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Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Lecture 1002
The Ideal Gas Law
Daltons Law of Partial
Pressures
John Bookstaver
St. Charles Community College
Cottleville, MO
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition
Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.;
and Bruce E. Bursten
Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Ideal-Gas Equation
V 1/P (Boyles law)
V T (Charless law)
V n (Avogadros law)
So far weve seen that
Combining these, we get
V
nT
P
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2
Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Ideal-Gas Equation
The relationship
then becomes
nT
P
V
nT
P
V = R
or
PV = nRT
Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Ideal-Gas Equation
The constant of
proportionality is
known as R, the
gas constant.
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3

Have 1 particle,
with mass m,
with velocity v
PARTICLE
IN THE
BOX
A
f
P =
2
f
P

=
Consider the P exerted:
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But:
f = ?

But:
f = ma
where
time
velocity in change
a =
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+v
+v
v
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+v
v
Change in velocity =
(+v) (v) = 2 v
t
a
v 2
=
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Thus, the pressure
exerted by one particle
on a wall is:
2
1
t
2
) m (
P

|
.
|

\
|
v
=
But,
? = v
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But,
t
d
and, the distance a particle
travels between collisions with
the same wall is ?

2
t
or
t
2
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2
1
t
2
) m (
P

|
.
|

\
|
v
=
Substituting
into

we get:
2
1
2
2
) m (
P

|
|
.
|

\
|
v
v
=
Simplifying:
3
2
1
m
P

v
=
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V
m
P
V
2
1
3
v
=
=
but,
This represents the
pressure (P) that one
particle exerts striking
opposite walls in the
box.
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Now assume the box
contains N particles.
Then, N/3 particles are
traveling between
opposite walls.
Thus,
the total pressure on
opposite walls is:
|
|
.
|

\
|
v
|
.
|

\
|
=
V
m
3
N
P
2
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2
1
3
2
3
1
=
Substitute & rearrange
2
m
2
1
V
N
3
2
P v
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
KE
3
N 2
PV
KE m
2
1
2

|
.
|

\
|
=
= v
|
.
|

\
|
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From classical physics
kT
2
3
KE =
where k is the
Boltzman constant
0
N
R
k =
where
R = universal gas constant
N
0
= Avogadros number
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T
N
R
2
3
KE
0
=
T
N
R N
PV =
0
2
3
3
2
nRT PV
Ideal Gas Equation
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15
Gases
Further Applications of the
Ideal-Gas Equations
Calculation of Density and Molar
Mass of a Gas
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Densities of Gases
If we divide both sides of the ideal-gas
equation by V and by RT, we get


n
V
P
RT
=
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Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
We know that
moles molecular mass = mass
Densities of Gases
So multiplying both sides by the
molecular mass (M ) gives
n M = m
PM
RT
m
V
=
Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Densities of Gases
Mass volume = density

So,
Note: One only needs to know the
molecular mass, the pressure, and the
temperature to calculate the density of
a gas.
PM
RT
m
V
= d =
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Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Molecular Mass
We can manipulate the density equation
to enable us to find the molecular mass
of a gas:
Becomes
PM
RT
d =
dRT
P
M =
Gases
Exercise 10.4
What is the molar mass of methylamine
if 0.157 g of the gas occupies 125 mL
with a pressure of 99.5 kPa at 22
0
C?

2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
11/14/2013
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Gases
Exercise 10.5
Calculate the density of fluorine gas at
(a) 30
0
C and 725 torr, (b) STP.
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Gases
Gas Mixtures and Partial
Pressures
Daltons Law
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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Gases
Partial Pressure
pressure exerted by
each component in a
mixture of gases
Gases
this assumes that
NO interactions
occurs between
the molecules of gas
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Gases
must conclude
1. each gas acts as if it
is in container alone
2. each gas collides
with the container wall
as an event
Gases

=
=
n
1 i
i T
P P

where n = # components
or
P
T
= P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3
+ ...
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Gases
P
i
V = n
i
R T
or
P
nRT
V
i
i
=
Gases
thus:
P
n RT
V
n RT
V
T
= + +
1 2
...
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Gases
or
( )
P
RT
V
n n
T
= + +
1 2
...
Gases
therefore:
n
T
= n
i

and P
T
o sum of mols
of gas
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Gases
Mole Fraction

X
n
n
i
i
T
=
Gases
1 ...
n
n
n
n
n
n
3 2 1
= + + +
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Gases
Since:



and


P
n RT
V
i
i
=
P
n RT
V
T
T
=
Gases
T
i

i
T
i
P
P
X
n
n
= =
Then
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Gases
and

P
i
= X
i
P
T

Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Daltons Law of
Partial Pressures
The total pressure of a mixture of gases
equals the sum of the pressures that
each would exert if it were present
alone.
In other words,
P
total
= P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3
+
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Gases
2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Partial Pressures
When one collects a gas over water, there is
water vapor mixed in with the gas.
To find only the pressure of the desired gas,
one must subtract the vapor pressure of
water from the total pressure.