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A Project report On REUSE AND RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE IN BUILDING INDUSTRY

SUBMITTED BY

NAME
1) KOTHARI MAYANK R. 2) PONKIYA GOPLESH J. 3) AHIR MAYUR B. 4) SABALIYA KETAN B.

ROLL NO.
8522 9504 5919 5920

B.E IV (7

th

SEM.) (CIVIL)

GUIDED BY
HIRAL B. PATEL
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

C.K.PITHAWALLACOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SURAT


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE This is to certify that following students: Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Name of Students Kothari Mayank R. Ponkiya Goplesh J. Ahir Mayur B. Savaliya Ketan B. Enrollment No. 080090106023 090090106005 100093106010 100093106011

of Final Year, 7th Semester of Civil Engineering Branch have submitted and presented the UDP Project report as per guidelines of Gujarat Technological University (GTU) on REUSE AND RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE IN BUILDING INDUSTRY. The work done by them is found satisfactory. Place :- Surat Date: 29/11/2012

Guide ( Patel Hiral B. )

Examiner

In charge of the Department ( Prof. Priti A. Patel )

II

INDUSTRY DEFINED PROBLEM/PROJECT (IDP) STATEMENT FORM


STUDENT PARTICULARS NO NAME 1 2 3 4 Kothari Mayank R. Ponkiya Goplesh J. Ahir Mayur B. Savaliya Ketan B. MOBILE NO 9558110853 8866177151 9925141985 8141415126 EMAIL ID mayank.kothari007@gmail.com gopleshponkiya@gmail.com maydrast@gmail.com Savaliya.ketan@rocketmail.com

COLLEGE NAME COLLEGE CODE BRANCH SEMESTER

C. K. Pithawalla College of Engineering and Technology, Surat 009 Civil 7th M-14 YEAR 2012

TEAM CODE (To be given by Institute SIGNATURE OF STUDENTS (Team Members)

III

INDEX
SR. NO.
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2 3 3.1 4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

DESCRIPTION
Introduction Indian Status Material Used Physical Characteristics of RCA Chemical Characteristics of RCA Comparison of characteristics of RCA Advantages of RCA Disadvantages of RCA Objectives Literature Review RCA at the 2012 Olympics Scope of the Work Methodology Location of the demolition site Separation of different materials Collection of demolished concrete waste Preparation of concrete specimens Sieve Analysis Slump Test

PAGE NO.
1 1 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18

IV

5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 6

Specific Gravity Test Perform tests on specimens Compressive Strength Test Results of the tests References

20 21 22 24 25

1. INTRODUCTION
With the increasing population and urban development the materials waste is gradually increasing. In order to reduce materials waste, recycling is the best suitable process. This process is beneficial and more attractive option in this age of greater environmental awareness, laws and the desire to keep construction costs down. The aim for this project is to give enhanced understandings on the process of recycling and reusing the construction waste. This will offer a better understanding on the properties and the strength characteristic of concrete with recycled aggregates as an alternative material to coarse aggregate for the application in both non structural and structural members. Any construction activity requires several materials such as concrete, steel, brick, stone, glass, clay, mud, wood, and so on. However, the cement concrete remains the main construction material used in construction industries. For its suitability and adaptability with respect to the changing environment, the concrete must be such that it can conserve resources, protect the environment, economize and lead to proper utilization of energy. Construction and demolition waste generation has exceedingly increased annually about 40% around the world. Out of this various types of waste, concrete constitutes about 80% of the total waste. Therefore, it is necessary to recycle concrete waste to recycled aggregate. To achieve this, major emphasis must be laid on the use of wastes and byproducts in cement and concrete used for new constructions. The utilization of recycled aggregate is particularly very promising as 75 per cent of concrete is made of aggregates. In that case, the aggregates considered are slag, power plant wastes, mining and quarrying wastes, waste glass, etc. The enormous quantities of demolished concrete are available at various construction sites, which are now posing a serious problem of disposal in urban areas. Research & Development activities have been taken up all over the world for proving its feasibility, economic viability and cost effectiveness. 1.1 Indian Status : Indian construction industry today is amongst the five largest in the world and at the current rate of growth, it is slated to be amongst the top two in the next century. Aggregates supply has also emerged as a problem in some of the metropolis in India. With the shortage as likely seen today the future seems to be in dark for the construction sector. The requirements of natural aggregates are not only required to fulfill the demand for the upcoming projects, but also are the needs of the extensive repairs or replacements required for the existing infrastructure and dilapidated buildings built few decades back. Construction and demolition disposal has also emerged as a problem in India. India is presently generating construction and demolition waste to the tune of 23.75 million tons annually as per the Hindu online of March 2007, which is comparable to some of the developed nations and these figures are likely to double fold in the next 7 years.

The main reasons for increase of volume of demolition concrete / masonry waste are as follows : 1. Many old buildings, concrete pavements, bridges and other structures have overcome their age and limit of use due to structural deterioration beyond repairs and need to be demolished. 2. The structures, even adequate to use are under demolition because they are not serving the needs in present scenario. 3. New construction for better economic growth. 4. Structures are turned into debris resulting from natural disasters like earthquake, cyclone and floods etc. 5. Creation of building waste resulting from manmade disaster/war.

Slag

Concrete Waste

Debris from earthquake

Manmade disaster

1.2 MATERIAL USED The recycling and reuse of construction & demolition wastes seems feasible solution in rehabilitation and new constructions after the natural disaster or demolition of old structures. This becomes very important especially for those countries where national and local policies are stringent for disposal of construction and demolition wastes with guidance, penalties, levies, etc. Thus to handle this demolished concrete waste it is recycled, called recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). Typically RCA is defined as recycled aggregate principally comprising crushed concrete.

Figure showing Recycled Aggregate Rejected structural precast concrete elements were also selected to produce RCA, because of their availability in large quantity and mechanical characteristics suitable for use in highstrength concrete production. Furthermore, they are clean and free from detrimental levels of chemical impurities and other harmful constituents. An existing plant producing crushed-rock aggregate, comprising primary jaw and secondary cone crushers and screens, was used to produce coarse RCA.

Rejected Precast Bricks 3

1.3 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RCA Surface texture and Shape : Recycled Concrete Aggregates have a irregular and granular structure, due to the adhered mortar which can be a point of concern as it is a factor which contributes toward higher water absorption, workability and ultimately the strength characteristics of the concrete made using RCA. The structure of RCA mainly depends upon the parent source of concrete rubble. RCA from poorly compacted concrete are of irregular shape and the adhered mortar is not dense and thus exhibits weak bond between the mortar and the aggregate. While aggregates derived from concrete cubes yields aggregates with irregular shape and better bond between mortar and aggregate. The use of admixtures such as fly ash or water reducers can also minimize the harshness of RCA mixes. Absorption Capacity : The amount of water that an aggregate can absorb is called absorption capacity. The porous nature of the cement paste portion of the recycled aggregates increases its absorption capacity. Workability (slump) can suffer with high absorption capacities resulting in a decrease in the time available to place and finish the concrete. Adding additional water to the mix by pre-wetting the aggregate is one solution that has been used. Limiting the use of recycled fine aggregate will also reduce the absorption capacity of the aggregate. Specific Gravity : Specific gravity is a measure of the density of an aggregate. The lower specific gravity of RCA is due to the crushed mortar present in and on the aggregate particles which makes it less dense than virgin aggregates because of its porosity and entrained air structure. The smaller particles tend to have lower specific gravities than the larger particles, thus limiting the amount of recycled fine aggregates in a mix can increase the specific gravity. 1.4 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RCA Chemical properties of recycled concrete aggregate are important because the history of the demolition concrete is unlikely to be known. For leftover concrete, because the properties of the parent concrete correspond to the properties of natural aggregate processed by a particular ready mixed concrete plant, there is less uncertainty about the chlorides, sulphates and alkali present than for recycled aggregate concrete. Therefore contaminants are not the issue for leftover concrete aggregate that they are for recycled concrete aggregate. Chloride Content : RCA with high chloride contents may affect the durability of the new concrete and the corrosion of steel in new concrete. If there is a concern it is suggested that the fine aggregate be washed and that epoxy-coated steel or other corrosion resistant steels be used for reinforcement.

1.5 COMPARISION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF RCA Recycled concrete aggregate is angular with rough surfaces, has higher water absorption capacity, lower specific gravity and may have higher levels of sodium chloride due to absorption of deicing salts by the cement paste clinging to the rock. Research has shown that properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregates are different in many ways from Virgin Aggregates as show in Table below.

Property Shape and Texture Absorption Capacity Specific Gravity Chloride Content

Virgin Aggregate Well rounded, smooth (gravels) to angular and rough (crushed rock). 0.8 3.7 percent 2.4 2.9 0 1.2 kg/m3

RCA Irregular and Granular structure. 3.7 8.7 percent 2.1 2.4 0.6 7.1 kg/m3

Virgin Aggregate

Recycled Concrete Aggregate

1.6 ADVANTAGES OF RCA There are many advantages through the use of RCA, which are listed below. Environmental Gain : The major advantage is based on the environmental gain. The construction and demolition waste makes up to around 40% of the total waste each year (estimate around 14 million tons) going to land fill. Through recycled these material, it can keep diminishing the resources of urban aggregated. Therefore, natural aggregate can be used in higher grade applications. Recycling one ton of cement could save 1,360 gallons water and 900 kg of CO2. Save Energy : The recycling process can be done on site. According to Kajima Technical Research Institute (2002), Kajima is developing a method of recycling crushed concrete that used in the construction, known as the Within-Site Recycling System. Everything can be done on the construction site through this system, from the process of recycled aggregate, manufacture and use them. This can save energy to transport the recycled materials to the recycling plants. Cost : The cost of recycled aggregate is cheaper than virgin aggregate. According to PATH Technology Inventory, the costs of recycled concrete aggregates are sold around $3.50 to $7.00 per cubic yard. It depends on the aggregate size limitation and local availability. This is just around one and half of the cost for natural aggregate that used in the construction works. Job Opportunities : There will be many people involved in this new technology, such as specialized and skilled persons, general workers, drivers and etc. According to Scottish Executive (2004), a Scottish Market Development Program is developed. The purpose of this program is to recycle the materials that arising in Scotland. This program will provide 150 new jobs in the Scottish industry. Sustainability : The amount of waste materials used for landfill will be reducing through usage of recycled aggregate. This will reduce the amount of quarrying. Therefore this will extend the lives of natural resources and also extend the lives of sites that using for landfill. Market is Wide : The markets for recycled concrete aggregate are wide. According to Environmental Council of Concrete Organization, recycled concrete aggregate can be used for sidewalk, curbs, bridge substructures and superstructures, concrete shoulders, residential driveways, general and structural fills. It also mentioned that recycled concrete aggregate can be used in sub bases and support layers such as un-stabilized base and permeable bases. 6

1.7 DISADVANTAGES OF RCA Although there are many advantages by using recycled aggregate. But there are still some disadvantages in recycled aggregate. Hard to have permit : Jacobsen (1999) stated that it is hard to get the permit for the machinery that needed air permit or permit to operate during the recycling process. These has to depend on the local or state regulations whether this technology is implemented or not. Lack of Specification and Guidelines : According to Kawano (n.d), there is no specification or any guideline when using recycled concrete aggregate in the constructions. In many cases, the strength characteristic will not meet the requirement when using recycled concrete aggregate. Therefore, more testing should be considered when using recycled concrete aggregate. Water Pollution : The recycled process will cause water pollution. Morris of National Ready Mix Concrete Association had mentioned that the wash out water with the high pH is a serious environmental issue. According to Building Green (1993), the alkalinity level of wash water from the recycling plants is pH12. This water is toxic to the fish and other aquatic life.

2. OBJECTIVES
1) Laboratory Testing on Recycled Concrete Aggregate. 2) Construction of the concrete specimens by using different percentages of RCA. 3) Conducting several tests on the concrete specimens made from both NA and RCA. 4) Comparison the results of concrete specimens made from both NA and RCA. 5) Analysis of the results and provide recommendation.

3. LITERATURE REVIEW
The applications of recycled aggregate in the construction area are very wide. There are many testing based on the recycled aggregate have been carried out all around the world. Hanson and Torben (1986) stated that since 1945, the research on recycled aggregate had been carried out in many countries. Some of the literature reviews on recycled aggregate are shown as below. The main aim that testing the recycled aggregate is to find out the result of the strength characteristic on it and analysis whether recycled aggregate is suitable to apply in the construction area. According to Rammamurthy and Gumaster (1998), the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete was relatively lower and variation was depended on the strength of parent concrete from the obtained aggregate. Limbachiya and Leelawat (2000) found that recycled concrete aggregate had 7 to 9% lower relative density and 2 times higher water absorption than natural aggregate. According to their test results, it shown that there was no effect with the replacement of 30% coarse recycled concrete aggregate used on the ceiling strength of concrete. It also mentioned that recycled concrete aggregate could be used in high strength concrete mixes with the recycled concrete aggregate content in the concrete. Sagoe, Brown and Taylor (2002) stated that the difference between the characteristic of fresh and hardened recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete is relatively narrower than reported for laboratory crush recycled aggregate concrete mixes. There was no difference at the 5% significance level in concrete compressive and tensile strength of recycled concrete and control normal concrete made from natural aggregate. In the same year, poon (2002) reported that there were not much effect of the compressive strength of brick specimens with the replacement of 25% and 50% of recycled aggregate. But when the percentage of recycled aggregate replacement increased, the compressive strength of the specimens was reducing. Mandal, Chakarborty and Gupta (2002) also found that there will no effects on the concrete strength with the replacement of 30% of recycled aggregate. But the compressive strength was gradually decreasing when the amount replacement of recycled increased. They concluded that the properties and the strength characteristic of recycled aggregate concrete were deficiency when compared to the specimens that made by the natural aggregate. Limbachiya (2003) found that there is no effect by using up to 30% of coarse recycled concrete aggregate on the standard 100mm concrete cube compressive strength. But when the percentage of recycled concrete aggregate used increased, the compressive strength was reducing. From the literature review shown, the results of the compressive strength are all reducing when the replacement of recycled aggregate used in the concrete increased. There must be some influences that cause the reducing of compressive strength of recycled aggregate. According to Tavakoli (1996), the strength characteristics of recycled aggregate concrete were influenced by the strength of the original concrete, the ratio of coarse aggregate to fine 8

aggregate in the original concrete, and the ratio of top size of the aggregate in the original concrete in the recycled aggregate. He also mentioned that water absorption and Los Angeles abrasion loss will influence the water cement ratio and top size ratio for the strength characteristic of recycled aggregate. Bodin and Zaharieva (2002) stated that decreasing of the strength of recycled concrete specimen was due to the increase of water/cement ratio that required by the preservation of workability. There are some methods used to improve the strength of the recycled aggregate. Kantawong and Laksana (1998) mentioned that the fineness modulus and percentage of water absorption used instead with the recycled aggregate is higher than natural aggregate. The results of compressive strength of added reduce water admixture concrete is higher than the one that not added reduce water admixture concrete, ane the compressive strength of concrete produced that using recycled aggregate is higher than concrete using natural coarse aggregate. Sawamoto and Takehino (2000) found that the strength of the recycled aggregate concrete can be increased by using Pozzolanic material that can absorb the water. Mandal (2002) stated that adjusted the water/cement ratio when using recycled concrete aggregate during the concrete mixing can improved the strength of the recycled aggregate concrete specimens. From the obtained result, recycled aggregate concrete specimens had the same engineering and durability performance when compared to the concrete specimens made by natural aggregate within 28days design strength. Chen and Kuan (2003) found that the strength of the concrete specimens was affected by the unwashed recycled aggregate in the concrete. The effect will more strange at the low water cement ratio. These effects can be improved by using the washed recycled aggregate. Another improving method is using the sly ash in the recycled aggregate mixing. Mandal (2002) stated that application of fly ash in the recycled concrete aggregate had improved the durability of the recycled aggregate concrete. Poon (2002) also mentioned that the use of fly ash could improve the strength characteristic of recycled aggregate. He stated that the compressive strength of concrete paving blocks was reached 49MPa at 28days by using fly ash. Berry and Malhotra (1980) stated that for high strength concrete, fly ash functions by providing increased strength at late ages of curing (56 to 91 days) that cannot be achieved through the use of additional Portland cement. Some precautions must be taken while using recycled aggregate in the concrete mixing. According to Bodin and Zaharieva, the precautions must be taken was because of there were some pathological reactions such as alkali aggregate reaction and sulphate reaction may be include in the performed characterisation of industrially produced recycled aggregate. They also mentioned that the mix proportioning of recycled aggregate concrete must be suited when both fine and coarse recycled aggregate were substituted for natural aggregate.

3.1 Recycled Concrete at the 2012 Olympics

With the Vancouver Olympics taking the title of the "greenest" and most sustainable games ever, London has geared up for 2012. They used sustainable techniques and practices for nearly every aspect of the games, in hopes that the United Kingdom can decisively take the title of the most sustainable Olympic Games away from Canada. A large part of London's plan involves using recycled products in the construction of the Olympic complex. One such product that will be widely used is recycled concrete aggregates. Recycled aggregates are made from materials such as bricks and concrete that are crushed and turned into a product ready for reuse in the construction of new buildings or roads. Recycling concrete into aggregates is considered to be more sustainable than mining, processing and transporting new aggregates. In the UK, and around the world, it is becoming quite popular for buildings that are being demolished to become part of regeneration projects. The quality of recycled aggregates from demolition projects is improving and becoming an appealing, eco-friendly option for building endeavors such as the 2012 Olympic complex in London. The planners of the complex have asked for 20-5mm recycled aggregate, which is a very clean specification.

4. Scope of The Project :


Review and research of recycled aggregate for low or high strength structures. Construction of the concrete specimens by using different admixtures. Investigation and laboratory testing on high strength concrete with recycled aggregate. More applications of recycled aggregate. Analysis the results and recommendation for further research area. 10

5. METHODOLOGY

SELECTION THE DEMOLITION SITE.

SEGREGATE DIFFERENT MATERIALS.

COLLECT DEMOLISHED CONCRETE WASTE FROM THE SITE.

PREPARE CONCRETE SPECIMENS.

PERFORM TESTS ON CONCRETE SPECIMENS.

ANALYS THE RESULTS.

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5.1 Locate the Demolition Site : We have selected the site near Singanpore Road, Katargam, Surat. There was an ongoing construction of low rise building at which some demolition was carried out due to some technical problem.

Figure : Low rise building at Singanpore Road

Figure : Demolished Slab Portion

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5.2 Separate Different Materials : After selecting the site we have took an overview of the demolished waste. As demolished waste consists of different materials, we have separated concrete waste from it.

Figure : Separation of waste

Figure : Separated demolished waste 13

5.3 Collect Demolished Concrete waste from the Site : Once the separation was completed we have took sample material from the site as shown below.

Figure : Collected sample kept aside

Figure : Selected sample

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5.4 Prepare Concrete Specimens : Concrete like other engineering materials needs to be designed for properties like strength, durability, workability, and cohesion. Concrete mix design is the science of deciding relative proportions of ingredients of concrete, to achieve the desired properties in the most economical way. Advantages of Mix Design : Mix design aims to achieve good quality concrete at site economically. Quality concrete Better strength Economy Economy in cement consumption Best use of available materials Data required for concrete mix design : 1. Grade of concrete 2. Type of cement 3. Nominal size of aggregates (RCA & NA) 4. Degree of workability 5. Specific gravity of sand and aggregates (RCA &NA) 1. Grade of Concrete : The Grades M 20 and M 25 are commonly used in construction of low rise buildings as per IS 10262 1982. So here we will deal with M 20 Grade for both recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete. The approximate proportion of the ingredients constituting the concrete mixes is 1 3 with water cement ratio 0.45 for M-20 grade of concrete.

2. Type of Cement : The Ordinary Portland Cement will be used throughout the casting work. 3. Nominal Size of Aggregates (RCA & NA) : The maximum size of coarse aggregate will be used is 20 mm in both RCA and NA. To distinguish between fine aggregate and coarse aggregate the test will be carried out called Sieve Analysis, whose procedure is stated below. 15

5.5 Sieve Analysis : Sieve analysis is used to find the amount of different size of aggregate used in a concrete mix. It is carried out to let the aggregate pass through a series of sieves. The sieve analysis can be done either by hand or sieve machine. It is recommended that using sieve machine will give more accurate result and can use several sieves in one time. Aim : To determine the particle size distribution of the given fine aggregate and to determine, the fineness modulus, the effective size and uniformly coefficient. Theory : Fine aggregate is the sand used in mortars. Coarse aggregate is the broken stone used in concrete. The coarse aggregate unless mixed with fine aggregate serves no purpose in cement works. The size of fine aggregate is limited to a maximum of 4.75mm gauge beyond which it is known as coarse aggregate. Fineness Modulus : Fineness modulus is only a numerical index of fineness, giving some idea of the mean size of the particles in the entire body of the aggregate. To a certain extent it is a method of standardization of the grading of the aggregate. It is obtained by adding the percentage weight of material retained in each of the standard sieves and dividing it by 100. To object of finding the fineness modulus is too grade a given aggregate for the most economical mix and workability with minimum quantity of cement. Certain limits of fineness modulus for fine coarse aggregate given in the table below and a sample under test should satisfy these results so that the aggregate may give good workability under economical conditions. Limit of fineness modulus : [Table Limit of Fineness modulus] Maximum size of aggregate Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate 20mm Coarse aggregate 40mm Coarse aggregate 75mm Fineness modulus Minimum 2 6 6.9 7.5 16 Maximum 3.5 6.9 7.5 8.0

If the test aggregate gives higher fineness modulus the mix will be harsh and if on the other hand given a lower fineness modulus it gives uneconomical mix. Apparatus : Indian standard test sieves, weighing balance, sieve shaker etc. Size of sieves to be used : I. For fine aggregate 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600microns, 300microns, 150mirons. II. For coarse aggregate 25mm, 20mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 4.75mm.

Figure : Sieve Appratus

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Procedure : Fine aggregate: a. Take one kg of sand from the laboratory sample. b. Arrange the sieves in order of IS sieves no`s 480, 240, 120, 60, 30, and 15, keeping sieves no.480 at the top and 15 at the bottom and cover the top. c. Keep the sample in the top sieve no.480. d. Carry out the sieving in the set of sieves for not less than 10 minutes. e. Find the weight of sample retained in each sieve. f. Tabulate the values in given tabular column. Coarse Aggregates : a. Take one kg of coarse aggregate. b. Arrange the sieves one over the order in relation to their size of opening. (25mm, 20mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 4.75mm). c. Carry out the sieving for the specified time. d. Find the weight of aggregate retained on each sieve taken in order and tabulate in table.

Calculation : Fine Aggregate : Fineness modulus (sum of cumulative % wt retained/100)

Coarse Aggregate :

Fineness modulus (sum of cumulative % wt retained/100)

5.6 Degree of workability : Workability of concrete is a term which consists of the following four partial properties of concrete namely, Mixability, Transportability, Mouldability and Compactibility. In general terms, workability represents the amount of work which is to be done to compact the compact the concrete in a given mould. The desired workability for a particular mix depends upon the type of compaction adopted and the complicated nature of reinforcement used in reinforced concrete. A workable mix should not segregate. For the determination of the degree of workability a test called, Slump Test is performed. 18

Slump Test : Aim : To study the workability (determine the consistency) of prepared concrete either in the labour story or during the progress of work in the field and to check the uniformity of Concrete from batch to batch. Reference : IS : 1991 1959 Apparatus : Mould for slump test, non-porous base plate, measuring scale, temping rod. The mould for the test is in the form of the frustum of a cone having height 30 cm, bottom diameter 20 cm and top diameter 10 cm. The tamping rod is of steel 16 mm diameter and 60 cm long and rounded at one end.

Figure : Slump Test Apparatus

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Sampling : A concrete mix (M20) weight with known water/cement ratio will be prepaid similar to that required for casting cubes after conducting slump test.

Procedure : i. ii. iii. Clean the internal surface of the mould and apply oil. Place the mould on a smooth horizontal non-porous base plate. Fill the mould with the prepared concrete mix in approximately equal layers. Tamp each layer with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod in a uniform manner over the cross section of the mould. For the subsequent layers, the tamping should penetrate into the underlying layer. Remove the excess concrete and level the surface with a trowel. Clean away the mortar or water leaked out between the mould and the base plate. Raise the mould from the concrete immediately and slowly in vertical direction. Measure the slump as the difference between the height of the mould and that of height point of the specimen being tested.

iv.

v. vi.

vii.

viii.

Note : The above operation should be carried out at a place free from vibrations or shock and within a period of 2 minutes after sampling.

Slump : The slump (vertical settlement) measured shall be recorded in terms of millimeters of subsidence of the specimen during the test.

5.7 Specific gravity of sand and aggregates (RCA & NA) : The Specific Gravity is defined as the ratio of the mass of the solid in a given volume of sample to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. Specific gravity of aggregates is the property which mainly depends upon the original compaction of parent rock. Higher specific gravity indicates better strength, more durability and less water absorption by aggregate. Specific gravity is found with the help of pycnometer bottles. Average specific gravity of rocks varies from 2.6 to 2.8. The specific gravity of fine aggregates found in South Gujarat regions varies from 2.3 to 2.6. 20

Specific Gravity : Aim : To determine the specific gravity of aggregates. Apparatus : Specific Gravity bottles (Pycnometer), Course aggregate samples of both RCA & NA, Fine aggregate samples. Procedure : 1. Take the bottles of a known volume. 2. Fill the bottles completely with water and measure the weight of the filled bottles say B. 3. Take away the water from bottles and put bottles aside till it dries. 4. Take the sample of course aggregate of weight 1 kg. and fine aggregate of weight 500 gm. 5. Pour both the samples in two bottles separately and then fill it with water completely. 6. Take the weight of filled bottles individually say A. 7. Let the sample to be dried in the atmosphere and take its weight say C. 8. Now place the sample in oven for drying and take its weight say D. Calculation :

A = Weight of bottle filled with sample & water B = Weight of bottle filled with water C = Weight of saturated sample D = Weight of oven dried sample

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5.8 Perform Tests on Specimens : Different tests like Sieve analysis, Slump test are discussed above. Another and main test is, to measure compressive strength of the specimens. 5.9 Compressive Strength of the concrete : The compressive strength of concrete is one of the most important properties of cement. Strength test is not made on the neat cement paste because of excessive shrinkage, the cracking of neat cement. Hence strength of cement is found on cement and sand mortar cubes. For this, the standard sand is used. The specification of sand is given in IS: 4031 (part 6) 1988. Aim : To determine the compressive strength of concrete specimens prepared and to verify the strength requirements as desired in the mix design and stipulated in the IS code. Apparatus : Compression testing machine, Concrete Cube Mould

Figure : Compression Testing Machine Specimen :

Figure : Concrete Cube Mould

Known numbers of cubes of 15 cm size for Mix. M20.

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Mixing : Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer, we will go with hand mixing.

Hand Mixing : 1) Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the mixture is thoroughly blended and is of uniform colour. 2) Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate is uniformly distributed throughout the batch. 3) Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired consistency.

Sampling : a. Clean the mounds an apply oil b. Fill the concrete in the moulds in layers approximately 5 cm thick c. Compact each layers with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel Bar 16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end) d. Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel

Curing : The test specimens are stored in moist air for 24hours and after this period the specimens are marked and removed from the moulds and kept submerged in clear fresh water until taken out prior to test.

Precautions : The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must be at 2720 C.

Procedure : 1. Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water from the surface. 2. Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m 3. Clean the bearing surface of the cube cast. 4. Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the cube cast. 5. Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine. 23

6. Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the specimen. 7. Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails. 8. Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure. Calculations : a. Size of the cubes = 15cm15cm15cm. b. Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen) in cm. c. Characteristic compressive strength (fck) at 7 days in N/mm. d. Similar calculation should be done for 28 days compressive strength. e. Maximum load applied in N. f. Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm) in N/mm. 5.10 Obtain the Results : Once all test will be performed the next step will be obtain the test results, As the aim for this project is to offer a better understanding on the properties and the strength characteristic of concrete with recycled aggregates as an alternative material to coarse aggregate for the application in both non structural and structural members.

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6. REFERENCES :
1. Aggregate Advisory Service, n.d., Sand and Cement, viewed 16 May 2004, http://www.p2pays.org/ref/17/16595.pdf 2. Aggregate and Quarry, n.d., Quarries and the Environment, viewed 27 April 2004, http://www.quarrying.org.nz/environment.html 3. Agg Regain, 2001, Recycled aggregate for use as capping in housing development, viewed 12 August 2004, http://www.aggregain.org.uk/casestudy_detial.asp?projectID=44 4. Bakoss P. S. L. and Ravindrarajah R Sri, 1999, Recycled Construction and Demolition Materials for use in Roadworks and other Local, viewed 4 March 2004, http://www.ipwea.org.au/upload/final_scoping_report.pdf 5. Bora Australia, n.d., Recycled Aggregate Process, viewed 29 Jun 2004, http://www.boral.com.au/Atricle/nsw_recycling_process?site=biral%OA 6. Cement Association of Canada, 2003, Compressive Strength, viewed 25 August 2004, http://www.cement.ca/cement.nsf/0/FD75CF9BCOFB1029852568A9005B082?Ope nDocument 7. Cement Manufacturers Association India, n.d., What is Good Concrete, viewed 1 April 2004, http://www.cmaindia.org/fag3.html 8. Engineers Australia, 2002, Using recyclables in concrete, Volume 74, number 5, May 2002. Environmental Council of Concrete Organizations, n.d., Recycling concrete saves resources, Eliminates Dumping, viewed 6 July 2004, http://www.ecco.org/pdfs/ev15.pdf 9. Fact File C&D Recycling Industry, n.d., History, viewed 11 April 2004, http://cdrecycling.org/history.htm 10. Logic Sphere, n.d., Slump test, viewed 31 March 2004, http://logicsphere.com/products/firstmix/hlp/html/work5xd0.htm 11. Nelson Shing Chai ( 004), High strength structural concrete with recycled aggregate, B.E Dissertation, Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Sourthen Quinceland 12. Recycling of Portland Cement Concrete, n.d., Recycling of Portland Cement Concrete, viewed 20 March 2004, http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/techinfo/UFC/UFC3_250_07/TM582210/chap5.pdf 13. Water Pollution and Land Contamination, n.d., Controlling environmental effects: recycled and secondary aggregates production, viewed 5 May 2004, http://www.odpm.gov.uk/stellent/groups/odpm_planning/documents.oage/odpm_pla n_606242-13.hcsp 25