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Musicology in Portugal Since 1960 Author(s): Manuel Carlos de Brito Source: Acta Musicologica, Vol. 56, Fasc. 1 (Jan.

- Jun., 1984), pp. 29-47 Published by: International Musicological Society Stable URL: Accessed: 17/11/2010 11:54
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W. Kirsch: Die Bruckner-Forschung seit 1945 (IV)


nerhaus und Wiener Musikverein, eine aihnlicheAufschliisselung fiir die Internationalen Bruckner-Feste u. a. m. - Im gleichen Heft (1980) des Bruckner-Jahrbuches teilt der Generalmanager der LIVA (Linzer Veranstaltungsgesellschaft), H. Stadlmayr, eine Liste saimtlicherBruckner-Werke, die waihrendder bisherigen BrucknerFeste und waihrend der Saisons 1973-1980 aufgefiihrt wurden, (mit Orchester und Dirigenten) mit. - Einen Programmbericht des Bruckner-Tages 1977 der 6sterreichischen Medien (Rundfunk und Fernsehen) gibt W. Giirtelschmied. Diese Veranstaltung zur ErSffnung des 3. Internationalen Bruckner-Festes war ein (auf eine Anregung Manfred Wagners zuriickgehendes) Medienexperiment, bei dem 17 Stunden lang Bruckner-Musik auf mehreren Programmen, unter dem Motto ,,Bruckner fiir alle", gesendet wurde: ,,Wir machten Bruckner von der Elitekunst weg in breite Bevilkerungskreise tragen" (Hannes Leopoldseder). - Mit dieser etwas bedingstigenden ,Zukunftsvision' und dem Vermerk iiber das bisher wohl grandioseste Unternehmen der Bruckner-Rezeption (das iibrigens in den Jahren 1979 und 1980 mit der ,Linzer Klangwolke', einem monstrisen Open-air-Konzert, eine entsprechende Fortsetzung erfuhr) sollten wir, total iiberwailtigt von so viel Bruckner, diesen Forschungsbericht - dem man im nachherein den iibergreifenden Titel ,Der verschiittete Bruckner' oder ,der vereinnahmte Komponist' geben k6nnte - abschlie1gen. Und der geneigte Leser m6ge dem Kommentator der BrucknerLiteratur, die ihn immer wieder zu einer dezidierten Stellungnahme herausforderte, nachsehen, daiBer versucht hat, auf diesem,Tummelplatz der Ideologien' gleichsam die Spreu vom Weizen zu sondern, um die Musik Bruckners zunaichsteinmal wieder ihrem Schipfer zuriickzugeben, den zu begreifen, es sicher in Zukunft weiterer und anderer Anstrengungen bedarf.

Musicology in Portugal since 1960


A report on musicology in Portugal was last published in this magazine in 1960' and the time seems now ripe for a critical review of its progress since then. The present article attempts to describe this progress in the following areas: 1. Library inventories and catalogues. Museums of musical instruments. Exhibitions 2. Music editions and facsimiles. Recordings of early Portuguese music 3. Research in historical musicology 4. Ethnomusicology 5. Academic training and institutions. Future prospects. Acknowledgements


(1960), p. 2-11.


Veinte Aiios de Musicologia en Portugal (1940-1960),

in: AMI 33


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince i960

1. Library inventories and catalogues. Museums of musical instruments. Exhibitions Having had a somewhat later start than in other European countries, and a relatively slow development, musicology in Portugal has been mainly concerned with the country's own musical heritage, and in particular with the tasks of inventorying, cataloguing and publishing it. This has certainly been the most successful achievement during the period under consideration, owing mainly to the activity of the Gulbenkian Foundation Music Department. Under its direction musical holdings in the following libraries have been inventoried: Braga, Biblioteca PUiblica Coimbra, Biblioteca Geral da Universidade (incomplete) Ivora, Biblioteca Puiblica Cvora, Arquivo da S9 Lisbon, Academia das Ciancias Lisbon, Arquivo da S9 (in progress) Lisbon, Biblioteca Nacional (incomplete) Mafra, Convento Porto, Biblioteca PuiblicaMunicipal Vila Viqosa, Paqo Ducal. The Gulbenkian Foundation is also the Portuguese representative for RISM, RILM, RIdIM and CIM, and has collaborated actively in these various projects. The catalogues of lvora (Arquivo das Masicas da Se, Lisbon 1973, and Biblioteca Pablica: CatdIlogodos Fundos Musicais, Lisbon 1977) and Vila Viqosa (Lisbon 1983) prepared by Jose Augusto Alegria, were already published by the Foundation. The Biblioteca da Ajuda in Lisbon has also published a nine-volume catalogue of its ms. holdings (Catdlogo de masica manuscrita, Lisbon 1958-1968) which include a rich collection of over two hundred eighteenth-century opera scores. The catalogue of printed sources will soon be published by the Musicology Department, Instituto Portugues do Patrim6nio Cultural (IPPC, formerly Direcqio-Geral do Patrim6nio Cultural). The catalogue of (pre-nineteenth-century) printed sources at Coimbra, Biblioteca Geral da Universidade, was published in 19802 and that of ms. sources at Porto, Biblioteca PuiblicaMunicipal (which holds the famous fifteenth-century ms. Porto 714) in 1982.3 Sources preserved in Portuguese libraries and archives, as well as a few unique sources of Portuguese music preserved in foreign libraries, have been listed in the appropriate RISM volumes. A general guide to Portuguese library resources is included in Rita Benton's Directory of music research libraries, Part III: Spain, France, Italy, Portugal (Iowa City, University of Iowa 1972, Kassel, Birenreiter).

MARIA LUfSA LEMOS, Impressos Musicais da BibliotecaGeral da Universidadede Coimbra,in: Boletim da Universidadede Coimbra34, 3rd part (1980). A number of Coimbra mss. are described in CHARLES HAMM, ed., Census-Catalogueof Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music 1400-1550 Vol. 1 (Urbana Ill., American Institute of Musicology 1979). 3 LUfS CABRAL, Cattilogodo Fundo de Manuscritos Musicais, in: BibliothecaPortucalensisII S'rie, no. 1 (Porto 1982). A full bibliographyon Porto 714 (which does not bear any directrelationwith Portuguesemusic) is included in DAVID FALLOWS,Robertus de Anglia and the Oporto Song Collection,in: IAN BENT, ed., Source Materials and the Interpretation of Music (London,Stainer & Bell 1981), p. 99-128, which constitutes also a "definitive"study of this source.

M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince i960


It should thus already be possible to form a fairly clear picture of the music that has been preserved in Portuguese libraries. Exceptions include ms. holdings at Lisbon, Conservat6rio Nacional, which are still imperfectly known, and smaller archives, such as that of Castelo Branco cathedral, or private collections, such as that in the Arquivo da Casa Cadaval in Muge. The Musicology Department of the IPPC has acquired a number of rare theoretical works and a few small private collections. The circa 1,800 item collection of the Marques de Borba, consisting mainly of late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century church music, was acquired by the Department in 1983. A number of traits emerge which seem to confirm earlier views on Portuguese music. These are: the scarcity of pre-sixteenth-century sources, particularly of polyphonic music; the overwhelming amount of church music of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (including both vocal polyphony and keyboard music); the overwhelming amount of eighteenth-century operatic music, including both serenate and operas, and large quantities of church music in operatic style. It is not yet very easy to form an overall view of Portuguese nineteenth-century musical production, but it is already possible to say that it consisted mainly of church music, occasional music (rhapsodies, variations, dance music, political hymns and songs, etc.), a few operas and many operettas. Another field where remarkable progress has been made in recent years is that of the organization of museums of musical instruments. There are now two main such museums in the country, the oldest of which is the Museu de Instrumentos Musicais do Conservat6rio Nacional. It was originally created by Michel'angelo Lambertini in 1915 with instruments belonging to several private and State collections and in 1946 it was installed in the Conservat6rio Nacional. In 1976 it was moved to the first floor of the Biblioteca Nacional, where an expert work of inventorying and cataloguing the instruments has been carried out by Macario Santiago Kastner and Pilar Torres. There is now a check-list and a detailed card-file catalogue of 700 instruments, with a complete organological description and classification of each instrument, and a computer inventory is being prepared as part of a larger project involving all types of art works in Portugal, to be carried out by the IPPC. Included among its non-European, and its European folk, traditional and art instruments, are a number of valuable viole da gamba (unfortunately not in playing condition) and a unique collection of thirteen Portuguese clavichords, the largest such collection in the Iberian Peninsula. The present location of the museum is still temporary and inadequate. Different locations have been discussed, while the most obvious seems to have been forgotten, namely an independent location (with its own independent administration) in the Conservat6rio Nacional, to which the museum originally belongs, and where it could best serve a didactical purpose. The Museu de Etnologia in Lisbon also houses two important collections of musical instruments. One is a collection of circa 510 Portuguese folk instruments which were gathered by Ernesto Veiga de Oliveira in 1960 at the request of the Gulbenkian Foundation,4 and which is particularly rich in the field of plucked string
4 See below 4. Ethnomusicology.


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince i960

instruments. The other is a collection of circa 1,000 non-European instruments which belong to the museum. The museum was created in 1974 in the dependence of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaqao Cientifica Tropical, but so far it has not been inaugurated and opened to the public for lack of personnel. Beside the instruments it also possesses a rich photographic and phonographic archive, which includes many photographs of the instruments being played by their original owners, 15 hours of tape-recordings made by E.V. de Oliveira and Benjamin Pereira while collecting instruments, a collection of tape-recordings made by Margot Dias in Mozambique between 1957 and 1962, and a copy of those made by the Museu do Dundo (Diamang) in the Chokwe area of northeastern Angola around 1960. Altogether these different holdings, which are only part of a rich collection of ethnological materials and documents kept in the museum, constitute an extremely valuable primary source for ethnomusicological research which, along with the museum's library, is at the disposal of scholars of every nationality.5 The Museu de Etnologia has also promoted a number of temporary exhibitions of its instrument collections. Among the nearly twenty exhibitions on musical themes promoted both by the Gulbenkian Foundation and the IPPC, some were also of particular musicological interest (Exposiq~o internacional de instrumentos antigos, 1967; David Perez e a sua epoca 12711-1778,1979; Documentaqdo e instrumentos musicais - recentes aquisiqSes do IPPC, 1982). 2. Music editions and facsimiles. Recordings of early Portuguese music The Gulbenkian Foundation has also been prominent in the publication of early Portuguese music. Its Portugaliae Musica series (Lisbon 1959- ) has now run into over forty volumes. These include: sixteenth- and seventeenth-century sacred polyphony by Estevdo Lopes Morago (1 vol.), Frei Manuel Cardoso (6 vols.), Estevao de Brito (2), Filipe de Magalhaes (1), Diogo Dias Melgaz (1), Joao LourenqoRebelo (4), and one anthology of pieces by several composers; the Flores de Masica by Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (2) and four other volumes of organ and keyboard music by various composers; a controversial new edition of the Cancioneiro d'Elvas; two volumes of seventeenth-century sacred villancicos, and one of Romances e Canq6es by Manuel Machado; the keyboard works of the eighteenth-century composers Carlos Seixas and Francisco Xavier Baptista (3) and one anthology of eighteenthcentury keyboard music; orchestral pieces by Carlos Seixas (3) and opera overtures by Sousa Carvalho, Jer6nimo Francisco de Lima and Marcos Portugal (4); one complete eighteenth-century opera (La Spinalba by Francisco Ant6nio de Almeida, successfully revived in recent years in Lisbon, Badajoz, Paris, London, and Rome); one volume of church music by the eighteenth-century composer Joao Rodrigues Esteves; the piano works (in facsimile) and one symphony by the early nineteenthcentury composer Joao Domingos Bomtempo; two volumes of music by two early twentieth-century composers, Ant6nio Fragoso and Francisco de Lacerda.

5 See below 4. Ethnomusicology.

M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince i960


Another institution which has recently entered the field of music publishing is the IPPC, with the facsimile editions of 3 piano sonatas with violin ad libitum, op. 18, and the Elementos de Masica e Metodo de Forte-Piano, op. 19, by Joio Domingos Bomtempo (Lisbon 1979). Outside these two institutions early music editions have been few and far between. Two volumes of sacred polyphony by Filipe de Magalhies and Diogo Dias Melgaz were published in the now discontinued Cadernos do Repert6rio Coral Polyphonia, edited respectively by Mario de Sampaio Ribeiro (1961) and Jose Augusto Alegria (1969). Quatro Respons6rios de Natal for voices and instruments by D. Pedro da Esperanqa (t 1660) were published in 1977 by Francisco Faria,6 and a collection of menuets and one motet by Jose Ant6nio de Oliveira (1696-1779) were published in 1981 by Jose Carlos Travassos Cortez. Both these volumes were published at Coimbra, the native city of these two composers. Macario Santiago Kastner published Cinco Peqas para Instrumentos de Teclaby the seventeenth-century composer Pedro de Aratijo (Lisbon, Valentim de Carvalho) in 1978. Editions of Portuguese early music have also been published abroad. These include the second volume of Silva Ibirica de masica para tecla de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII (Mainz, Schott 1965), Otto Tentos del Cinquecento di autori portoghesi e spagnoli per strumenti a tastiera (Milan, Zerboni 1970), and Sette Pezzi per Arpa dei Secoli XVII e XVIII tratti da antichi manoscritti spagnoli e portoghesi (Milan, Zerboni 1972), edited by M.S. Kastner; ten volumes of Organa Hispanica (Heidelberg, W. Mfiller 1971- ), edited by Gerhard Doderer; and Five Portuguese Villancicos for 3 voices and/or instruments (Newton Abbot, Antico 1981) edited by Manuel Carlos de Brito. Several pieces by Portuguese composers, some of which stemming from Coimbra, B.G. Universidade (P Cug) M.M. 227 (and not 226 as stated in the edition) are transcribed in Miguel Querol Gavaldi, Masica Barroca Vol. I: Espaiiola Polifonia Profana (Cancioneros Espafioles del Siglo XVII) (Barcelona 1970). Forthcoming publications include one symphony for two orchestras by Ant6nio Leal Moreira and the 2nd Symphony by Jodo Domingos Bomtempo, as a volume in the Garland 1720-1840 symphony series; two newly-discovered sixteenth-century Cancioneiros and one volume of Modinhas in the Portugaliae Musica series; and the vocal works of the early twentieth-century composers Viana da Mota and Claudio Carneiro in the IPPC series. A few facsimile editions of theoretical works beside those already mentioned have also been published during the period. These include the two earliest music books printed in Portugal, the Tractado de Canto Llano (1533) and the Tractado de Canto Mensurable (1535) by Mateo de Aranda, edited by J.A. Alegria (Lisbon 1962 and 1978), and the Lux Bella by Domingo Marcos Durin (Salamanca 1509) edited by Constanqa Capdeville (Lisbon 1969). The first and last works were published by the Instituto de Alta Cultura in the (now discontinued?) Rei Musica Portugaliae Monumenta series. M.S. Ribeiro also published John IV's Defensa de la musica

Recordedin 1966 by The Tilford Bach Choir under Denis Darlow (PortugueseBaroque,Oryx, Exploringthe World of Music series, no. 37).


M. C. de Brito: Musicologyin Portugalsince i960

moderna contra la errada opini6n del o obispo Cyrilo Franco (Coimbra, Acta Universitatis Conimbrigensis 1965)7 and a new facsimile edition of the 1649 catalogue of this king's music library (Livraria de masica de El-Rei D. Joao IV., 2 vols, Lisbon, Academia Port. Hist6ria 1967). Abroad Minkoff Reprints in Geneva have recently issued the Flores de Masica by Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (1620) and the Nova arte da viola by Manuel da Paixao Ribeiro (1789). An edition of the Estudo de guitarra by Ant6nio da Silva Leite (1795) is being prepared by the IPPC. Although they do not exactly constitute primary musicological material, brief mention should be made here of recordings of Portuguese pre-classical music promoted by the Gulbenkian Foundation and the IPPC. The first has issued sixteen long-playing records in its Portugaliae Musica series, in collaboration with Philips and with DGG's Archiv Produktion, and one with Erato. Four of these recordings, which include keyboard, choral and orchestral music from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, were awarded the Grand Prix National du Disque of the Academie Nationale du Disque Franqaisin 1967. That of the opera Spinalba by F.A. Almeida received the Grand Prix de l'Academie du Disque Lyrique in 1969. The IPPC has so far produced ten long-playing records in its Lusitana Musica series, in collaboration with Valentim de Carvalho, which include Renaissance vocal music, Baroque organ music, the piano works of Joao Domingos Bomtempo, etc.

3. Research in historical musicology Turning now to the field of musicological studies I should start by mentioning the names of those Portuguese and foreign scholars who have been involved in the preparation of the Portugaliae Musica editions. They are: Jose Augusto Alegria, Manuel Carlos de Brito, Gerhard Doderer, Cremilde Rosado Fernandes, Manuel Joaquim, Macario Santiago Kastner, Luis Pereira Leal, Manuel Morais, Janine Moura, Rui Nery, Miguel Querol Gavaldi, Mario de Sampaio Ribeiro, Pierre Salzmann, Filipe de Sousa, Klaus Speer, Robert Stevenson, Joao Valeriano and Jorge Croner de Vasconcelos. One particularity of this series is the absence of a general editor and of any strict general rules concerning transcription, editorial notes, etc. This has given individual editors a degree of freedom which is not very usual in this type of publication. An extreme case is the recent Antologia de Polifonia Portuguesa 1490-1680 (Lisbon 1982) where each of the three contributing editors has adopted a different method of transcription (with and without timesignatures, reducing the original figures to a half or to a fourth of their value, using normal bar-lines or the now obsolete Mensurstrich). The amount and type of introductory material also varies widely from volume to volume. Volumes in the B series, a more practically orientated part of the collection, usually contain a short biographical or bio-bibliographical note only. Introductions to the other volumes range from fairly brief notes on the composers, the sources, and
7 The facsimile of John IV's Respuestas a las dudas que se pusieron a la Missa Panis quem ego dabo de

Palestrinahad been published by M.S. RIBEIROin 1958, in the Rei Musica Portugaliaeseries.

M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960


the music, to more extended analytical and historical essays. Particularly noteworthy are the introductions to the Manuel Cardoso volumes, by J. A. Alegria, those by Santiago Kastner to the Flores de Masica by M. Rodriques Coelho and the two volumes of sonatas by Carlos Seixas, and that by Klaus Speer to Frei Roque da Conceigio: Livro de Obras de Orgsio (1695) (Lisbon 1967). Generally speaking, however, a considerable amount of valuable and in many cases original information on Portuguese music and musicians is scattered in these introductions, waiting to appear in more systematized form in works like the future Diciondrio de Masica e Masicos Portugueses, which is being prepared by the Gulbenkian Foundation. Biographical research is in fact an area where considerable progress has been made in recent years and which, when coupled with a more thorough knowledge of the musical sources, should allow us to form a much less fragmentary view of Portuguese music history than was the case twenty years ago. A good example is Rui Vieira Nery's Para a Hist6ria do Barroco Musical Portugues (0 C6dice 8942 da B.N.L.) (Lisbon, Fundaqdo C. Gulbenkian 1980) which transcribes biographical notices on pre-eighteenth century composers included in the said codex, thirty-six of which were practically unknown. This will soon be followed by a further volume containing notes on musicians included in other ms. sources. Still it is to be regretted that, as the American musicologist Robert Stevenson puts it, we possess "an abundance of biographical data... for composers without a surviving but or no repertory: scanty biographical information for the composers of many [pieces] that do survive" (Vilancicos Portugueses, Lisbon, FundaqdoC. Gulbenkian 1976, p. L). R. Stevenson himself has been extremely active in the bio-bibliographical field both of Portuguese and Spanish music, and has unearthed a large amount of the music (and in several cases the names) of Portuguese composers who were active in Spain and the New World. His Portuguese Music and Musicians Abroad (to 1650) (Lima, Pacific Press 1966) and Renaissance and Baroque Musical Sources in the Americas (Washington 1970) are particularly informative in this respect. One feature of Portuguese music history which seems to have been earlier dismissed by over-patriotic Portuguese musicologists, and which it was mainly the merit of Santiago Kastner to have brought to light, was its close links with Spanish music prior to the eighteenth century. (This question is also discussed in my forthcoming article Portuguese Musical Relations with Spain, Italy and the Netherlands during the Renaissance in: Current Musicology 34 [1984]). Those links are present from the start in the troubadour repertoire of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, written in a literary language, Galician-Portuguese, which is much closer to modern Portuguese than to modern Spanish, and whose authors were in many cases Portuguese (among them three Portuguese kings). Unfortunately no music was notated in any of the three largest surviving medieval Cancioneiros, those of the Ajuda, the Biblioteca Nacional and the Vatican library. This lack of musical sources is discussed in J. A. Alegria's A Musical P'roblemdtica das Cantigas de Amigo (Lisbon, Fundalio C. Gulbenkian 1968). Following the liturgical hypothesis, the author gives examples of modal adaptations of the music of Latin sequences to a number of cantigas de amigo. The musical problem of the


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960

cantigas is also discussed in Giuseppe Tavani, Rapporti tra testo poetico e testo musicale nella lirica galego-portoghese in: L'Ars Nova Italiana del Trecento IV (Certaldo 1980), pp. 425-438. The only surviving secular musical source for this repertory, the seven cantigas by Martin Codax, has recently been the object of a non-mensural transcription by the Spanish medievalist Ismael Fernandez de la Cuesta in Les "Cantigas de amigo" de Martin Codax in: Cahiers de Civilisation Medievale XXV, 3-4 (Poitiers 1982), pp. 179-185. Little else has been written during the period on the subject of Portuguese medieval music. Solange Corbin's scholarly Essai sur la musique religieuse Portugaise au Moyen Age (Paris 1952) has in a way "pre-emptied" the field of liturgical music, especially since no true medievalist has as yet appeared in the country to carry on her research. On the other hand, the absence of any polyphonic sources prior to the late fifteenth century, as previously noted, has not been an incentive to research in the purely documentary field, one which general historians themselves have not apparently been very keen to explore. Still, only through extended documentary research will we be able to arrive at a convincing explanation for this lack of musical sources (beside the usual and much-quoted depredations caused by fires, wars, revolutions, earthquakes and the like). A number of foreign musicologists beside Stevenson have turned their attention to Portuguese Renaissance sources. Thus Hoyle Carpenter discusses Microtones in a sixteenth-century Portuguese manuscript [P Cug M.M. 48] in: AMI XXXII (1960), pp. 23-28, and Kurt v. Fischer describes Ein singuliirer Typus portugiesischer Passionen des i6. Jahrhunderts [P Cug M. M. 56] in: AfMw 19-20 (1962-1963), pp. 180-185. Two newly discovered sixteenth-century Cancioneiros were first described and studied in Franqois Reynaud, Le chansonnier Masson 56 (XVIe siecle) de la Bibliotheque des Beaux-Arts de Paris, 2 vols, unpubl. dissertation, with transcription (University of Poitiers 1968), and Arthur L. F. Atkins and Jack Sage, The Musical Songbook of the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia e Etnologia [Ms. 3391] in: Luzo-Brazilian Review vol. 13, no. 2 (Wisconsin 1976). A third new Cancioneiro was recently acquired by the Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, as a part of the Ivo Cruz collection (P Ln CIC no. 60). As noted above, a modern edition of the first and the last sources is being prepared by Manuel Morais. The present author has also prepared a description and list of contents of the four now extant Cancioneiros for the RISM sixteenth-century secular vocal music project directed by Iain Fenlon in Cambridge. Certain stylistic traits of the Cancioneiro d'Elvas are discussed by Gil Miranda in O Cancioneiro de Elvas: um problema de estilo musical in: Col6quio-Artes 55 (1982), pp. 48-58. Still in the field of Renaissance music, the figure of the Portuguese sixteenthcentury theoretician and composer Vicente Lusitano was studied by Maria Augusta Alves Barbosa, who presented the results of her life-long research in the form of a dissertation to the University of Cologne (Vincentius Lusitanus: ein portugiesischer do Komponist und Musiktheoretiker des i6. Jahrhunderts, Lisbon, Direcqao-Geral on the Patrim6nio Cultural 1977), which is particularly valuable for its bibliography subject of Portuguese sixteenth- and seventeenth-century music. R. Stevenson also

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published the article Vicente Lusitano - New Light on his Career in: JAMS 15 (1962), pp. 72-77. A study of musical references and connotations in Portuguese Renaissance poetry will be found in Joao de Freitas Branco, A Masica na Obra de Camdes (Lisbon, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa 1977). The English-born musicologist Macario Santiago Kastner, who has resided in Lisbon since 1934, has devoted a large part of his long and fruitful career to the study of Portuguese keyboard music from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries and is mainly responsible for the international renown of composers such as Manuel Rodrigues Coelho or Carlos Seixas. From his vast bibliography, the following titles published during this period, and relating totally or in part to the study of Portuguese music, should be quoted here: La maisica en la Catedral de Badajoz, parts II and III, in: Anuario Musical XV and XVIII (Barcelona 1960, 1965), pp. 63-83 and 223-238; Harfe und Harfner in der Iberischen Musik des 17. Jahrhunderts in: Natalicia Musicologica Knud Jeppesen (Copenhagen 1962), pp. 165-172; Quelques aspects du baroque musical espagnol et portugais in: Actes des journees internationales d'etude du Baroque (Toulouse 1965), pp. 85-90; Ursprung und Sinn des "Medio Registro" in: Anuario MusicalXIX (1966), pp. 57-69; Vestigios del arte de Antonio de Cabez6n en Portugal in: Anuario Musical XXI (1968), pp. 105-121; Semitonia-Probleme in der Iberischen Claviermusik des i6. und 17. Jahrhunderts in: Anuario Musical XXIII (1970), pp. 3-33; I - Origenes y evoluci6n del Tiento para instrumentos de tecla, II - Interpretaci6n de la masica hispana para tecla de los siglos XVI y XVII in: Anuario Musical XXVIII/XXIX (1976), pp. 12-154 (an American edition of this second title, translated by Bernard and Suzan Brauchli, was published by Pendragon Press in 1983); Trds Compositores Lusitanos para Tecla (Seculos XVI e XVII) / Drei Lusitanische Komponisten fiir Clavier (i6. bis 17. Jahrhundert) [Ant6nio Carreira, Manuel Rodrigues Coelho, Pedro de Arauijo] (Lisbon, FundaCqoC. Gulbenkian 1979). Santiago Kastner was the first musicologist who was able to set the development of Portuguese music against the wider context of European music. Based on a vast and eclectic culture and profound musicological knowledge, his analyses and hypotheses are usually brilliant and stimulating, even when they cannot be fully substantiated by present documentary evidence. He has certainly set new standards for musical scholarship in Portugal, and one can only lament that he was never offered the opportunity to put them at the service of training young Portuguese musicologists in a proper academical context. Even so, the subject of Portuguese Renaissance and Baroque keyboard music has also interested a number of foreign musicologists, some of whom were his pupils in Lisbon.8 Thus Klaus Speer's doctoral dissertation on A Portuguese Manuscript of Keyboard Music from the Late Seventeenth Century [P Pm M.M. 43] was presented

Mention should be made here of the generous way in which Santiago Kastnerhas given freely of his time and shared his vast knowledge with other Portuguese and foreign musicologists who have sought his help and advice.


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to Indiana University in 1956,9 and Klaus F. Heymes's Carlos Seixas's Keyboard Sonatas was presented to the University of South Africa at Pretoria in 1967. Gerhard Doderer's dissertation presented to the University of Wiirzburg, Orgelmusik und Orgelbau im Portugal des 17. Jahrhunderts. Untersuchungen an Hand des Ms 964 der Biblioteca Pablica zu Braga, was published by Hans Schneider (Tutzing) in 1978 (a Portuguese edition is being prepared by the IPPC); he had earlier reported on his subject in Anuario Musical XXV (1971), pp. 211-247 (Die Orgel Spaniens und Portugals im 17.-18. Jahrhundert), and in Musica Sacra 92 (1972), pp. 314-323 (Orgelbau und Orgelmusik des i6.-i8. Jahrhunderts auf der Iberischen Halbinsel). Doderer also published a description of the clavichords in the Museu de Instrumentos Musicais do Conservat6rio Nacional (Clavic6rdios Portugueses do seculo XVIII / Portugiesische Klavichorde des i8. Jahrhunderts, Lisbon, Fundaq~o C. Gulbenkian 1971) whose measurements were later questioned in Bernard Brauchli, Comments on the Lisbon Collection of Clavichords in: The Galpin Society JournalXXXIII (1978 ?), pp. 98-105. B. Brauchli also published the article Le clavicorde dans la pininsule iberique. Histoire et facture in: Revue musicale de Suisse romande 36e annie, no. 2 (June 1983), pp. 58-68. Wesley David Johnson presented a dissertation to the University of New England (Canada) in 1978 on Orgfios Portugueses: A Documentation and Historical and Technical Study of Selected Portuguese Organs. Other studies of Portuguese musical instruments include Marten Albert Vente, The Renaissance Organ in the Cathedral of Evora in: Col6quio-Artes 13 (1973), pp. 62-64; Manuel Morais, Uma viola portuguesa do seculo XVI in: Col6quio-Artes 21 (1975), pp. 70-71; Carlos de Azevedo, Baroque Organ-Cases of Portugal (Amsterdam, Frits Knuf 1972); and Edward H. Tarr, Die Musik und die Instrumente der Charamela Real in Lissabon in: Basler Studien zur Interpretation der alten Musik, Sonderdruck aus Forum Musicologicum II (Basel, Amadeus 1980), on the largest collection of court trumpets and their music now in existence. The originality and importance of Portuguese Renaissance and Baroque keyboard music and instruments does certainly justify the interest they have aroused among scholars. The same cannot probably be said of Portuguese liturgical polyphony of the sixteenth and especially the seventeenth centuries which, despite its general high standard of quality, tends to be fairly conservative in style, looking back to the Franco-Flemish composers and to Palestrina for its models. In fact, beside the already mentioned introductions to the relevant Portugaliae Musica series, very few studies have appeared in this area. Mario de Sampaio Ribeiro published a monograph on Frei Manuel Cardoso: contribuigao para o estudo da sua vida e da sua obra in 1961. Jose Augusto Alegria wrote an article on the Ineditos musicais de Mateus de Aranda in: Col6quio-Artes 12 (1973), pp. 71-72. Armindo Borges presented a dissertation on Duarte Lobo to the University of Cologne in 1983.
9 P Pm M.M. 42, which contains organ music mostly by Spanish authors, is studied in B. HUDSON's

dissertation, presented to Indiana University in 1961, A Portuguese Source of Seventeenth-CenturyIberian Music.

M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960


A more promising field is likely to be found in the repertory of the seventeenthcentury religious villancico. The present writer has called attention to the largest collection of such works in Portugal, which is preserved at Coimbra, B. G. Universidade, and to certain progressive features of the repertory, in A LittleKnown Collection of Portuguese Baroque Villancicos and Romances in: Research Chronicle of the RMA 15 (1979), pp. 17-37. One such feature is the occasional inclusion of obbligato instrumental parts, which is very rare elsewhere in Portuguese seventeenth-century vocal music, and which he discusses in Partes instrumentales obligadas en la polifonfa vocal de Santa Cruz de Coimbrain: Revista de Musicologia V, no. 1 (1982), pp. 127-139. The Iberian seventeenth-century secular vocal repertory of romances or tonos a lo humano is less well represented in Portuguese sources, and the same is even more true of theatrical music. This is again discussed by the present writer in Vestigios del teatro musical espahiol en Portugal a lo largo de los siglos XVII y XVIII in: Revista de Musicologia V, no. 2 (1982), pp. 325-335. Dance and ensemble instrumental music is almost non-existent in Portugal. A rare canzona for two shawms and bass (Tarambote para as duas charamelinhas) was published by this writer in Vilancicos do seculo XVII do Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra (Lisbon, Fundaqdo C. Gulbenkian 1983). New light has been shed on the history of musical institutions in this period by such basic works as J. A. Alegria's Hist6ria da Escola de Masica da Se de lvora (Lisbon 1973) and Hist6ria da Capela e Coldgio dos Santos Reis de Vila Viqosa (Lisbon 1983), or Ernesto Gonqalves de Pinho's Santa Cruz de Coimbra Centro de Actividade Musical nos Seculos XVI e XVII (Lisbon 1981), all published by the Gulbenkian Foundation, to which may be added a few articles, such as Armando Nobre Gusmao, Cantores e masicos em nos anos de 1542 e 1553 in: Anais da lvora Academia Portuguesa de Hist6ria II, 14 (1964), pp. 97-121. With the possible exception of keyboard music,'0 eighteenth-century studies have generally lagged behind, particularly in the field of opera and theatrical music. In some cases new and much valuable information has been produced by general historians, e.g. in Jacqueline Monfort's Quelques notes sur l'histoire du thdaitre portugais (1729-1750) in: Arquivos do Centro Cultural Portugues IV (Paris 1972), pp. 566-600, which transcribes extensive and hitherto unknown references to the theatrical activity in the first half of the century, included in a collection of ms. This and other available journals preserved at lvora, Biblioteca Pfiblica Municipal. information on the subject is summarized in a paper presented by the present writer at the XIIIth Congress of the International Musicological Society (Strasbourg 1982), Le r6le de l'opera dans la lutte entre l'obscurantisme et les Lumi&resau Portugal (1731-1742), the first time that a paper on Portuguese music was read at an IMS congress. Other non-musical studies which are also relevant to the history of opera include a series of articles by da Costa Miranda, among them: JosApontamentos para um futuro estudo sobre o teatro de Metastdsio em Portugal no
10 Fairly detailed referencesto Portugueseeighteenth-centurykeyboardmusic are to be found in WILLIAMS. NEWMAN, The Sonata in the Classic Era (Chapel Hill, University of North CarolinaPress 1963).


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960

seculo XVIII in: Estudos Italianos em Portugal 35 (1973), pp. 129-162; Achegas para um estudo sobre o teatro de Apostolo Zeno em Portugal in: Revista de Hist6ria Literdria de Portugal IV (1974), pp. 5-38; Benedetto Marcello, "Il Teatro alla moda", apontamentos sobre uma versdo portuguesa manuscrita (siculo XVIII) in: Estudos Italianos em Portugal 37 (1975), pp. 25-39; O teatro de Goldoni em Portugal (siculo XVIII). Libretos de dramas para masica e partituras manuscritas, idem, pp. 41-77. To these may be added M.S. Ribeiro's A margem da Exposicao dos Desenhos da Escola dos Bibienas in: Boletim do Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga V, no. 2 (1966), pp. 26-31. A detailed study of the relations of Jommelli with the Portuguese court is presented by Maritza McClymonds in Niccold Jommelli: The Last Years, 1769-1774 (UMI Research Press 1981), originally a dissertation presented to the University of California at Berkeley. The present writer is also preparing a dissertation on opera in Portugal 1708-1793, a basic documentary study which he hopes to present to the University of London later this year. His article A contrataqdo do castrato Gizziello para a Real Cdmara em 1751 was published in the Estudos Italianos em Portugal 45/46 (1982/1983). Still in the field of opera Mario Moreau has published the first volume of an extremely well-documented collection of biographies of Portuguese opera singers, Cantores de Opera Portugueses (Lisbon, Bertrand 1981)." New findings in the field of orchestral music have been reported by Filipe de Sousa in Quem foi Ant6nio Pereira da Costa? in: Col6quio-Artes 2 (1971), pp. 50-53, and A masica orquestral portuguesa no seculo XVIII in: Bracara Augusta XXVIII (1974) nos. 65-66 (77-78), pp. 372-530 (see below). A dissertation on the players of the Royal Chapel, Documents inedits sur l'orchestre et les instrumentistes de la Real Camara 'aLisbonne de 1764 h 1834, was presented by Joseph Elisbe Albert Scherpereel to the University of Southern California in 1974 and will soon be published by the Gulbenkian Foundation. The present author has also gathered new evidence on private and public concerts in Lisbon in the late eighteenth century, which will be published in his forthcoming article Conciertos en Lisboa a fines del siglo XVIII in: Revista de Musicologia VII, no. 1 (1984). New data on individual composers are presented in a collection of mainly biobibliographical essays on Marcos Portugal by Jean-Paul Sarrautte (Lisbon, Fundaqio C. Gulbenkian 1979), in Luis Filipe Marques da Gama, O compositor Ant6nio Leal Moreira in: Armas e Trofdus3 (Braga 1975), and in three articles by Humberto Avila on the previously unidentified composer Joao Pedro de Almeida Mota (Didrio de Noticias, Sept. 17 and Dec. 24, 1981, and Col6quio-Artes 54 [1982], pp. 54-56). The present writer has published a caricature of F. A. Almeida by Pier Leone Ghezzi in Jornal de letras, artes e ideias, Ano I, no. 24 (1982), p. 20 (Um retrato inedito do compositor Francisco Ant6nio de Almeida).

in " A now slightly outdated summaryof Portugueseoperatichistory was publishedby JOSE LOPEZ-CALO Storia dell'operaVol. II, tome II (Turin,UTET 1977), pp. 65-77.

M. C. de Brito:Musicologyin Portugalsince 2960


The musical section of a Congress on Art in Portugal in the eighteenth century, which was held in Braga in 1973, also produced a number of papers on eighteenthcentury music which were published in Bracara Augusta XXVIII (1974) nos. 65-66 (77-78), pp. 372-530. Beside the above mentioned paper by Filipe de Sousa, the following may be quoted: Filipe de Sousa, O compositor Ant6nio Teixeira e a sua obra; Francisco Faria, O estilo concertante em Santa Cruz de Coimbra; Fredericode Freitas, A modinha - portuguesa e brasileira (. ..); Gerhard Doderer, Instrumentos de tecla portugueses no seculo XVIII; Klaus F. Heimes, Carlos Seixas's keyboard Sonatas: the Question of Domenico Scarlatti's influence; Manuel Faria, A masica em Braga no seculo XVIII; and Maria Fernanda Cidrais, Algumas consideraq6es a prop6sito de uma colec~ao de libretos do seculo XVIII. Other relevant eighteenthcentury studies include G&rard Behague's article Biblioteca da Ajuda (Lisboa) Mss 1595/1596: Two eighteenth-century anonymous collections of modinhas in: Yearbook of the Inter-American Institute for Musical Research IV (1968), pp. 44-81, and L. Feininger's catalogue of the works of the Italian composer Giovanni Giorgio, who resided in Lisbon between 1729 and 1755, as director of a music school at the monastery of S. Catarina de Ribamar, Catalogus Thematicus et Bibliographicus Johanni de Georgiis Operum Sacrarum Omnium (Trento, Societas Universalis Sanctae Ceciliae 1962), Vol. I of Repertorium Liturgiae Polychoralis. A Supplementum Primum and a Tomus Secundus were published in 1965 and 1971 respectively. From the point of view of research the nineteenth century in Portugal still remains a largely unchartered land. The forthcoming publication of a series of articles on music in Portugal in the first half of the century, originally published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and translated and edited by David I. Cranmer and the present author (Cr6nicas da vida musical portuguesa na primeira metade do seculo XIX, Lisbon, Imprensa Nacional 1984) may well constitute a minor breakthrough in this respect, along with a detailed study of operatic activity during the period 1793-1828 which is being prepared by the said David I. Cranmer. Mario Vieira de Carvalho is also preparing a dissertation on the Lisbon S. Carlos Theatre to be presented to the Humboldt-University in East Berlin. Detailed biographies of Portuguese nineteenth-century opera singers will again be found in Mario Moreau, Cantores de Opera Portugueses. Other nineteenth-century studies include a dissertation relating to the history of music education presented to Porto University by Maria Luisa Martins Delerue in 1970 (O Ensino musical no Porto durante o seculo XIX, Elementos para o seu estudo), and a Catalogo das Obras de Joao Domingos Bomtempo which was published by Jean-Paul Sarrautte in 1970. Joao de Freitas Branco has studied the figure of the great early twentieth-century Portuguese pianist who was a pupil of Franz Liszt in Viana da Mota. Uma contribuiqdopara o estudo da sua personalidade e da sua obra (Lisbon 1971). The two last works were published by the Gulbenkian Foundation. Despite the Encontros de Musica Contemporanea organized every year since 1977 by the Gulbenkian Foundation, where new music by Portuguese and foreign composers has been studied, performed and discussed, and which have included


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960

lectures by such leading figures as Iannis Xenakis, very little research into twentieth-century music has yet been produced in the country. The composer Candido Lima, a pupil of Xenakis, presented a dissertation to the Sorbonne in 1982 entitled Reflexions sur l'intuition et la rationalite en composition musicale (Elements pour une nouvelle pedagogie). Two last general studies should be mentioned here. One is a good Hist6ria da Danqa em Portugal by Jose Sasportes (Lisbon, Fundaqao C. Gulbenkian 1970), which contains much that is of interest to the music historian. The other is a research into the influence of Portuguese historical events on European music, being carried out by Rui Clemente Paz, of which a first chapter, A "Donner Kantate" de G. P. Telemann e o terramoto de 1755, will be published soon. Until now Portuguese musicologists have had few occasions to meet and discuss the problems of their disciplin. Since 1977 the Encontros de Muisica Antiga Ib rica (Zaragoza 1977, Coimbra 1978, Zaragoza 1979, ivora 1980, Salamanca 1982) have provided a meeting ground for musicologists and musicians with an interest in Iberian early music. The first Encontro Nacional de Musicologia was held in Lisbon in 1982 under the auspices of the APEM (Associaqio Portuguesa de Educaqao Musical) and the second was scheduled to be held in late 1983.12 The continuity of such meetings is essential if Portuguese musicology is to come of age, becoming conscious of its possibilities, needs and limitations. One such need has been repeatedly noted, namely that of a specialized periodical where Portuguese musicologists might make the results of their research known to others. Still it is doubtful that the amount of research being carried on in the country, or the potential reading public, would be large enough to justify the existence of a musicological journal, in a country where there is no single periodical publication devoted to serious music. This in any case should probably best be left to the initiative of a national musicological society which does not yet exist. Meanwhile the new Spanish Revista de Musicologia has generously opened its pages to Portuguese musicologists, who will thus be able to reach a wider Iberian (and Latin American) public.

4. Ethnomusicology Ethnomusicological activity in Portugal during the petiod has been mainly concerned with salvaging and collecting a folk music repertory which in many cases was in danger of becoming extinct. In fact an important part of this repertory was recorded from old people in remote rural areas and some of it has probably already disappeared from the oral tradition, under the combined attacks of the media, industrialization and emigration (both to the urban centres and abroad). This work was generally carried out by private individuals with little support from public institutions. Among them the name of Michel Giacometti should be singled out as that of a field worker who has collected some 3,000 folk tunes, out of a total 7,000
"2 Reports on the Salamanca and the Lisbon 1982 meetings were published by this author in Current
Musicology 33 (1983).

M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960


presently known,'3 helped with regard to the transcription, selection and analysis of the musical materials by the composer and pioneer of a scientific approach to Portuguese folk music Fernando Lopes Graqa. The two of them are responsible for several of the most important discographic series of Portuguese folk music (see below). While for many years public institutions in the country were mainly interested in the touristical promotion of "inauthentic" folk groups and associations which usually cultivated a more or less artificial repertory of folk music and dance, Fernando Lopes Graqa argued repeatedly for the recovery and study of the original and endangered repertory of the rural areas, which is certainly one of the richest and most varied in western Europe, in such works as A Cangdo Popular Portuguesa (Lisbon, Europa-America 1954, 1973) and A Musica Portuguesa e os seus Problemas (2nd. vol., Coimbra 1959, and 3rd vol., Lisbon 1963). As a composer he has produced a large number of harmonizations of folk tunes and also used them as primary material for original compositions, in a spirit akin to that of Bela Bart6k. A bibliography of ethnomusicological publications during the past twenty-odd years will clearly reflect the above-mentioned concerns and limitations. The following titles may be quoted in rough chronological order: JUlioAndrade, Balhos, Rodas e Cantares (Subsidios para o Registo do Folclore das Ilhas do Faial, Pico, Flores e Corvo) (Horta 1960); Porfirio Rebelo Bonito, O Maio-Moqo (Vila Real 1962); M. Giacometti, F. L. Graqa, Virgilio Pereira, Ant6nio Reis and Pe. Bernardo Terreiro, Lieder aus Portugal (book and record, Hamburg 1962); M. Giacometti, F. L. Graqa, Sebastiao Rodrigues and Joao Gaspar Sim6es, Vozes e Imagens de Trdsos-Montes (book and record, Lisbon 1962); Fernando de Castro Pires de Lima, A Chula verdadeira cangdo nacional (Lisbon 1962); Maria Adelaide da Silva Paiva, Cancioneiro do Alto Douro (Barqueiros) (Vila Real 1962); P. F. Bonito, Alguns aspectos da masica popular portuguesa in: Actas do I Congresso de Etnografia e Folciore, Braga 1956 (Lisbon 1963); Carlos Lopes Cardoso and Jos6 Nunes de Oliveira, Cancioneiro Popular de Cete (Luanda 1963); F. L. Graqa, Algumas consideraqSes sobre a Masica Folcl6rica Portuguesa in: Col6quio. Revista de Artes e Letras 24 (Lisbon 1963); Leandro Quintas Neves, Auto da Floripes (Porto 1963); Ant6nio Alves Redol and F. L. Graqa, Romanceiro Geral do Povo Portugues (Lisbon 1964); M. S. Ribeiro, Velhos Pregdes Musicados de Lisboa. Achega para o seu Estudo e sua Inventariaqdoin: Revista de Etnografia IV, 1 (Porto 1965) [on Lisbon streetcries]; J. A. Pombinho Juinior, Cantes Populares de Portel 3rd series in: Ethnos IV (Lisbon 1965); Pe. Ant6nio Mourinho, Aspectos e funqdo da masica popular Mirandesa, profana e religiosa in: Actas do Congresso Internacional de Etnografia II (1965), pp. 177-178; Jorge Dias, Da masica e da danqa como formas de expressdo espontaneas populares, aos ranchos folcl6ricos in: Col6quio 2, Tomo III (Lisbon 1970); Pe. Ant6nio Marvao, Fisionomia do cante alentejano (Beringel 1970); F. L. Grala, Acerca do canto alentejano in: Obras Literdriasvol. XIII (Lisbon 1973); Anne Caufriez, Le Romance chants au Tris-os-Montes in: Col6quio-Artes
'3 Figuresthat he quotes himself in his CancioneiroPopularPortuguds(Lisbon,Circulode Leitores1981), p. 6.


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960

43 (Lisbon 1979), pp. 44-45; Jodo Ranita da Nazard, Masica TradicionalPortuguesa - Cantares do Baixo Alentejo (Lisbon, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa 1979); J. A. Bettencourt da Camara, Masica tradicional aqoriana (Lisbon, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa 1980); Francisco Jose Dias, Cantigas do Povo dos Aqores (Angra do Heroismo 1981); Tomas Ribas, Danqas populares portuguesas (Lisbon, Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa 1983). As a result of his work of collecting folk instruments (see above 1.), Ernesto Veiga de Oliveira published an important study on the subject, Instrumentos Musicais Populares Portugueses (Lisbon, Fundaqdo C. Gulbenkian 1966, 1982). Jorge Dias also published the article O cavaquinho. Estudo de difusiio de um instrumento popular in: Actas do Congresso Internacional de Etnografia IV (1965), p. 93. Many of the publications here quoted would be best classified as works of musical ethnography rather than true ethnomusicological studies. The reason for this lies in the fact that until now only very few people working in this field have had a proper academic training, or any direct contact with modern trends in ethnomusicology. As regards musical transcriptions themselves, it is now an accepted fact that even the most accurate notated transcriptions cannot replace phonographical recordings as primary ethnomusicological materials. In this field a number of important discographical series have been produced, among them: BBCFolk Music of Portugal (Artur Santos) LP 23.757 - 23.766 (1956); Antologia Sonora - 0 Folclore Musical nas Ilhas dos Aqores (Artur and Tilia Santos) F. 100.000 H F. 1000.030 H (1956); His Master's Voice CLPC 27, LEM 3007/3008 (1959); Le Chant du Monde (Giacometti and F. L. Graqa) LDY 4190 (1959), LDX - A 4337 (1964); Arquivos Sonoros Portugueses (Giacometti and F. L. Graqa) GE LDI, GE LD AS 2/12/17/18/101/119/50 (1960-1970); ASF 031-052 (1961-1965); Folkways Records (Giacometti, F. L. Graqa, Laura Boulton) FP 845, FE 4538 A/B and C/D (1962-1965); Philips (Giacometti and F. L. Graqa) 6499226 (1971) and 603105 (six records, 1971); Decca SPEP 1405/1406, SLPDB 1009, SLPDS 2032 (1972-1975); Sassetti/Diapasdo (Discoteca Basica Nacional) (Giacometti and F. L. Graqa) 25.005-25.007 (1981); Contralto Mi6sica Popular Lda. (Jose Alberto Sardinha, Vitor Reino, Almanaque, Grupo de Recolha e Divulgaqdo de Misica Popular) RMP 10.01 - 10.03 (1982).14 Considering the limitations from which Portuguese ethnomusicology has suffered, it is not surprising that it produced so little on the music of the Portuguese excolonies. In fact only very few studies were carried out during the colonial period (up to 1975) on the music of Portuguese East and West Africa. Among those published after 1960 the following may be quoted: Diamang - Museu do Dundo: Folclore Musical de Angola, I - Povo Quioco (Area do L6vua); II - Povo Quioco (Area do Camissombo) (2 vols., Lisbon 1961-1967; a collection of tapes and records

14 In several cases the same material appears in different recordings. For a more detailed discography see MICHEL GIACOMETTI, op. cit., p. 340-343. Several TV series were also produced on the subject of Portuguese folk music, among which those by Giacometti, Artur Santos and Francisco d'Orey should be mentioned.

M. C. de Brito:Musicologyin Portugalsince 1960


was also published); Herminio do Nascimento, who was responsible for the musical part of this publication, also published Doze canq6es da Lunda (Lisbon 1968); Jose Redinha, Instrumentos Musicais de Angola (Luanda 1962) - the same author's Culturas e Etnias de Angola (Luanda 1974) includes some fifty pages on the subject of Angolan music; Fernando R. Rogado Quintino, Masica e Danqa na Guind Portuguesa (Bissau 1963); W.A.A. Wilson, Talking drums in Guind in: Estudos sobre a Etnologia do Ultramar Portuguds Vol. III (Lisbon 1963), pp. 201-219; Fernando de Castro Pires de Lima, Contribuiqaiopara o estudo do folclore de in: Actas do Congresso Internacional de Etnografia IV (1965), pp. Mozambique in: Geographica 6 267-302; Margot Dias, Instrumentos Musicais de Mozambique (Lisbon 1966; the author is also preparing a book on the same subject which will be published soon); Jaime Figueiredo, O sentido da morna e das coladeiras in: Revista de Etnografia 28 (Porto 1970); Recolha de canv6es populares de S. Tome (S. Tome, Direcqao Geral de Cultura n.d. [1977]). By far the most extensive studies of Angolan and Mozambique music have been carried out by the Austrian ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik, who has spent many years in Black Africa. From his vast bibliography the following titles may be quoted here: Discovery of a trough xylophone in northern Mozambique in: African Music 3, no. 2 (1963); Recording and studying music in northern Mozambique in: African Music 3, no. 3 (1964); Natureza e estrutura das escalas musicais africanas (transl. by J.F. Branco, Lisbon 1970); Masica tradicional e aculturada dos IKung' de Angola (...) (Lisbon 1970); Die Institution mukanda und assoziierte Einrichtungen bei den Vambwela/Vankhangela und verwandten Ethnien in Si dostangola. 3 vols., Dissertation (University of Vienna, Institut fiir V61kerkunde 1971); Musik der Humbi, Honda und regionaler Splittergruppen in Siidwest Angola (book and record) in: Humbi en Honda - Angola nr. 9 (Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale 1973); Sozialisierungsprozess und Gesiinge der Initianden in mukanda-Schulen (Si dostangola) in: in Memoriam Ant6nio Jorge Dias I (Lisbon 1974), also in Arthur Simon, ed. Musik in Afrika (West Berlin 1983); Musical bows in southwestern Angola, 1965 in: African Music 5, no. 4 (1975/76); Patterns of body movement in the music of boy's initiation in south-east Angola in: John Blacking, ed. The Anthropology of the Body (London 1977); Angolan traits in Black music, games and dances of Brazil in: Estudos de Antropologia Cultural 10 (Lisbon 1979); Likumbe tunings of Kufuna Kandonga (Angola) in: African Music 6, no. 1 (1980). An. ethnomusicological fortnight (Quinzena de Etnomusicologia) promoted in 1983 by the Juventude Musical Portuguesa had more the character of an ethnographical event. Rather more interesting and promising from a scientifical point of view was the week-long Seminario Margot Dias, organized by the Museu de Etnologia, which included lectures by such established ethnomusicologists as Andrew Tracey, Gerhard Kubik, Kazadi Wa Mukuna and Monique Desroches. The museum plans to publish a series of Cadernos de Etnomusicologia where these lectures and other studies in the field will become available in print.


M. C. de Brito:Musicology in Portugalsince 1960

5. Academic training and institutions. Future prospects. Acknowledgements Until recently one of the basic problems facing Portuguese musicologists was the lack of opportunity for academic training in their own country. Most scholars of an earlier generation had been largely self-taught and remained relatively isolated from international developments in their discipline. It is true that for many years now Santiago Kastner has conducted free courses in the interpretation of early music and in musical paleography at the Conservat6rio Nacional, where generations of students were introduced to certain aspects of musicological research. Since 1976 the Instituto Gregoriano de Lisboa has also organized short courses in paleography conducted by Edith Weber, of the Sorbonne, as well as occasional courses in music history conducted by Norbert Dufourcq, among others. The University of Coimbra, and more recently that of Lisbon, also offer a one-year course in music history as an optional subject in their history and arts degrees. (Music history at the conservatories is taught in a basic three-year course.) As much as they have contributed towards a growing interest in musicology awakening in certain cases true musicological vocations - courses of this type, and the institutional context in which they appear, are obviously insufficient to create a proper academic framework for the development of musicology as a science. A number of younger musicologists were thus led to seek their academic training abroad, generally on grants from the State, the Gulbenkian Foundation, or foreign institutions such as the British Council. This in its turn has contributed to a certain degree towards a more international outlook in Portuguese musicology, which is bound to bear its fruits in the near future. But the definitive basis for the establishment of musicology as an academic discipline was the creation in 1981 of a Department of Ciencias Musicais at the Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. The Department offers a 4-year licenciatura course where all the basic musicological subjects are taught, including ethnomusicology, acoustics and electro-acoustics, and organology. In the present academic year the number of students, who must have earlier completed their general musical training at a secondary conservatory, has doubled to circa 45 (for a teaching staff of six). The course's present curriculum does not seem to be wholly adapted to one of its main avowed aims, that of preparing music teachers for the general secondary school level. For this purpose it should certainly possess less of a specialized musicological bias, and offer adequate theoretical background and practical training in music education, possibly in collaboration with the Conservat6rio Nacional. One possible solution to this problem might be found in a course containing an initial common core of music history, analysis, esthetics, etc., and a later split into a musicological and an educational branch, with separate curricula. A further specialization in one of the different branches of musicology (historical and systematic musicology, and ethnomusicology) might then be introduced at postgraduate level. Whatever solution is adopted, it should be kept in mind that the country's primary need, now and in the foreseeable future, is for qualified music teachers, and not for musicologists. There will always be a very limited number of places available

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both inside and outside the university for full-time musicologists. (Until now the Department of Ciencias Musicais itself did not seem able, or very keen, to hire those few Portuguese musicologists who possess an academic training.) Beside music libraries and archives, and the Gulbenkian Foundation and the IPPC Music and Musicology Departments, other institutions, such as the radio and TV stations, or the Ministry of Culture, may eventually require a number of people with an university degree in music, but not necessarily in musicology. It might even prove worthwhile in the future to set up a combined degree in music and mass media communication, or a degree in sound engineering (which does not yet exist), at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, which was originally created with an interdisciplinary vocation. Musicologists there should also be able to collaborate in interdisciplinary research projects involving general historians, art and literary historians, linguists, anthropologists, etc., breaking the traditional isolation in which their discipline has existed in Portugal until now. With regard to ethnomusicology the Museu de Etnologia also offers a very convenient space for specialized and interdisciplinary research. Still the primary concern of a newly-created academic discipline should be with itself and with defining its own standards. To achieve this, the contacts with the international musicological community must be developed and intensified, and adequate access to current musicological literature must be secured. This is certainly difficult in the country's present economic circumstances, when even the most basic bibliographical tools (reference works, general and area studies, collected editions and monumenta) are not yet available, and have now reached prohibitive prices. In the near future musicology in Portugal will probably have to go on concentrating on the country's own musical heritage (which, as we have seen, still offers ample scope for original research), while trying to approach it in a less parochial light than was sometimes the case in the past. In this respect stronger ties ought also to be developed with Spain, Brazil and the rest of Latin America. All things considered prospects for musicology in Portugal are probably brighter now than at any time before. Portuguese musicologists will go on relying on the continuing and indispensable support of the Gulbenkian Foundation and the IPPC, but it is probably high time that they also try and create some form of association which might promote the interchange and co-ordination of their individual research efforts. The author wishes to thank the following persons for kindly supplying information included in this article: Humberto Avila, of the Musicology Department, Instituto Portugues do Patrim6nio Cultural; Maria Fernanda Cidrais, of the Music Department, Gulbenkian Foundation; Dr. Gerhard Doderer, of the Department of Musical Sciences, Universidade Nova de Lisboa; Macario Santiago Kastner and Pilar Torres, of the Conservat6rio Nacional; Mario Rui de Matos, of the Folklore Department, Secretaria de Estado da Cultura (Rep6tiblicaPopular de Angola); and Domingos Morais, of the Museu de Etnologia.