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AC VOLTAGE REGULATION USING SCR

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

Aim: To study Control scheme of AC voltage regulation Power circuit of AC voltage regulation Test the circuits

Theory: In the bridge circuit, diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and commutated simultaneously. Here, natural commutation is used. AC voltage is applied across the SCRs. commutation occurs. When the voltage across the SCR goes below zero, natural

During the positive half-cycle, SCR1 forward biased and, then there will be current through P SCR1 RL N.

During the negative half-cycle of the a.c. input, SCR2 are forward biased and if they are triggered simultaneously, there will be current through N RL SCR2 P. The output power is controlled through phase control of ac waveform. Control Scheme: Since the output power is controlled by phase control of the ac waveform, phase control IC TCA 785 is used in this experiment. Functional description: IC 785 is a 16 pin IC. In this IC, the synchronization signal is obtained via a high ohmic resistance from the supply A.C. voltage. A zero voltage detector evaluates the zero passages and

transfers them to the synchronization register. This synchronization register controls a ramp generator, the capacitor C10 of which is charged by a constant current (determined by R9). Varying the resistance R9 can control the slope of the ramp. Inside the IC, there is one comparator. One input of the comparator is ramp voltage generated. Another input is DC control voltage, which is obtained in Pin 11 making use of external Potentiometer. If the ramp voltage V10 exceeds the control voltage V11 (triggering angle), a signal is processed to the logic. Dependent on the magnitude

of the control voltage V11, the triggering angle can be shifted within a phase angle of 0 to 180. For every half wave, a positive pulse of approx. 30 S duration appears at the outputs Q1 (Pin 14) and Q2 (Pin 15). If pin 12 is connected to ground, pulses with duration between and 180 will result. The outputs Q1 is given to trigger circuit 1 and the output Q2 is given to the trigger circuit 2. The outputs of the trigger circuits are connected to the pair of SCRs.The trigger circuit consists of pulse transformer at the output. It has 1:1pulse transformer. There are 2windings. One winding is connected as primary and other one windings is used as secondary to trigger the SCR. By varying the control voltage, the phase angle is changed.

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PROCEDURE: 1. Ensure that the kit is in OFF condition. 2. Connect the (0-15V) Ac voltage input to the rectifier circuit. 3. Connect the PG1 terminal to the PG1 terminal. 4. Similarly connect the PK1 ,NK2 and NG2 terminals to the corresponding terminals. 5. Connect the AMMETER at the (0-500mA) terminals for measure the load current. 6. Connect the VOLTMETER across output DC voltage. 7. Switch ON the module and 15V AC input voltage. the Vac output terminal for measure the

8. Set the phase angle at 30 degree using potentiometer. 9. Measure the trigger pulse across the PG1 and PK1 terminals and measure the DC output voltage waveform at the Vac terminals. 10. Gradually vary the phase angle and note down the output AC voltage.

DATA ACQUISITION THROUGH SERIAL PORT TO PC USING ARM 7 LPC2148 USER MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD


NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. PH: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PRIVATE LIMITED

LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB

Technical Reference

2011 Board

VIK-ARM7 Development

Chapter 1 Introduction to the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB

Chapter 1 provides a description of the LPC2148VIK- ARM7 DB along with the key features and a block diagram of the circuit board.

Topic

1.0 1.1

Overview of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Functional Overview of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB

Vikasha Electronics 1.0 Overview of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB


The LPC2148 microcontroller is based on a 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI- S CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support, that combine microcontroller with embedded high speed flash memory 512 kB. A 128bit wide memory interface and unique accelerator architecture enable 32bit code execution at the maximum clock rate. For critical code size applications, the alternative 16-bit Thumb mode reduces code by more than 30 % with minimal performance penalty.

Due to their tiny size and low power consumption, LPC2148 are ideal for applications where miniaturization is a key requirement, such as access control and point-of-sale. Serial communications interfaces ranging from a USB 2.0 Full-speed device, multiple UARTs, SPI, SSP to I2C-bus and onchip SRAM 40 kB, make these devices very well suited for communication gateways and protocol converters, soft modems, voice recognition and low end imaging, providing both large buffer size and high processing power. Various 32-bit timers, single or dual 10-bit ADC(s), 10-bit DAC, PWM channels and 45 fast GPIO lines with up to nine edge or level sensitive external interrupt pins make these microcontrollers suitable for industrial control and medical systems.

1.1 Key Features of the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB


The VIK-ARM7 DB has the following features:

16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package. 40 kB of on-chip static RAM and 512 kB of on-chip flash memory 128bit wide interface/accelerator enables high-speed 60 MHz operation.

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In-System/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip bootloader software. Single flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1 ms.

EmbeddedICE RT and Embedded Trace interfaces offer real-time


debugging with the on-chip RealMonitor software and high speed tracing of instruction execution.

Two 10-bit A/D converters provide a total of 14 analog inputs, with


conversion times as low as 2.44 s per channel.

Single 10-bit D/A converter provide variable analog output.

Two 32-bit timers/external event counters (with four capture and four
compare channels each), PWM unit (six outputs) and watchdog.

Low power real-time clock with independent power and dedicated 32


kHz clock input.

Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs, two Fast I2C-bus (400
kbit/s), SPI and SSP with buffering and variable data length capabilities.

Vectored interrupt controller with configurable priorities and vector


addresses.

Up to 45 of 5 V tolerant fast general purpose I/O pins in a tiny LQFP64 package.

Up to nine edge or level sensitive external interrupt pins available. 60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip
PLL with settling time of 100 s.

On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal in range


from 1 MHz to 30 MHz and with an external oscillator up to 50 MHz.

Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down. Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions as well as peripheral
clock scaling for additional power optimization.

Processor wake-up from Power-down mode via external interrupt,


USB, Brown-Out Detect (BOD) or Real-Time Clock (RTC). Single power supply chip with Power-On Reset (POR) and BOD circuits: CPU operating voltage range of 3.0 V to 3.6 V (3.3 V 10 %) with 5 V tolerant I/O pads. 50 pin Expansion I/O Connectors.

Chapter 3 LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB Quick Start Installation Guide

This chapter describes the Software Installation procedure for LPC2148VIK-ARM7 DB.

Topic 2.0 2.1 2.2 System Hardware and Software Requirements Software Installation Procedure Getting Started

Vikasha Electronics 2.0 System Hardware and Software Requirements

These operating platform requirements are necessary to install the Keil (micro) version Integrated Development Environment and support the Serial/USB port. The requirements for the operating platform are:

Minimum Hardware Configuration


233 MHz. or faster Pentium or compatible 600 MB of free hard disk space Microsoft Windows 2000 or XP 64MB of RAM Local CD-ROM Drive

Recommended Hardware Configuration


256MB of RAM 500 MHz. or faster Pentium or compatible

2.1

Software Installation Procedure


Before you install the VIK-ARM7 software, make sure the PC has a Serial/USB port and an operating system (Windows 2000/XP) that supports USB. Note: For Windows 2000 and XP you must install Keil IDE using Administrator privileges. Also prior to installing the Keil IDE make sure the Virus checker on your system is turned off or disabled. It may be turned on or enabled when running Keil IDE. 1. Insert the LPC2148VIK-ARM7 CD into the CD-ROM Drive. Go to arm7\software\keil IDE and run mdk350.exe from the CD-ROM. The following screen will appear.

2.

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3.

Enable the License Agreement option and click Next.

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4. After installation, the following window will appear and click Finish.

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5.

To start Keil IDE, double click the Keil version 3 icon on your desktop.

The help included with the Keil IDE contains in-depth information and will help you to get started with your LPC2148VIK-ARM7 and to learn more about its features.

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Follow the procedures to install LPC2000 Flash Programming Utility. 1. Go to arm7\software\programming utility and run setup.exe from CD-ROM.

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2. After installation, click Finish.

2.

Create a shortcut icon on the desktop and double click to open. Then click the Read Device ID

You can see the message Read Part ID Successfully at the bottom of Flash utility. From this we can conclude that the connection has been established successfully. Now press Reset Switch (RST) of VIK-ARM7 DB board and click OK. Turn the Switch (SW1) of VIK-ARM7 DB to RUN Mode. To view the output press Reset Switch (RST) once again.

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2.2 Getting Started This Getting Started users guide provides an overview of the Keil ARM toolchain and explains how to Create Applications and how to test the programs. Creating Applications It explains the Build Mode of vision and shows you how to use the user interface to create a sample program and also discuss the options for generating and maintaining projects. This includes output file options, configuration of ARM tools for optimum code quality, and the features of vision project manager. To create a new project file, follow the procedures given below. Select New vision Project from Project menu.

Choose the name and location for the file to be stored.

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To create a new project vision asks you to select a CPU for your project and click yes to add Startup Code to your project.

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After adding source code to your project, the project window will appear as shown below.

In the options for target menu -> Linker enable the Use Memory Layout from Target Dialog.

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In Target option, choose crystal value as 12 MHz and Operating system as None.

In Output option, enter the Name of Executable file and choose the path to store the file. Also enable Create HEX file option and click OK.

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Testing programs

Translate the current file (compile). Build Target. Rebuild all target files. This explains the Debug Mode of vision and shows you how to use the user interface to test a sample program. It also discusses the varies features of Simulation Mode.

The Vision Debugger simulates up to 4GB (Giga Bytes) of memory from which areas can be mapped for read, write, or code execution access. The Vision simulator traps and reports illegal memory accesses To start the debug mode of Vision with the Debug Start/Stop Debug Session command. Depending on the Options for Target Debug configuration, Vision will load the application program and run the startup code.

Start Debug Mode

Application Program Execution

For further details please refer, the help option in Keil Vision. Note: Copy all the header files from arm7\basic programs\header files of CD-ROM and paste it in the following path C:\Keil\ARM\INC\Philips.

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CODING OF 8 Channels ADC :#include<lpc214x.h> #include<lcd.h> #include<uart.h> main( ) { volatile unsigned long temp; unsigned int val = 0; unsigned char ch = 0; PINSEL0 = 0x00000000;

PINSEL1 = 0x00000000; lcd_init( ); serial_init( ); PINSEL0 |= 0xCF333000; PINSEL1 |= 0x00001800; AD1CR = 0x002109FF; display("Channel:",0,0); display("Digtal val:",0,1); delay(25); while(1) { for(ch=0;ch<8;ch++) { switch(ch) { case 0: temp = AD1DR0; break; case 1: temp = AD1DR1; break; case 2: temp = AD1DR2; break; case 3: temp = AD1DR3; break; case 4: temp = AD1DR4; break; case 5: temp = AD1DR5; break; case 6: temp = AD1DR6; break; case 7: temp = AD1DR7; break; } val = temp >> 6; val = val & 0x03FF; displaynum(ch,10,0); displaynum(val,12,1); delay(1000); uart_tx_st("ADC '1' Channel:"); uart_num(ch); uart_tx_st(" Output:"); uart_num(val); delay(1000); uart_tx_ch(0x0D); uart_tx_ch(0x0A); } } }

**______________________________________________________________________ ______**

CODING OF LCD :#include<lpc21xx.h> #include<lcd.h> void lcd_init( ) { IODIR0 = 0x00060000; //PORT 0 P0.17->RS=1, P0.18->EN=1 IODIR1 = 0x00FF0000; //PORT 1 P1.16-P1.23 data lines lcd_cmd(0x38); // 8 bits LCD 2x16 Initialize command lcd_cmd(0x38); lcd_cmd(0x38); lcd_cmd(0x0c); // Cursor ON lcd_cmd(0x06); // Cursor move to right lcd_cmd(0x01); // Clear the LCD delay(5); return; } void lcd_cmd(char ch) { long temp; IOCLR0 = 0xFFFFFFFF; temp =(long) ch << 16; IODIR0 = 0x00060000; //PORT 0 P0.17->RS=1, P0.18->EN=1 IODIR1 = 0x00FF0000; //PORT 1 P1.16-P1.23 data lines IOSET1 = temp; IOSET0 = 0x00040000; //PORT 0 P0.17-low, P0.18-high to low pulse delay(10); IOCLR0 = 0x00040000; IOCLR1 = 0x00FF0000; } void lcd_data(char ch) { long temp; IOCLR0 = 0xFFFFFFFF; temp =(long) ch << 16;

IOSET1 = temp; IOSET0 = 0x00060000; delay(10); IOCLR0 = 0x00040000; IOCLR1 = 0x00FF0000; }

//PORT 0 P0.17-low,P0.18-high to low pulse

void display(char *str,char x,char y) // display string data ,cursor position columun , row { char in; gotoxy(x,y); for(in=0;str[in] != '\0';in++) // display until NULL character lcd_data(str[in]); return; } void gotoxy(char xx,char yy) { char adr; if(yy==0) adr=0x80; else adr=0xc0; xx = xx & 0x0f; adr = adr| xx; lcd_cmd(adr); return; } void lcd_clr(void) { lcd_cmd(0x01); } void delay(int d) { int i; while(d) { for(i=0;i<7000;i++); // columun , row

// 1st row // 2nd row // separate low bits // add with row of the lower bits // LCD command for row and column

// clear the LCD

// delay routine form 1ms

d--; } } void displaynum(int no,char x,char y) // display number and columun and row { unsigned char in[4], i; gotoxy(x,y); // position of columun and row in[3]=(unsigned char)(no%10); // seperate the 4 digit value no=no/10; in[2]=(unsigned char)(no%10); no=no/10; in[1]=(unsigned char)(no%10); no=no/10; in[0]=(unsigned char)(no%10); if(in[0] == 0) // space for 0th array { lcd_data(' '); i=1; } else i=0; for(;i <4;i++) lcd_data(in[i]+0x30); // recursion function of number separate and display the number return; } **______________________________________________________________________ ______**

CODING OF UART ://program for serial communication #include<lpc21xx.h> #include<uart.h> unsigned char i; void serial_init(void) { // serial calling function initialization

PINSEL0 |= 0x00000005; pin U0FCR = 0X07; U0LCR = 0x83; U0DLL = 0x61; U0DLM = 0x00; U0LCR = 0x03; } void uart_tx_ch(unsigned char temp) { while (!(U0LSR & 0x20)); U0THR = temp; } void uart_tx_st(unsigned char *data) { for(i=0;data[i]!='\0';i++) uart_tx_ch(data[i]); }

// p0.0 and p0.2 act as a serial txd and rxd // enable transmitter and receiver and buffer // set the size of serial buffer as 8bits // set the lower byte data latch register // also the lower bts // size of serial buffer is 8

// transmit character function // wait till char to be transmitted // load the char to transmit hold register

// transmit a string function // wait till transmit upto reach null char // transmit a single char

void uart_num(unsigned int no) // display number and columun and row { unsigned char in[4]; in[3]=(unsigned char)(no%10); // seperate the 4 digit value no=no/10; in[2]=(unsigned char)(no%10); no=no/10; in[1]=(unsigned char)(no%10); no=no/10; in[0]=(unsigned char)(no%10); if(in[0] == 0) // space for 0th array { uart_tx_ch(' '); i=1; } else i=0; for(;i<4;i++) { uart_tx_ch(in[i]+0x30); // recursion function of no separate and display the no.

return; } int getkey (void) /* Read character from Serial Port */ { while (!(U0LSR & 0x01)); // wait to get response from gsm modem return (U0RBR); // hold the received output in received buffer register } **______________________________________________________________________ ______**

Output:
Now create the hex file and download it to the target board. 1. Connect 8 Channel ADC Interface Add-on card to ARM7 LPC2148 Kit in 50 pin FRC connector. 2. Open the Hyper Terminal windows using the given below details.

(or)

C:\Program Files\Windows NT

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Open the Hyper terminal window and give any name to your connection.

Choose the COM port as per the connection, and set the port settings as shown below. NOTE : (Close any other application which using serial port like flash programming utility).

3. In the ARM7 LPC2148 Kit Change the toggle switch (SW1) position to Run Mode and Press Reset. Data Acqusition through serial port to PC viewing in hyper terminal window.

4. Storage data by click Edit in menu bar then click select all and Paste in notepad save the file.

5. Verify the voltage using banana connector of each channel(AD1.0


to AD1.7) vs GND ground by Multimeter, voltage range vary from 0 to + 3.3V and ADC Value vary from 0 to 1023 as it a 10 bit resolution.

DC MOTOR INTERFACE

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

INTRODUCTION:

The DC Motor control interface consists of a buffer amplifier, opto isolator, and the final stage consists of a transistorized pulse amplifier. The transistorized amplifier stage drives a mosfet for switching the supply voltage applied to the DC motor. The microprocessor kit generates, a pulse width modulated pulse by software programming. The PWM pulse is obtained through an 8255 peripheral interface IC, with one of its ports defined as the output port. The PWM pulse is taken through an output port pin (PA0). The PWM pulse is fed to a transistorized inverter (Q5) the collector of the transistor is connected to 4050 gates, which act as the buffer stage. The output pulse from the buffer is further opto isolated using the opto isolator (MCT 2E). This helps in preventing false triggering the microprocessor unit, when the motor switches ON.

The opto isolated pulse drives a NPN-PNP complementary transistor stage. The output of the transistor stage is connected to the gate of the mosfet (Q4). Depending on the pulse width (it can vary between10 % to 90%) the average DC voltage applied to the DC motor varies, which contributes to the change in the speed of the DC motor.

The experiment can be conducted to obtain change in the speed of the motor by changing the delay in the software program and simultaneously, measuring the pulse width of the generated pulse.

CONNECTOR DETAILS

1. 26 PIN FRC CONNECTOR:


PIN NO. DETAILS

17 18 20 22 24

RESET GND PA7 PA6 PA5

2. 4 PIN RMC: PIN NO. DETAILS

1 2 3 4

+ 5V GND GND + 12V

3. 6 PIN MOLEX: PIN NO. DETAILS

1 2 3 4 5 6

A A B B + 12V + 12V

I/O address for 8255 (bottom 26 pin connector)

Port A Port B Port C Cntrl Reg

20 21 22 23

PROGRAM FOR 8085:9000 9002 9004 9006 9008 3E 80 D3 23 3E 7F 3E 01 D3 20 MVI A, 80 OUT 23 MVI A, 7F MVI A, 01 OUT 20 CALL 9017 MVI A, 00 OUT 20 CALL 9022 JMP 9004 MVI A, 01 ADD B NOP NOP NOP DCR A JNZ 901A RET MVI A, 64 SUB B NOP NOP NOP DCR A JNZ 9025 ; DELAY OFF Program ; DELAY ON COUNT (01 TO FF) ; DELAY OFF ; DELAY ON

900A CD 17 90 900D 3E 00 900F D3 20 9011 9014 9017 9019 CD 22 90 C3 04 90 3E 01 80

901A 00 901B 00 901C 00 901D 3D 901E C2 1A 90 9021 9022 9024 9025 9026 9027 9028 9029 C9 3E 64 90 00 00 00 3D C2 25 90

902C C9

RET

PROGRAM FOR 8086:


3000 3003 3005 3006 3008 BA 26 FF B0 80 EE B0 01 BA 20 FF MOV DX, 0FF26h MOV AL, 80h OUT DX, AL loop0: MOV AL, 01h MOV DX, 0FF20h OUT DX, AL CALL delayhigh MOV AL, 00H OUT DX, AL CALL delaylow JMP loop0 delayhigh: MOV AH, 20h loop1: NOP NOP NOP DEC AH JNZ loop1 RET delaylow: MOV AL, 01H loop2: NOP NOP DEC AL JNZ loop2 RET ; (3023) ; (3019) ; High delay count (01 to ff) ; (3021) ; (3017)

300B EE 300C E8 08 00 300F B0 00 3011 3012 3015 3017 3019 EE E8 0C 00 EB EF B4 20 90

301A 90 301B 90 301C FE CC 301E 75 F9 3020 3021 3023 3024 3025 3027 3029 C3 B0 01 90 90 FE C8 75 FA C3

PROGRAM FOR 8051:


8500 8502 8505 8506 delay 8508 74 01 MOV A, # 01 MOV DPTR, # 4000 MOVX @DPTR, A LCALL 851A MOV A, # 00 MOVX @DPTR, A LCALL 8524 LJMP 8506 ; DELAY OFF ; LOOP ; DELAY ON 74 80 90 40 03 F0 79 50 LOOP: MOV A, # 80 MOV DPTR, # 4003 MOVX@DPTR, A MOV R1, # 7f ;user can change the ;control port of 8255

850A 90 40 00 850D F0 850E 12 85 1A 8511 8513 8514 8517 74 00 F0 12 85 24 02 85 06

DELAY ON:
851A 74 00 851C 29 851D 00 851E 00 851F 00 8520 8521 8523 14 70 FA 22 MOV A, # 00 ADD A, R1 NOP NOP NOP DEC A JNZ 851D RET

DELAY OFF:
8524 8526 8527 74 64 99 00 MOV A, #64 SUBB A, R1 NOP

8528 8529

00 00

NOP NOP DEC A JNZ 8527 RET

852A 14 852B 70 FA 852D 22

DC VOLTAGE REGULATION USING SCR

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX,

THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

Aim: To study Control scheme of DC voltage regulation Power circuit of DC voltage regulation Test the circuits

Theory: In the bridge circuit, diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and commutated simultaneously. Here, natural commutation is used. AC voltage is applied across the SCRs. commutation occurs. When the voltage across the SCR goes below zero, natural

During the positive half-cycle, SCR1 and SCR4 are forward biased and if they are triggered simultaneously, then there will be current through P SCR1 RL SCR4 N.

During the negative half-cycle of the a.c. input, SCR3 and SCR2 are forward biased and if they are triggered simultaneously, there will be current through N SCR3 RL SCR2 P. SCR1 and SCR4 are triggered at same firing angle in each positive half cycle. SCR3 and SCR2 are triggered at the same firing angle in each negative half-cycles of the supply voltages. The output power is phase controlled DC waveform. The output values are + Vdc = 1/ Idc = Vdc/ R = (2Em/ R) ( cos ) Em sin d = (2Em/) (cos )

Vrms = (Em/2 ) = Erms

After the experiment, theoretical values of Vdc, Idc and Vrms can be verified Control Scheme: Since the output power is controlled by phase control of the ac waveform, phase control IC TCA 785 is used in this experiment. Functional description: IC 785 is a 16 pin IC. In this IC, the synchronization signal is obtained via a high ohmic resistance from the supply A.C. voltage. A zero voltage detector evaluates the zero passages and

transfers them to the synchronization register. This synchronization register controls a ramp generator, the capacitor C10 of which is charged by a constant current (determined by R9). Varying the resistance R9 can control the slope of the ramp. Inside the IC, there is one comparator. One input of the comparator is ramp voltage generated. Another input is DC control voltage, which is obtained in Pin 11 making use of external Potentiometer. If the ramp voltage V10 exceeds the control voltage V11 (triggering angle), a signal is processed to the logic. Dependent on the magnitude of the control voltage V11, the triggering angle can be shifted within a phase angle of 0 to 180. For every half wave, a positive pulse of approx. 30 S duration appears at the outputs Q1 (Pin 14) and Q2 (Pin 15). If pin 12 is connected to ground, pulses with duration between and 180 will result. The outputs Q1 is given to trigger circuit 1 and the output Q2 is given to the trigger circuit 2. The outputs of the trigger circuits are connected to the pair of SCRs. The trigger circuit consists of pulse transformer at the output. It has 1:1 pulse

transformer. There are 2 windings. One winding is connected as primary and other one windings are used as secondary to trigger both SCRs at a time. By varying the control voltage, the phase angle is changed. In the experiment board, to vary the control signal, the potentiometer is provided. The triggering pulse for the positive cycle and negative cycle are taken out. The primary of 1:1 pulse transformer is connected to the trigger output of positive half cycle. The secondary are named as P1 and P2. Similarly, the primary of another 1:1 pulse

transformer is connected to the trigger output of negative half cycle. The secondary is named as N1. The following 4 pages gives the details of IC TCA 785

_______________________________________________________

PROCEDURE: 11. Ensure that the kit is in OFF condition. 12. Connect the (0-15V) Ac voltage input to the rectifier circuit. 13. Connect the PG1 terminal to the PG1 terminal. 14. Similarly connect the PK1 ,NK2,NG2,PG3,PK3,NK4 and NG4 terminals to the corresponding terminals. 15. Connect the AMMETER at the (0-500mA) terminals for measure the load current. 16. Connect the VOLTMETER across the Vdc output terminal for measure the output DC voltage. 17. Switch ON the module and 15V AC input voltage. 18. Set the phase angle at 30 degree using potentiometer. 19. Measure the trigger pulse across the PG1 and PK1 terminals and measure the DC output voltage waveform at the Vdc terminals. 20. Gradually vary the phase angle and note down the output voltage.

LDR MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

OPERATION MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com INTRODUCTION:
A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g.

silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, and added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor.

Applications
Photoresistors come in many different types. Inexpensive cadmium sulfide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarms, and outdoor clocks. They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction. Lead sulfide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light dependent resistor) are used for the mid infrared spectral region. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best farinfrared detectors available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy.

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT:

LDR

ANALOG OUT

ADC

PROCESSOR UNIT

DIGITAL VALUE

LIGHT

Connection Diagram for LDR


8085 MicroProcessor kit
LDR Module POWER SUPPLY
+5 V GND -5 V sw

9 pin Connector

ADC CARD +
ADC I/P GND

5V

+5 V GND -5 V

Analog O/P

signal condition for LDR

GND

LAB EXPERIMENT
AIM:
To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the resistance depend on light measuring voltage unit and thereby to study LDR functionality.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the + 5v power supply to signal conditioning circuit. 2. Place the multimeter probe across the Analog O/P and its corresponding ground (GND).

3. Connect the LDR module to the signal conditioning circuit and switch ON the LDR module. 4. By using the regulator, the Light intensity is varied in the LDR module; the corresponding analog output will be displayed. 5. By switch OFF the signal conditioning circuit, the resistance value of LDR is measured through multimeter. 6. Now, we calculated the output by a resistance value versus analog output. TABULATION: Intensity
(In V)

Analog Out
(In V)

Digital Value
(In HEX)

0 100 230

0 1 2

0 80 FF

DISPLACEMENT SYSTEM USING LVDT

MEASUREMENT

OPERATION MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

DESCRIPTION:
An LVDT displacement transducer consists of one primary coil and two secondary coils arranged symmetrically to form a hollow cylinder. The primary coil is excited by an AC carrier signal of 1 to 5Khz. If the magnetic core which moves axially is in the centre of null position both secondary windings have equal output. The two secondary terminals are connected in series opposition giving zero output when the magnetic core is in null position. If the core is displaced from null position, one of the secondary voltage will increase, and the other will decrease causing a net difference in output to appear in the secondary terminals. With proper design, the output voltage magnitude can be made

proportional to the displacement of the core from the null position. Phase of the output will indicate the direction of the displacement from the null position. ADVANTAGES OF LVDT: The advantages of LVDT are better linearity, (within the specified range), high resolution, and higher output signal, less friction, less hysterisis, low power consumption and ruggedness. DISADVANTAGES OF LVDT: The disadvantages are its sensitive to stray magnetic fields, vibrations, temperature and its limited dynamic response. BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT:

LVDT

ANALOG OUT

ADC

PROCESSOR UNIT

DIGITAL VALUE

DISPLACEMENT

Connection Diagram for LVDT


8085 MicroProcessor kit
9 pin Connector LVDT Module

9 pin Connector
+12 V -12 V GND

ADC CARD +
ADC I/P GND

5V

signal condition for LVDT


Analog O/P GND

EX I/P Transducer O/P

LAB EXPERIMENT
AIM:

To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the linearly variable differential transformer (LVDT) measuring unit and there by to study its linearity in terms of displacement. PROCEDURE: An application module (LVDT) is provided to determine its characteristics 1. LVDT is fixed to a base plate and a micrometer is used to move the LVDT core. 2. Switch ON the unit. 3. An excitation voltage of 1volts AC is applied to the primary windings of the LVDT. The output from the secondary windings of the LVDT is amplified, rectified and filtered to get a DC output voltage. It is applied to ADC to measure, and display the analog equivalent digital value at LCD display. 4. Provision is made for changing the offset of the amplifier stage, (both in negative and positive direction) using an offset potentiometer. Please note that the amplifier offset changes from negative to positive when the offset pot is rotated in clockwise direction. 5. Provision is also made to change the gain in amplifier stage using a gain potentiometer. 6. Using the micrometer, adjust the LVDT in 20mm position. Use the gain

potentiometer and gain potentiometer to adjust the the analog output value at 2.0 voltage. 7. Using the micrometer, adjust the LVDT in 0 mm position (negative end). Adjust the OFFSET potentiometer to set 0 Voltage at the analog ouput terminal. 8. Repeat the above two steps for a few times to get correct reading in both negative and positive 10 mm displacement. 9. Now the LVDT is calibrated to read the displacement in in between position. 10. Use the micrometer, to position the LVDT in steps of 0.5mm and take down the display reading. Simultaneously observe the waveforms at various stages of the LVDT signal

card. Measure the voltages at the amplifier output and draw the graph. To get linearity response.

TABULATION: Displacement
(In mm)

Analog Out
(In V)

Digital Value
(In HEX)

20 10 0

0 1 2

0 80 FF

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

OPERATION MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT:


PRESSURE SENSOR

ANALOG OUT

ADC

PROCESSOR UNIT

DIGITAL VALUE

PRESSURE

TABULATION: Pressure
(In bar)

Analog Out
(In V)

Digital Value
(In HEX)

0 2 4

0 1 2

0 80 FF

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

USING RTD

OPERATION MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com
INTRODUCTION:

Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) operate on the principle of changes in electrical resistance of pure metals and are characterized by a linear positive change in resistance with temperature. Typical elements used for RTDs include nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), but platinum (Pt) is by far the most common because of its wide temperature range, accuracy, and stability. RTDs are constructed by one of two different manufacturing configurations. Wire-wound RTDs are constructed by winding a thin wire into a coil. A more common configuration is the thin-film element, which consists of a very thin layer of metal laid out on a plastic or ceramic substrate. Thin-film elements are cheaper and more widely available because they can achieve higher nominal resistances with less platinum. To protect the RTD, a metal sheath encloses the RTD element and the lead wires connected to it. RTDs are popular because of their excellent stability, and exhibit the most linear signal with respect to temperature of any electronic temperature sensor. They are generally more expensive than alternatives, however, because of the careful construction and use of platinum. RTDs are also characterized by a slow response time and low sensitivity; and because they require current excitation, they can be prone to self-heating. RTDs are commonly categorized by their nominal resistance at 0 C. Typical nominal resistance values for platinum thin-film RTDs include 100 and 1000 . The relationship between resistance and temperature is very nearly linear and follows the equation For <0 C RT = R0 [ 1 + aT + bT2 +cT3 (T - 100) ] (Equation 1) For >0 C RT = R0 [ 1 + aT + bT2 ]

Where RT = resistance at temperature T R0 = nominal resistance a, b, and c are constants used to scale the RTD

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT:

RTD

ANALOG OUT

ADC

PROCESSOR UNIT

DIGITAL VALUE

TEMPERATURE

Connection Diagram for RTD


8085 MicroProcessor kit
RTD Module POWER SUPPLY
+5 V GND -5 V sw

9 pin Connector

ADC CARD +
ADC I/P GND

5V

+5 V GND -5 V

Analog O/P

signal condition for RTD

GND

LAB EXPERIMENT
AIM: To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) measuring unit and to study its linearity in terms of temperature. PROCEDURE: An application module (RTD) is provided to determine its characteristics 1. Temperature measurement can be made with various types of sensors. Resistance temperature detector is one type of sensors. A PT 100 RTD is used for measuring the temperature. 2. A bulb fitted in an enclosure is used for changing the temperature inside the enclosure. When the bulb is switched ON, its inside temperature starts

increasing from the ambient temperature. An RTD sensor is fixed in the enclosure to measure the inside temperature. A thermometer is also provided to measure the temperature in degrees centigrade. 3. RTD output signal is amplified and fed to the microprocessor through the analog to digital converter. 4. Provision is made for changing the offset of the amplifier stage, (both in negative and positive direction) using an offset potentiometer. Please note that the amplifier offset changes from negative to positive when the offset pot is rotated in clockwise direction.

CALIBERATION OF THE INSTRUMENT


5. The instrument can be calibrated using standard resistors instead of RTD and bulb set up. Connect 100ohms resistor at the transducer output terminals. Set zero voltage at the analog output terminal. 6. Connect 138.51 ohms at the transducer output terminals. Set maximum voltage at the analog output terminal using gain potentiometer. 7. Repeat the above two steps for a few times to get correct reading in both zero degree and 100 degrees. 8. Repeat steps 5 and 6 a few times, now the analog value represents the temperature in the bulb setup. 9. To determine the linearity of the RTD, for every 5 degrees increase in temperature, note down the voltage levels of the various stages of the amplifier sections from ambient to hundred degrees centigrade. 10. Draw the graph of temperature versus voltage levels. The graph provides the linearity of the given RTD sensor 11. The instrument can be calibrated using standard resistors instead of RTD and bulb set up. For zero degrees, connect 100ohms at the transducer output terminals. Adjust the offset potentiometer, to display zero degree centigrade. 12. Connect 138.51 ohms at the transducer output terminals. Adjust the gain potentiometer to read display of 100 degrees.

13. Repeat the above two steps for a few times to get correct reading in both zero degree and 100 degrees. TABULATION: Temperature
(In Celcius)

Analog Out
(In V)

Digital Value
(In HEX)

0 50 100

0 1 2

0 80 FF

SEQUENTIAL TIMER TRAINER KIT

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS PVT(MADRAS)LTD, NO.34,III FLOOR,BLOCKII, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY,CHENNAI - 600 032.

EXPERIMENTS
Aim To study the sequential timer and switch OFF & ON three control outputs subsequently.

INTRODUCTION A timer is a specialized type of clock. It can be used to control the sequence of an event or process. Whereas a stop watch counts upward from 0 to 2000, for measuring elapsed time, a timer starting counting set down from a specified time interval.

In many applications, in process control, varying events are taking place, not simultaneously, but in sequence. As an example, in textile unit, the clothes are washed, bleached, again washed in water, then dried.

These events take place in predetermined time intervals and in sequence, when one event is completed, after a set time, another event starts,

and there are all in fixed sequence. During these events, different types of elements like motors, heater, etc., are actuated.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION: An electronic sequential timer is used for such applications. There will be either more than one time, to fulfill these requirements or a single timer, with combinational logic, to provide different preset time intervals actuating different elevates.

In a three stage sequential timer, three timing intervals can be set and three different elements can be switched ON or OFF, depending on the requirements.

In the 3 stage sequential timer, a free running clock, (-1 second pulse) using IC 555 is generated. STOP switches are provided to control the clock using IC 4093. The clock is fed to a counter IC 7217, using DIP switches, the timing intervals (3 for the three processes) can be set. The binary output form the counter can be used with combinational logic signal to read the DIP switches, and fed to the counter IC 7217. initially the display is blank.

The binary output is used as the address for selecting the display (LED digits). The same pulse is fed to IC 4066 (bidirectional switches), to display the set value from the DIP switches. Simultaneously, the loaded value is displayed. The selection i s done by binary counter IC 4518 and the digital bidirectional switch IC 4066. When a start button is pressed, clock is fed to counter IC 7217 and the counter starts decrementing from the set value. For every clock pulse, the counter starts decrementing and it is displayed. When the value reaches zero, a pulse from ZERO output charges the state of counter IC 4518. Accordingly, the DIP switches output are also selected. The same address from a parallel counter IC 4518, selects the corresponding output circuit using combinational logic, (IC 4093), the first stage output is activated. It is indicated by the corresponding LED.

The second stage, is also initiated, with the sequence of events, simulates to the first one. At the end of the second stage timing, the sequence repeats for the third stage. Once the sequence is completed, a STOP pulse is generated from the third stage. It is used for stopping the clock signal. An additional STOP switch is also provided to manually control the 3 stage sequences to repeat the process, RESET switch has to be pressed to clean the date and START switch has to be pressed, to initiate the sequence.

PROCEDURE: 1. Switch on the timer module. 2. Set the timer clock at the minimum frequency at the 3. Select the first timer value using the first thumb wheel switch. Similarly load the second and third timer values using second and third switch. 4. Press the start button, now the timer starts counting and simultaneously the display shows the decremented values. 5. When the first counter value has reached zero, the first timer output terminal will turn to high level and LED glows. 6. Simultaneously next value gets loaded in the counter and starts decrementing the value at specified time interval. The second output will turn ON when counter value reaches zero. 7. Similarly the third counter will work and turn ON the third output after the corresponding value gets loaded in the counter.

STRAIN GAUGE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

OPERATION MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com
BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT:

STRAIN GAUGE

ANALOG OUT

ADC

PROCESSOR UNIT

DIGITAL VALUE

WEIGHT

TABULATION: Weight
(In grams)

Analog Out
(In V)

Digital Value
(In HEX)

0 200 400

0 1 2

0 80 FF

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING THERMOCOUPLE

OPERATION MANUAL

AN ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED ORGANIZATION

VIKASHA ELECTRONICS (MADRAS) PVT LTD


NO.34, III FLOOR, BLOCK II, SIDCO ELECTRONICS COMPLEX, THIRU.VI.KA.INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, GUINDY, CHENNAI - 600 032. Telephone Office: 044 2250 1972 Fax: 044 2250 0098 E-mail: vikasha@vsnl.com
INTRODUCTION:

A thermocouple is a thermo electric device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy. The thermo couple is used as a primary transducer for measurement of temperature, converting temperature changes directly into emf.

THERMOELECTRIC PHENOMENA:

If two wires of different metals A and B are joined together to form two junctions and if the two junctions are at different temperatures, an electric current will flow round the circuit. This is the seeback effect. Seeback arranged 35 metals in order of their thermoelectric properties. The current flows across the hot junction from the former to the latter metal of the following series:

Bi---Ni---Co---Pd--U---Cu---Mn---Ti---Hg---Pb--Sn---Cr---Mo---Ph---Ir---Au---Ag--Zn---W---Cd---Fe---As---Sb---Te---

If metal A is of copper and meta B of iron, then the current flows from copper to iron at the hot junction and from iron to copper at the cold (reference) junction as shown in Fig 1 (a). If copper wire is cut, an emf will appear across the open circuit. The seeback emf depends on the difference in the temperatures of the two junctions.

When two wires of different materials are joined together at either end, forming two junctions which are maintained at different temperatures, a thermoelectromotive force (emf) is generated causing a current to flow around the circuit. Over a limited range of temperature, the thermal emf and hence the current produced is proportional to the temperature difference existing between the junctions.

The amount of voltage change per degree of temperature change of the junction varies with the kind of metals making the junction. K type thermocouple is a combination of two metals namely, chromel-alumel.

Much experimentation with thermocouple circuits has led to the formulation of the following empirical laws which are fundamental to the

accurate measurement of temperature by thermoelectric means: (1) the algebraic sum of the thermoelectric emfs generated in any given circuit containing any number of dissimilar homogeneous metals is a function only of the temperatures

of the junctions, and (ii) if all but one of the junctions in such a circuit are maintained at some reference temperature, the emf generated depends only upon the temperature of that junction and can be used as a measure of temperature.

The temperature of the measuring junction can be determined from the thermo emf only if the absolute temperature of the reference junction is known. A cold junction compensation circuit with a semiconductor sensor is used to measure the ambient temperature, which is the reference temperature in our circuit.
BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR LVDT EXPERIMENT:

THERMO COUPLE

ANALOG OUT

ADC

PROCESSOR UNIT

DIGITAL VALUE

TEMPERATURE

Connection Diagram for Thermocouple


8085 MicroProcessor kit
Thermocouple Module POWER SUPPLY
+5 V GND -5 V sw

9 pin Connector

ADC CARD +
ADC I/P GND

5V

+5 V GND -5 V

Analog O/P

signal condition for Thermocouple GND

LAB EXPERIMENT

AIM: To measure the voltage levels in various stages of the Thermocouple Temperature sensor (J - type) measuring unit and there by to study its linearity in terms of temperature. PROCEDURE: An application module (J type TC) is provided to determine its characteristics 4. Temperature measurement can be made with various types of sensors. Thermocouple temperature sensor is one type of sensors. A K type thermocouple is used for measuring the temperature. 5. A bulb fitted in an enclosure is used for changing the temperature inside the enclosure. When the bulb is switched ON, its inside temperature starts increasing from the ambient temperature. A TC sensor is fixed in the enclosure to measure the inside temperature. A thermometer is also provided to measure the temperature in degrees centigrade. 6. Thermocouple output signal is amplified and applied to an analog to digital converter. 14. Provision is made for changing the offset of the amplifier stage, (both in negative and positive direction) using a offset potentiometer. Please note that the amplifier offset changes from negative to positive when the offset pot is rotated in clockwise direction. CALIBERATION OF THE INSTRUMENT 15. Initially, keep the bulb in OFF condition. The temperature to be displayed is the ambient temperature. Use the offset potentiometer to set the initial analog output voltage (0.5) at the ambient temperature. 16. Provision is also made to change the gain in amplifier stage using a gain potentiometer. Switch ON the bulb. The temperature inside the enclosure starts increasing. When the temperature reaches 80 degrees, adjust the gain potentiometer and set the analog output at 2.0voltage. 17. Repeat steps 5 and 6 a few times. At one stage the analog voltage 0.5 to 2.0 represents the temperature 30 degree to 80 degree.

18. To determine the linearity of the given TC for every 5 degrees increase in temperature, note down the voltage levels of the various stages of the amplifier sections from ambient to hundred degrees centigrade. 19. Draw the graph of temperature versus voltage levels. The graph provides the linearity of the given TC sensor 20. If a milli volt source is available, the instrument can be calibrated instead of TC and bulb set up. Connect a milli volt source instead of thermocouple. As per TC table, for zero degree calibration, feed zero milli-volt. potentiometer, to display zero degrees centigrade. 21. Feed 4.096 mV for 100 degrees. Adjust the gain potentiometer to read display of 100 degrees. 22. Repeat the above two steps for a few times to get correct reading in both zero degree and 100 degrees. Adjust the offset

Measuring temperature with Thermocouples:

Type

Alloy of +ve wire Platinum 30% Rhodium (70% Pt - 30% Rh)

Alloy of -ve wire Platinum 6% Rhodium (94% Pt - 6% Rh)

Temperature Range 0 to 1700 Deg C 32 to 3100 Deg F

Tungsten 5% Rhenium Tungsten 26% Rhenium (74% W - 26% Re) (95% W - 5% Re) Tungsten 3% Rhenium Tungsten 25% Rhenium (97% W - 3% Re) Chromel (55% Cu - 45% Ni) Tungsten (100% W) Iron (100% Fe) Chromel (90% Ni - 10% Cr) (75% W - 25% Re) Constantan (90% Ni - 10% Cr) Tungsten 26% Rhenium (74% W - 26% Re) Constantan (55% Cu - 45% Ni) Alumel (96% Ni - 2% Mn - 2% Al) Nisil (Ni-Si-Mg) Platinum (100% Pt)

0 to 2320 Deg C 32 to 4200 Deg F 0 to 2320 Deg C 32 to 4200 Deg F -200 to 900 Deg C -330 to 2280 Deg F 0 to 2320 Deg C 32 to 4200 Deg F 0 to 750 Deg C 32 to 1380 Deg F 500 to 1250 Deg C -330 to 2280 Deg F -270 to 1350 Deg C -450 to 2370 Deg F 0 to 1450 Deg C 32 to 2640 Deg F 0 to 1450 Deg C 32 to 2640 Deg F -500 to 350 Deg C -330 to 660 Deg F

Nicrosil (Ni-Cr-Si) Platinum 13% Rhodium (87% Pt - 13% Rh) Platinum 10% Rhodium (90% Pt - 10% Rh) Copper (100% Cu)

Platinum (100% Pt)

Constantan (55% Cu - 45% Ni)

TABULATION: Temperature
(In Celcius)

Analog Out
(In V)

Digital Value
(In HEX)

0 50 100

0 1 2

0 80 FF