"7'J'O'fDo


ODIJhA ' .,..,..,.,..,..,.

between teacher and pupil is friendly. llil-1'"7
&'i" 0-1'"7& '


ODIJhA ftJJ'I"f":)'l-



We will meet between six and seven. OOP'

lJ-11'1-'i" I 1\')f: I (1'1'1- I ooiJtJA I '-'J1
2. fl - - - li n -. Between teaching and writing,
my time is completely taken up. 'l.n\lo 1 0,...
flo I 0"7iJ.-1'"7C'i" I 001\'do'i: I 0001\'i: I J'A
3. h - - - '-ilh. He earned between ten and
fifteen dollars. bOP'C 1 Ailh 1 OP'&. 1 All"il'l- 1
11C I J'1'11 )OC
4. ID,I'.'I". It is between five and six miles to
Betltlehem from here. hH.U 1 Ailh 0.-1' Am.
'/" I Al"'iJ.'I- I IJJ,I'.'/" I iJ.f:iJ.'I- I "7.('.A I )fDo
&, '


between ... and

I. 0 - - - 'i" 1 0 - - - ooiJhA. The

~eve rage


*This plane flies between Addis Ababa and

Dire Dawa. 1-11 hw-C'T~1 bl>-'1.11 hn
II ~1:. -'1'1' Y,IMA

you and me

*This is just between you and me. ~tJ no-ll

;r:Y.1 oPIJbA y.:,.c
*Between you and me, it is his own fault.
O~<; 111-fo y.:,.c<; Tof.-1: f&-11- )wbetween us {you, them) q")J!"'Ft ! lt;J&.

They caught twelve fish between them. 111 ~)

:,. ' 01"&- ' v-11'1- ' 'l"' ' J'flo
They have only one dollar between them.
11:>&- h1~ -oc -nil' h~'fwWe shall finish the job between us. 1"&-w-1
11:>&- h1..,CII'1'111
in between ).. - - - aJoil'l'

He found a letter in between the pages of his

book. ;r..ouK-.Jti- W<IIT h1~ S'.-fl-'10.

beverage oom-r
Beverages are sold in this store. "-tltJ

c tD-il1'




bewail hll.,.fl
He bewailed the loss of his son in battle.
A)l: ' OtnCH ' ~,. ' OOD'f"i> ' h/1.,. ...
Beware of dogs! bw-ll.f ofom1.,.:,. I
bewilder "1&- h:>ll
The unfamiliar streets of the city bewildered
me. f.,~w-.+'fw- fbi'., ""111'-:Y. "1&-


stated price. hofow(l)w- 'I':> 0~1- 9"1

" hAb'i'Ar'
She is living beyond her means. f"'1-'l" ~w- IJ
:,.".7.' O~Jl.' )ID"
God is beyond the bounds of human knowl
edge. 1-."IH.l> bfl-flM! bw-.,.'1- K-1'1'
O~Y, ' )w4. hAG:. The road forks beyond the village.
OD11JI. OD1 S'.~1 o hAG: ' Y,hd.~A
*Your work is beyond praise. ltJP&.tl rit.
;><;" ' fi...I'1(1W< ' )ID"
*He is beyond help. 9"19" 1-.C-'1;.1- /Ul.~"l
11'1- l>Y.ii'Ar'
beyond (adv.) W-'l.J' .,,..
Beyond were the hills. :>&ol"'li W-'l.J' .,
p..' )0~
be beyond one 11.1111D" l>Ail'llr'
It's beyond me how he manages to keep
from being fired. bl"&o 1-.1-'-'I- h1S'..,Y.
11.111'1 hAiJ'IIr'
[See also 'description, dispute, doubt, measure,
number, question']


bias h~Al"
His judgements are always without bias.
fll- -'1'1)'1- 1JoA'1.11 J'll h~Al" )w(be) biased 1\S'.~
A mother is often biased where her children
are concerned. 1-.<;'l- 1JoA'1.11 IIA}I:lf! ;.1S'.~II:Y.

Bible ""K'.h'i' :,.JI.II

The Bible was originally written in Hebrew.
ODK'.h'i' o :,.)1.11 o fiOD)';OD6J' o fofol\LID" ' 0
b-fl&-Jl.iiT ' )ID"

I. ouojo'fo hS'-~10'1-. The old woman bewitched
the cows so they gave no milk. ltl:"L:t IVl";ri
Wofo'I- 1-.1-'IY.flm- ouojo'fo hS'.~1:Y.II'fW<
2. hd.HH. They used magic to bewitch their
enemies. m~.Y.if''fw-1 Ohfi.,'I- J'<Lflo
3. Mll'/111. Her beauty bewitched the audience . .,.1~<;"'1' ofoouAIJ'1l1 Mll'llll

bibliography [l\1~1 hehll'l- f"'l.oullb

1: ""K'.hG::f WY,r' K'd>G::f ' 11C11C]

beyond (prep.)
I. b lllf1C. The house is right beyond the
hospital. 0.-1> Ah bll'll1:;.1'11- lllf1C )w2. b 011-fo.,.C. He has no income beyond
his pension. bm-~;.1- hOA 011-fo.,.C 10.
3. b O~Y,. I will pay nothing beyond the

bicycle (v.) OO.fl.h/1.'1- i-1lf&olf~

We went bicycling last Sunday. 11/ld.ID" hdo.
~ no.fl.h/1.'1- nlf&olfC1

biceps fh1~ m-1il'

His biceps show he is very strong. fh1JI. m1il' ' m11J&o)i>1 o J'OD{Ih;.I'A
bicycle (n.) O.fl.h/1.'1- 1 O.llb./1.'1My bicycle needs fixing. O.fl.h/1.1: T1<;" J'

bid (bade, or bid)

1. m&o. The king bade the nobles to a feast.
1'1-P" ' OD!>,11-1>1 ' "1-flC ' m~W"





I bid ten dollars for the bicycle.


hl\.i>'J OOP'C 11C ~t:'l-h3. t.HH. The captain bade us halt. lf?"
011- ),.'J.<:-'J4'?" t.HH'J
bid fair OD{It\

The winter bids fair to be a cold one. ht:?"i>

f"''.OC.I:' 1-0D{IIIA
bid farewell +ll'iR..,.

He bade his friends farewell. 'U'.'l''fi'J -t-11<;


bid (n.) f""'t:;.f-


Companies are invited to submit bids for

building an annex to Africa Hall. 1\t.'i:<:IJ to
'1&-11' -1-......,6' ih'Jll' 1\0DP'&-'1-h-<l'JJ'l"'l'
f..._t:;.f- 'I':>'l'w-'J ),.'J-'IJ'.,.CII- -!-mY..,.'!'I\

one's time t-:>"1"'1. 1,11. mO.,.

;.1-"IV' ' 4'f
He bided his time until his rival was absent.
-t-m'I'I61D- f"'L.,.CO'I-'J t-:>"1"'1. 1.11.

bide, -

He bided his time until the minister went

abroad. "'Ltll'l-'1- mS'. tD-11" t.~c ).lib.

[See also 'great, hand, selection, shot, splash,


bigamy [11-11'1- "'1.11-1''1' Ot.'J.I:' 1.11. ..,.,

<I 'I-]

bigot [f&-11- .1'1\lf) "'I'J.,.'I'w-'JII" 'tY.)'J-

ohll11 ' f"'IY..,.OI\]



Sweden and Ethiopia signed a bilateral agreement 11'1!.1:-'J<; h..'l-f''k.l' f:>&- w-1\ -1-1.

bile t-1"'1He mixed pepper with bile.



'1- Amnw-

(be) bilingual u-11+

lt'J!I/ .,...,.~.:

Many Ethiopians are bilingual. 1111" t..'lf'

' tJoll+ !1/'Jl\' 1 .r.~<~-11bill (v.) oh.ll11 llh

Please bill me without delay.



'J ' 1\hi\'S

't.l:' ' .1:-t:ll ' ;.1-"IV' ' 4'f

biennial OftJolli> 'tou'J- f"''.S'.t:"l

The biennial meeting of our society was held
in Washington. Ofu-11-1 'tOD'J- f"'LS'.t:~w-
f"'l'tO&-'f'J 111111<1 O'l'1i'J"l-t-'J -1-S'.t:~

bier C11&-11
The coffin was placed on a bier in front of the
church. t.llh~). h0.-1- hCII-1;.1'). .1.'1-
11.1.'1- OC11&-11 11.1- hCt:: )0C

bifurcate -1-ll.l'f
The road bifurcates at Dire Dawa. oP'J1'1-
.<:-~ ' '1'1' ' "'" ' 1-11.1'.1'1\

I. 'I-A~ ('l-1\1\~, with plural). They live in a
big house. 'l-1\~ 0.'1- <D-11'1' 1-'l'&-11Her children are big now. 1\}':;1! t.tJo'J 'II\A4''1' lf)'l'l\

2. ;.f-11~. The day he entered college was a

big day in his life. 1>1\.~ f~<IO'I- .,.'J Oih

bill (n.)
1. oh.411. The garage bill was high. f :>&-1f
oh.411 h'i' .I'll )OC
2. f oh./)11 S'.lii'S. I handed her a sheaf of bills.
h'J.I:' h?"C ' foh./)11 I S'.lii'S ' hlllhofl\\:t3. f oh.411 outJI..I'. His bill became delinquent.
f oh./)1!- o ODtJI..I' 0 1,JI.ID- o -1-1\1\~

4. 11Cl~'JH11. Thegovemmenthasputnewbills
into circulation. OD'J"/P''I- t-.11.11 11c (n
Hofl) hiD-'!';1:1\

Give me a ten dollar bill! h."J.t: qA OFC

11c lim'S
5. fih"l l<l:~. Tbe senator submitted a bill

authorizing the construction of a new business

school. fih"l ODaJ(I"' ll"hc O.i> t.<tl\
to'J.<:- t-.11.11 n"l.<:- '1-ruc'l- o.+ ),.'J
.ll.w&- f"'/.1\<D-'J fih"l l<l:~ h.,.lO
6. "'111;.1-m<J:.I'. Post no bills! "'111;.1-m<J:.I'IP~


7. M:. The bird has a large bill. mj, :t-1\~

Y.mi> ;.1-11.~ bl\'1- )OC

t.'i' t-Il-l-

3. f;.f-m.,.. Her father is a big lawyer. t.<t;t

foot the bill ID"'-ID"'J hl.l\

f;.f-m<l< mO:I' <;'!'was big as f"'L..'UI\

Who is going to foot the bill for all this? 1\li.U

The hungry boy ate a slab of cheese as big as

his hand. f &-Ow- 1\~ ),."lf.'J f"'L..'UI\ <I<

small bills 11C11C s oflC

&-'? t::C"'I]I: Oil



ID""-ID-'J ' f"'/.h'i!l\ ' "'I)ID- l

Give me some small bills, please. 11C"HC 11


billboard fi"l~ "7(1;rtD4!.1' 1\11.'1
The billboard advertised radios. fi"l~ "7il
;J-ID4!.ftJJo 1\11.'1 il..f. f.:O.Il.l'" "7ii;J-ID4!.f
billion 'It "'1..1\.M
bill of fare fll""'il 11C'IIC
The bill of fare lists only Ethiopian food.
f9""1ii11C'IIC f"''...fODIIb.,.tJJo' fh.'l-f"k.f1 '
ll""'il '""' ttJJo

binding (adj.) X"lA binding contract cannot be abrogated by

only one signatory. X"l- tJJool\ ll't~ .1-&"'1.. il!l' h.f..I-Cil9"
be binding .,.hOG
This agreement is binding on both contracting
parties. .f.ll tJJool\ Oo-11-1>9" .,.'l''l'.f. "'~
<;>';(- .f.hO&-A
binoculars Jo.:jo&-IL OD)X"C

You cannot see through the binoculars unless

bimonthly (adj.) Ofv-11'1- "'~ f"''..:J-.,.9"

A bimonthly magazine comes out six times

a year. Ofv-11'1- "'~ f"''..:J-.,.9" ,.,......_,._
<IOD'I- il~il'l- '1..11. .f.ID"'/A
bimonthly (adv.) OIDC v-1\i:

The magazine appears bimonthly. oo&-m.-1:


OIDC 11-llof: .f.ID"'ol\

bind (bound)
1. hi\G. She bound her hair with a ribbon.
K-..;::'t O&O't hi\G';f
2. 1\il.,.ili\G. Deep friendship binds these
two peoples. '1'11\:j. ID-'1~)'1- MH.II't v11-l>'t ID~'l'';f ' .fil.,.ilil&-11\
3. IIIDI\ (.,.IIIDI\). Stones bound together with
asphalt make good roads. Ohilof.ol\'1- f.,.ll
CJJ{l I I'll.+ I 1\00')1~ I JP~ I If'~ I ~iD"
4. IDS/.G. He bound the cow's legs for milking.
,.,.,.. 11"711il f'I":L't 7."/C IDS/.G
5. ( = intr.) ll'i'. The contract binds him for
twelve years. tJJoll- II OFII- v-11'1- -tou
,.. .f.ll'i'ol\
6. l\41&-'f. What binds you to your job?
liP' &-II :>C .1'<1<&-'fll M ~)tJJo l
7. mGH. The bookbinder bound the magazines. m~V oo&-th.-fJii") m~H
be bound ~S/.1'.
The witness is bound by oath to tell the truth.
9"ilh~ 7.tJJotof>'t 7.'t.C:.'i'~C 0"""'" .f.~S/.-'111\
[See also 'honor')
binder m&-'fr
The newspapers are at the binder's. ;>H.IP'Il
m&--u> H't~ 'i':ftJJo

you adjust them. >,.>thol\btJJo Jo.:jo&-IL

OD)~ tJJoil'l' 11"7f'l- Jo.'l-';fA9"
biography fih.f.ID'I- ;t-&h
This book contains the biography of Abraham
Lincoln . .f.ll ODX".h'i! fhiiCV9" ll.'tl>A
't f ih.f.ID'I- ;J-&h .f.!!. /A
bird ID'i!
There are many birds in this garden. OH.II
h'l-hA'I- tJJoil'l' illl- ID&:';f l\11[See also 'baby']

1. """'II~. They announced the birth of their

child. f/AJI''f'tJJo') ' ODIDII~ ' Jo.fl;J-ID4<
2. '1-tJJo~. What is your place of birth?
f'l-tJJoA~ h~CII f'l- )tJJo l
Are you American by birth? 0'1-tJJoA~ h
"'tG>t'l! )Ill
3. ououp>G'I-. The birth of the new nation was
greeted with acclaim. .I'.C:.fl-'t MC ouoo
FG'I- Oll';J- .,.+011-'lllve birth to tDI\F..
She gave birth to a boy. ID't~ II\~ IDIIS/.l[See also 'humble, low, mean')
When is
'll )tJJo
[See also

fM'I- +'t
your birthday? fM'I- +'til ou

bindery foumG'lf h<i!ol\

The newspapers are still in the bindery.
:>H.IP'Il ho-'t9" 7.oumG'lftJJo b'i!A .f.~'>lll-

birthday party fM'I- O't/A ~il

His birthday party was attended by many
people. OM'I- O'tll- ~il 'l.f. illl-
1\!P';f fll'

binding (n.) '1'11-11

The book has lost its binding. fODX" .114- '1'1111. ~'t~ol\

birthmark, have a ~ "7C.I'9" l)ou';ftJJo

He has a birthmark on his arm. h't'l- il..f.
"7C.I'9" il'"l'l'll';f

~~==~--------------~-------------------birthplace f-1-<11.1'.0'1- ll'i'&Write down your birthplace in the application !
0"7ooAh!f'tJJo ilf. f-1-IDII ....hO'l-"t ll'i'&-

*Philadelphia is the birthplace of the Constitution of the United States. 4-ii.Jl.A.C.Y f\W
,.,...... 111:'1-ll a.1 ""'"~~"'~- oo;(oo&
y f-1-ltd.'l'l- h-1-"7 .,,..
birth rate M<ll-'1-'l- 41'1'C
The birth rate increases while the death rate
decreases. f"'L<II-'1-_, 41'1'C II..:U.II"C f
"'1.'1"_,_, ~M WMIA
biscuit oflllh-'1This biscuit is too hard for me to eat. l\"t-'IAOII.
tJJo f.U oflllh-'1- 0"111" .I'.Gol> )ID"
bishop AAll
bit (v.), see bite
bit (n.) A'lofl
This bridle does not have a bit.
of) flltJJoll"



bit, a - 'l-"t11
She is feeling a bittired. '1-"t 11 .l'.hll" of! !~.;f-A
bit by bit +"t11 o+"t11
We learned the story bit by bit. )1~"t 'l-"t11
O'l-"t11 11"7)tJJo
bits of htU'II" hH.UII" I 'I':1'-l>"t
He is out picking up bits of information.
hliJ'II" hii.UII" ID&, 1\oPII:I'-l>ll" ID'I';l:A
They pieced together bits of information to
discover the cause of the explosion. fd."t7(tJJo
"t ll"h"t Y+ 11"7"11+ f-1-11''1-"t 'I':1'-l>"t
"7llG7fiP":fo l>m.,of>~
a bit more 'l-"t11
Can't you wait a bit more? 'l-"t11 A~f.
1>'1-":f-AII" l
a bit of 41&-11
There is not a bit of bread in the house.
l\11.'1- ID"ll'J' 41&-11 l\"t:(.tl-11" fll
a bit too..... 'l-"t11 I '1'4:'1The tea is a bit too strong. '1'1' 'l-"t11 <d.
C ofi!I.A
The bread is a bit too old to eat. 1\oPofiA -'1
""'" '1'4:'1- .,.f+ S'll )ID"
not a bit 'l-"t1111" + negative verb
He was not a bit angry. 'l-"t1111" l>A"'"".I'..I'.

not a bit of r'lr"' + negative verb

That does not make a bit of difference. f.U
ll""tll" Af.)'l- l>J'oP"'II"
not one bit 0~~"li + negative verb
Are you tired? Not one bit. .l'.h'I"?A l O"P&o11
quite a bit 0"19"
The uncertainty of my position worries me
quite a bit. f P' &-- )1C f"7 Yll-1""711""t
ooll'). 0"19" y.-,110 ...A
[See also 'blow, dash, every, old, smash']
bitch 11.'1- "'"'~'
bite (bit, bitten), vt.
I. )hll. Our dog will bite any thief who
enters our house. ..,.~ n.:t-":fo"t ID"ll'l'
f"'L11JID""t 1\.IJ Mh.-,A
The mosquitos bit me all last night. f<IJ '1-"t
'{ 1\.ll._,"t ODofl- ll.)hll'1 l>.I'.G
2. l>:l'mll 1 d.;(. Pepper bites the tongue.
oco&. ll"il.ll y :l''l'ii.A (f."-'TfA)
3. 1oom. She bit the apple. """-"'"' .1oom


4. Oil. The small boyJjbites his fingernails.

'1-"tif- A"J!: f"''l- 'M'C''Il"t f-OliA
5. 1Gd.. The cold wind bit our faces. ofiC-'1.,..
)'i-ll .t.;J-":fo"t"t 1Gd.ID"
bite (vi.) "'""hll (in the imperfect)
Does your dog bite? tJJo'I'U ,_.,h..,A!
bite Into 100m

He bit into the apple. """-"'"' 1""m"'"

bite off
I. 1oom. He bit off a piece of bread. 41&-11
-'lift I 10Dffl

2. -t.:m. The leopard bit off his arm. )ofiC

l\)l:"t -a..:mtJJo
[See also 'lip']
bite (n.)
1. "th'f. The dog bite became infected.
ftJJo'I'ID" "th'f oPC"If II')
2. "1-C'f. Carefully chew each bite! l\J'"t-'l"t
-'1-"t "1-C'I' .1'.~ .. l>....C1U J;'{h
a bite Mil" ll""lofl
We haven't a bite left. ll""tll" ll"""ofl l>A-1Gd."tll"
have a bite

~UA 1


Have a bite with me ! h~ ;JC l\UA ol>ODll

biting (adj.)
I. f"'L;JG'i'. He went outside into the cold,



biting wind.


11CJ!ay Hil


2. l\'1'"1'1- f'UII. He made a biting remark.

l\'1'"1'1- f"'l.~ll ~1C T'i'U.



Bitter grass is sometimes used as

medicine. ODt-t- I ..,C I 1\"J.-;")f... I {lOD..(:'-1~..,. I

2. fOOl:l:. He surrendered himself to bitter
grief. Oool:l: .hU"I T'l'm
3. f"''...'"lU."''i'. He has had some bitter
experiences. O).(!'tD- l\"1'1"1.1:: f"'/J"I1L"'
4- ~1C':f. l\;J'J'oPtD-;1-A
4. Ml:l'-1:. They suffered bitter hardships
during the war. OI"CH 1.11. l\1'1:1'4:
ooh"- !f.l:(lq:ftD5. hf.. They exchanged bitter words. hf. :1'
A T~:>1<r

*She reproached him for his betrayal in bitter

words. ill\ h-'1-1> l\II"C"- T'i'1l::f.tD*They are bitter enemies. l.ll'l-'i' 'fl'J:: 'i':ftDbltter (adv.)
1. hf.l;'. It was bitter cold. hf.l;' f.OCJ:: ~oc
2. ( = adj.) f"'l.lf~.,...'l'. The night was bitter
cold. 1\.11..1: f"7..1f~.,...'l' 11CJ:: ~Ol:tDbe bitter about ..,.ODl:l:

He was very bitter about losing the job.

""'"~"" ' 0"19" ' .,.,.,l:l:
taste bitter ODl:l:
This medicine tastes bitter. OOJ::"1\'I-
to the bitter end Alah ODQ;t~ ifwThey fought to the bitter end. l.ilb ooou.l:lf

P'"-"""' '

tJ)a I


black (v.), ~ out "-(1."1 liT

A person who is on a high mountain will
black out if he works hard. h'i'Tl;' .,."-"-
'If. ' f"'l.1'S ' (ltD- ' P'"- ' 0.10~ ' "' ...."' '
f. II?" A
black (n.) 'J'<i<C

The blacks in the United States are struggling

for a better life. fl\"'1.611 'l'<i<I!':Y. fTlfll 'i-

1!' , 7."1-'l.'l'"-:f"" ooo;J-1A 'If. 'i':ftDblack (adj.)

1. 'l'<i<C. His hair is black. m1+ 'l'<i<C ~""
2. fm.,.l:. The black clouds forebode a
StOrm. fmtll,t:,fD- I J!..OD'J I ~,e..l\;;: I 1ffjfD I
009""1-1>"1 .fOOI\b;}-A
be black At.AoP
The room was black at night. 1\.11.'1- h'i'll


turn black mtfl.t:.

The bread turned black with age. 'liltD- b

1.11. 11~'1- m"'l:

[See also magic, mark']

blackboard 'l'<i<C {11\.JI

Write it on the blackboard! 'J'<kor {11\.J!

'If. liLtDblacken (vt.)

I. l\m~. Soot blackens kettles. 'l''llf '1- ;e

O'i'"l fm.,..."-A
2. l\1-f.L. This article blackened the director's reputation. K'dt-'i' f'l.t.hT<r"l
11'i' l\1-U
blacken (vi.) m.,.l:
The sky blackened. (lay\!- m-t;l:


(be) blacklisted O:J-"1'1- 0011111 .,..,..010

bitterly .,..,1!' I l\II"CC'

He complained to me bitterly. T"YC' ~1l:'S

He cried bitterly. l\II"CC' l\114'1'1
His hateful remarks reveal his bitterness
loward his teacher. 'l''lil' fTOOI\0'1- hilTf
f-1> q(l.,..,&OJ< ""ool:<r"l fltfA

This paper is a biweekly. f.ll :>11."1 Ollll"

*He used pictures to blackmail his boss.

.fi\:J'tD-") ' OO'J'G: ' G:.,..,"-'1' ' 1\(ltD- 0 l\lt
filii- ' WI\ ' ""'ilL"-"-"' ' 1"1H11 ' .,..,.011
blackout fhT"Y oo<U.I\9"
The blackout lasted until the enemy airplanes
left. fhT"YtD- oo.,..l\9" fml\'1- l\tD-C'T'I
l.ilh.~-'1- ' J::l:il ' ol'f

-r:r- '

"1'1- 11-11-1: f.tD"'A

bizarre "1"- fll'~

hiiTltilfl- O:J-"1'1- 0011111 TOOH10

blackmail (v.)

bitterness """"l:C

His behavior is bizarre. "1"-

This actor was blacklisted because of his

political ideas. T'l''i'f. ill\ ?'11-1:11

blacksmith 4''1':l''fl'


The blacksmith works with metal. 4"1':l''fl'

11l:?" 11G'I- f.u>"-A

bladder .:.>i'

Rattles are made of dried pig bladders and

peas. f"'l. '1-.:U.IIQ;l.A "'"'"I.OJ!I' hJ'.l+ f"'l .L>i'<; r hQ<tll f.rP<'--A

I. 1111'1-. I need a knife with two blades.
Qll 11-11'1- 1111'1- llll'l' "ALA;JIIIJ2. 11"11"1'". These blades do not fit my razor.
MH.II r ll"ll""":f IIOO'Ifiil'- r t.f.IT'>-11"
3. '1-mA. The wind waved the blades of
grass. Hll f"l-1-1- '1-mA hOJo/IOIIOIIJo
[See also 'razor1

blame (v.)
1. m+ft ! ~+ 4.. Under those circumstances, I
could hardly blame her. 011.11 o-~;1- 11"1-11"
Am'l-11'1- (M'I'ol-'1-) t.A:fAII"
2. t.ootff. Bad workmen often blame their
tools for their mistakes. ODTG: .,..&-,"':'l-
1Jif"OJo't r "!." r j),"h.,.;J-'fdJo't I fiOO"f<lf'fdJo I f
ool)>i'll3. llhh. He tried to save face by blaming the
accident on me. hS!;JQV} fU. 1\.e. Oool\
hh .,.. ....,. 1\J'OJ"' 'l"hl:
*He blamed us for the accident. 1\f.;Jm- s oo~
l:il '1"4.,..,. t.f.l:11-

blame (n.) m+it

The letter was full of blame. 1.11-'!0.dJo m+
it fO~O'l- )ftC
put the blame on m+(l:
Don't put the blame on me! "1.~1- t.'l-..,.+ll"i
share the blame +m::t-i\'lc r;:fmWe must all share the blame for this deplorable
condition. 1111.11 t.ilh.L o-~;J- o-ll"'f-1-11" .,.
m,':f n
take the blame +m+(l

He took the blame for their mistake.

ol-'1- "1.(1- .,.m+il



0)(1- 'I"

blameless "1.1-h't fi\.110'1The teacher praised him for his blameless con
duct. mQI' "1.1-h't 11111\.110'1- ""11"11-1- h

I. "'""'" f 1\.IIOJo. I do not like bland food.
'1-ooll" fl\.lldJo r ,-.,-o t.AmY:II"
2. liMit. His bland manner won him many
friends. liMit mQI' 1111" 'lf."'':f hL<'-11'1-

3. L~~- He is a bland young man who does

not seem interested in anything. ,..,.,. )1C
f"'l.l',_..,. r L~~ A'J!: )dJo

blandish MOll
They blandished the guard into letting them
through the gate. 0-1-1- "1.1-JI,J'itAof.'f..,. H
O>i'OJo't t.QOII-'1-

blank (n.)
I. I::CII". Would you help me to fill out this
blank? )!.111-1- r !::C9" ,.,..,11'1- r '1-l:-'!>i'llll I
2. qp.. P;J-. Fill in all the blanks. qp....,.-,.
{l;f'- I lJo(to I tiP-1\
3. fiJJolf'l- 'I"J!.'l-. The bullets that he fired
were blanks. f.,.h-it'fdJo f1JJolf'l- TU:f
)0-1*My mind is a complete blank. ,..,.,. )1C
blank (adj.) qp..
The envelope contained only a blank sheet of
paper. 11.1-li.l'l-1> qp.. ml:+'l- 11!1' Y.!I.A
*There was a blank look on his face. h.L-tr 9"
1-11" IIODl:-'1'1- t.Y.!I'A9" )OC

I. 11CY: A-nil. Take another blanket, and you
won't be cold. 1\.11 11CY: A11il 1J'J-Q;l,
2. h9"C. A blanket of snow covered the
ground. fOl:P.. hii"C oo.:.-tr't lfL)IJJo

blare (v.)
I. """h 1111- )1l:. He blared his instrnctions
at the workers. oo9"&.1'0Jo't llrP<'--.,."'''Ii """
h 1111- )1<'--'ftiJo
2. t.II"Ql:4>. The trumpet blared announcing
oPII""''l- 11"'1
the king's arrival.
11/IC ' '1"-1-II"QIJJo ' I\9"Ql:+


blare (n.) =1i'lThe blare of the radio made conversation

impossible. ft.Jtf"m- a;b"fi:r- 1\0DQ;l.Cf'tD.'t-
Mill!'II II"

blaspheme 119" t.?-f.L! 119" Oh1-1r M"l

The drunken man blasphemed God. fllhl:IJJo
/ldJo\<o f"A"'Il.h11.h.C1- 119" . t.?-f.L (Oh
1--tr ' M"l)

blasphemy f"A"IH.t.11m.C1- 119" Oh1-1r ..,,.

Blasphemy is prohibited in some religions.
f"A"IIl.h-ll.h.C't 1111" r Oh1-1r "'11-"1'1-
Q't-'11-Y: ' 'IJ!."'I'f.f:f f.,.hllhll )liJo



blast (vt.)
1. .1.")1( 1 0.,4."t-'1'1- hm"l. They blasted a
tunnel through the mountain. 4.").1( 1 0.,4.")
.11'1- 1 R-1-&-&-m- 1 m-Il'!' 1 oo-t-'11\.C..I' 1 hmm2. R~f.A 1 H . He blasted his horn irritably at
every car in his way. 011ll"'"T oo")'lJS. 1\
f. I q_:Jffi ....T I Ollh.'Ol":f I ljf. I rJ.{Io 0
foPh.'OtJJo") ' 'N-9"q I R~f.A I )of.
3. h""'014.(R'I-). Failure in the exam blasted
his hopes for college. 04.1-'0 1 .,....,.,..,. 1 ltll.)!'
l\0011q'l- I f)O<(t&") '1-llof.. I h""'014.R'I4 . .l:'l"''l'.,tn-"t 1 hmof... Heavy artillery blasted
the enemy off the hill. bq.l:' 1 on~ mil-to
") I b-J-&-<1-tJJo I ljf. I .i:'I"''J'"?tn-") I hmof..f&
5. 4..(\Jb{> 1 hil<D1f.. They blasted the fallen
rocks off the road with dynamite. f<Df.4t'l-"t 1
lt'J''l':f I R.!:'.,"''.'l- I 4..(\Jbllt& I boP")1.11. I
ljf. I hilfD1JI.
be blasting 0"19" 1 b'i'-t-'i' 1 )0.(

They turned down the microphone because his

voioe was blasting. .I:'I"'P. 1 0"19" 1 b'i'-t-'i' 1
il/1)0.( I f.i:'9"6 I .,'t--_1'1&") I .,.)fl-T
blast (n.)
1. f.l."t1( 1 ""1i'l- l f.l."t1(1 .1:'9"6.Youcould
hear the blast for miles. f.l."t1(~&1 ""'li'l- 1 b
~~ I f.(I.,A
He was deafened by the blast. R.I."t1(t& 1 .!:'
9"j I f.)41.<(
2. f 4."t1( 1 ~f.A. The blast pushed out the
window. f.l."t1(t& 1 ~f.A oo(llt-Jo"t 1 )~II-
hiD"! I&
one blast of the siren was enough to clear
the streets. {J,e.~). h'l ..\!"" "l.tL fl.~ll OD'J
1JI.") I qp.. I h(l.,.<(f&
a blast of(~ adj.) 0"19" 1 f"'L.:><('i'
When the window was opened, a blast of hot
air entered the room. oo(llt-to 1 (l.h.l.-1- 1 R
llJI"' I f"''.;><(Oj: I 'I":J>T I hfC I IDf. I b'i'l\o '


full blast ~~D-fr floD-h'o

The factory is going full blast. of..11&1Jm- 1 ..,.
/r I flfJOoj\- I ~IP&-A

I. 1\'i''I.C.. The blatant children were quieted
by the teacher. 1\'i''I.C.l"'ln 1 AJ('f 1 hil-t-.,
61& I l\'J' I hf.<(;J'ff&
2. 't-All. The student made a blatant error
in simple addition. "'""'""'" 1 R.,.'IA .1:'9"
C ' 't-All I fll') ' fl.loTT I hf.<(1

blaze (v.)
I. hR&-. Their faoes blazed with joy. .C.:l"l't& 1
Rf.ll;l' I hR&2. 1-"t.,./1.,.11. There was a fire blazing in the
hearth. h<'l-to 1 Rl"'.!:'ll'm- 1 ~&11'1' 1 f."t.,./1.,.
3. hlfR<(.,.. On Christmas eve, the big house
blazed with lights. IIM'I- 'I'll.., 'I-A4t
0.'1- noo-n..:-'1- I hlf11C.f. I )OC
blaze a trail fTfl1l 4...- 1tLI\+
Pasteur blazed a trail which other researchers
followed. ;r!l-J-C I _1'4.1\.,.tJJo") I f'1'01J I of.
'0 1 11.11-:f -t-oo&-.,&9':t' 1-b-1-11-'1*He blazed a trail through the forest. R
"'i\J I ....(1-J' I J'I\4.0T") I 00")1.1:' I (l.,ooAb
T I hAt:: I hAt:: I Of~4- 1").1:' I 'If. '1-'l'li
"l"<(T I hf.<(1
blaze up h<'l'l- 1 1\Rfl
He blazed up at the insult. 11111-flf.O 1 h<'l'l- 1

blaze (n.)
I. :J>mll-. It took the firemen two hours to
put out the blaze. :J>mll-~&") 1\.,'l'of..'l- 1 fh
{)T I hf.;JI& I 11'&--J-'l':f I rJ.I\T ' fi'IT I .l.'f..
2. f"''.).i:' 1 h<'l-1-. We could seethe blaze across
the beaCh. bm<(4- I .,J'.. I f"''.).i:' I ).{)T I
f.;l'f") I )OC
3. I"'Ab-1-. The hunter made a blaze on the
tree with his knife. h-'11' 1 114> 'If. 0(1")
m,t& I 9"Ab'l- l'of.<(1
make a blaze of color

.t:r++ ltm

The flowers made a blaze of color in our

garden. hR!l,; '1'1-hA'I- 1 !l;l':f"t 1 .1:'1"'.,.
T I (lmblazing m&-&We had to stand for half an hour in the blazing
tn&o,&.aJo I







I {l~-l- I 0D



Big posters blazoned the wonders of the

coming circus. '1-AA~ 1 P'b'l'f! 1 oo11\"'il"
:f I fOOl ....~&") (IChll hllf.'Oof:)T I Ht-1bleach [Bmf. 1 'If. 1 0.,.1:'<(1 1 m.el"' 1 AI' 1
h."'i.IJA I R""""""C I .,")"1'1-]
I. "'"""" I did not go out because of the bleak

weather. .,.). .,.4-.r.




hO.'l-9" t.Am

2. ~'IIIJ. The rocky

peaks of high mountains

are bleak. Y:'l ;J1., fll').'l- fh'i'Tl;' T&-&9'"'1- ' "'iG:"'f ' ~'1"1 ' <;'('m3. 1111" f"'1.1Mll'l- l\A)0~9". Life was
bleak for unmarried women in those days.
Oll.,l'"t 'Lit. '1'1~11- 1'1.-f-";f )of!' 1111" f
"'1.1llS'.ll'l- l>.MO~I"'

(be) bleary .&.HH

His eyes were bleary from lack of sleep.
hl\"t:f>A'i' l\11''1- fT)"' 'tf.'l''tl .&.H'I'A
bleat q 1>.11
The sheep bleated piteously. 01'tl 0"'1.1<'111
"t ' 11-ll.:f' ' q ' 1>.11bled, see bleed
bleed (bled), vt. to~""
In earlier times, doctors bled people to make
them feel well. 0.,.S'.-'1" 'Lit. mh.'1""'1- 119'
";f l\"tJI.lf'l'fm- 0.,11'1- 1"/":J.'f'ID- )OC
bleed (vi.)
I. S'..,. If you cut your finger, it will bleed.
"1'1-ll"t 11'1-'IIC'I' f.S'..,A
2. S'-9" to.r.nn. They fought and bled for free-

dom. ll)lO'l- 0""'1';J'l- S'..,'fm-"t to.r.nn.

*My heart bleeds for him. hAll. l'o11"tll:f'llll(one's) nose Is bleeding )f'l~(m-)

Since my nose is bleeding, I don't want to sit

in the sun. ll/l"''.)ll~'t Bmf. 'If. ,..,.,.
'I' l>.A.&.A"'I"'
blemish (v.) MS'..&.
His association with the embezzler blemished
his reputation. hh.f.&. fll\.;1'- ;JC ou'f'&
11<;tJJo"t 1>.1-S'..I.tJJo
be blemished

*The book is blemished by those long descriptions. """""4-"t fT"t~ll"'l- .,11&-619'"'1-

blemish (n.)
I. 1-S'.-11 '1-. This manuscript has too many
blemishes to be worth anything. .eu fl\)!'
".h-'1' 1111- 1-S'.-11-f-"'f Mll-0'1- 'I';J f

2. l\"th"t. His reputation is without blemish.

11<;tJJo l\"th"t l>.Y.~'tO'l-9"
blend (vt.) .,.fm
The grocer blends Ethiopian coffee with

another kind of coffee. fll""'11 lf.,.'l' );JS'..

tJJo 0 fh..'l-f"kn 0 (lo<; I lJ/1.11 0 'tf.)'l- I (lo<; 0
;JC I ""'""'A
blend (vi.) "111C 1 llm
These colors don't blend. MH.U 1 .,.11'1""'1- 1
"111C I"
blend to1ether

I. .,.'14'11. The painter blended two kinds

of color together. IP'tll.tJJo 1 11-11'1- 1 'tf.)
'1- I .,.1\'f""'f I .,.1\.,.11
2. h'l'ihl'- 1H. The rainbow blended two
S'.""<; 1 11-/1'1-
kinds of color together.
.,.1\'l":f h'l'ihl'- Y.!f.A


blend (n.) :f>.e...

Harari music is a blend of Ethiopian and
Arab music. f.h~C H.&."t fh..'l-f"k1<; f
0~11 ' -n.."' ' :,.,.... ' )tJJo
The priest blessed the people.
.h1111-"t ' q~&
2. ,.~.,.. The father blessed his son before
he went to America. A)l: mY. h"'L6'I h
""11-'~- , o.r..r , ~;q.rtLm- .,..~.,.m3. l\ODf'l1). We bless Thy holy name. fT.,.S'.ll
ili"'U"t ' l\<;OD(I"'<;II"t
4. OS'.II. Fortune blessed him with a good
disposition. IJY:A horAl)9'" mil,. J ;JC


4:(1. '


*May you always be blessed with good health!

'1''1- tiL"t)-l-"J'I'U
blessed (adj.)
I. :f>-'1-ll (fern. :f>Y.-11-l-). Pray to the Blessed
Virgin for sucoess! l\"tJI..,.<;Il 1\:f>Y.-ll-l- .,Cf
9" KAY.
2. fTq~lJ. Mary is blessed among women.
.,Cfl"' hM";f fTq~lJ";f <;-}blessing
I. 11-&-h.. The priest's blessing was said in Geez.
4:(1. 11-&-h. fllm--l- 0"1~11 )0C
2. "":f'S'.A. It was really a blessing that she
came. f!l OD9"11J-l- Ol\tD-)-}- "";1-S'.A
you have my blessing. _eqchu
cast blessings Qlh
The priest cast blessings upon the sick persons.
4:(1. ' f;f'OD...--}-"J ' {t9':f ' q~hgive blessing oot.+

The elders give their blessings to the children.

'11.,.,/l.l""'f ' A;t('f"t f.ODC.4'11-




say the blessing f"il;J~ h+t:.O

go blind ;J-m<:

He said the blessing before he ate supper.

I hope he is not going blind. 1.') 1'."7.e;J-me

1.&--J,') hou1J~-J, O.t.'l- 'l"fl;><; h4'


1"114- ' hii'S

blind alley"""'""" f/1.1\w- 4'"P'J OD'J11'.'

blew, see blow

He was trapped by thieves in a blind alley.

OOQJo- I ~i\.i\aJ- I .,.~'} I OD'}'J.i!" I


War is the bl'ght of mankind.

tne~'l- f(lw-

A~' ou'l-'-"'1''1-' ~w-

1\f. I 1\.

p'f' '"'""

blindfold 't.e'J


The robbers blindfolded the storekeeper.

blind (vt.)
1. h'lm<:. The disease blinded him. 01i;J-w-
h'lm<:w2. h'!'O<:O<:. The sun is blinding me. 8.hl'
3. 'l.e).'J hl\1\w-. A bright light blinded him
for a moment.

il~U 11C'1-,.

''"1'4:+ 1..1

'l.e).'J ' hl\1\fJJ4. &-1'1-'J h'l1"fJJo. Anger blinded him. 'JJ.'.'I-

&-1'1-'J ' ,.. ....,."'"

Close the blinds because the sun's rays are too

hot. f8.h.e'l' ""'l:e 0"1'1" illl"'l.'l"'l-

blindly 'l.e).'J


The younger child follows his brother blindly.

'1-'Jlf. A~ 'l.e).'J ...'i''l' ;f-'1-k'J .eh1"



Do not make any reference to his blindness!



'l"'t'l" h;f-'t"l


blind (n.) ou;><:)f


H&-.t.!P'Ii q11 1'1--k'J 'l_e).') if4.).'1-


1. hC1010. Blinking one's eyes when someone threatens to hit you in the face is a reflex
action. h'Jf.' (lw- 1\."";f-11 fl.:l'"' q_e')
') "7e111111 fl\ q111L_, ' -k'l''l'e f"'l.f.<:

blind (adj.)


1. 'l.e~ ilw-c l ~w-e. This man is blind;

help him cross the street! {UD-'"ro- r '\f.~ r il
w-e (~w-e) illlll'~ ou')1'1.'J hlf"l<:w2. f"7.e;J-.e. A blind curve on a highway is
dangerous. Oou'J1.1~; ~.e f"7.e;J-.e oum'J"
".,. ' 1'.1'.1':' ' ~"'"
3. (~ adv.) O"P'i"J. She has blind faith in his
talent. f(l-') 'f-11-;f- O"P'i''J ;f-'1"<;1\":f
blind man



'l_e~ fl-') OD')1X: ' hlf1e~w-


1"1'.'~<; f.ii;J-

After they got married, they lived in bliss.

h1":>It' 0:\'1 01" !'.'~<;;f- 'l'<l-

He announced the blissful event of his child's

birth. fA)I:'J ouml\~ hilf.'l'f n<; hil

be blind 'l.e'J fl\fJJ-'1"

Love is blind. <i:'l-e 't.e'J fllw-'1"

be blind in one eye h'l..t.!- q.,.er; r II"~
He is blind in one eye, and cannot drive in
heavy traffic. h'JX: <t_e<; ill\11'~ '1-&-.t.h
0"7.0~0'1- OU'J1X: 'I.e 11.~-'! h.e'fA'I"
be blind to

*Mothers are sometimes blind to their children's faults. 1-.<;.f-";f h'JJ!'JJ.'. fA}!.il"fw-
'1'4-'1- ' ,..,.,.. f'fw-'1"

*The blister on his foot hurt him.


~Q)o I h""J~ I 1\oPoPQ)o

have a blister

He has a blister on his foot. h""l~;

blithe, -



heart 'i'A'I-A'I-H

Everyone loved her for her blithe heart.

fl'i'A'I-A'I-~:t (lw-

11-11- mf.-'!'1-


In his old age, he became blind.



blissful Mf.'l'f

We helped the blind man across the street.

become blind

2. 11A"P f.'C"I'I" 1'.1'.<:1. He blinked his

flashlight to signal he was ready. ouu;>)';-J,'J
11"7'1<D'I- q'l-&w-') 11A"P f.'C"I'I" h


[~4-il f1"4'~<1'110'1- fl"''l" h'i'

1"':' '1-"H:I'U<; ..._el\0::~'1- fl\w- O<:P..]




bloat H.
Badly cooked food bloated his stomach.
OY.'Hl .t'A.O{II\<D- 11""1-11 11'-'1."t ~4-mblock (v.)
I. H:>. When I tried to get by him, he blocked
my path. Qm1flo 11"71\'i' {l'l"hC oo")1
-'!."t ' H:>-ll'f
2. 11.1Y.(;J-1Y.). Their forward march was
blocked by a river. f)C(I. "lil:>ll. Q"t.l:"
m"t'lt :J-"IP. ~oc
3. Y..U(.,.Y.L~). The irrigation caoal was blocked with mud. foo{l'l"m- llJ!. 0"1",1> .,.Y.'i'

or ~oc

4. hllll. A large pillar blocked my view of

the stage. h"t.l:" '1-A.:,O w.<:- oo.<:-<:11-"t
h"tJIIIJ!. hllll't

block (n.)
1. ""I"J.(-. The butcher cut up his meat on a
large block of wood. 1":> lf= P':><D-"t
0'1-A.:,O "l"t.l:" 1\J!. 'll.t-<:mm2. "7hH"t. What do you plan to do with those
blocks of wood? f~"t..,'l- "''M'l"'li"t 'I"
"t ;J-Y.C"IQ'f'PIIll l
3. [ht-'1- ' OD")1Jl."f- ' f"t.t'IJAII-~ ' fh.,..,
*The block in the pipe was caused by someone
stuffing it with cotton. !l.'l"!l.<D- f.,.Y.L~<D-



I {lfl.tiJ-t~t& ~

block of stone TC1l


= .(-"},;J~

The pyramids were made of blocks of stone.

'Ct-"7.1'-"f- f.,.IP-1-'f- h'I'C11 ' .!:""),;>)!. ' ~..,_
blockade ( ~ to block) DD'lf:>'IA complete blockade of this harbor would
require many ships. Y.ll"t"t IDS'-11 O'i'l\.'1"
1\oP'If:>'l- -1111- ' DPChll"f- ' .t'ilLA.:>IIdeclare a blockade fOC"lo oPII,;JT hil~m+

The Egyptians declared a blockade of Israel.

"1111\<D-.t'"). fhilt-t.A"t. RC'"f-. DPH:>:J-'fm-"t
hll;J-m<lt (or "1-111\<D-.t'") fllllt-t.A. oPCh
ll"f- RIDY.Il;F'fm- ll"tJI.t'A4- hllhll-)

Love of the sea runs in his blood. Qihct oo

hll~ I )liJo

*Blood is thicker than water. hQ().(- uou

.1:" J!.lfiiA
blood pressure fY..'r '1Y.A

His blood pressure is low. fY..oo- r '1.eA

*My blood pressure is high. fY-'1" -flq'l- h
draw blood lr.F..,

He struck at me with a knife and drew blood.

RILII'P OJ"I.P. hY."'l'f
in cold blood R"l'i' I R"l"IJ~
They were murdered in cold blood. R"l'i' (n
"l"IJ~) ' .,.,Y-11give one's blood



The soldiers gave their blood for their country.

m;I-Y.C''Ii Y."'/'f<D-"t 111t-'fm- hL{I(I.
[See also 'bad blood, clot, cold, flesh, stream,
blood bath fY-'1" ouof.(lll
The blood bath that followed the French
Revolution was terrible. hL<:"t<'IJ!. """'l::J'1! 1\<D-'1' 0:\11 f.,.Y.l:1<D- Y-'1" ouof.{l
11 hh,~>-t ~ nc
bloodless Y-'1" .t'AL{I(IR'IThis was a bloodless victory. y_,- .t'AL{I{I
n'l- .<:-A ~nc
bloodless cheeks fd-:,.0 oP1Clll-l-

To judge from her bloodless cheeks, she must

be sick. h.L;J: DD1C"''I- l\"tY-"7.;1-fm- <'1'1;J-oP'/" h'I-.,.C'I"
blood money fY.,. 'I':> l 1-"'1
He refused to accept the blood money. fY-'1"
'I':> (1-"'1) l\A.,.RA.'I" hi\
blood relative fF:> uou.<:Only blood relatives were invited to the
wedding. hC"I f.,.m-1-'1- fl":> UoPJI."f-
11il' .,.,...,.


She has blond hair.


.t'll l\1-C l\11'1-

I. S'-'1". There was much blood shed in the
riot. R<:11lfm- 1.11. -1111- fY-'1" ooof.{l
1l ' ~n<:
2. HC. They are of the same blood. Ht-'fm-
l\").1:" ' ~ ....

bloodshed fY-'1" ouof.{lll

The riot resulted in bloodshed. -11'1'-llm- fY.
'I" oPof.{l{l") ' hllh.,.l\
bloodstream fY-'1" P'C
The doctor injected the medicine into the
bloodstream. dt h.oP- ' n~r t JP'r ' ODC4 I

bloodthirsty 1.f" f+m"7

A bunch of bloodthirsty bandits captured them.

1.?" f+m"7 l'1i'i!.fl- ~1." J'~:fm-

blood vessel fl'.f" FC

He cut a blood vessel in his arm. fh't-'1..1' fl.

,.. I



I. 1.?" f-t)ht:. He denied killing the man,

even though the bloody knife was still in his

hand. 1.f" f+)h.l: ""II. 117.)1': 11-~ !l
:1",.,. o'IID-11-ID-1' ' """11.11-1' ' 111.
2. 1.?" f"'U'41111. The shooting triggered
a bloody riot. +lt-(l- 1.f" f"'U''I-1111 11
'1'11'1' IIM"'
3. fll'.f" f+flh/1. The bloody corpses made
me shudder. fll'.f" f+flhll-+1' "-itl":f
"7f+ H1H'S
be bloody 111.?" +llh/1
His handkerchief was all bloody. ""m.l:!l- 111.
f" +llhll- )flC
bloom (v.)
I. 111111. The roses bloomed all summer.
IM.I:-'!9',.; fl;>ID-1' """II- 7.1'-'!1111- )fl~
2. 11"7.1:(11+). The children bloomed at camp
this sununer. A]!,.; 1111.11 11;> 11)11~11+ f
OD1f)';' ' (l:J" ' 11"7.1:fJ:fiDbloom (n.) hf"!I-T
The rose has a bloom that can easily be
damaged. IM.I:-'! fl4'itll- II.""-'~ f"'l.l-A
7.?"11-T ' 11/IIDbloom of youth fll1111)+ 1.U
She was in the bloom of youth. 11111111)+ 1.
U'l' )flt::f
be in full bloom h-'!C 7.11h ' -'!C 111111
The apple trees are in full bloom. f.,'f.,. ~
.:::f. h-'!C 7.11h -'!C 111111'1'A
blossom (v.)
1. J\00. The trees in our garden are about
to blossom. fl+hA+ ll:J"l-1' .I'll-+ ~.::
11..1'1111- ' )ID2. .1.11. These yellow flowers blossom on the
slope of the mountain. Mll.ll !l'"II IIIIIJ
l":f h+~m- _,.A.,.II+ itf. 11-.I.IJII-

:r- '

blossom (n.) llflfl

The blossoms are falling off the tree. 111111,.; h

~4- itf. M.1:14- t;:fmblot (v.)
I. lloomm. Blot the signature before you fold



the letter. 1.11-'!11.,..,. h"7m'i!tl 11.1.+ .1.

C"?m-1' llf"Tmm2. +llf" Mml1. His pen slipped and blotted
the paper in two places. 11b~ llf"AIP+
mt:4'.,.,. o-11+ 11:1" itf. 4'/lf" lltml1

blot out


Clouds blotted out the moonlight.


1' ' 11C71' ' Jl.OOt; ' ;J.I:Jl.IDbe blotted out mof.

Many words in this letter have been blotted

out. hll.ll 1.11-'!11. itf. 1111- ?it+ m'i!

+'I' A
blot up h.oomm

Take a blotter and blot up the ink! 4'11"""1'

114'/lf" "7f"m'"i llf"mmblot (n.) T'l-+

She has been haunted by a blot on her past.

fl'."t: ' T'f.;J: ' l\l\., ' J'u>:J'J':J"A

*The page is full of blots. 1l\. 1111- +llf"

blotter f+llf" "7f"m'"ll

Take a blotter, and blot up the ink! 4'11_.,. II

4'/I'F' "7f"m'"i llf"mmblotting paper "7f"m'"ll mt:4'+
Blotting paper takes up ink. "7f"m'"ll tD.I:
4'+ 4'/lf" f.OO"'A
blouse lf"7.11

Do you need any elastic for the blouse?

lllf"7.11'1i itM:h +.I.A1.J'II'Ii ?
blow (blew, blown), vt.
I. t'f.. The herald angel blew his hom three
times. llofllt&m- ooAIIh oo/lh.,.,. V'11+
1.U' t'f.

The police blew his whistle three times.

7"1\.{l- V'11+ 1.U .1.'liiJm-1' t'f.

2. llo'l"7. The driver blew his hom three

times. )'l(m- V'il+ 1.U ~f"IJID-1'

3. 11<1-1.1.. Blow the dust off the books! 11!1.<1-tJJo

.,. h""ll'm4- "" 11&-"''i!
blow (vi.)
I. t.l.o'l. A strong wind was blowing. 11C.,
t'l-11 f.)'i!11 tflC

2. '""1i. The siren blew just as we reached the

hospital. Ah lfii"I::J"A ii1'1.C11 itf.t:

.,. ' '""1i

3. IIU(II+). The dust blew into my face




through the open window. Oh'l'-1: oolll>'l-

Oil-A h!lt- .C.-I:
4.1-:l'mll. A fuse blew as we sat down to dinner.


Ah 1\l.t-'1- "'""" ll"JA QAII'IfDo 1:l'ml\

5. 1Q. The dust blew into the house. h!J.t-fDo
<1'. IL-l- 1Q
blow away

*The paper blew away.


)'i-ll m


blow (Itself) out 7..1'1'-C 0~1'.

The storm has blown itself out. '),.t\'i'fDo )
'i-ll 7..1'.1'.C 0~1'.
blow over hilL

The storm will blow over soon. "''bOI\- t .Y.fto

.I'A 'I-A
blow to bits 11'1-"J-l-l'-"J hiD"l
A mine blew the ship to bits. ~"'L:,. oochfl., 11'1-"J-l-)."J hrD"'tiJo

blow up (vt.)

blow down 1)"1mll l 1M1'.1l

The storm blew the trees down. )'i-ll
., 1)"1m'l:ftiJo (1)'11'./l:ftiJo)
blow In )L(I

I. R1'."7"'L 'I- h.f.t-~{1 i RL"J'I; hLt-~(1 l

hL)'I. The enemy has blown up all bridges .
m'l'l- ~A~f":f"J tNr 01'."7"'L'I- hL
t-~ll:fm- (OL"Jl[ hLt-~ll:ftiJo, or hL)'I:ftiJo)

The house was half-buried by the dust that

had blown in from the desert. IL-l: hO~"Ii,.

2. hm'i-. The charge is enough to blow us all

up. L"J'I;tiJo tJo'l:f"J"JII" t\"7'1'4-'1- 114: ')


O)L(IfDo h!lt- Oh.I.A -t-4>111!' )OC


blow off (vt.)

3. )'i-. Blow up my tires, please. 1"7lP'In

I. ht-11-
milS'.. The wind blew off my hat.
)'i-ll- QC~"'\I."J ht-fl. II,. rllS'.tiJo
2. 0;1"-J-). The hand grenade blew off his
head. 1?.~ 111'"11 "l'""J:r.'l-t:"J 0;1"-J-)tiJo
3. 1)"1mll. The gale blew off the roofs of
some of the huts. 'itiJoll- )'i-ll- .I'"J'I"J~
IL.Y.:f"J "16.1' 1)"1m'l



blow off (vi.) )'i-ll rll1'.0-l+My hat suddenly blew off. QC~"'\I."J )'i-ll
0~1'1- rll1'.11'1


blow up (vi.)
I. LM. The powder plant blew up. fQ-1-'1.
'i-1161) ' L)'l
2. O"J.I'..'I- tnL. When he heard he had not
been promoted, he blew up. f1'.~7f 1.~1'1-
ht\"7"1'f-I:"J 0(1"7 1..11. O"J.I'..'I- tnL
[See also 'horn, nose, wind']

blow (n.)

blow on

I. 11"'1-. The power of his blow split the

wooden door. fll"-1: '),.A fb"JQ;l.-J:"J

I. -J-)Lil(O'I-). Blow on your hands to warm

them! 7.;l(:fu"J 11"7'1";r. 1-"J'!'M:ftiJo
2. 7.'1' 7.'1' hi\. The child blew on the hot soup.
A)l: '1-h-ll-"J !l"cq 7.'1' 7.'1' hl\tiJo

2. flom.. The boxer was laid prostrate by the

blow. fl-m. 'i'tiJo Oflom. 1-H~~
3. 1-'1'1-. His losing his car was a hard blow.

""111...1' (l)"'m+tiJo

blow open (vt.)

DPh_'i"fDo"J "7"1-1: '1-A:r. 1-'1'1- )OC

I. OL"J'I; hL-1-. Thethiefblewopen the safe.

1\.QtiJo li11'i"tiJo"J OL"J'I; hL-1-tiJo

at one blow ll"JJ!" "l.tL



The wind blew the door open.

R-1-"J )'i-ll


blow open (vi.) 1-0~11'.

The door blew open and scared me. 0"'- +fl
C"IP.. hll1'.)1m'1

blow out (vt.) hm'iThe wind blew the candle out. )'i-(1- "if"7m., hm'i-tiJo

The entire province fell to the enemy at one

blow. ""'~"'" m:r.'l,. .,~:,. q-,~ 1..11.
Om'l'l- 7.~ <1'.+
come to blows


The enemies came to blows. 'l't\'l':r; 1-S'.QS'.fldeal a (hard) blow

1. hrt\4>. He dealt me a hard blow on the
chin. h1..,.., h<ll+'1
2. h'i";J. The President's death dealt the
country's politics a blow. fT~II_'I"J-1: '1"'1-

blow out (vi.)

I. m'i-. The light blew out. OOoflt--1: m'i2. L)'l. The old tire blew out. hl!'"l.tiJo 1"7

f1J16-I:"J Tt\-I;IJ h'i":uo

exchange blows +~fli.O


They almost came to the point of exchanging

blows. II_.I'.QS'.flo II""JII" hA+t-lf'fDo?" )OC

3. 1-:l'mll. The fuse blew out. QAII'ItiJo 1-:l'mt\




blueprint 't~

(begin to) exchange blows Jl.'l ~""""

The two men argued and began to exchange

blows. 11-11-1> (lfP';fo ..,..,.,:J'.,..-1',. Jl.'l

The blueprint of the building was drawn up

by an engineer. f.n'tl\IJJo 't.l:'<;: fTV'6-IJJo


get a blow of"OII ;1-

He got a blow on the head. 6-(1- 'If. """":1'

launch a blow 11-m. MH~(tiT)
He launched a blow at my chin. tiM..,. 'I
f. 11-m. (I)H~11'i

into thinking they were being attacked by a

huge army. 1\:>"''..F-fP'Ii m'I;J-:fiJJo't tiT

lay on heavy blows .f.flF-0

He laid on heavy blows with a short club.

tl-1'"'"1' ~tl~tiiJJo

lead to blows h>l-'1

The altercation between the two drivers led

to blows. fii-IIT ouh...,. )l{fP:Y. 'tTCh
hJI.'I h~~""'"'"
strike a blow h.Y..;J

bluff (v.)
I. h;J-1111. He bluffed the guard into admitting
him. HR'i'IJJo't h:J-11- 1.'tJI..Yh1fJIJJo h~~1
2. h'1"1. The guerrillas bluffed the enemy


Our army struck a swift blow at the enemy.

A:J> tpC fTm:J' t1"7hoo(IA h~T

bluff (n.) -1''1' Yll 1~A

Caves are seen in the face of the bluff.

-1''1' IJIIIJJo 1~A 'If. 'l'lffP';fo f..:l'YIIbluff, is only a - 1.'tJI..YID- liM )OJHis threat to fire you is only a bluff. hP'6- II..
YhiD"'IJ f~1-11U 1.'tJI..YID- llh4- )IJJo

tp6-';fo't tlm'IT 'If. .l:''t11-'i' h~:> "'ll

(without) striking a blow fit h.,.Jil- ~ +:J-m-'1"

be all a bluff rLmt:e&

The fortress was taken without striking a blow.

ft1~:Y.'t :J-&h h'i' 1'tH11 II"'/"11T

hTA fLm~:Y.,. "'"- )IJJo

11"'111 Yll h'tJI:Y. 1-:J'IJJo'l" TYH

suffer a blow d.~ll

The solidity of their friendship suffered a blow.

fmti<J> IDJI)(');J-:fiJJo L~(l

[See also 'vital']

We had a blowout on the way home.



T h't't.l:' 1"7 L)JI1J't

blowup f;JII


The blowup caused angry feelings among the

members of the committee. f ;JIIIJJo .,..:,..,..
:,0 ti~C'l- hfJII-';fo oul)hA :J>t~.:J-'t L

blubber (v.) T)of..~-1'

Stop blubbering and tell me what's wrong!

OD)~.,') ' T1-IJ ' 9"') ' 7,')~1J"'th ' 't1~'f

I. fi"7Y'. The cat has beautiful blue eyes.
.(oout;t li"7Y' fll"). ol''t} 'tf..'f';fo


2. fThH. He was lonely and blue. 11:f'i'..,. f

out of the blue

He arrived out of the blue. htLU ootrt II

f..IJA h:Y. hll
[See also 'moon']



blunder (v.) ..,. ...... .,.

She blundered and failed to write down the

names of all the people. 1-llh:J- f(lfP'fi't
hll" tl ...... /1- ""'~~'"' +~:Y.
blunder into Oiaih++

blowout, have a - 1"7 L)JitiT


Her story was all a bluff to get money from us.


Without my glasses, I blundered into the wrong

room. OD)l\'tl.'t ll'I~C"' -tc'li tlh.n1..,. /1.'1 h<;:A IJJoh'l' 11111blunder (n.) h<;:T'i' h.n1-T l h.n1-T

The German attack on Russia is considered

a blunder. f~C""'t ooh1>1l't .,.,.;JT
1.'t~ h<;:-1-'i' h.n..,...,. Jl.4\m6-A

I made an awful blunder when I spoke to the

minister thinking that he was a secretary.
1\.l,L ODhll-'i h"''..~h"'"" ;JC ht;J1C
TA:J> h.n1-T h~~"'llblunt
I. ~UI. This knife is blunt. f..U R..'I'P ~)


2. JI.AJI-11". The pencil is blunt; please sharpen

it! 1.Cll(l- JI.AJI-11" !IIIII") ;r.~I\IJJo
3. <;:C'I' Yll. He thinks blunt speech proves
he is honest. <;:C'I' fiiiJJo M:>1"" :J-"7'i
OUIJ").'t f"7..1Al\' ' ODh/1-;J-A
become (be) blunt
I. ~)H. The ax became blunt from cutting



too much wood. -1111- ~"t""''l- 111\T,..<:mO

'!- ' ""'l'l:OJ'ID- ' J'.)H
2. /'.11/'."". The spear is blunt because it
struck a stone. tn~ 1 ~1.?~ ' lU\aJ;J F-A
bluntly 'i'C'I' h.I':C~
He told me the truth very bluntly. hm-)-l>"t
'i'C'I' h.I':C~ )1<:'5
blur (blurred)
I. hl\1\. Mist blurred the hill.'?;>"! l><:-11:1'
ID-"t hi\1\ID2. hJ'.OHH. He blurred the page in two places.
1K."t v-1\'l- (l;l- '1.1'- hJ'.OHHIDblurred (adj.) J'.il~~
The print was blurred. 7.'1-.,.. J'.il~~ )OC
be blurred ( ~ tr.) h-1'<:<:

+Her eyes were blurred with tears. q.,r.s:

"tQ h~Ct!' )OC

blurt out HhHh

He rushed in and blurted out the news.
C"tfl ~11-f m~m-'l Hhllh
blush (v.) hoi.<: l .1.-1> '1'9"


She blushes easily when she is in company.

hllm- .:>C 11'1-11"1 ' 1'11- ' :1''1'<1-11:f
She blushed with shame. OM:<:'!- .1.;1: 'I'

blush (n.), at first ~ oe'f.oo&y (1.;1-.('.

At first blush, the plan appeared very simple.
oo'f.oot.Y {1.;1-.('. h~JI. 4''1A .('.oollA

When the police arrested him, the motorist

began to bluster. ?'ll.fl:f (l..('.H-'1- oah,q
H(m- ' ""J'."t'i-'1- ' 1..""<:
boar, wild


They went hunting wild boar in the mountains.

hCht!' 1\.Y.r:-,. mJ',. 1'<1-<1- IDtJlo
board (vt.) 1'44..<:
We boarded the train in Washington. QII'C
fT4.1.C)ID- 'l''li"t"'T"t )IDboard (vi.) 1''1-1111- <;'<:
She is boarding with us. h'i' ;>C T'l-11'1
board up ~")""''!- hJ'.<:10'lDid you board up the window? ""111>-1> '1.1'-
~"t""''l- hl'.<:"!IIO'l- ?

board (n.)
1. l)"t :J'. The boards of the floor were cracked
with age. fiDI\11- 4"t:J'fP:f h'"/C'f.;l-'l'm-
f-1')"1 Tll)"''J'4"1'A
2. llii.JI. Please nail the board to the wall! M.
'lfDo"t "1.1':"/'lfDo '1.('. 09"11'"/C 9";1-fDo
3. 'I'.,C llii.JI. Write it on the board! 'I'.,C
{1/l.'lfDo '1.1'- ~~.~.....
4. llC.I':. He was elected to the Water and
Power Board. 1\fD?<;" oe-fl<~-'1- llC.I': }lq
A)'!- 1-oe<:m
be on board 1"114.

Is everybody on board? (lfDo v-11- 1'4'1'a:A ?

[See also 'cutting, room')
boarder h'lt.
Do you take boarders? h'lt.fP:f 'l-4'0'1'1 :fv-?
*In this town, many people make a living by
boarding students. 011.11 h-1''"1 -1111- (lfP
:f 1""/t.fP:f"t 1"tHil 7-.Yllh.l.ll- 0'"/'f
c .1'-1-'IJ'..l-11boarding house 11""1-11<;" oo'5:f' f"'U'50'l-
ll'i'<lDo you know of a nice boarding house?
-No 9""1-fl<;' oa'5;1- f"'/.1'50'1- ll'i'<l-
;1-ID-:l'l\11 ?
boarding pass foo4J.t.Y '1-K"
Have your boarding pass ready! fool)ol..t.Y
~l\:fo-"t ' JIH;>lf.
boarding school h'lt. '1-II"IIC'l- 11.'1He goes to a boarding school. h'lt. '1-I"'IIC
'I-' 11.'1-' .1'-'"1<1-A
boast (v.)
I. G:h<:. The enemy boasted that he would
never be defeated. m'l'l- 9""t'l.l19" hAlf)
..,,.. -1111- G:h<:
2 . .,..:. )~.He boasted thatheneverfaile d an
exam. 4..1'<; h-1' m.l':"' hl\~9" 0'"111'1-
.,.<1-.,."t )~
3. 11-t.-. Our town boasts many fine parks.
h1""/:f"t Q!l,'1- -1111- f"''.Y'""II"~ fouq 4..
lf ll'i'<l-fP:f '1-h-t.-11 :f
boast (n.) .,..:.
His boast bored everyone.
Mil 'I'



(be) boastful .,.t.-ID-"t )~

Yohannes was boastful of his strength.
l'"dt"tll ill\ 'l'"tli.:.fDo .,.t.-m-"t .('.)'1 )ftC



boasting 4-htIn the past, victory in battle was followed by

boasting before the king. OT't'l- 'I.IL 0
tflet'l- Y:IA h-t-.1'.<:7 0::\~ "''lt<:'LJ'm- 0
't.,._ .,.,. 4-ht- O"''Y:<:"' toe

I. ooeh11. This boat goes to Australia.
J.'.IJ ooeh11 mi. hm-11'1-t-iiJ J.'."IA
The boat trip will take five days. fooehll- .,.
~ h9"11'1- ' 4''t J.'.4.1f1A
2. )!IAQ. We went fishing in his boat. 011- )!
IAQ 't"' II"'''J'OOY; Y;'t

boating O)!IAQ ooY:

Boating is discontinued in winter.



Y: Oh<:9"'1- J.'.li/<:"1/A

bode 9"/Ah'l- tO<:

The frequent mishaps boded disaster. f-1-.1'..:>1
...,. h.l'.:>fP~ f""'t'l- rAh-1'~ to~

bodies, see body

bodily (adj.) fl"lm-H
Bodily pains are a sign of old age. fl"lm-t'l- .b
oor \?.e~'i' 9"/Ah'l- tmbodlly (adv.)
I. 0.,./AO'I-. He was dragged away bodily.
0.,./AO'I- -1-1--1--12. Q'tY:t'l-. The audience rose bodily to cheer
the hero. hY:"''"" )!"l'i'ID"t II"''Y:t:J>
Q't Y:t'l- 11Y:"' hll
*The tornado picked him up bodily and threw
him against the wall. '1J.'.II'fm- H-11 h'tF
.,. h"'Y:"''IID' h~:>ID'

body (bodies)
I. l"lm-t'l-. He has a large body. "111-'i! l"lm-t
,. hiiiD'

2. <loll I hllh<l.'t. They took the body to the

cemetery. <l.ltfD''t (hllh<!.io't) mi. oo.4'1Je



3. hlJIA. A lake is a body of water. dtJ.'.:J> h

'tY: fm-~ hlJIA tmThe human body consists of many cells.
fi"IID' hlJIA f-1-u>t-m- hilll" I"I.IA tmChemistry teaches us about solid and liquid
bodies. h."'l.ll'l-6 1111 TTe'i' .Llt'il hlJII~ Yll-t-9"<:'i'IA
4. '\Y:. A large body of singers sang at the
church. '1-A:J> fH"7&fP~ '\Y: 00.-1- he
11-I:Y.... ID'liT HOD<:

5. 'l''i' h'i'IA. The body of the book contains
all the essential facts. f""X"dt4- 'l''i' h'i'
A 1L~1.fP,;'t 'i!<l. t7C'~ o-11- Mt
6. h'i'IA. The legislative body makes the laws
for the country. ih"'l J\QJoQil.(Do htt:A h
IJ76;1: .b1~'t J.'.!f.t"'.?/A
7. 9""111t'l-. Thick soup has more body than
thin soup. <D'i!t-9" Jl"eq h4'"i"'t Jl"eq
fOIIm ,...,1lt'l- hllm(the) body of the people h1Jq'fm- .b1111
The body of the people favor the President's
policy. h1Jq'fm- .b1111 M"<l.tVI't1>'t ;r
11.11. ' J.'.!f."l<f.IA
in a body Q'tY:t'IThey left the hall in a body. Q'tY:t'l- lJ.IIt-

lf.mmkeep body and soul together

*He hardly eats enough to keep body and soul

together. t'i!ll ll.'tY:'I-M11'1- 11!1' J.'.MIA
[See also 'exercise, foreign, legislative, lifelessj

bodyguard o)I'O.
The rich trader was told to take a bodyguard
with him when he went on a trip. llil,.....
t:>Y. O"'l.l\110'1- 1.1L h'tY: o:oro. ll.'t
JIJ'.11 i't7l:ID'
Imperial Bodyguard fhile HO'i'
The Imperial Bodyguard protects the Emperor.
fhile HO'f 't.,.u> t71"1>'t J.'.mii.4'1A

bog down
I. I"IODm, The car bogged down in the mud.
ODb,.'iaJ- I 'Alifl":J-(J)o I aJo{ltp I {IOOffi
2. -t-l\-1--t-. Negotiations bogged down due
to disagreement. lJIIOD"/QQ'I- f-1-t"' fll9"9"
t1> 't"l"'e Tl\-l--1-

bogus fdti"I'IThey were condemned for making bogus

money. fdtl"l'l- 1'tHil Mrom- -1-.L<:!f.Q:fm-

boil (vt.)
I. h.L~. Please boil the water! ~ID''t h'i'~m2. 4'4'11. Please boil the eggs two minutes!
ll.'tMII-'t llrJoll'l- !1.4!.4' 4':J>IImboll (vi.)


The water is boiling. m-~m- ll.f.l.~ tmThe kettle is boiling, so come and make coffee.
)!O'i'm- .L~ I tJ.'. 11-'i' <R.9"60'1He was boiling with rage. !'.... .LIA.f t



boll away LAofo 1111.,.

to the general.

The water has boiled away. IJJ-;)IJJ- LAofo

~c;J- mf.,.

boil down
It all boils down to this: He won't come.
11~ ..... 11(1- '/;J'.0'"'19"

After I talked to the secretary, I knew that

it all boiled down to the fact that I was wrong.
ll"'ol.'f'') ll~;>1Cl>.-l- fl:\'1 11"1."&.11 : ""<'1<'1
-1:1 +1~Hoflh(be) boiled down

*The water was boiled down to obtain salt.

+'l' 11/IIJ...I'A~

"""'" 1\"''lii-IIJ-l-
boil over 1tLI\


The milk boiled over. m+., 1~LI\

make (one) boil over(= boil over) fl').l',.o}o

Any mention of the incident makes her boil

over. .,.~,.,. n+~"' .,....c fl').l'.-l- -l-tn411lput on to boil


Put the kettle on to boil. lR'i'OJ-1 IIJS'.IJJboil (n.) ofi'Jo')~

He has a boil on his neck. 11')1., 'I.e ofi'Jo


boiler f"''.l.f ;>')

The intake of each boiler is 300 gallons an
hour. f"''.l.f :n flll~-l- V'll-l- ,...,. ;>

IIJ.11 .el-1\A

boiling, be ~ hot 1.:<:

The sun was boiling hot. Bm.e'l' hf1<:<::Y.


boisterous o-tt;J- rn~n.r

The boisterous party lasted until midnight.


Y.'i:r: 0""''i'1'1- .e

boldness Y.4-C~-lBoldness in women is not admired.




bolt (vt.) .,.<:.,.<:

After the farmer put the cattle in the pen,
he bolted the gate. 1fl&.OJ- hoflofo'l?) hfl<:
.,. l'tll11J'I'OJ- fl:\'1 fl-1-') ' .,.<:_,.<:.,.
bolt (vi.) Y.~O<:! lfoomm

Suddenly, the horse bolted. L<:a. S'.'')1'Jo F.

~0<: (lf""mm)
be bolted Ofl-fr'') +ffH

The plates were welded together, not bolted.

m'i:IIJt::'fi ofl<:ofo:f +O.eY.'I'A 11'):( 0
fl-fr'') I hA.,.fJ'II"?"

bolt (n.) h'i'-l- l ,.,,..,.

The nut came off the bolt. fl-fr'). hh'i'.,
(h""'fVIJJ-) Oh-A OJI\_,.

bomb (v.) OP?"ofl S'.OS'.O

The planes bombed the factory again during
the night. t.m-r:TI\'l''fi 4-ofl&l'tm-') 11')S'.1'i'
11.11.-l- fl(l9"ofl S'.OS'.fl-

bomb (n.) (l?"ofl

The whole district has been destroyed by
bombs. _,.OII.OJ- oou-tr O(l?"ofl mY.""
set off a bomb



They set off a bomb in the street. floP')1JI.

1\_e (l?"ofl hL~JI.
bombard OP?"ofl Y.OY.O
The artillery bombarded the enemy all day.

.,.>., , OP?"ofl

ooS'.'L'if''fi mil-l-')
S'.OY.fl--lbombard with 1\0J<:S'..(O-l-)

o-tt:J- rn~n.r "'of!V 11/lh 1111-11 11.11.-l-

S'.'<:ll ~f

The audience bombarded him with questions.

hS'.""'""''fi 'I'14: t.m<:JI.O-l-

I. Y.4-C. The bold explorer saw the whole
country. Y.'l+ 11<'111 M&;J;') 11'1"11 111-l2. liS'.' hY."'. The bold little boy mocked us
as we passed. liS'.' hS'.'l- -l-')11 A~ II

bombardment f(l?"ofl S'.'of!S'.IJ

He went mad during the bombardment.

'i'A'i: h'11mofl')

3. .,. ... fll. Bold cliffs fronted the sea . .,....

ftr 1S'.fr':f hfJ.h-1- JIC .e:J-ftr

4. fS'.''i:<:-l-. That was a bold statement. fS'."i:




*He apologized for being so bold as to speak

O(l?"ofl S'.'of!S'.IJOJ- 1.K 'i'I\OJ- P<:

bombast 'Jo&.
His bombast impresses the boss, but not his
colleagues. 'Jo&.OJ- 111\,J>OJ-') 11'):( f I"&.
'iY.'if''fi') hfilS'.')~?"

bombing f(l?"ofl S'.'of!S'.IJ 1 (19"ofl ooiiJA

Tbe bombing reduced Germany to chaos.
f(l?"fl- S'.'of!S'.IJ lC"""1 h+&-i"'ll

Indiscrim inate bombing results in many civilian

casualties. h~ 1 h1'-'fioPIIJ {19'"11 oollJA. 1
1111" {l.ii./1-:f'! f.1!":1t.IA

I. 1'1'!(111'1-. The prisoner broke his bonds

and escaped. hll<:'i'ID" l'l'!l'lll-1>'1 fl'J'{l hoo
2. "ITf.)'J-.

The treaty strengthened the

bond between the two nations. m-tr fo-ll-J:
'! h1t::f "ITH'I- hm)h<:
3. DP'Jof.ll. There is a bond of loyalty between
the Emperor and the patriots. flli''!!Tf.'i'
fl/>Cfl'J''!i ODIJhfA f;J-"7'h'J - DP'jof.ll





foP'!"IP' 'I- ' (t'j!f: ' 1'1

bondag e fJC)'J-

The Jews were held in bondage in Egypt.

hf.IJol'o: f fl"I11K' ID-11'1' flfJC)'J- 1-f.HID-


bondm an 1fJC

A bondman could not own land in old England.

fl'l''!'l- 1.11. flh'!"ll\.11 MC 1fJC Cll

'1- ' hf.'l' l:ID-'1"

bone (v.),

bony h'l''!;f-'1"

The skull is a bony structure. f&-11 :tfA

h'l''! ;1-'1" hiJIA


boo n=h'l- ' -J-:J>moo


4. fl'!Y:.

booksh elf



up Mlll'l

I have to bone up on my history for the exam.

11;1-611 of.-1-'i' oohlt.llll 1>1111'1

bone (n.) h'I''I'I-

Give the dog a bone! 1\ID"lfiD" h'l''!'l- llmiD"

I feel chilled to the bone. 11CJI. 7.1111 h'l'

'!-1: ' 1-1'1"7'1

have a bone to pick with someone

I have a bone to pick with you. f'I"11AK'IAU

:t.:.;J- ' 1>11'1
make no bones about

He made no bones about his intentions.

.hllfl-'1 ' 11t.'lll:f ' :t.:.;J- ' 11111


I. J'.oo&-. The children made a bonfire for

the Mesqel holiday. A].!'li I\DP11<1'1A S'.""
&- ' hll~

2. '1-A:t 7.11'1-. They built a bonfire on the

beach to attract the attention of passing ships.

hlt..L oocl11':f h'lll..l'l'1 ''fiD- flfJ.ltC

llCil' '1-IA:t hl\'1- MS'.JI.

bonus 1-Clf

The company gave every worker a bonus.

11-fi'!.I'ID- 1\.f'!ll'!JI. P'&-1-'i' 1-Clf (lm

The audience booed his lamentable violin

playing. f"7f.<:fJID"'! fii.l'll.'! '1"-1>'1 h

fl""1i'l- -1-:J>m.,...'l-

book (v.)

I. DPH1fl. The police booked him on a charge

of drunken driving. 7"1\.fto 1'1111: flOD'!/l'l-

'J'of..'J-' DPH1fl1D"
2. 1H. How many seats did you book for
the theater? 11-1:1'1-~ 11'1'1- DP<i'DP"'"1l":f
book (n.) ooK"Jo'i'

There are many pictures in this book. htLU

DPK',h<j: ' ID-11'1' ' 1111" ' P'/)/1-:f ' />1\o

accordin g to the book

*The solution was not according to the book,

but it served the purpose. f:f"l~ DP'i''l-.h.
S'.'!fl-'1 IJf.h-l"fA'I" 111-lll' -1"11"7'/";I;IA
keep books 0011111


The accounta nt keeps my books. f .h.l\11

1'4:1D- DP1111L'I f.f.111A'i'IA

bookbi nder DPK'.h'i' m&-'fr

The bookbind er will repair your book cover.

DPK'.h'i' ' m&-11' ' foPK'.h'i'U'! ' 11-1-'1 ' f.

bookca se fDPK'.h'i' "1'1''1

The bookcase is small, and I cannot place in it

all my books. fODK'.h4- "1'1''1 '1-'111 11

lilT) ""K'"'"-' ! n-11- lt.11<1''1"'1'fl'l- hfA

bookish foPK'.h'i' <l'fl'i'
A bookish child does not like football. foPK'
.h'i' <l'fl'i' f!T)ID- fA]!: I?."IC '>.11

bookke eper m.l\11 1'fr

The bookkeeper found a shortage when he

checked the accounts. .h.l\11 .f1CID" .h.ll
II-'! ' -~""""1'1'1: '1-Y:I\'1- M'ffl'l-

bookle t '1-'111 ""K'm'i'

The booklet you gave me has

paper cover.

fl'lm1i'1 '1-'111 ""K'm'i' fAIJ{to fm<:<l'

'1- ' )ID"

booksh elf fDPK'.h'i' DPS'.CS'-61

My bookshelf is wide. foPK'.h'i' DPS'.CS'.t.1

... I

~\.co I


foP~.b'i! oPf.11C
You may be able to get it in a second-hand


bookstore. bh.C'1. oPK"dt'i! oP.l!.oflC

ltD- f.I]'<;{A


+fl'f l fon~.h'i! 4l&-'f

Since he is a bookworm, he got the highest
grade in the exam. fOU~.h'i! +fl'f (4l6-'f)
flOUIJ'). ' flL-f-'0 ' h")f,.'f ' WIIJ



boom (v.)
1. IVl&-. At the announcement of victory,
cannons boomed. fY:A H."i 0+1llK '1.
1L onf:~"f- h'i-12. -t-M-'1- l .,_..,_..,_.,.. After the war, business
boomed. htnC)-1> fl:\'1 "J"'f: -t-il'i-'1-
(-1-..,_ ..,_.,.)
boom out 1-'1 1111- -f-(1""1
The big man's voice boomed out above the rest.
f"'IH- (lm-IL 1:9"6 hi\.~ '1-'1 11
II- ' .,_ .....,

boom (n.)
I. f:"J'i-;1'. He could hear the boom of the
cannon. fouf:4-") f:"J'I-;1' lloail""l't- !I'll
2. .,....,_..,_:,.. The business boom lasted five
years. 0"1-'l- .,....,_..,_:,. hilh h9"il'l- 't""

boost (n.) "f!'""l&

The newspapers announced the tremendous
boost in food prices . .?rt.flll- ; 09'"1-fl r if oM'
'If. h'i!-t-'f f'l' ;J "f!'""l& .,..,._~.,.., 1111\give a boost


~,.e. 14-

Give me a boost so I can climb over this wall.

flli.U "1")11 h'l'C 'If. onlfii/A h"Jf:"fIA ' a>f. ' 'If. ' "1'1-'S

boot, high -

11'1- _,_..,
When I go fishing, I wear high boots. 't"' II""I
'J'OUf: il'tf: (l'f- ""/.""/ hf.C;JIIrJIick someone's boots +Aaotoom

The private refused to lick the lieutenant's

boots to get a raise in rank. m;r~~ 1 11\n:oP
'I- 1.1:1'1- 1\IA hii:J-m-") ao11
""/OD'J' h"/fL~'S ' hll

1. Jill. There were many booths at the fair.
h."'li.IL11). 1111- J!{l"f- )fl-1-'12. 1;1':. There is no telephone booth in this city.
fliW h-t-""1 ID-il'l' fil/Ah 1;1': fll9"

booty 9"CI>
They shared the booty after the battle. htnC)
-1> fl:\'1 9"CI>m-"J -1-h'i-LII-

border (v.) -1-'i'M

boon, be a ,...., OIIJ!r" m+oP
Those warm stockings were a boon to me
in the cold weather. MHJ' f"'L '1"4l fh"'C
if-6-P"f- flHJ' 1101""1 YfC mQf. m-il

.,. otiJr m+fiD"~

boor ilf: hf."'

The boor talked only about himself. ilf: h
,._.,. ' 1111 &-~ 11!1' ha>&-

boorish f111A"''O
His boorish manners angered the host.
f111A"''O 11-'0-l:tD- QIIIJ.-1>") hil.,."'tD-

boost (v.)
I. a>f. 'If. 1'1-. If you boost me, I can climb
that tree. QJ.J',. 'If. 11'1-1'1-'S y-,-, 'l'i!
ha>"'llrJ2. h'i! 7.1.~1(11'1-). The award boosted his con-

fidence. f-t-1.~111'1- 11A""I't- fl&-~ YIIOJ-")

hf")'f- h'i! 7.1.~111'13. hila>U. The drought has boosted the
prices of grain. f:C4l fhU/A") 'I';J hil

His land borders mine. """-"'

border on f - - - fiJIA




His remark bordered on insult. f(lme&

-1-yr't- filf:11 YUIA ) flC

be bordered
I. -t-'f'(l). The garden is bordered by a stream.
Y't-11/A-1> 11:1' >t"Jf: 'I-"J11 m"Jll f.'!' (I<; A

Ethiopia is bordered on the south by Kenya.

k'l-f-t.Y flil-t-f..fl-11 hh."JY 'f-'I'(I'OII"f2. -1-hLL. The dress is bordered with lace.
<f>"'L~ 11'1'11'1- f-1-hLL )OJ-

border (n.)



When do we reach the border?

OD'Ii h"Jf.C<'lii"J l

2. m(l") l f:")flC. He was chosen arbiter for

the border problem. 1111 a> (I). (1111 f:"Jfl-1-)
'1-J!f. hil;l'&-<1: ll''l' -f-OD~m
3. J!C. We camped on the border of a lake.
Q") f: mf.:t J!C (ILC")
4. mCll. The border of this rug is getting
frayed. fli.U '}"")IIJ'i! mCll hf-t-11~11~




*There is a border of flowers around the lawn.

Rh'I'C "l!lm- DPllh H-&f l\RfJ9':f Allborder post (f)mt:'i' "'!lf

He fell from grace and was exiled to a border

post hfJII".7.At-l> mCP. IIJS'. h'JJ': m


from boredom. '1-'t'tll",; A;(:f houfiA'f'l-

f ... ) "I

"""'""'!' h'l>;t'fm-


born, see bear

born, adj. ( ~ adv.) a ....C.'l't:
Yohannes is a born poet. f"m'tll R....C.'I't:

t:'i' ' "'!lf ' ...

share a common border +tf'fli'

tiJ- I

Ethiopia and Sudan share a common border.

h'l-f"kf<; ' 1\-JI'J ' f.'l'li<;II[See also 'zone']

borderline J':'JRC
The borderline is not marked on the map.
J':'tR<~- nttc:J-m- 111- hA... ""IIh... !l"
*He has a borderline case of mental illness.
tDS'. ' l\ilS'.'I- ' f ....4't:R ' fl\l\!l"t: ' ii.OD!I"



1. +Of.~. He borrowed a lot of 'money
him. hi\- illl- 1'JHil ... RS'.t: .
2. ...'I'll. She borrowed the book from
oox-m4-'t hi\- .,.'l'll:f
3. m(lf.. Rome borrowed many ideas
Greece. t:"7 h"l&h illl- c!11Jo4''1-




lloo-t.c.c fllfJ/1-

I. m-'1-. The dress barely covered her bosom.

4'"'1.1\- l\ODA m-;l:'t lf'i''l":J'A
2. S'.t:'l-. Rest your head on my bosom!
&-ll1i't ' S'.t:-1: ' 111- ' hllS'."Iof.IIJo
3. Ail. My bosom swells with joy. All. OS'.
11:1' .,..,.A;l:A
bosom fr1end fAil ms;~
Bosom friends share secrets. fAil m'l;(:f
ll"ilm.C the bosom of 1\ - - - oouhA.

be bored ( ~ bore) hllll'f

+r am terribly bored by his speech. fo\- 't"l"l

He did not mention it even in the bosom of

his family. l\0..,_ llll- DPUhA h't\>.1

bore, see bear

bore (v.)
I. l\llll'f. His speech bored me. 't"l"l-1- hll

He bored me stiff. R"'!l" hllll~

2. llt:llt:. They bored through the rocks.


3. ok.C.t:. They plan to bore a tunnel through

the mountains. 0 ... &-&-m- ' m-ilT ' ool(ll hJ

C 0"19" hl'tA:f-1'-...A
bore a hole through Olt


boss (v.) hUH

We will have to bore a hole through the wall.

The captain bosses the crew. tt"Ci:l- ooch

"IJ':"I'Im-'t ' ooiJ'I'I- ' l\llil't

bore Into liCllt: 1'1 l llt:llt:

n'l',;-, f~A

This kind of worm bores into the wood.

fiLII 'tf.)'l- '1-A c!'JQ;l.-I>'J liCllt: f.

boss (n.) l\11.4'

Who is the boss in this house? RJLIJ 0.'1-
IIJoil'l' ' hii.4'11Jo ' "7)dJo l

The drill bored into the ground. ouflcll

botany .f11Cl\'l-<; 1'1-hA'I- T<;'l-

&fm- ' """-"''t ' llt:llt:dJo

bore one's way through (lClll!"

both 11-11-1>11" I 11-11'1-


A mole has bored its way through the earth.

'i'A.C.A """--l>'t liCilt: '1-S'.
[See also 'death']

bore (n.) l\liA'f

It is a bore to have to wash dishes three times
a day. R4''t '11'1- 1.n 'lih't "7mil hliA
'f' tdJo

boredom DPliA'f'IThe little children wriggled in their seats

+ suffix pronouns
Both brothers are in the army. 11-11-1>11" m1
J':"7"7:f ' IIJ:I'S'.t::f ' <;'fdJo

Do you like swimming or horseback riding?

I like to do both equally well. f!l"'l-mS'.m-
'!'<; tdJo m)!.ll "IA!lf l 11-11-1>111" "7
J':t:"' ' l\11-A ' l\m'llluWe both visited him. u-II:J':f't!l" mf'l>ttJJo
botha ... anda ... -r- .. -r
He is both a soldier and a poet. m:I'S'.C!I" 'Ill
'1>~11" ' tiiJo

both of o-11'1- + suffix pronouns
Both of us were going to the movie. o-11:1-":f-1
'r mY. ltt"7 l\1Y." ~fiC
bother (vt.)
1. hll'l'1t:. Does the smoke bother you?
m.o\- YII'I'-IC? A l
2. ~H~H. Don't bother him when he is in
bad humor. :,Oc Qllm- 1.11. h'I-~111Hm3. m+(l. His conscience bothered him. ..,t\!i"
(Do m+flm4. ~11. You look so sad. What is bothering
you? YH1h '1-ooMIIU I '1"1 ~11U l
bother (vi.) 1-'1'1<':

I cannot bother with her now; I am too busy.

ho-1 1"6- llllfllofl~ llll!l. A'I'1C hilt.


bother (n.)


We had a lot of bother in getting
here because of the fog. fl"l":n 'rh1 Y'l-

J..lf.U I 1\oPJ.!"~il I -fl:fto : ~C I 1ffi0D~

2. hll'l':>&. He is just a bother. l\Co\- hll'l'




4. oo~il". fd like to know what is at the bottom

of all this. fH.U1 o-11- OD~il' 11"7m:,O
l\LA;>IIIJ(the) bottoms of faJoll'l'

The bottoms of the feet are ticklish. fm-11'1'

l\"'C f-114''1'"1/lt.
at bottom

They knew at bottom that they were wrong.

f!OUU'(;-1> oo{)i);J-lf'm-1 Ym-41
at the bottom of P'C !

~ - - -



The road branches at the bottom of the hill.

001111- ;>6-ID- I"C ltY.CII f.h'ILIIA

He found it at the bottom of the trunk.

l\..,'1'). I"C h1Tmfrom top to bottom hltf. 7..llh ;t-";f I h
-'IC l\llh -'IC

The house was searched from top to bottom.

tl.-1> hllf. l\llh :1-":f (h-'IC l\llh -'IC)

on the bottom of b - - - JPC

The green book is on the bottom of the pile.

ht:1'1.<'.aJo ODK'.h'i' bODK'.h~ 41AA

*It's no bother at all. 'r1'r hYilllofl'r


be a bother h11'1'1t:

bottom (adj.)
I. foo.U.t:lf ,:,..,..,, What is your bottom
price? fOD.U.t;lf ' 11:,0-1-"' ' 'I';>U ' 111'1- ' ~
2. l"t:.,. Put the book on the bottom shelf!
ODK'.h~1 l"t:"'m- ooY.CY.&Y llf. hll4''r'l'
3. f;J-":f.,. Thebottomdraw erofthe bureau is
stuck. fmt:A.~m- f;J-":f.,,. oo{)II.Y ~h!l.A
[See also 'rock']

Flies are a great bother. 1111l":f fl"''r Y


go to any bother ..,.:f-11.. I +~)'+

Please don't go to any bother on my account!

1111~ ,..,,.. h'l-ou.~:,. (h'l-'1'1c)

bothersome hililll.

The bothersome problem did not let me sleep.


hililll.m- 1--'lf. l\1:,0/lt.'i' hlllla>IIY.-


bottle mc-11
bottleneck, be a ~ "l""):j>"):j> Lmt:

This narrow street is a bottleneck during

rush hours. oo!J.'i" fl"''.fl~fl'l- 1.11. f.U":f
mQ11 oo11Y.- "1"1:,01:,0 '1-L'l'&-ll":f
bottom (n.)
I. l"t: ~1C. We have to get to the bottom
of this affair. fH.U1 1--'lf. l"t: ~1C out,
-'1'1- hll111

2. OD&+. The lake is so deep, a swimmer

cannot touch the bottom . .hf-41 '1'/lt.:,O floo
IJ'). o 'l''i"-1-"' OD&.-1>1 o 1\.~11 hf.":fl!t.'r
3. 4:'1'. She spanked the child on its bottom.
A11:1 -tm- "" OD;J-";fm-

bough :,OC1"'i'i'

He sawed the broken bough off the tree.


:j>C"J"'i'i' ' bq~

llf.' fiOD;J1f '

bought, see buy

boulder '1-A:,O *'~'~

The falling boulder pulverized all the stones

it fell on. '1-A41 *'~'~ fmY.4'Q'I'm-1 Y.-1

:>f'":f IJ-11- hY-4'...., , .

boulevard [fib.,.., m-11'1' Yll ill. ""1

bounce (vt.) Mmt:

The boy bounced the ball on the sidewalk.

A11: fll\"IC oo1111- llf. \>,1\-1 Mmt:

bounce (vi.)
I. )tno<:. This ball doesn't bounce.
2. LH'.,.. His heart bounced
All- R~!I;J- d.)~.,.

bound (adj.), be


m~ h"'L&lt f"''.'t.l:' )robe all bound up

*He's all bound up in his work. OP'6-8Jo +m-

Hh- .,q

She bounced out of the room. bh'i'll- m-il

1-L-l-Ait m"'"f-

The baby likes to bounce up and down on the

bed. .hfS: hA;>'I' ~~~ oP1111A -l-m-'1

bounce (n.), in one ~ L 1mC 1111In one bounce, he was at the door. L "tmC 11
II- hOC ~,:(1

[See also 'outward')

l ml't"t

A pile of stones marks the boundary between

the two fields. frJ-11-1> "711l""f- .1:'1RC f.l:'"t



The commission delineated the boundaries of

Somalia. l>"''.ilf'.,. f{l-"71\J'"t m(t"t hllll
have a boundary ..,.cp(t~

Ethiopia has a boundary with the Sudan in

the west. h.-l-f'k,l' R9"6tl-11 h(lo-'11' -l-'1'

bound, see bind


bound (vt.) h'f'l't)

A highway bounds the farm on the west.
7.Clfw- htD-tl- '1--'1<; R9"6tl-11 RIJ.A

bound (vi.)
I. 1-'I'M. Canada bounds on the United
States. It<;.<; bl!.<;~-l-.1:' !1-1:-l-!1 -l-'l'l't<;ll"f-

2. 11.:.,.. The deer bounds through the woods.

h;>H-,. ""lttD- tD-!1'1'
be bounded -f''f'(l)


Ethiopia is bounded on the west by Sudan.

h.-l-f'k,l' R!l"6tl-11 h(lo-'11 -l-'I'MII"f-

ml't"t fl\.llm-

He is a man of boundless energy. toll'l fla.fl

""' I 7'AO!J- YfltDbe boundless tDI\"} ~

(lm- ~m-


The jubilance of the crowd was boundless.

f.h11R- L"ttn11.1' ml't"t hA)Ro<:m-9"

bounteous f-1'-l-o<:Lo<:L
Bounteous presents were distributed to the
poor. f-1'-l-o<:Lo<:L ilfH:J' 11.<:-'Jl"f- -I'M

bountiful 11.:>!1
My bountiful friend

helped me greatly.

ll;>(lo m-'1:( 0"19" o<:-'I'S

bound (n.)
I. IM'i'. God is beyond the bounds of
human knowledge. 7."1H.h1l.b.C bl'l11M! 6

2. oPm"l 1 m{l"J. His pride knows no bounds.> -m1 fl\tD-!1"

His gratitude knew no bounds. 9"il;><;w- m

..., flltD-9"

3. hAA. He drives a car only within the

bounds of his estate. R"IA -t!.-1> hAA II
~ 11il' -bs ~)'lA

4. 1111~. He jumped over the fence with one

bound. q").<:- 111\J'. h'l''l-1 hilL
*Keep your hopes within bounds! 11-l'il'lll
A~!l" h11~11-l[See also 'leap']

it was bound to happen ao;~(1-. s ftA+l.~
It was bound to happen sooner or later.
ID-11- h.<:'C: -.<:-.:(lo hA.,.o<:9"

boundary .1:'1RC

bounce up and down HAA

w-.,.-l- K'"t'i' RIIJ'.




bounce out +L.-,.Aft mtrJ



That boat is bound for America. Y oPChofl

bounce Into Hit'" "lfl



The boy bounced into the room. A:( h'i'





a bountiful supply of ( ~ adv.) 01'1'

We have a bountiful supply of tomatoes.
-1:"'1-1:9" 01'1' hll"t

I. "f-t::J-. This hospital is supported by the
bounty of one man. ll'il"t;J-11- f"''.lt't~w-
q") .<:' ...,. "foe: ;J- )ID-

2. 'fC)T. Through God's bounty, we were

saved. R7."1H.h1ldo.C 'fC).}- -'11'1'
3. '1-Clf. They paid a bounty for each viper
killed. II-1'1Mm- 11,1'")-'11''1. oPCH>;' 7,q1J
'1-Clf l'tm-

bouquet 7.:t'i'
Where did you get that beautiful bouquet of


1"11 1

n. ~1; flM.l-'1 1\:,0o;: bfol h1

bout ""~~c l "IT"''J'

He watched a wrestling bout. fM&\ tD-~ ~
c . -f-oPI\b-1'

Those are the two boxers who will appear

in the main bout. O'l''i'tD- "IT"''J' 'If. f
"'1.:1'1' 11-111: 11-m.'l':f MHJ' 'i''fiDa long bout of f ~Yr 1 "l,rL

A long bout of illness left him weak and

without money. ft'..'irfD ttl. ihoP.,.,.. = Y..II
"'''i' ~'Jj h~C'I hil4'l1Dbow (v.) l\~ ~"I
The singer bowed and left the stage. Hof."f'
,~ ~ ,...,. boP ~lh- ' 'If. '[,f.
bow down 1'111.

They bowed down to the idol. 1\"'J'-1: 1'11.1;..

bow (one's) head
I. .!-<FJ 11:,. h!.l1 . They bowed their
heads in prayer. 111111-'1- .!-"'ftD-1 11:,.
h!.l12. l\~ ~"I. I bowed my head to her, and she
bowed hers in return. l\~ M"''l- l\!).11"
001\of.ID- oPI\(l:f&\~
3. l\111:1 I'IOl. The girl was shy and bowed
her head. &\~;1; M.l.l:f l\11;1;1 I'IOl:f
4. h'I-Om. Age has bowed his head. l\C~'i'
bow to
I. 4.11"". He bowed to his father's wishes.
.I'Q-1:1 ' .I.:J' ~ 4,1\oP
2. -1-4'011. We must bow to necessity. hil.l.'l
1. flf). ~1C':f1 oP4'0&\ hl\111

bow, n. (rhymes with 'row')

I. 4'11'1-. Boys like to play with bows and
arrows. &\'Jf,:f 1 04'11'1-'i' 1 Omil.l.1-rc """"i
"'"' f.tD-'1112. 1.:>1. His back was curved like a bow.
)!CQID- ' l\1 f. I f.:>1 I '1-111\l.ol\
3. f0..!-0.1!' 1 :,Ocll'. She tied her ribbon in a
bow. 6Q).1 1 00..!-0.1!' 1 :,Ocll' hl'll:ftD-

bow, n. (rhymes with 'cow') f.L'I- 1\.L'I-


The ship's bow was damaged when it struck

a rock. foPCb!l. f .L'I- 1\.L'I- 1 h'i'A 1 0
m:>f. illl-~'"":1' 1 ....,..~~
make a bow A~ ~...,

He made a low bow. liT





bowel l\1)!'10nly a dog eats the bowels. l\1)!'1- f"''.O




0 ~tJ)>

bowl '1-~'1.11 1 ".n1

Put these oranges into a bowl! Mtr.ll1





1 11C

bowstring f4'il'l- """R..I' 1 f-1'11'1- ODtDm6.1'

The bowstring is made from the sinews of
an ox. f-1'111: """R..I' 1 (oPtDm6.1') f-1-"'.!"" bO&. ' ~..,..,.


box (v.)
I. 0"1T1 hii1Q. He boxed the books before
he shipped them. ""ll'mG:'Ii1 0oPCb11 1 b.,..
'Ill- ' O.L'I- I 0"1T1 I iD'IIT. hii1Q'ftD2. 011-m. "":1'. Do you know how to box?
011-m, I oP!I":J-'1- I :f'aJo:J'I\11 1

box (n.)
I. 1'11.1;..:,0. Shall I put the shoes in a box?
""i"''l"'li"J 1'11.1;..:,0 ID-IIT 'I~C:>'ftJJ> 1
2. ;rio. I have another box of cigars. /1.'1 1 ;rto
1'1..:>.!- hi\~
Give me a box of matches. h1~ ;rto 1 h11



3. 011-m. 1
hurtS. '/f,(!' '

A box on the ear





_1'... ,.

(letter) box ?'11:1' 1 "''r"J
Would you drop the letter in the box for me?

f.U11 I /.11.110.
AA,I\11 1

?'II:J' ' "f'r1 ' ID-II'r ' '1-T

boxer 11-m."'
The boxer was badly hurt in the last fight.



11-m,... ID-

4-... -1-'1--'1
box office 1;11.'1- 1 oPlffii
I bought three tickets at the box office. htb.'l-




I. m1~. The school is for boys only. '1-V"UC
.... ' 0.1: 0 ftD1/'.:f 0 11iJ' I ~ID2. A~. How old is your boy? A~U 1 111'1- 1


[See also 'office boy, paper boy']

boycott (v.)
1. -t-IJ.f.f. b""lf1 1 1-'lr.mO. The Arabs boycotted the meetings. Olll:f fii111'1QtJJ> 1 1-IJ
4-1'-:f boPif1


2. 'l.l'-11f .,.(1"7"7. The town boycotted the

store because of the unclean conditions. Oi\oP
.<'.il~ ' 'tK'ih'i" ' 1-.1:"11'1- ' fb_,..,..,. ' ih11



'I,I'.1Jf .,.(1"7"7

The boycott was lifted. hY:"7CJ>o hR:I'

boyfriend fh'tLC


She has a nice boyfriend.


fh'tLC ID'I



I. lk-IJ. She redoes her braids every month.

lf.~IJ'I''t RfiD~ 'l-u>&-'l'll":f2. 1-'t1-'t. The king's uniform was resplendent
in gold braid and medals. n.,.,.. fiD:J-.<'.
c Ailll nmc:,. 1-'t1-'t'i" ntlf'l''f h



brace (v.)
I. M :1':1'. The cool, fresh air will brace you.
+11:1'JfCJ>o 'tll-ih hfC n-"':I'?A
2. Y::>'i' h.<'.<:1(R'l-). He braced the wall to
withstand the wind. t'l.""'t l.VI."-'"-'9" "I
.1':"1-'lCJ>o't Y::>'i' h.<'.:1R'lbrace oneself

*She wears her hair braided. lk-IJ '1-u>&-/l":f-

brain h't.,.A


He has a boyish face.

t. At"ICIJ tCJ>o<; _,.H:>~

brains h7.9"C'

Nature endowed her with both beauty and

brains . .,.,1./I'C' CJ>oR'l-<; h1.9"C' OY:!\.:1-A
[See also 'rack']


She braised the chicken for the dinner. 117.&-'1-

P.C'CJ>o't noom'l- mRI'l":f-..,.

brake (v.) 'i't.'t YH

brace (n.) OD.<'.1A-Y

He put an extra brace under the shelf. boo.<'.c
.<'.&YCJ>o P'C '1-C'i' "".<'.1A-Y hll+oom

bracelet h9"1JC
The bracelet is pure gold.
roc:,. t..,.



I. OD.<'.1A-Y. The bracket holds the shelf against

the wall. OD.<'.1.1.YCJ>o OO.<'.C.<'.&YCJ>o't h"IY:"l
-'l :>C ,I'.,I'.H'I'A
2. .:,O'l'f:. Brackets are not used in Amharic.
h"7C'i' n:,.'t'i' h,l'.m+9"9"

brackish "'-tD- Q;LtJJo f"'l..A

There is a brackish spring in the desert.


The driver braked suddenly, so I crashed into

him. t:<[CJ>o RY:'t1'1- 'i't. 't li/IYH 1"'-o-'1-

brake (n.) 'i't.'t

The brake doesn't work. 'i't.'i- h,l'.u>&-9"
apply the brakes 'i!ll'..'l




Does he always brag that way? v-A"t.tL

.<'.ll.J' 1-&-CJ>o't ,l'.tJfA l



The bullet had penetrated his brain. '1'.1'--1> h

't,_ll-'t thof-:1-A
He hasn't a brain in his head. h't,_A f/ICJ>o9"

braise ooom').


Brace yourself for some bad news! hf. m

a,..J!"l. ,

She braids her hair every evening. ~.,.2;:,.

:J- ' "7:1- ' :J-71"7/I":f- ' ('1-.,.t"l''i"ll":f-)


I learned to swim in my boyhood. 'I'<;

t-1: .,..,ell-


braid (v.) t.lfoo 1 .,.t.,.t

braid (n.)

boycott (n.) hY:"7






..... 'h/1

brag (bragged) 1-&- tlf

braggart 1-<:'i' ,.,..,.

The braggart told of his brave deeds in the war.
1-<:'i'CJ>o (ICJ>o Rfi'Ct-1> '1,1'. liiiLI\"7:fCJ>o
fl"l'tt'l- .,...Yl"":f- hro&-


He did not apply the brakes in time. 'i't.'i-'t

R1.11.CJ>o hAYH9"
put on the brake fi:t."}


He put on the brake, and the car slowed down

tO a StOp. tj:&,.).'} I fl.fH I 'l.fL I ODh..'itJJo I 11""1 I


branch (v.) .,.b'i.L/1

The road branches at the bottom of the hill.
OO't1'1. ' ;J&-CJ>o ' P'C ' l'l..<'.Cll ' .1'-b'i.L'IA
branch off .,.IIYf I .,.1tmll
The road branches off here. OO'l"f-4. 1 J..H.IJ 1
This road branches off to Harar. f.IJ 1 OD'}"f
Y: ro.<'. m<:C f"'1..1tmA tCJ>o
branch out
1. .,..(1&-ta. A successful business will soon
branch out over the country. f.,.i\11 1 f'l"'IJ!" 1




P'&- o:Joco- q1-~o ,.,. IJ-11- 1/-h&-""lA

2. f"t"'.<:" P'&- 1\llof.of.. My uncle is thinking
of branching out by opening another hotel
in the city. 1\'lvof: 11.11. lfof:A b.,.., ,..
11'1' Oooh.f.'t- f"t"'.<:" P'&-tD-'t fi..J'Il
of.of. .J'MA

branch (n.)
I. :J-C't""l'i'. The wind broke off several
branches. ~of-11- 11H- :J-C't""lG::Y.'t 1~"1mll
Our firm has a branch in Harar. lJ-q't.r:f't
m.!.C ' :J-C't""l'i' ' 1\/IIDHis education encompasses many branches of
knowledge. fll- 't-!I"IIC't- 11rt- fbtD-4'-l-
TC't""lG::Y. .J'm:l"Aii.A
2. h'i!A. Chemistry is a branch of science.
ll.'''l.ll't-6 f{)f.'tll 't-!I"IIC't- 1\'tJI.. h
'i'A' ~,..
[See also 'collateral']
brand (v.)
I. II!I"Ah't- .,.h-(1 (.,..,.h-(1). Have the new
horses been branded yet? 1\-'l.,..'ll 4..!-,..:Y.
1'0 /I!I"Ah't- l\A.,._,.h-11-!1" 1
2. of&m.!. (.,.of&m.!.). He was branded as a traitor.
"1\'tJ'. hm-'1. .,..,.m.!.
brand (n.)
I. 'lf.~'t-. What brand do you smoke?
!l"'t 'lf.~'t- lL!I"&- ,.. .......11111
2. ooo.,.h-!1 f"'l.J'..!-"1 !I"Ah't-. Brands are put
on cattle to show who owns them. hofl-f':f'l
ooo.,.h-!1 f"'l.J'..!.-,.'t- !I"Ah-I':Y. q/IIL-1>
"7't "1\'tJ'.If~ 11"7()m:Jo ~,..
brandish t.of&ooHooH
The soldier brandished the sword at his enemy.
m:f"J'.-1- 1&-.J'.tD-'t Omil.'t- II.J'. t.of&ooHoo
HIDbrand-new '1'~!1" l\-'1.11
My car is brand-new. f). ooh..t;
-'1.11 .......



brash f11A"''O
The student was punished for his brash be011A"''O mqf.
*The student gave a brash answer without
l\4- "l\'t-'IOO"J/1-l- 00/1{1
thinking .



brave (v.)
I. .,.!11:1/oo. He braved the king's anger. f't1-IP"
') "'"' .,.:1/!1/00
2. 04&&-'1'~-l- .,.;J.f.m. He braved death on the
battlefield many times. fltnC 0'/Am- 1\Y..
'1"-l-'t 11H- "1..11. filA 041.&-'1'~-l- _,.;J
brave (adj.)
I. ~..,'i. His father was a brave warrior.
}\qoJ> ' "f."''O ' "'.!."' ' ~0-12 f"f."''t~'t-. The braggart told of his brave
deeds in the war . .,..!.,.,.. ' (ltD- o ...c~-1>
,.,. ll/l.f.ll"7il'ID- f"f."''t~'t- -.r9':Y. l\

3. F-4-C. He is a brave boy; hyenas do not

frighten him. J'.of.C A."f": ~,.. 1 "f":ll:Y. h

4. ;I":77i. She was brave in her affliction. floP

h&-'1' "1..11. :'";.11 ~0.!-:Y.
*It was brave of him to enter the burning
building. h"'l.~S'.ID- .ft'tll tD-!1'1' oo"!qoJ> 1.."1
't~'t- ~oc
brave act "f.11JI..
His brave act redeemed his faults. "f.11JI..tD-
'l'of.-l>'t ' (l.!.H/1-l-

bravely b'i' q11 1-1111<;

Our troops held their ground bravely. m:t-J'.
~!li':Y.'t ' b'i' q/1 1-1111'0 ll:f"'fiD-'t ....,
~~~~~- ol'f.
bravery "f."''t~'tThe general decorated four soldiers for
bravery. ~~&-11- h&-'t- m:t-J'.t!:Y.'t !Ill
"f."''t):f"'ftD- lfii"J.'ftDbravo 1111
Bravo! You did a good job, Kathy. l}oJ: 1
11! '1'-1- P'&- oP&-11 I
brawl (v.) .,.&-Olf
The youngsters brawled in the street at midnight. 0"1\b-11 ll.fl.'t- aJ"'-I':Y. 000't1.<:" II.
,. f.&-Olf. ~oc

/IJ'.mA .1'1/l"'ii.A

brawl (n.) .!.1111" 1 '!'A

They were arrested because of a brawl. 0.!.11
If !l"h'tf't-
Several men were wounded in the brawl.
0'1'11- ' "1..11. ' l\.J'/1. ' (19':f ' '11.(111-

brat of>O'I'
His younger brother is a brat. :"''Iii m1' ~

bray h'Oof.
The donkey brayed all night. 1\li.J'tD- /1.11.-1>

brass ~mil
Brass is used for bells.






,. I



1. Mdtil f-1-w.:-. The brazen door handles
need to he polished. h~dtil f-1-w.:.m- foo
11'1J'a>- ~)!:f' oom<:"' J'il~IA1'1'/A
2 . ..,'1'<:1- llil. The brazen girl told lie after lie.
..,..,<:1- ll!l. lA~ fl.;J"/"7 ' 'l'lf:f

breach (v.) "'ll

The enemy's fierce attack finally breached our
lines. f ,;Jl\ID- fm~+ .,... "'"' noo ....<:
'lfm- "''tq.:.:f't't ' "'ll
breach (n.)
1. .,.,.e-q, There is a breach in the hedge.




2. :,./..~. There was never a breach between

the two friends. OrJ-ili> 'l.l'.'l':f oooh/A :,0
.l,:f' ' -~-~'I'C: hJ'a>-:,0'/"

For me, to leave work today would be a breach

of duty. ~.~. hP"<I- oo:,O<:'I- ..,~.!.)'1-'t

His smoking was considered a breach of the

rules. OIJft. ih""l 1 h'l~: OD"'il .,..,_TC" 1 HlC
make a breach In 'JODfl
The cannon made a breach in the wall. uo..e-4-

I. ~'t)!<l-. Ethiopian bread looks nothing like
American bread. fh.'l-t"kJ' ~'t)!<l- hh"'/.
&tl't ' .<Ill ' ,;JC ' 0'/"'t'/" ' hf.ooia(lfA'/"
2. 'Ill. Please slice the bread . .<lllm-'t .,..:.

bread crumbs t;:C4-6

He left bread crumbs all over the table.

~f. n.-11- 'i'C<I-& hil-l><:

earn one's bread

*How does he earn his bread? ,..,. rPC.P.

loaf of bread .';(t



J' ll~IA1 <;lA

[See also 'cut']

breadth il<I-'1The breadth of this room is ten feet. fllll h



A)>:'ll oo!l!oi>'t 110'1-

Bombing broke the enemy's resistance. f(t9"'fl

The runner broke the old record.



.l:''l"a>-'t hi!<: <Dil't liD<:

2. (part of body) 1-110<:. I broke my leg.
~"1.1. 't 1-iiOCil3. Omil. He broke the string. (Lq1a>-'t Om

The prisoner broke his bonds and escaped.


il'tilil.,'t 0'1'11 hooilm

The thick hedge breaks the force of

the wind. '1':,.'1':,. .fila>- f41'1'lllfll h'I'C



5. 1-<D 1 hil<D1.1'.. He broke the habit of

smoking. (l.;J&-. 1 f""""'-ll 1 A~~'l s +m
h~<:il. The company refused to break the
contract. &q't,rm- a>-11-'t h~~Cil'l" hil
Why do you always break your appointments
with me? 1\~'l 1 li-A".t.H. 1 h~ 1 ;JC 1 f/\U

't -l>mr: ;hf.CiliiU !

7. "'ll. He has broken the law. ih'l-'t '1'!)./A

8. amL. He won't break his word. ..4"tr'l

9. h"16-. The police needed only a week to
break that case. J''t't '1-.<lf. 11"7"16-'1- ;r
il.l':f ' h't.l:' ' il'l"'t'l- ' 11;t' ' <D(If.q'J'm10. 11111. They will break the story tomorrow.
1-'ll''t )1 f.11All.:t'IA
11. '16-. You have to break a horse before you
can ride it. L<:il't ' hOO,;Jl\ilU 0.!.'1- 00"/
6-.'1- ' hili!U
12. hmh. The braying of the donkey broke
the silence. fhUJ' "7<;4-'l- ll'f':t'a>-'t hmh


I. 1-iiO<:. Glass breaks easily. oo!l;t-m'l- n

We need two loaves of bread. o-1\-l-




OOH't:>'l- ' lf'l" ' f.ii"7"11A

breach of rules ih""l 1 OU"fil



break (broke, broken), vt.

I. liD<:. The boys have broken the window.

f)<l-11-'t .-,f./A f.-l>'tii'I'IA

breach of duty ..,~.!.)'1-'t OOH't:>'I-

""J~.';DJo'l I

mind. ;t'f. flf) ila>- h11~"1m-'t 1.1 h

.1'.-flf.q fm~'l-'t fooMh/A ..,f.IA il


brazier [fhii/A "7'1.''.)1" 11<:'1-]







A tolerant person usually has breadth of

-1>~11- J'.ii06-/A
2. 1-0mil. He pulled too hard, and the string
broke. 0"1'1" illlilOa>- 100.11. 1-0mil
3. '11\tn. The clouds broke, and the sun shone
through. f.oo<;m- 111m<; Ddtf.'l' '1-:f'f.

4. ( ~ tr.) h~<:m. The blister broke when he

pricked it. tiJo;) I f,t:tnaJo") I h)l:'l I flODCA_ I
m..,.,. ltLmaJo

5. hil.:. When the bank broke, most people
lost their money. q11J. o'l.hllc h11~'l',.;
M':f. ?1Hq'ftJ>o1 hm6 . .,.-t&-O:m. I broke with my old friend when
he failed to keep his word. :1'11-1 /ll\1\hOO:
h4'f 'l~"'IL :>C _,..,.&-0:'1'11*The woman's heart broke when her husband
died. 11..}-f''l' q!l. il/1'1".,. !Jq.~:- mH1 ~
break away +L+ith
The runners broke away before the signal gun

was fired.I"'A!J-1> ..,~.,.h-11 ;J:""1l .,.L.,./111break down (vt.) 1100:

The vehemence of his attack broke down the

door. fl"'-1> ~~/1,.).}- ""11'1.ftJ>o1 1'100:
break down (vi.)
I. .,.01\lf. The machine broke down this
morning. ""h,'i'tJ>o ~.-.. t!l.T .,.01\lf
2 . .,.~0:""1'1. The bridge broke down during
the flood. 0'1-C'i' 'Lit. .1:-A.I:'f. .,.~,:ou(l
3. .,.1'100:. The loaded truck broke down.
"l")T fO~O.}o ouh,'i' _,.1'100:
4. !JtJ>o l'./1. He broke down when he heard
the news. m~m-1- fl.llOIJ tuu- s hll
*The thief denied stealing it, but broke down
under questioning and admitted it. 1\.llm- oo
il0:4l"i ' lt~ j "11 ' 0'1'11:,0 ' {LODO:ODC ' .,.{1
<f. ' ...c ... ' l\tJ>o)-1>1 ' hOJ"'
break even

I. """ /l..,of. .,./Iff.. They played cards all

evening and broke even. ltc;l- {L "'iOJ-1> hi"'
'li.,.tJ>o ' """ ' /l ...of. .,./Iff.
2. TC'i'?" h...,&-?" fiiO.r. He is just breaking

even and can now start a new business.



2. hll. He broke into the conversation

at a crucial momerit. fl'T"tD-IIH: h~t\ 1\,.e..
break (the) news H.'i )1l.

We will have to break the news to him gently.

rt.'i'tJ>o1 Ol'.C:>;I- A1)"10:tJ>o


break (the) news of ones death la~J;

Since he is ill, let us not break the news of his
wife's death to him soon. htt;t"oooo r
-l>"i .,..-,. -foil- h'i'OitJ>o
break (oneself) of the habit of


I am trying to break myself of the habit of

smoking. o'l.)f&- II"""""'" l'.;I-11\IIY.
break off (vt.)

1. h~~m. They have broken off relations.

"ITH;I-:fm-1 M/Cm'I'A
2. 1~mll. The storm broke off the top of
our big tree. 'lm-11- )<f..(l. NA4l1 ' ~<f..:f.

"Atj:; 1~mt\m-

3. 1'100:. He broke off the handle.



break off (vi.)

1. .,.1)m/l. The branch broke off in the

storm. :,OC1"'if. O'ltJ>oll- )< .,.1)m/l
2. 1"1"1~1 hol'ou. He broke off in the middle
of a sentence. O~'f:+ )1.;.,'} ll.ea;a.cfl ; '}


' "'"'""

3. (a piece) .,.lfO:L. +A piece broke off my cup.

o'l.t!L ' _,.lf O:L
break off a piece (of bread)

tiL~ (I

He broke off a piece of bread and ate it.



-tc(o 011

break open (vi.) 1'1111!'


.rc'i'l"' h...,&-?" il/1/l.llo.r hY.1 h.'

1"1.1:' II,)!I"'C ~:f-1\A

The thief broke open the cashbox ../l.qtJ>o f1

1Hfl-1 lt11'i' 1'1111!' hL_,.,_

break In (vt.) hoP/1m)

break open (vi.) Oou(IO~ .,.hL.,.

When the box fell, it broke open. Uf"J'').
.~:-:,. ' OOD(IO~ ' .,.hL.,.

I will have to break in another beginner.

h.' ~"76 .,,.Am"i h/111'1
break In (vi.)

1. tiJA:I- 1ll. Don't break in on the conversation when elders talk. 'li"7"1/1.9':f. {L"'im
-1> "'A:I' hMq
2. fl.iz") llfl~. Someone broke in and made
off with all our money. h1.1:' (lm- 0.;1-:f.
"i1 1'1111!' 1110:;1-:f-11 HO:L1
break into

I. 1'1111!' ?q. Last night thieves broke into our

neighbor's house. .r111.r'i' /1.11.T /l.(l:f.
f'l-0:0.;1-:f-11 ' o..r ' il110:1D- ' ?II-


break out
1. .,.)"1. The fire broke out toward midnight.
l'..-,-1> Ol'.IJ./1 11.11..r 1~"7 _,.)"1
The war broke out last year. "'C)-I> 'll"''i' .,.).,
2. 1Q. Measles broke out in Harar. dtt:.C b'i''1 111:1:A
3. l;ou/lm. He broke out of prison. hl'.iiC
o..r l;uo/lm

4. 0.(-").,.-,.. +1\mm. The discussion broke out

into a fight.



0.1:-11.-,. m~





5. ThTII. After the death of the king, anarchy

broke out. b.,..,..,. '1"'1- 11:\11 '1C"'C .,.

take a break b<:'i''l- 1 h~<:1

Let's take a five-minute break at three! OHm
'f 0 (lq't- 0 1\J!. 0 f?"il'l- I ~4:.4' 0 b<:'i''l- 0

break through


The cattle have broken through

I. "'"
the fence. boft.f:f 1.'1'>1-'t 'l'(lfD mm2. "'" 'ts'.. The hunters broke through the
underbrush. lVI'I'~ 41'1'!1/tnm-'t 'J'{lm- ~.~~.
break up (vt.)
I. (lQfl<:. He broke up the boxes for firewood.
"''l''l'~ 11"711'- (lQOt-:fm2. flT~. The opposition tried to break up
the meeting. fT .4''1"''/.m- mn ll11(1Qm.,. /IODflT't ' 'l"b<:
3. b(lb(l. The farmer broke up the clods of
earth with a pickaxe. 1flt.m- 1 'ill-') OP..
"'/ ' b(lb(lmbreak up (vi.)

1. +0+)'. The meeting broke up in confusion.

il11(1Qm- 1111'1'11'1' TflT~
2. l.(1. Their marriage broke up last year.
:>11;F:fm- ' 'l?"<; ' of.<:{l
3. T'iLc!-<:m. After this, the two friends broke
up. bH.IJ O:Vo o-11., 'i~':''l":f .,. ...
t-<:mthe day broke 1-tlt


I. b<:'i''l- ! <(.;1-. He spoke all day without a

break. oJ>).'t 11.,...11- 111 1 b<:'i''l- .,..,,.,:

This morning I have been doing this work

without a break. 1ft. fll.,T 1-IJ"J.,. ~t- '
11\'t.ll:f <(.:f' ""'t- ~oc
2. .,.,..,.~,. ""*<:'!'. A break between the
two countries can no longer be avoided.
1111-11., ' h11!':f ' OD'JjA film- .,.,..,.~,. '
""W<:'I' bh't'1JI.IJ mJI,IJ 11.m1.(- hf.
3. ( ~ verb.). There was a break in the window.
""ill>., .,. ....,."'"' ~oc
give a break



He did not do too well on his examination, but

let's give him a break and let him pass. flof.T<;




breakage fTI'lfl>l- 1..4'lP:f

The insurance company had to pay a lot
of money for the breakage. fh. 'tlf.c!-'tll bQ')fm- ' IIT(lflol-'1- I 1..4'lP:f I 1111- ' ODbof.A '

Shipping crates have to be carefully made to

prevent breakage. 1..4'lP:f 1.'tJIJ!.(lfl>l- 1 f"''.
1\b-Q:fm- "''l''l':f ' fl'l''t .4'-t ' """'c!-'1- ' h

1. 11A11'1-. A breakdown of the machinery stop.
ped production. fODb.<;m- 11Afi'l- fP't-m.,. I DJom.+ 1 1\.foOOt&
The attack aborted because of a breakdown in
communication. hoo1c;~ 11A7i+ f+~...,
fT.R<:1m- '1'.4''1- bifof.
2. fhh?"l!' o-b'l-. He had a breakdown due
to strain. b"l"'toJ>'I- fT~"' fhh?"l!' o-b'l-
.R<:{lfl'l*The boss asked me to make a breakdown of
the time I spent on the job. h/1.4'\1. flP' c!- II
f. ' fol'fiJofl'l-'t ' 1.11. ' flfP't-m- 'l!-~'1- '
h't.(-H0::11C mf4''1

breakfast 4lcll

break (n.)

This glass is breakable. f.IJ 11C"l"<l' Tl'lQ

make a breakdown

Day was beginning to break when we left.

il')~.(- I '1-.ft I OD:,. ~.(- I ,;?"(!' 0 ~ flC
[See also engagement, ground, heart, laughter,
loose, peace, piece, resistance, wind']

breakable Tl'lQt:






I eat breakfast at 8 o'clock. 41Cll Oo-11'1-

(lq't- ' 1.111\/IIJo

breakup OD/Iff'IThe breakup between the two friends was due

to an argument. fo-11., 'i.R':''I":f ""111
f'l- ' fOD"'m- ' flhChol- ' ?"h'tf'l- 0 ~IIJo

I. ~.:'1-. When her son died, she wept and
beat her breast. A~ I\'1"'1- ~<::t't hf
OD:f':f ' h/loJ>(l:f
2. m-'1-. Her dress slipped, revealing gently
rounded breasts.

+OOZ.!t 1\,mc..t!"


111-'1-m-.f-!1!:1'1'f~<:'l- oJ>H<(.
He uses the breast stroke in swimming.
oJ>Ho!- WI'':' A

breast stroke




breath 'i''Jof.1i
His breath came in gasps. 'i''Jof.lf. C'I'

not breathe a word

Don t breathe a word of this to anyone!

J!.li'J'J 11"7'}?" ' 1\'i'.,.'J'I'il

C'l' l\11

Hold your breath! 'i''J4-1iU'J '1''1' l\Y:C1U

catch one's breath

I have to catch my breath first. ootoo&.r 'i'

'}of.j'( J!.ODIIil
draw a breath

Draw a deep breath! 0"1J!.ol\ m1. tD-il'l'

'i''Jof.1i i\ofl
hold one's breath ~'j:(l-


We held our breath while we watched the man

climbing the tall building. llm-\l.m- .::{?" ;,

n. ~f. ll.m"l to'Joollh'i' t'i'il:f"l


in a breath hoo~ltO'i'

It all happened in a breath. J!.U IJofto flft

tD- hoo~ltO'i' tiD"

She lost her temper and apologized in the same

breath . .,..,_'1':1' .r~ar). J!.~C:l' IIODt";f
(be) out of breath 'i''Jof.1i hm.:ar l 'i''Jof.
if. C'I' ' C'I' l\11

I am out of breath from running. hoPC"m. f+

t"l 'i''Jof.1i l\'I'C"'i'ol\

The portly gentlemen was out of breath from

climbing the steps. mtt:~oo- (tm-,. r ,g)fm'J (l.m"l 'i''Jof.lf. C'I' C'I' 1111
take a breath
'li m~ m-ilT ll(l


The nurse said to the patient "take a deep

breath"! tC!l. fl1i.,.'i'ar'J fl"1J!.ol\ 'i''Jof.1i



under one's breath



He muttered a curse under his breath.


.,. .... ,.fl

I. .,.tof.ll. He is breathing regularly. flf.'Jofl
2. .,.' 1111. I can breathe easier now that the

work is done.

~&om- r

lll\lt+ +1'Lll AlA


breathe again "-l:f..

Now that he is gone, we can breathe again.

IIIJo'J illl~f. 1\r::J'. 11"711'i' II'J":f~II'J
breathe hard -l!'i"

breathing .,..,.'
Breathing is more difficult at very high altitudes. h'i'.,.'i' h'i't. ~f. lf'l' /IOD.,.' .I'll

(be) breathless 'i''Jof.1i llm.:(ar)

The spectators were breathless with excitement.
.,..,..Alt'1i hf.h:l' f.,.t., 'i''Jof.1i lim

leave one breathless T14-if.1'


The climb left him breathless. JI1.,'J ooar"l

~ 'i''Jof.lf.'J


(be) breathtaking ol\ofl llmof.

The view from the mountain top is breathtaking. "'i'i' ~f. f"''.:l'far
'i'~J!.'J'i' ol\ofl .l'mof.ol\


in the same breath

U7 ' (IJ~




She was breathing hard from the long climb

up the hill. .:'li".,..'J Jl1'i' noom-nJ:t 4!
<; <; 'i'.,.t'i'il tflC

bred, see breed

breeches m'lofl (to&
His breeches were torn in the seat. tnfl1l





breed (bred), vt.

1. 1t~ll. My uncle breeds horses. 1\"Jui: L
.:to .r.:<Jol\
2. 1\0D"J. Dirt breeds disease . .f.lflf ' fl1i:l'
3. 1\ilh.,.ll. War breeds misery and ruin.
fi'Ct'i' ":f"lc;<; 'l'of.'i''J .l'ilh'i'~ol\
breed (vi.)
I . .,..LIIof.ll. Birds breed in the spring. m,;:";f
fll\J'.J!. mt.'i' J!.of.llof.~ll2. .:<1. Cattle breed in the spring. fof>'JY:
hofl+ f"''..:<Jar flllf.J!. tar
3. .,.t-'1. Rabbits breed rapidly. 'I''J'fll-":f fl
'i''l't'i' ' J!.t-'111-

*He was born and bred a gentleman. Tw-A.';.

?" llil.,.-'11.1-?" f""'P tar

breed (n.) HC
Fertile cattle are needed to improve the breed.
H-1-'J 11"7lflfol\ m~Y: f+'JY: hofl'i'

*She comes from a fine breed of people.

hODol\lt?" HC 'i'miiJIII":f

1. hil..,..-'1~1. His manners show good breeding.
m'll' '1'-1- llii.,.-'11."1-'J .l'il.l'ol\


2. '1''1- h!l-1-.'lf."l. You can teD when a girl has

breeding. '1''1- hil-1-.'lf."l .1'11-1-~ A"/!: II
"''fD:r- -1-:fl\lltl
3. "''CQ-1-. Careful breeding of livestock will
improve the meat. hil-l':f~ fl'l'~ :1>4:
q-1- f-1-lfll F :> .I'M'1A


breeding ground DDC{tf

This marshland is a breeding ground for

mosquitos. ,..u ; t:..,t:1 hli=~ t'mQ -l-'l~ '


man of breeding f""'P A-,:

His uncle is a man of breeding. 1t.,..1: f"''1' ' A"/!: ' ~"'"
brethren, see brother
breeze nof.!l 11m-:t- l 11!11\11 ~of.!l
The breeze ruffled her hair. nof."" 11m-;J-
(11!11\lltJJo ~of.!l) ' l\'J-<::'1 fi:J--1-~tJJo
[See also 'fly, whip']
brevity "''me
Thanks to the brevity of his speech, the meeting
was soon over. h"t""l""l<;. ..,me f+~Vf il
ii!IQm- fl-1'11- hM
1. moo+. We brew our own beer. f&-ltl-1'1
mil 7.~m9".4'11~
2. mM!I. Children are good at brewing
mischief. A~'ll ~1C oom~(l!l f.IY'lll'f'I'A
be brewing TtnHtll

There is trouble brewing between them.

flootlhll'fm- :f"lc -1-m~!l!l.A
brewery fll&-
He has an interest in the brewery. Ofl,t.. of..
il&lt ' tJJoil'l' 'l':r-9" ' hllmbribe (v.) fl'f-(l .1'.1111 I 'I-ll ilm J flnH
il hQflll
You cannot bribe him. fl'l-11 A-1-f.AIIm-
He bribed the guard by giving him a gold
watch. 11Hfl'1m- hmc:r- f1""'&- !I'l-l-
"t-fl (lmmIt is difficult to bribe an incorruptible witness.
fi.:J-IIA f"''f.:fA~ 9"!1hC flnHil "''
QfiA hf.ii'A9"
bribe (n.) '1-ll
He was caught accepting a bribe. 'I-ll !l..,.fl
A' 1".1'H

take bribes .,.p Ot\

Taking bribes is punishable by law. 'I-ll oo
ill\-1- fl.ft"l .l'ii.,."'A

bribery 'I-ll ooiii\-1Bribery has corrupted many a judge. 1-P

illl-1- ill!- .'l'l':f~ flh!l'f'PA


brick m-il
Their house is built of red bricks. 11.;1-:fm-
f-1-"'il-"'" fl.,.,. m-il ' ~"'"
bricklayer m-il 1~1L
A bricklayer gets a good salary. m-il 1'lll
'1''1- .1'.'1"11 .1'1'1A
bricklaying "l~il h"'&-e
That is a skillful piece of bricklaying. .I'-ll
'l'fl11 ' .1'110-1- "1'111 h"'&-C ~"'"
bridal foo-11&Her bridal gown was red. foo-11&- Ail!l.
.,.,_ ~fiC
bride oo-11&The bride wore white, and the bridegroom wore
a dark suit. oo-"li&."P ' ~.,_. oo-"li,t.m- '1"4:
C Ail!l llil!lm- ~fiC
bridegroom oo-11&The bridegroom wore a dark suit. on-"li,t.m-
'1'-kC ' Ail!l llil!l.A
bride price [oo-11&-m- m.l'-9" fi..J-!111- 11
oo-11&-f.-1: 11.1"(1(\:f f"''..l'fl~h:t-'fm-
f1~Hil 1Df.9" f7..4' ilfll:J-]
bridesmaid f.~1m-C
The bridesmaid walked behind the bride.
f.~1m-<:: hoo-11&-'1' fl!l-fo:\1\ -1-.<:-- ~fiC
bridge (v.)
I. .<:-"A.<:-".1'- "'&-. The engineers bridged the
river. ootJ~'Lt\'ll nm~n- 1\f. ' .<:-"A.<:-".1'- "''~-2. 1";>f.oo. A log bridged the brook. "1~-'l.
3. hilfD1f.. Politeness will bridge many
difficulties. -1-.:h-1-'i" ill!- :f"lt::f~ .film

n=. ""

bridge (n.) .<:-"AY:f.

There is a bridge a mile from here. hH.ll
.<:-" "''f.A Col' .<:-"A.<:-".1'- f.1'1A


burn his bridges

*He burned his bridges behind him. IDS'. :\1\

fi.OOII!I' f"''.:fAfiT~ 00~1.<:-" hflllif

I f'"7..1Pt- I

bridgehead [b'l''i'ID- H"7:Y. 4'1.'1"

S: :


I fltnl\+
ftnC hl'I'I"J




~ ffl'j!


bridle (v.)
1. 111-oo. He bridled the mule. R:f-11-'l''t II
2. 1:1'. You must bridle your anger. 't.<'.'I-U
') ' OO"':J'T ' hii111J

bridle (n.) oM?"

The Ethiopian bridle hurts the mule. fh.'l-1'"
kJ' A'i'l" R:f-11- f.'I-JIA

brief (v.) foo'I"&J' OO"JII"'i (lm

4. 'tl\ The bright water trickled through

his fingers. bh)l: ll.f. 'tl\ ,.~ f.'tmq
m11 )fiC
5. '1'0:.. He has a bright future. wf..C.-'1- '1'0:.
bf:A hllfD6. She always has a bright smile.
1JoA1..U. .1.1"1:1' hll.'l7. 11AIJ. That was a bright idea. 11AU f
If) ' .hlt11 ' )fi~
He is a bright boy. 11AIJ AJ': )ID-

*Rub the silver cup to a bright polish! f11C

'l''t"'i<D-'t hllb.J''tRqc:f> WAID-IIID-

brighten (vt.)

The captain briefed the soldiers. lf'I"RII- II

1. hF.,.oo+. Flowers brighten a room. hfl(l~

W;l'f.C:'fi o fOO'I"&J' o OO"JII"'i o (liO)'ffD-

b'i'A't J'f.'I":J-112. f.llT'1 h1.~1. Her smile has brightened my

day. d.1"1:l''l' -tl<-'t fi""'ll- f.llT'1

brief (n.) h"'l"C OO"JII"'i

His brief was printed in the newspaper.
f(lmfD- h"'l"C OO"'II"'i R:>U."' :J'Too

brief (adj.) h"'l"C

His speech was brief but to the point. 't"'"'<-
h"'l"C'i' .,.'1" )1C J'IIID- )fiC
be brief ~..,...,~,. ll.ittnl.

Please be brief; we have to leave in a few

minutes. 't"'"'CIJ't hlt'l'~,. i b'l'-1!'1- 1.4!:1"
l":Y. ' n:v oo~f: t.ll11't
in brief Q1l".;..
In brief, our plan is this. q"fl"<- t.:f>JI:Y.'t f.

briefcase Pelt
There were important papers in my briefcase.
PClt\1- ID-(1'1' b'i'T'1 1-JII'""f f J'H- W~
-t.Y.:Y. ' )flO:.

brigade 11C1.f:
The brigade is stationed on the border.
11C1.JI. wn't "" .,.oof.n

[See also 'fire brigade']

brigand 4'"7'1
The brigand eluded the police and escaped.
.,..,.,.,. Tll.(l-'t h:l'll- t.oollm


brighten (vi.)
I. mtl-. The sky brightened. (1"71' m<l2 . .C.It. Her face brightened. ~

brightness 1:'1"-t-lThe flowers lend brightness to the room.

t.nP:Y. llh'i'll- 1:'1"-t'l- f.{IIOJII-

1. "7'tRq~:t>. The brilliance of a diamond
makes it desirable. fb't.,. "7'tRq~:f> Td.lf.
1.. J'f.C1'1'A
2. :f>A'I''i''i'. Her brilliance as a pianist was
known all over the world. fi"CJ''l" T"'i'l'"f)
'1- J'II.T :f>A'I''i''i' fioolf.ID- 'M'I" f;l'W


3. 1111\IJ)T. His brilliance put his teacher in the

shade. R11AIJ)-f, oo?"IJ<-'t hll'i'-t

I. 1."7:f>. You can teD his paintings by the
brilliant colors. fC(l-'t l"bii-:Y. R1."7:f> -t
II'I":Y. lloollf'l- '1-:Y.II.IIU

2. f"'l.J"tRqc:f>. The briUiant jewels were

admired by aU. f"'l.nRqc.,.'l- 1."1 1.'1'
fiiJoll-'1" Tf.'t-t'I'A

1. 1."7:f>. She likes to wear bright colors.

3. f:'t:f>. He is a brilliant speaker. f:'t:f> T'i'

1."7:f> 4'11'1" J'IIID- A111l 0011\fill '1-WJIII"f

2. 11<-U. Sunshine is bright. fB.hf. 11C?'t
11<-U )IDHis bright face was alight with happiness. 11<-


IJ ' """" ' Rf.ll;l' ' .C.It

3. P"' J'll. I like a bright fire. P"' J'll

hltT ' hWJIIIIJo


4. 11AIJ. He is the most brilliant man I know.

b"71D-:l"'I'ID- (ll""f IJoll- 0"1'1" 11AU
)ID5. '1-011. He is a brilliant scholar. 'I-fill
f"' rJoC I )o fJ)o
6. hllf.'i'4:. The musician gave a brilliant per-



formance last night. oo-n.-t'i'm- 'l-'01'1- 'I"
7i+ , hli~'04! +cll.e+ h,..f
7. 1'.'/".f f;f-f. Their wedding was the most
brilliant affair of the season. Om:J>., h-1-1'.<:
7-'l- )~C':f ' INr ' J'.'l".f ' f;f-ftJJo ' f)(l- '
{IC"I )0C

I. 1\'i'. The glass is filled to the brim. 11C"'.".f
"'" llllh l\4- '1"/A:f:/A

2. hLtt:. The brim of his hat is worn out.

rqc~"'"'" h.t.'i' hiA!IIIA

bring (brought)
1. li.oPtlJ. Bring me a glass of water, please.
h1Y: 11C"'.".f tD-:' h'I""'IA'S

What brings you to this town? l\11.11 h-1-"7 '

'1"1 1-."IC 1\DP"'IJ !
2. .P-11 """1. May I bring a friend with
me? 'il'.'i'll-1 .e-n: IA'I""' 1
3. l\llh-1-11. Spring brings birds and flowers.

YoJ'.F- mc::f1'0 l\Oil:f1 .l'llh'I-'1/A

4. hmar. These cars will bring a good price.
1-.)11.11 oPh.'Ol":f 'I'~ 1':> .fdJ"'ft5. 1\M'f. Loyalty and hard work are what

usually bring an advancement in pay. fl.fP

11 "1.""76 f"'l..l'il~"f. :J-"7'S~:r-... tn1h
f! I OD JP 6-T I 'i':fm-

bring down
I. 1\m<:l'.. I also brought down the big box.
'I-IA4<1'1" "1'1'1 hm<:Y:h-'12. hi"/A"'1 1\ml:!'.. The strike brought down
the new government. 1\Y:B'IfD" s h..'l,lto1' 1 oo
1"11"'1- hi"IA"11 l\m<:!'.m-

3. -t~il. I won't buy that lamp unless you

bring down the price. 1':>tD-1 IJ/A-l'~llh


4. -f-IN "'ll. The hunter brought down

a mountain goat. 11.~~ 1 f'"L~ lf:f&1'
-f-IN "'lltD-

brlng face to face

He brought the enemies face to face. mO'I''Il1

.t.+ 11.1.'1- h:>tn"7'1'1Dbring forth h-1-<:.1..(11'1-)

His idea brought forth a storm of applause.

.1'-l'l:OfDo oh ...11 f-l'lltn "1."11""q h-1-U.II'I-

bring in
I. hll~1. The dance brought in a hundred
dollars. -'111'l- .,..,. 11C hll~1
2. Mq. Take off the bark before you bring
in that log! .1'11 "11Y: h"?"lq'l-11 n.t.+


3. 1\0DIIJ. A camel caravan brings salt in from

the desert. f"loP/A "1'1-IA'I-IA h!l".r:<: 0-'ltD-
Q;a.IJ)a I


6. h.,.t!L. Edison's inventions brought him

glory. fll.-'lil1 'i'/Ail<l.l":f h11C l\-i-<:4-11'1Wbat will the future bring? IDF..d..T M r
.eoo"' .P-11"1 !

1-..1-.,1 011C"I .-.a.1 h-t<:o:f-11+

bring about
1. ftoPtlJ. The


war brought about a change

in living standards. tDC~., 0)-C' Ulf 'I

I ACD4' I il.ODilJ

2. l\llh-1-11. The disappearance of the airplane

brought about a search of the area. fl\tD-C'T
,..,. """'"'"~- o-to11.m- 'I'll:> hllh-1-11
3. .l..m<:. Equality between men and women is
hard to bring about. 0dJ1 P.:f<; 01'1.-f:f
ooiJh/A l\11-/A~'I- lloP'i'tnC hll'l':>6


bring along .f.fl ODtlJ

He brought along his entire staff. P'.l--1-'l''ll

I fl--1\- I .f.fl I 0011)


bring (someone) around to h."'Q1l.P.


He brought me around to his point of view.

l\"lq11-f'S Ooh ... ll-

1\ ... oo~'S

4. l\-1'<:0. She brought his supper in on a tray.

5. lJO. The school's prominence in science
brings in many students. f'I-!I"IIC'I- 0.., 0

oo;rm:J> 1111- -l-"76l":f1 .ell

bring on
1. l\llh-1-11. This incident will surely bring on
a disturbance. .r-11 7--'IF- 01-.C"I'I' 11'1'11
'I' .l'llh'I-'1/A
2. l\,..1'-<:(0+). His smoking cigarettes brought
on an attack of coughing. {l.jf.l- .,...,,...
r.-."' ' o7i;r h.-.1'-.:o'lbring out
I. 1\dJ"'. They are bringing out a new edition
of his work. foPI\'.J.4-1 h.ll.ll '-'1-'1" .fdJ"'ftCan't you bring the ball out?
2. 1\ID-T.f
\>,(1-1 l\tD-'1'-I-11 "7'1""1'1- 1\'l-:f/A!I" 1


The holiday brought out large crowds.

110'tft" ' 1111- ' ih1111

bring to




bring back oPII{I

Cold water brought her to.

Please bring the book back! oPJ\'.J.4-1 oo(All

~'I'll l\H.l-'1-



(not) bring (himself) to II:J'TtJ>o

They could not bring themselves to believe
the news. m&m-'1 Afl7oP") l\:J-7:flD"
(bring under), be brought under +l.O

The various points were brought under three

different chapters. A I< A 1< flf'l--1- "l-'II'":Y.
01"11-l- fTII.I'I< 'l"b&o~:Y. .,.COtJ>o )0C
bring up



Her aunt brought her up. 1\hil:l: II


2. M"'. I will bring it up at the next meeting.

O"''..,.'l'lltJ>o 11-tll'lfl ilf. M"''I'II!Jo
bring with it hilh.,.ll

Old age brings many diseases with it. l\C~'i"

.fill- <hOD'/" ,l'llh-1-IIA
[See also 'accusation, attention, control, dis-

credit, head, home, house, life, line, mind,

naught, order, pressure']

I. mC11. He went to the brink of the well.
I tJJ-;)lD" I "J-J.!"~J.!" I ffiC"If I 'tF.,.
2. 114-'i'. The country is on the brink of war.
11~&1: OtnC)or 114-'i! 'If. -1-~ ...II:Y.

I . .t..m"t ,I'll. A brisk walk brings him home
from school in ten minutes. Lm'l ilfl 7t.C
'l")f OOFC 1.-I::J' hor'I"IJCor IL-l-
l\IL-1: f.J'.CliA
2. f"''.,,'):J':J'. A brisk wind was blowing.
f"''.,,'):J':J' )4-11 f.)'i!ll )OC
*He took a brisk walk. t:-ooY: ~oo1: ~ ofl
II- T"tlf&olf t:

I. T1m1m. +"The line of soldiers bristled with
bayonets. Om;I'J'.C',; I'IA'i! ilf. ll"t)f .,.
~'l'"ltn )OC
2. lfoo. The eat's hair bristled when the dog
barked. tJ>olftJ>o 1'1.1.""11 f!!:ao;J: 11"1-C lfoo
3. J'.ao- He bristled at the insult. 1111

Beware, the glass is brittle.






Ttll"t.,."'> 1 ODII;I'
ID-1: 0.,.1111- f"''.I'IOC )tJ>o

broach (v.)
I. M"'. How do you broach an unpleasant
subject? 1111"'1,1'111.11-l- )~C l\"tf..-1- ;I')
"'IIII l

2. ) !!:II- h.t..T. He broached a barrel of wine.

fm)!:"t OC"'1A )J'.-11- h.t..TtJ>o

I. I'IA.. He has broad shoulders. I'IA. -1-h
lf lllltJ>o (or, J'.t:T I'IA. )tJ>o)
His broad education prepared him well for
the job. I'IA. flf)tJ>o or'I"IJC-1: IIF&otJ>o
O"''.~fl IIH:>)>;tJ>o
He has a broad view of the situation. lll\
11-~;l'tJ>o I'IA. IIIIT,I'f-1- 1\lltJ>o
2. 11'1' ,I'll. The broad expanse of the plain
was dotted with trees. 1\'1' fl\t& OIJ.Jo; h
A~ IIAG: ~~:y. TThlltJ>oO;I'A
broad outline m:t>l\1\


Give the broad outlines of today's lesson.

1111 >l<l.tJ>o or'I"IJC-1- m"'>ilil "'/.fl&-&,1'
in broad daylight .,."t O.,."t
It happened in broad daylight. .,."t O.,."t

~1C I


to broad daylight



He awoke to broad daylight. ltt:.t..J'. 0:\11

[See also 'jump']

broadcast (v.)
1. 0&--'1.1'" IIIITIIII.t... They will broadcast
directly from London. 0&--'1.1'"
ll"tJ'."t ,I'IITIIA4-II2. 111'1"7. The radio broadcast a speech filled
with menace. ~iF fT'I"ii0-1- "t"I"IC &-'1.\'"'l- 111'1"'1
3. 111'16-"". Don't broadcast the secret! 'l"lltn.""t 11;1'1'1&-"fl"


broadcast (n.)
I. f&--'1.1'" TC'"I&-9". The broadcast was called off for technical reasons. 01:hth "1-1.-11-l-
'l"h"t,l'or f&--'1.1'" TC'"I&-'1" .,.<:
2. 0&--'1.1'" fT)~t:. Did you listen to the
broadcast? 0&--'1.1'" fT)1t:tJ>o"t 1'1"'111 l

broaden (vt.)
I. 111'14-. The municipality is broadening the
new street. "'IH:>)f IL-l: 1\JI.(l."t oo"t~J'."
0"'1114--l- "" )tJ>o
2. 1101111~. Reading broadens our understand
ing. "'l"tO.fl btJ>o.,.;I':Y."t"t ,I'OIIl\'1'1'A
broaden (vi.) 1'14The river broadens at its mouth. m'ln- 1 floP
"IIU'tJ>o ilf. ' f.I'IM

(be) broad-minded h111-J'fof> (I.C.


He is a broad-minded person, and people

ask him for advice. h111-.l'f-l> (I.C. 11111f
~ (19':f l"'hC '-m'-4l:t"A

broadside 0'1-'t
The ship drifted broadside toward the shore.
ouCh!]. 0'1-'t IDS'. "'CiJ' 1-'t<'t.C..C.:f

brocade ft:.,., '1-1'1-1

The royal regalia is made of velvet and gold
brocade. f't'J-w ~11"-1> fh11C ' A1111 llh
'I''IM' llt:.,., fmc:,. .,.,.,., f-f"w&- ~.,.

brochure """111'"'1 ~~'"'""'

They published a brochure for the exhibition.

ll/1."1110.1i). ' oP"III'"'l ' ~~'"'""' ' hft-f"OU.

broil (vt.) mO(I

He broiled the meat. P';JIJJo't ' mOI'I
broil (vi.) -~""'mil
You will broil if you stay in the sun. 8dt'- 'I
'- 11'1-4''- '1-,..m'IIIU

broke, see break

(be) broke 'II'- 11.11-'t ~.,.
I am broke again, and it is only the day after
payday. AS'.;t- IJII.C.:f h'tY: .,, 11il'
rr<r ' 'II'- ' h.ll.' ' ~'S
be dead broke







It is the end of the month, and I am dead broke.

ftD'I- ' "7114!.1' ' 11111f~ ' 'II'- ' 7.:(1 ' ~'S

go broke bll~

He went broke gambling. 04l"7C ll(lt:

leave broke QP.. lt)f."}


A siege of illness left him broke, ft:~l"' 1.IJ,

"'""~"' ' 'II'- ' 7.1!:1 ' h11.,t:m-

[See also 'stone-broke']

broken, see break

broken (adj.)
I. f-i"I'I'IOt: I 1'1'1&-. The broken glass ruined my
tires. f-f"(lfJOt:m- oP11;J-m'l- 1"7\L't hO'I

The broken glass gashed his arm. 1'1'1&- me
.,...11 b'tJI..1 'l<t:mfD2. f-l"ll.l'f ! f.C.t:l'l. A united family is healthier than a broken one. 111-ll.l'f (ll.C.t:l'l)
0.1- 1'111 O'i':,.C f4'fm- '-'lf'IA
3. .I'A-1""1&-. The foreigner speaks broken
Amharic. fiD-"P M<l- (IIIJ- )'AT"!&- h'"IC
If W;'I&-A

*A broken promise is a betrayal of trust.

,..A't "Ym'i' 1.11"~'1-1 "''.,..S'.A ~.,.
*His broken health was due to age. m:n.J: r
1-,.tD(IIIJ- 07.C~'i' l"'h't.1''1- ~IIJbe broken +1\Rl:.
His backbone was broken when he fell.
OmS'.., 1.IJ, hllCIJ<IID- 1-(IOt:
His spirit was broken by his wife's death.
"7.11-1> 1111'1"1-:f :,.11.,... 1"(111~A
be broken down Ll,(l.

This detour is necessary because the bridge is

broken down. Y:AY:f- 1111.C.t:(l tl-f~ ao'f.Y:
h11.1.'11.' ~ ....

(be) broken-hearted dtH't


She was broken-hearted over her son's death.

OA:{ ou'f"'l- l"'h't,l''l- mH't 1-"P).;t-A



The cross is made of bronze.

(t I f-f-IP& I )aJa



brood (vt.)
I. ,..., .C.. The hen is still brooding her eggs,
but they will hatch soon. P..r:'l' hll-111"
7.1S'.:t-.,.c.:f ~:f 1 .,, o:,.co- '1-.C.II'i''lll:f
2. Ohl.?"r:ID- m-11'1' ~oc. +For years he
brooded vengeance. 111111- 'toP:J-'1- f4!1"'
o.,A m<'l11 Oh7.?"r:m- fD-11'1' ~oc
brood (vi.) OdtH't 1-hH
He brooded all day long over his misfortune.
""'"1'1.': ' ~Y:fl- ' .,).') ' -(1- ' " " ' " ' ' ll.
1-h11 ' 'I'll

brood (n.) '"'l""'of:f

The mother hen walked about followed by her
brood. l.'i'of:-1> 1'-r: '"'1....,_!1! 1-b'l-11'1''1-
mf!.l' m,11.u +A ~oc

brook ~t:+
The brook dries up in the sununer. ~t:'k 0

O,;J ,I'.S'.C,..A

broom oo'l't:1..1'
The woman got angry and hit the child with
the broom. ll.'I-1'-'P 1-'i'"' A~'P't OOD'J't:
1..1' ' oo;t-:fiD"

broth lfc'l 1 oPt;:,.

A hot cup of broth on a cold day tastes fine.
011C"-' n +11-11 lfc'l 1-11'"1"7.. ~.,.
Meaty broth is given to sick people. F ;J f
o~o+ ""t::,. IIO'li-l"'l':f Y.I'I"'A


brother (pl. brothers, brethren) m'tX:9"
My younger brother is in the tenth grade.
:1'"71 m'tX:"''. '+P'~>;' h'i'A )m-

f(ll":f't ID'tX:"'/"7:Y.H 11"7114-4-'i' f.'I'&-A

2. J"tX:)'i' "7~0C. The railroad workers belong to a brotherhood. rqfK. u>&--1-"'':Y. ,
'tX:)'i' .,~nc .Mlfm-

brother-in-law 'I'CII (wife's brother); A"7:Y. 1

h."7'i' (husband's hrother)
brotherly fm'tx.-"7"7:f)'i'
There was a brotherly feeling among the boys
in the class. Oh'i'll- m-11'1' qll-'i' /A}!.:Y.
ouiJhA fm'tX:"7"7:f)'i' DD'td-11 )0~

brought, see bring

brow nqc
He wiped the sweat off his brow. '111-'t h"'


Don't try to browbeat me! ODDJ'.'t'l-'i'., 1.
'i'll't 0"7'1'"'C A:l'lld.&-&-'S A'i''l"hC

n-.,., n-.,
Y.'l"lfi .,.119" n-..., )tJJo

His hair and eyes are brown. fii"K-., f'+
The brown cloth is flecked with green. II-., '+
J!.)'i' /A11!l. h.~'t'lf. .,.119" "'A "'A 11

[See also 'dark')

I. :>m. The cattle browse in the field. h11+
lfi O"'LJJ 'If. f."'"'ll-

2. -f-DDIII)h-1-. He likes to browse among the

books. ""1\"dtG::Y. ououlll)h'i' f.mJIA
bruin X:1l
bruise (v.)
I. l'l'tOC t.m"'. The boy bruised his knee.
A)!: .,.AOi> 'If. l'l'tOC h.ID"'
2. h.OIIII. The gun's recoil bruised his shoulder.
fmDD'tlftJJo l\C"'"'i 'i'hlfm-'t h.OIIIItJJo
3. 1-JI. His harsh words bruised her feelings.
f-1-.,.1&-'i' ~f.ll>;' ?A ll"''.:l:'t 1-Jim-

Tbe stirrup bruised the horse's flank.

't 7l't'l' l\CI)11 1-X:-r-:J'A

bruise (n.) l'l'tOC

He had a bruise on his left foot . ...,&- A-x.

"" moe )O~m-

I. m'tX:"'/"7:f)'i'. The YMCA tries to promote the brotherhood of man. m. m. h. "7.




brunt h'i'-1->;' ~Y.A

The island town bore the brunt of the storm.
fJ'.Il.:f: h-1-"7 f"76011- h'i'-f->;' "lf.A J'.

brush (v.)
I. ll~if. I brush my hair every morning.
tl>-T tl>-T 11.,.1.'t l\Pclf1111Piease brush my coat! 1>-l:'t IIC71A'S
2. A&-1d.. Brush the dust off my coat! h.!J.&-m hl>-1: ' "" ' h.&-"'.l.tJJo
4-4'. I have to brush my teeth. 'I'Cil.'t ou'l AII11'S
h.OI'l. The leaves of the tree brushed my
face as I walked through the forest. O"'il)m-
m-11'1' ll'tX: rq4- :,Omt~-:Y. 1.-l:'t An
5. m~1. The child brushed the tears from his
eyes. A)!: l\'tqm-'t l)f.'l"lfi 'If. m~1
brush aside h,-")gu AAtfLm~r"
He brushed my excuses aside. f{lm~Jo'i''t 9"
h'tf'i' h9"'t9" h.A._m~9"
brush lightly against Jo;(l(l

The leaves brushed lightly against his face.

:,Omll-lfi ' l.i>'t ' Jl(l{I-T
brush up on hi\A(I

I am brushing up on my Amharic. h."7C>;'IIo

't ' ODDh'lllll ' "" ' )'S

brush (n.)
I. 11~71. You can use this brush for your
shoes. 011.11 11'1-if "'i"711't A'i'Pc7in+
2. 'l'lf. Much of this land is covered with
brush. fll.ll ' DDI.T ' A11q>;'m- ' h'i'A ' n
'l'lf -1-if'i'S:A
3. Mil fll "'"P'i'. The troops had a brush
with the enemy. tn'l- hm'l'i' :>C Atil
fll "'"P'i' AJ'.~1

brusque 4lC'I' fll

His answer to our request was a brusque".
11'1' fi:f:f't fl'lm't ouA{I h.Y.If't9" f"'L
A .,C'I' fll ?A )0C

I. ""I)'S. He is a brutal ruler who has his
own people bombed. Mq <h1111-'t Dllf"11
f"'LfllJ'.OX:-Il ""I)'S ""6 )m10



He acted in a brutal way.


1\oPtl-C h<'lf

brutality "1"1)~
The brutality of the punishment shocked the
onlookers. :,.,..,.,. f\{1'1" ftR~CD- "1"1)~ 1"
ODAI)~ 'hM:t''fCDSome tribes wage war with brutality. h'M't
Y: .,..<'ll!'l- R"l"l)~ WI':>flbrutalize 1\CD-tl. hJ'.~'I
War tends to brutalize men. tDCH (tCD-'t
1\CD-tl. YJ'.C'I'I'A
I. 1\CD-tl.. He is a brute. l\C{l- hCD-tl. ~..,.
2. hJI:>l-. Man has struggled long against the
brute forces of nature. (l.m- J\~1'9"" "l.H.
M:>l- fof-.1..'1"1: "l,l'.i!\ :JC :1-"'!I..A
bubble (v.) 1"<;:114'114'
The water is beginning to bubble. m-:-m-
<;:11:,011:,0 )'..'oo~
bubble over



The last time I saw her she was bubbling over

with enthusiasm. hH..U R.I.'!- <'IY'I- R:JII
ll"'L'I- '1-.t.~Y::,. ~nc
bubble with

*His mind bubbles with plans and ideas.

-art- m<'lll:foi' l\:,OP..l- hhl\9"1:"'" CD-ll


bubble (n.) h<:-1You could see the bubbles rise to the surface.
h~-1- tDJ'. 11,1'. 1\tD"' .1'.:1-YA
buck (v.) 1-:J'moo
The mayor bucked at the school director's
suggestion. h't>J:QCD- f'I-II"UC'I- IL.,.'t Jl.
tl.hof"C ' m<'l-11 o 1-:J'IDOU
make buck ~4'~4'

The turbulent air made the plane buck. fof"o;m

lieD- hfC 1\CD-t!'TII~'t ~4'~4'CDbuck, n. [ID'tY: h:JH't l tD,I'.II" m'tY: 'l"'t
'fA I ID,I'.II" ' tD'tY: ' f"'JI ' <;:fA]
bucking l\'t"''l" f"'LA
The bucking horse unseated him. l\'t"''l' f
"'LIICD- .l..~ll hi>Cii'CD- 11,1'. "'IICDbucket QAJI.
He carried the water in a bucket to put. out
the fire. l\<'l.,.'t 11"7'1'4-+ RQAJI. CD-;) h





buckle (vt.) 4&11.1..

I cannot buckle the strap. fmt;:'l-'t HIIR+
A'I&A<;: hAl-All"
I cannot buckle my belt. 4'R.f\lo't A'I&A'i!
buckle (vi.)


The bridge buckled under the weight of the

heavy truck. hODhSCD- h-111'.'1- fof-~"1 Y:
AY:\< ' of-(1~.,..,._
buckle down hl\ll"f!'CD-'t liP'&- (tR(tR

He was by nature a daydreamer and found

it hard to buckle down. R-1-.l..'!"f!'CD- m<'IR-
f"'LQh't 0 iiiiiJ'~ 0 1\l\jl"f!'CJJo't 0 IIJ"tl- 0 0D
(1-fl(t-fl ' h:t-1-CD-

*It's about time we buckled down to work.

:14'4"t fll"'toP&-R'I- "1..11. ~..,.
buckle to 1-YYH
She buckled to the housework. fiL-I>'t P'
&- 1-YYH:f-CDbuckle under

ltn: hA

He refused to take the medicine, but buckled

under when the doctor told him to. ooY:"lt.,.
't hACD-'1"11" -1111- ~nc "''t P..hT'I-
l\'tJI.CD-'1" IU"'~CD- l'.lf.. hll
buckle (n.) HIIR'IThe buckle came off my belt. HIIR.,. h4'R.f
\!o 11,1'. tDII4'
bud (budded), v. l\ll"tl-'1' YH
The rose bush has budded.
tl-'1' ' ,l'.!f..A



bud (n.) l\II"R-'1'

The frost killed all the buds. CD-C"" l\II"Rtl',.;'t 11-11 hm-1-'fCDbuddy r:,>c-o 'IJ'.'f
He was my buddy all through my school years.
'1-II"UC'I- IL'I- R~Rch-R'I- "1..11. 11-fl- f:,O
c-o 'IJ'.'f\!o ~nc
budge (vt.) M:t-~4'
The stone was so heavy that the child could
not budge it. Y:'t:J\< R"'ll" hQY: 1111~
n~ A'JI'.. 1\Y~n.,...,. hAil'llll"
budse (vi.)
I. 1"'t4'{)4'(t. The mule would not budge.
n:,Ot~-'1' hA't4'<'14'll hll:f-

2. m<'ltl-'t lltDm. Once her father had said

"no", he wouldn't budge. hfl:t A~l. hf..
ll"tll" 1)11 m<'ltl-'t h.e.IICD-'1'9"

budget (v.)

build up

You will have to learn to budget your salary.

J'.'l"1fl)") ' 1,")1..'1- o 1,")J'.f";J-ID"l ' ODODJ'.ofl '
Od{AODJ/; ' hl\ofll)


budget (n.) Q)';'l-

l ID"l'i'
The ministry's new budget exceeded the funds
allowed it last year. f"''.th1* hJI.h Q)';'l-
'l9"'i' h_,.L4'J'.II'I- Rlltn
Balancing my budget is hopeless. W"l'i' ,
0.\1.1' "7:J''i''l- hf.IMII'S9"

I. [IIMI( fll"t M11 -I'JI ,_,.,..&- tn"tiJ
tl- ' -I'JI]
2. (J'.ofl~~ ' R."'i]

buffalo 111

buffer f"l"l''l- ooh'\11)'

The buffer in front of the car prevented any
damage from happening. nooh.'i'ID' ' .,_,. '
YIIID' M"l''l- ooh'\11)' 'l'JI'I- 1.1'JIJ'.J'.
Ch _,.h'lhll

The waves buffeted him.

buffet (n.)

I. hJIR<!. He built up the business. "t"IJI.1' h

2. hJ'.tl-)1;. This country is building up its

army to counter the threat of invasion. .eo

lo h,C ID<!tl-1' 1\0dl\'1\'9" lf'a:"t 7.Y

S'.&-)';l- ' ~l3. h.,.i!l.. The firm has built up a wide
reputation for fair dealing. Y:C;e'..,
llll"t ,RYID' h'i'_,.'i' 11.,.., hTC,i-IA


(be) built up .,.h.,.oo

The area near the airport is being built up.
RhiD'I!"l''\1' "'R.YID' htn,ofl YIIID' 11
<;:&- Rooh.,.9" 'If. ~ID'
[See also 'slightly']


The buffalo and the ox look alike.111'i' """


buffet (v.)





I. foP&-. The builder of these churches is well

known. Mll.ll"t IL_,. hCM:Y'l"l- fD'tl-ID'
0"1!1" ' f;I-ID4' ' ~ID'
The builders were pinched by
a shortage of good lumber. R'l'-1- n..,:,. 1.
'1'<!'1- 9"h1'Y'I- ,"fiU"'Il ' _,.,,"~-




Both offices are in one building. o-11..,9" 0.1!"

l"l- ' Q")J!; ' .ft")~ ' IIJoll'l' ' .,.,.

build-up "7S'.C)';+


The dishes are in the buffet. l(.ft'l"'ll Roo

J'.CJ'.6Y ID'h'l' 'i''I'ID'

The build-up of the nation's heavy industry

is vital. fll,6.., hQJ!: h.1'JI.ll'l-69':f"t "7
S'.C)';'I- 1.;e'"l hhL'\'1. ' ~.,_

bug (n.)
I. 'I-A. The leaves were covered with bugs.
:,Omll-'ll n+A .,.mt:tJJo tnc
2. '1-""a1'. The mattress