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8.1. WELFARE OF SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES AND OTHER BACKWARD CLASSES I. Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

Introduction India is a welfare State, committed to the welfare and development of its people and of vulnerable sections in particular. The preamble, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Rights and specific sections, viz., Articles 38, 39 and 46 in the Constitution of India, stand testimony to the commitment of the State to its people. Socially disadvantaged groups of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes have received special focus over the years for their social and economic advancement. Government has taken several steps for framing appropriate policies needed to design and implement various welfare programmes for achieving the objective of creating favourable environment to ensure speedy socio economic development of SCs/ STs. For the well being of these communities, special target-oriented programmes are being implemented by earmarking funds, providing subsidies, offering reservations in employment and educational institutions etc. According to the 1991 Census, the population of Scheduled Castes in Tamil Nadu was 107.12 lakhs, constituting 19.18% of the total population. The Scheduled Tribes numbering 5.74 lakhs constitute 1.03% of the total population. The major ameliorative activities for these communities are grouped as educational development, economic development, housing and other schemes, Special Component Plan and Tribal Sub Plan. The implementation of the Special Component Plan (SCP) for Scheduled Castes and the Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) for Scheduled Tribes has received special attention since their inception, as these programmes are effective instruments to ensure proportionate flow of funds for SCs and STs from other general development sectors. Review of Ninth Five Year Plan The main objective of the Ninth Plan was to intensify the efforts to bridge the gap between Scheduled Castes / Scheduled Tribes and the rest of the population. An outlay of Rs. 775 crores was provided for the Ninth Plan and the anticipated expenditure during the period is Rs. 621.39 crores. Group-headwise outlay and anticipated expenditure during Ninth plan period are indicated below :

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Financial
Sl. No. I. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I II Details on programmes Ninth Plan Outlay 1997-2002 (Rs. in crores) Ninth Plan Ant.Expr. 1997-2002

Ongoing Schemes : Scheduled Castes : Education Economic Development Housing and other schemes Special Component Plan Total : Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes : Education Economic Development Housing and other schemes Tribal Sub Plan Hill Area Development Programme Total : Scheduled Tribes Total : Ongoing Schemes (A+B) New Schemes Grand Total : I and II

204.20 29.55 324.36 558.11 18.79 1.58 3.00 39.53 62.90 621.01 153.99 775.00

233.60 9.80 284.40 54.37 582.17 4.51 1.58 0.22 25.49 7.42 39.22 621.39 *** 621.39

*** - expenditure. for the new schemes is included in the ongoing schemes.

Physical The physical achievement in respect of major schemes during the Ninth plan period is given below:
Sl.No. Item Education Prematric scholarship i) Government of India ii) State Postmatric scholarship i) Government of India ii) State Free education (degree course) Loan Scholarship Upgradation of schools i) Primary to middle ii) Middle to High iii) High to Higher Secondary Opening of GTR schools Opening of new hostels Construction of new hostels Special incentive schemes i) Girl students studying in III-V Stds. ii) Girl students entering VI Std., CM's merit award Economic Development Distribution of milch animals Distribution of plough bulls Technically trained persons No. of Beneficiaries

1.

174357 students 4582011 students 899093 students 76373 students 62463 students 42281 students 115 schools 18 schools 21 schools 10 schools 107 hostels 111 hostels 290918 175818 21080 11239 1905 5082

2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

1. 2. 3.

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Sl.No.

Item Housing and other schemes Distribution of free house site pattas Construction of houses under Rural Housing scheme Drinking water Construction of community halls Primitive Tribes Dispersed tribes

No. of Beneficiaries 268359 166005 12387 habitations 25 Halls 1911 1851

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Education Literacy status is one of the key indicators of socio-economic development and the relative employment opportunities largely depend on the level of education. At present 1017 ADW schools and 247 Tribal Residential Schools are run mainly for the benefit of these communities. Totally 2,23,762 Children are studying in AD schools and 38,656 children in Tribal Residential Schools. Out of 1017 ADW schools, 29 schools are still in rented buildings and out of 247 GTR schools, 37 are in rented buildings. Though nearly 70% of the total allocation has been spent on educational development, the literacy level of the Scheduled Castes (46.74%) and Scheduled Tribes (27.89%) was less than the overall literacy level (62.66%). The difference in female literacy level (for SC 34.81% and for Tribals 20.23%) is still more pronounced. The pass percentage in X and XII Stds in AD Welfare schools was 57% and 73% in 1997-98 and during 2000-01 it was 54% and 59% respectively. Hence major thrust was laid on educational schemes and specific measures were taken to improve the quality of education in AD and Tribal schools. Special coaching was given to the entire X and XII Std students, special guides were prepared and distributed to them so that they could perform well in the public examination. Special training was imparted through the Department of Teachers Education Research and Training (DTERT) to the teachers working in Adi Dravidar and Tribal schools by using modern methods of teaching and new techniques. Secondary grade teachers training programme was started since 1997-98 in 17 DIET centres exclusively for Adi-dravidars and Tribals. So far, 850 students including 85 tribal students had undergone training and the first batch completed two years course in 1999. Besides sanction of regular educational concessions, the other measures taken include strengthening of infrastructural facilities like construction of school buildings, additional classrooms, laboratory buildings, provision of lab equipments, computers, furniture and play materials, upgradation of schools at all levels, opening of residential schools, construction of vocational training centres, provision of basic amenities like toilets, drinking water etc. So far 92 high/higher secondary ADW schools and 11 GTR high/higher secondary schools were provided with computer facilities. Computer education was introduced in 87 high / higher secondary schools and computer training was imparted to the teachers in high and higher secondary schools. With a view to ensuring

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100% enrolment and reducing the dropout rates among girls, an incentive of Rs. 500/- at the rate of Rs. 50/- per month for 10 months for 60,000 girl students studying in III to V was provided in the educationally backward districts. Similarly to encourage their continuous schooling, an incentive of Rs. 1000/- at the rate of Rs. 100/- p.m. was provided to 30,000 girls entering VI Std., in the entire State. In order to encourage girl students for pursuing higher studies, free bicycles were provided to all SCs/ STs/ SC converts studying in XI and XII standards in Government/aided schools. Free education programme upto post graduation level for SC/ ST girl students was introduced. Hostels There are 1076 hostels for SCs with a total strength of 77,509 boarders and 26 hostels for tribals with a strength of 1271 boarders run by this Department. Out of 1076 hostels, 502 hostels are in Government Buildings and the remaining 574 hostels are in rented buildings. Out of these hostels, one at Dindigul and another at Ambur are exclusively intended for children whose parents are engaged in unclean occupation. Besides the Government hostels for Adi-dravidar and Tribals, a grant of Rs.150/- per month per student was provided to 4316 students in 43 subsidised private hostels. 107 new school /college hostels were opened and 111 SC/ ST hostels were constructed. The income limit of the parents for admission to hostels was increased from Rs. 15,000/- to Rs. 50,000/from the year 1997-98. The rate of food charges for colleges / ITI / Schools was enhanced from Rs. 202.50/ Rs. 197.50/ Rs. 180 per month per boarder to Rs. 400/- for college and ITI hostels and Rs. 300/- for AD and Tribal residential schools. The basic infrastructural facilities viz., LPG connection, wet grinders, furniture, play materials, library facilities, TV sets for college/ ITI hostels were provided in a phased manner. Economic Development In the field of economic development, financial assistance was offered to these communities from TAHDCO for undertaking economic activities viz., distribution of plough bulls, milch animals and starting of petty trades. During 1998-99, the scheme of free supply of tools and appliances was modified as `Kalvi Kudumba Thittam'. Under this scheme, family as a unit of development is recognised and poor SC/ ST family having a member with a degree or diploma holder is assisted for self-employment. Existing training institutions were strengthened. Several innovative training programmes in fashion technology, plastic processing, executive secretary, footwear technology, drivers training etc., were also conducted and placement was tied up with reputed institutions. Special coaching facilities for the SC / ST candidates were extended through Pre-examination centre to enable them to appear for civil service competitive examinations to get employment in State/ Central Government offices and public sector undertakings. Special short term coaching was given to SC/ ST candidates through Directorate of Employment and Training to appear for professional course entrance examination under Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 50:50

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basis. Coaching classes were conducted for 21 days in 29 centres for 1200 candidates per year in the State. Housing and other activities Regarding Housing, distribution of free house site pattas, construction of houses for poor Adi-dravidars and Tribals and provision of infrastructural facilities to SC/ ST habitations were the prime priority areas in the Ninth Plan. Nearly 2.59 lakh house-site pattas were issued and 1.38 lakh houses were constructed. Supply of protected drinking water facilities was provided in 12,387 SC/ ST habitations. 25 community halls were constructed. Provision of burial ground and pathways to burial ground, drinking water facilities, electricity facilities, etc. were also implemented. Mobile dispensaries and medical camps were organized to attend to the general and specific health problems of the tribal communities, since tribal habitations are located in isolated hill and forest areas. Direct programmes for the welfare and development of primitive tribes and dispersed tribes were launched through an integrated action plan incorporating supply of safe drinking water, food and nutrition security, health coverage, educational facilities, housing etc. Tenth Five Year Plan The approach in the Tenth Plan will be towards educational, economic and social advancement of SCs and STs. The main aim will be to improve the standard of living, reducing the incidence of poverty and improving employment and income earning opportunities of poor families, educated youth and increasing their entrepreneurial capacity. The objectives and strategies in the areas of Education, Economic Development and Housing & other activities are as follows: Education The objectives for educational advancement of SCs and STs include improving the literacy rate, female literacy rate, universal education, improving the educational status, increasing the enrolment rate, reducing dropout rate, repetition and retention rate at all levels, improving the pass percentage in X and XII Stds., improving the performance in competitive examinations, improving the quality of teaching and encouraging the integration of ST with the rest of the society. The strategies for achieving these objectives include equipping all the schools/ hostels with necessary infrastructural facilities, providing basic amenities to all schools, opening of new ADW/ GTR schools/ hostels, upgradation of schools, special coaching, educational concessions, increasing the coverage under provision of incentives to girl students etc. The thrust will be on the larger involvement of the community through active participation of the parent-teacher associations, local bodies, activists/ volunteers and NGOs, strengthening of formation and functioning of PTAs, imparting training to school students after completion of schooling and absorbing them as teachers for primary sections, constitution of school-management committees to supervise the improvement of school infrastructure, creating better teaching-learning

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atmosphere and monitoring the quality of education. For achieving universal education, the facilities provided under DPEP and Sarva Sikhsha Abeyan Programmes will be utilised for strengthening school / hostel infrastructure. They include construction of additional class rooms, labs, provision of lab equipments, better teaching learning materials, play grounds, sports materials, provision of water facilities, sanitary facilities and upgrading of schools wherever possible. For the promotion of tribal education, special emphasis will be laid on opening of more number of GTR schools, enhancing grants to ashram school, establishing vocational training institutes, stepping up of community participation in education, establishing close relationship with the tribes, opening of non formal education and evening schools in tribal areas. Economic Development The objectives will be to reduce the percentage of SC/ ST families living below poverty line to less than 10% and to raise the economic status of this segment of the population. The strategies will be towards mobilising and organising the poor SC and ST families in Self- Help Groups (SHGs), creating awareness on literacy and health care, improving the capacity and ability of poor people to manage risks, promoting self reliance and thrift, supporting them to form micro- enterprises in wide range of key activities by giving support in infrastructure, forward and backward linkages and other assistance for improvement in the income generating capacity of SC and ST families living below poverty line, improving the skills of SCs/ STs by providing training, and identification of appropriate institutions and activities, imparting wide range captive job-oriented vocational training to the educated unemployed youth, providing linkages for job placement or self-employment through EDP, promoting income generating capacities in industry/ secondary sector and service sector thereby providing mobility from low income areas of primary sector to high income areas of secondary and services sector, imparting entrepreneurial skills and giving financial and non-financial support to the SCs/ STs to start small and medium scale enterprises in industrial and service sectors. Housing and other activities The main objectives will be to fulfil the housing needs of these communities and to reduce the gap in the provision of basic amenities between Scheduled Caste habitations, to improve the health and nutritional status of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes population, to recognise the tribal forest rights, especially the ownership of minor forest produce, to prevent/ prohibit land alienation of tribal lands for which rules and regulations will be strictly followed while transferring the tribal lands to non tribals. The strategies will include assignment of housesite pattas, construction of houses, provision of basic amenities like drinking water, link roads, electricity, street lights to the SC/ ST habitations and provision of burial ground and pathways to burial ground to all the adi-dravidar habitations. The other activities include strengthening of ICDS scheme to the lactating women to meet the health and nutritional needs, creating

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awareness on modern health care and sanitation facilities to tribal population. Objectives of Tenth Plan Improving standard of living of SC & ST Reducing the incidence of poverty among SC & ST Improving the socio-economic status through various developmental and income-generating activities. Improving the employment opportunities for educated youth of poor families. Improving the educational status, enhance the entrepreneurial capacity. Improving the living conditions. Strategies Universalisation of primary education. Increasing the enrolment rate Reducing drop out percentage

Improving the literacy rate General literacy and Female Literacy Improving the quality of teaching and improving the performance in competitive examinations. Increasing the pass percentage in X and XII Standards Reducing the gap in poverty percentage between SC, ST and other sections of the population Fulfilling the housing needs and reducing the gap in the provision of basic amenities. Providing opportunity to SC women to form Self Help Group Improving the health and nutritional status Strengthening the basic amenities and infrastructural facilities in the SC and ST habitations. Creating awareness on the schemes Ensuring removal of disparities

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Tenth Plan Outlay An outlay of Rs. 1200 crores will be provided for the Tenth Plan for the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, out of which an amount of Rs. 1044.16 crores will be provided for SCs and Rs. 155.84 crores for STs both ongoing and new schemes. The major programmewise details are indicated below:

Financial Outlay for Tenth Plan Sl. No. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Details on programmes Scheduled Castes : Education Economic Development Housing and other schemes Special Component Plan Total : Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes : Education Economic Development Housing and other schemes Tribal Sub Plan Hill Area Development Programme Total : Scheduled Tribes Grand Total : A and B Ongoing Schemes 433.85 5.94 364.36 37.12 841.27 28.58 0.40 0.00 50.16 8.75 87.89 929.17 New Schemes (Rs. in crores) Total

54.69 51.75 96.45 202.89 62.90 1.82 3.23 0.00 0.00 67.95 270.83

488.54 57.69 460.81 37.12 1044.16 91.48 2.22 3.23 50.16 8.75 155.84 1200.00

The ongoing and new programmewise details under major heads of Education, Economic Development and Housing & other activities are as follows. Education The existing ongoing programmes viz., opening and maintenance of schools/ hostels, upgradation of schools, construction and maintenance of school/ hostel buildings, incentives to girl students, strengthening the infrastructural facilities in schools/ hostels, extension of special coaching facilities, award of scholarships and other educational concessions and award of prizes will be continued.

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New Schemes

Education - New schemes Captive teacher training programmes for SCs/ STs Strengthening the monitoring mechanisms through local participation Acquisition of land for schools Provision of lab and lab equipments Extension of computer education to high schools Promotion of Private management schools to benefit SCs/ STs. Promotion of private sector participation in Hostel management Assistance to students staying in hostels run by private Institutions / colleges/ Universities

Captive teacher training programmes for SCs/ STs Under special captive training programme, eligible students in the local tribal community will be identified to get teacher training in various categories in each of the hill blocks in order to fill up at least 80% of the vacancies from the local tribal community in all the educational institutions. For this scheme an amount of Rs. 0.60 crore will be provided to benefit 6000 SC/ ST students. Strengthening the monitoring mechanisms through local participation District and state volunteers committees will be constituted for supervising and guiding the schools and hostels. These committees will cover the expenditure for conducting seminars and workshops for teachers. This will supplement the efforts of the village/ block/ district education committees constituted under DPEP/ SSA. An outlay of Rs. 0.30 crore will be provided for this scheme. Acquisition of land for schools Out of 1075 schools, 29 schools are still functioning in rented buildings. Many schools are not having adequate space for construction of additional class rooms, buildings and play grounds. Hence an amount of Rs. 5 crore will be provided for acquisition of lands for schools. Provision of lab and lab equipments At present 36 high schools and 46 higher secondary schools are not provided with adequate lab facilities. An allocation of Rs. 12.30 crores will be provided for providing laboratory buildings and lab equipments in all the high and higher secondary schools.

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Extension of computer education to high schools Presently, computer education is provided only in higher secondary schools as part of vocational training. In order to make computer education as a compulsory course to all students and make them familiar with computer at an early stage, an amount of Rs. 2.45 crores will be provided to make computer facilities in all schools. Promotion of Private management schools to benefit SCs/ STs. Opening of new institutions by Trust, Society, NGOs or individuals, with more than 75% of SC/ ST coverage will be provided with 50% special infrastructural incentive besides full reimbursement of teachers' salary as in the case of aided schools. This will encourage private sector participation in bringing the benefits of education to SCs/ STs. Such institution will cover schools, ITIs, polytechnics, colleges and training institutions. An amount of Rs. 0.50 crore will be provided for this scheme. Promotion of private sector participation in Hostel management Opening of new hostels by Trust, Society and NGOs will be encouraged by offering Government lands on term lease purchase basis. Management of hostels by private institution will be supported with full food charges and allowances normally borne by Government and in addition, a lump sum grant will be given to meet expenses for administration. An amount of Rs. 5 crores will be provided for this scheme. Assistance to students staying in hostels run by private Institutions/ colleges/ Universities Existing hostels are inadequate to accommodate the increasing number of students seeking admission in important education centres. Further, rented buildings are costly for opening of new hostels. Hostels run by private institutions / colleges on payment basis are not affordable for poor students as the scholarships are inadequate to cover such expenses. Hence an amount of Rs. 4 crores will be provided to reimburse the boarding and lodging charges met by the students staying in hostels run by private institutions, colleges / Universities. An amount of Rs. 24.54 crores will be allocated for the other new schemes viz., hostel buildings, free education to students of SC/ ST, SC Converts studying in professional courses, coaching to SC/ ST students to join IIT and new hostels for ITI students.

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Economic Development - New Schemes Economic Development - New Schemes Special Economic Development Programme Skill Development / building training to Below Poverty Line families for the promotion of micro enterprises Venture Capital funding Vocational Training Talent Search Training programme for job placements in private sector

Special Economic Development Programme The ongoing schemes of distribution of plough bulls, milch animals and assistance to technically trained persons will be merged and modified as special economic development programme consisting of land based activities like leasing, acquiring, purchasing and distribution of lands for cultivation supported by irrigation and subsidies, organic farming, floriculture, cultivation of medicinal plants, setting up of agro service centre or other non- farm and service sector activities to accommodate majority of agricultural labourers either on individual or group basis. This will open up a wide range of opportunities to tap the newly emerging economic development activities in service sector without unduly upsetting their present occupational pattern. An amount of Rs. 10 crores will be provided for this scheme. Skill Development / building training to BPL families for the promotion of micro enterprises It is felt that organising the poor unskilled SC families particularly women in rural areas into SHGs and providing them with income earning skill will be more useful to them rather than disbursement of subsidies. In Tenth Plan, such skill training will be given on a wide range of activities covering agriculture and allied sectors and non-farm sectors. A tie up arrangement will be made with TAHDCO funded schemes for starting micro-enterprises. About two lakh poor women will be trained in such special skills at a cost of Rs. 6 crores. Venture Capital funding In the promotion of micro-enterprises among the SHGs, innovative enterprises in group activity will be supported initially as venture capital funding with full grant and once the viability is demonstrated it will be extended to other groups. Every year 20 such projects will be taken up at a

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cost of Rs. 0.50 crore each and the total cost for Tenth Plan works out to Rs. 5 crores. Vocational Training In order to create self-employment opportunities and enable the SCs/ STs to get into jobs, thrust will be laid on building vocational skills in computer application, house keeping, nursing, agro-service centre, hotel management and catering, fitter and plumbing, metal workers, veterinary workers, beautician, dietician, fashion designing, tailoring, carpentry, stone carving, etc. Training will be given in well-established training institutions to ensure quality in training. In the Tenth Plan, at least 50,000 youth belonging to SCs with 50% coverage of women will be imparted with above special training skills. An outlay of Rs. 25 crores will be provided for this scheme. Talent Search Training programme for job placements in private sector A talent search training programme for employment placement in private sector will be introduced. Qualified Engineers/ MBA Graduates/ P.G. candidates will be selected by means of campus interviews or advertisements and special training programme will be arranged on Personnel Management/ Financial Management/ Industrial Relations/ Project Management for absorbing them in the private sector. An amount of Rs. 5 crores will be provided for this scheme. Housing and other activities The existing schemes of provision of free house site pattas, construction of houses, provision of basic amenities etc. will be continued. It should be ensured that houses are constructed on the lands for which pattas have already been issued to Adi-dravidars in the previous years. New schemes Housing and other activities - New schemes Special self-sufficiency programme Hutlight Programme Housing for Adi dravidars engaged in unclean occupation

Special self-sufficiency programme The existing activities will also be combined as a special selfsufficiency programme which will cover street lights, link roads, sanitation access to anganwadies, schools etc and supplement the sectoral plans of the departments. An amount of Rs. 60 crores will be provided for this scheme.

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Hutlight Programme For the hutlight programme, an amount of Rs.13.45 crores will be provided to cover one lakh huts belonging to poor AD families. Housing for Adi dravidars engaged in unclean occupation An amount of Rs. 23 crores will be provided for construction of 2000 houses for Adidravidars engaged in unclean occupation. Art and culture The activities proposed under Art and Culture include i) setting up of a Research Centre, ii) establishment of a Training College for performing arts exclusive for SCs/ STs, iii) setting up of a model village for the SC/ ST artists and sculptors like the existing Chola-Mandalam village for artists, iv) setting up of SC/ ST archives, and v) creating a separate division for SC/ ST publication and other literary activities. An amount of Rs. 5.25 crores will be provided for this scheme. The other new schemes for Scheduled Tribes include construction of buildings for boys and girls hostels, award of research fellowship, Storage point, fixing of minimum purchase price for minor forest products, data centre, State level Employment Exchange, show room at Chennai, opening of flour mills, EDP for 2000 Tribal women. An amount of Rs. 62.70 crores will be provided for these schemes.

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Special Component Plan Special Component Plan The Special Component Plan for Scheduled Castes constitutes a distinct feature of the planning process in the country and is intended to comprehensively cover economic, educational and social development along with the fulfilment of minimum needs and human resources development. There are, in the main, two aspects in the flow of resources to the Special Component Plan, firstly the direct flow through familyoriented and individual-oriented programmes aimed at economic development and secondly, the flow to the programmes for scheduled castes through provision of social services, infrastructure and other facilities. The Special Component Plan mechanism was evolved during the Sixth Plan to channelise the flow of benefits from the State Plan for the development of Scheduled Castes in physical and financial terms. These programmes have been designed to help poor Scheduled Caste families through composite income generating programmes and to cover all the major occupational groups among Scheduled Castes such as agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sweepers and scavengers, unorganized labourers below poverty line etc. Further, the Special Component Plan seeks to improve the living conditions of Scheduled Castes through provision of drinking water supply, link roads, house-sites and housing, primary schools, health centres, veterinary centres, community halls, nutrition centres, extension of electricity etc., in the Scheduled Caste habitations. According to 1991 census, out of the total population of 558.59 lakhs in Tamil Nadu 107.12 lakhs belong to Scheduled Castes constituting 19.18% of the total population. About 79% of the Scheduled Castes are living in the rural areas. In the whole country, Tamil Nadu is the sixth State having the highest percentage of Scheduled Caste population. A significant group of the Scheduled Caste population are economically deprived and socially marginalised. Most of the SC families lack resources and their access to education, employment and other income-earning opportunities is limited. The literacy rate of the Scheduled Castes is only 46.74% which is much lower compared to the States overall literacy rate of 62.66%. The aim of the Special Component Plan is to ensure flow of funds at least to the extent of the Scheduled Caste population to the overall population in the State which is 19.18%. As a result of the proactive policy interventions on the part of the Government of India and State Governments, the socio-economic conditions of the Scheduled Castes have improved considerably.

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Review of Ninth Five Year Plan An outlay of Rs. 4857.31 crore was earmarked in the Ninth Plan for Special Component Plan and the anticipated expenditure is Rs. 3821.44 crores. Totally, 133.16 lakh beneficiaries were assisted during the period. Tenth Plan With the advent of Special Component Plan for the welfare of Scheduled Castes, the gap in the socio-economic status of Scheduled Castes in relation to other communities has narrowed down. The programmes implemented during the Ninth Plan will continue in the Tenth Plan with increased outlay by various development Departments. A sum of Rs. 7672 crores will flow as States share to Scheduled Castes under Special Component Plan during Tenth Plan which works out to 19.18 per cent of the State Plan outlay. The Government of India is expected to release a sum of Rs. 365 crores as Special Central Assistance to Tamil Nadu in respect of economic development schemes of Scheduled Castes. In addition, a sum of Rs. 740 crores may flow to Scheduled Castes as Institutional Finance. All the sources put together, totally a sum of Rs. 8777 crores will flow to Special Component Plan during the Tenth Plan. Tenth plan programmes Agriculture Crop Husbandry As per 1995-96 Agricultural census, 8.01 lakh Scheduled Castes are engaged in agricultural activities and 5.42 lakh hectare lands are owned by them which is 7.42% of the total area of 73.04 lakh hectares. Agricultural development programmes involve efforts and thrust to increase the productivity level through supply of quality seeds, agricultural implements, micro nutrients, bio-fertilizers, and low cost eco-friendly bio-pesticides at subsidized cost, technical skill to the farmers and farm women. Dissemination of research findings to Scheduled Caste farmers is done through agricultural extension network. Some of these efforts are supported with subsidy assistance made available from the Government of India sponsored programmes. An amount of Rs. 375 crores will be provided for implementing the activities under agriculture. Soil and Water Conservation Useful protective and productive measures are undertaken on watershed basis under soil conservation schemes. Protective measures include contour bunding works, gully control measures, viz., construction of check dams, construction of diversion drains and stream training works and productive measures consist of tractor ploughing, land levelling and land shaping, pipe laying as water management works in garden lands and construction of farm ponds. Suitable cropping patterns are followed based on land potential. An amount of Rs. 360 crores will be provided for soil and water conservation measures.

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Animal Husbandry According to 1991 census, out of 78.96 lakh agricultural labourers, 31.50 lakhs belong to Scheduled Castes and among the total of 56.64 lakh cultivators, 7.19 lakhs are Scheduled Castes. Though Agriculture is the main stay of the Scheduled Castes, it does not keep them engaged throughout the year. Therefore, these people necessarily depend on some subsidiary occupation such as rearing of high breed calves, sheep, goat, poultry, etc to supplement their income. Financial assistance in the form of subsidy or loan will be given to SC population for the purchase of livestock through various schemes. To increase the productivity of these animals, the local breeds are upgraded. In order to provide better veterinary health care to the livestock reared by SC population, a total number of 10 veterinary dispensaries, one veterinary hospital, 34 mobile veterinary dispensaries and 7 mobile veterinary units are functioning under the Special Component Plan. An amount of Rs. 13.50 crores will be provided during the Tenth Plan period for the maintenance of existing veterinary dispensaries, upgrading of veterinary dispensaries, maintenance of mobile veterinary units and other related activities of animal husbandry. Co-operation The Co-operatives play an important role in the economic development of the people particularly SCs. In Tamil Nadu, primary level co-operatives occupy a vital role in providing credit facilities to farmers, small and medium term loans for subsidiary occupations, distribution of essential raw materials relating to agriculture and also supplying essential commodities at fair prices. In order to help the scheduled caste people to get more benefits from these co-operatives, they are enrolled as members in Primary Agricultural Co-operative Banks in large numbers and interestfree share capital loan is provided to them to increase their borrowing power. It is proposed to allocate a sum of Rs. 14.25 crores towards providing assistance to co-operative members during Tenth Plan period. Special Area Programme for Rural Development Most of the schemes implemented by Rural Development Department have separate allocations to provide basic amenities in the habitations of Adi-dravidar / Tribal communities. These schemes also envisage the upliftment of the socio-economic conditions of the rural Adidravidar / Tribal Communities. The schemes implemented for the welfare of the Adi-dravidar / Tribal communities are :(a) Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) Government of India introduced this new self-employment programme for the rural poor from 1.4.1999. The new scheme (SGSY) is an amalgamation of various erstwhile self-employment schemes and it focusses on the self-help group (SHG) formation, activity / cluster based economic assistance for self-employment, skill building, technology and infrastructure development including marketing etc. The objective of this programme is to provide sustainable income to the rural poor who are

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below poverty line by organising them into self help groups, training them for vocation and providing them credit linkage with financial institutions. The scheme is shared between Centre and State. 50% of the allocation is earmarked for SC / ST population. (b) Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) Free houses are constructed for the families living in rural areas, which is funded on shared basis by the Centre and State. Unit cost has been fixed as Rs. 20000/- for ordinary soil and Rs. 22000/- for black cotton soil. Besides this, the State Government provides a sum of Rs. 12000/- per house for laying RCC roof. Beneficiaries are selected by Grama Sabhas and 85% of the allocation is provided to them. Besides upgradation of unserviceable kutcha houses will also be taken up under IAY. (c) Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana (SGRY) The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) implemented for creation of employment opportunities and infrastructural facilities in the rural areas have been merged and a new scheme known as Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojana (SGRY) has been introduced in 2002. The prime objective of the scheme is creation of additional wage employment opportunities during the period of acute shortage of wage employment through manual work and also creation of durable community assets for sustained employment and development of rural masses. Public contribution from the individuals/ institutions/ community will be encouraged to expand the programme resources. Under this scheme, 22.5% of allocation is made to the district and block panchayats for individual oriented activities for Adi-dravidar and tribal beneficiaries. (d) Restructured Central Rural Sanitation Programme (RCRSP) The objective of Restructured Central Rural Sanitation Programme is to improve the sanitary conditions in the rural areas and ensure privacy and dignity of rural women. During 1999-2000, Government of India have restructured the Central Rural Sanitation Programme and issued revised guidelines for its implementation. Under individual household latrines, 25% of the total allocation should be earmarked for the Scheduled Castes. Apart from this programme, construction of ADW hostels will be taken up from Member of Legislative Assembly Constituency Development scheme (MPLADP). An amount of Rs. 1050 crores will be allocated for implementing these programmes during the Tenth Plan period. Community Development (a) Danida Assisted Water Supply and Sanitation Demand Project in Cuddalore and Villupuram Districts.

The objective of WASDEP is to provide sustainable water supply and improved sanitary conditions in the project areas through participatory and demand driven approach.

284

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

(b)

Rural Water Supply Grant

Under the comprehensive water supply programme to provide protected drinking water facility to all the villages in Tamil Nadu with reference to the availability of source and population, it has been targeted to cover the villages where there is no water source within a distance of one kilometre on priority basis. The existing programme of construction of bore wells, replacement/ extension of distribution pipelines will be strengthened. An amount of Rs. 245 crores will be provided for implementing the above programmes during Tenth Plan. Forest Department Tamil Nadu Afforestation Project is an important scheme implemented by the Forest Department, which is the most beneficial scheme to the Scheduled Castes. The scheme is implemented with the financial assistance from Japan Bank for International Co-operation, Japan. The main objectives of the schemes are towards providing employment opportunities to the Scheduled Castes, satisfying the rural requirements of small timber, fodder, firewood and minor forest produce, supplying fruit bearing and other useful tree seedlings, encouraging the habit of tree planting in their lands and improving their livelihood. Scheduled Castes are engaged in various afforestation works like site preparation, survey, raising nursery, planting, weeding, etc. About 40% of the total outlay flows as wages to those engaged in these works as per the guidelines issued by the Adi Dravidar and Tribal Welfare Department. The following concessions are given to them viz., distribution of seedlings such as fruit bearing and other useful trees at concessional rates for planting in their holdings, cash incentives to tribals for successful plantations raised by them in their holdings, employment as labourers in nurseries, sandal estates, etc., employment as plot watchers, supply of fodder, green manure, agricultural implements and pruned materials from sources within the villages, construction of check dams, community halls, formulation of roads, group houses, providing education, construction of school building etc. These schemes will be continued during the Tenth Plan with an allocation of Rs. 490 crores. Dairy Development For purchasing milch animals, Government sanction subsidy while the Banks extend loan to Adi dravidars and Converted Christians who are members of Milk Producers Co-operative Societies. An amount of Rs. 250 crores will be provided during the Tenth Plan. Power Tamil Nadu stands in the forefront in the field of rural electrification. The State has emphasized that all the Scheduled Caste habitations should be provided with electricity. Huts are provided with hut light under the scheme of one hut one light implemented by the TNEB. Priority is also given in energising the pumpsets owned by Scheduled Caste farmers. An

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285

amount of Rs. 137.75 crores will be provided towards agricultural service connection and huts electrification. Village and Small Industries The Scheduled Castes depend mainly on agriculture and agricultural allied activities and efforts have been taken to diversify their occupational patterns. District Industries Centres have been established in each district to promote the development of small and village industries and also to provide the necessary assistance and support for the existing needy industries. Sericulture is an agro based cottage industry which gives monthly returns to rural people, particularly women and scheduled caste families. Under SCP, mulberry cultivation is taken up with improved new mulberry varieties by raising saplings. An amount of Rs. 142.50 crores will be provided in the Tenth Plan. The existing activities of purchase of mulberry saplings at subsidized cost, training and distribution of free tool kits and supply of basic rearing appliances like polymer trays and polymer mountages will be continued under Special Central Assistance Programme. Roads and Bridges Roads play an important role in the rapid development of backward areas. Almost all the rural areas, where the tribal and Scheduled Castes Villages are situated, excepting some pockets, have been linked by some kind of road in Tamil Nadu. Under SCP, the criteria for selection for connectivity with all weather roads is that the villages should have scheduled caste / tribe population more than 50% of the total population of the entire village. This scheme was introduced to mitigate the sufferings of scheduled caste / tribal population by providing proper access to the nearest B.T. Road. An amount of Rs. 880 crores will be provided towards formation of roads to the Scheduled Caste habitations during the Tenth Plan. (The construction of mud roads may be avoided as they are not sustainable). General Education In Tamil Nadu, education upto the level of standard +2 is free for all students, tuition fee is not collected from the Scheduled Caste students studying upto post graduate degree courses irrespective of their parental income, they are exempted from payment of special fees and examination fees upto graduate level, free text books, slates and uniforms are supplied to the SC school students, scholarships and incentives are also awarded to them, Book Banks have been established in all professional colleges, special coaching is given to SC students studying in VIII to +2 standards in schools and also at college level in rural areas, and basic amenities and infrastructural facilities are provided to the schools. An amount of Rs. 500 crores will be provided for implementing the educational programmes during the Tenth Plan. Further, a sum of Rs. 25 crores will be provided

286

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

towards the schemes under sports and youth services for the benefit of Scheduled Caste students. Medical and Public Health The Public Health field staff and mobile health teams attached to the Primary Health Centres provide medical and health care services to the SC population also. Out of 8,682 Health Sub Centres in the State, 1,436 Health Sub Centres have been established in Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe colonies. In order to reduce Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), SC girls are being trained in asceptic delivery practices and they work as 'Dais' to attend to deliveries of rural women. They are also trained in basic first aids for snakebite, dog-bite etc. These girls after training act as a link between community and health sub-centre. Essential equipments, hospital supplies and infrastructural facilities will be provided to all the HSCs and PHCs situated in SC colonies under various schemes for rendering improved health care services, MCH and FW activities. An amount of Rs. 250 crores will be provided. Water Supply and Sanitation Provision of drinking water facility in Scheduled Caste colonies is being dealt with by three departments namely TWAD, Adi-Dravidar & Tribal Welfare Department and Rural Development Department. Drinking water is provided through ground level reservoirs, open wells, overhead tanks etc. Under SCP, every year about 25% of the overall budget outlay of Rural Water Supply is earmarked towards the welfare of the Scheduled Castes. Special emphasis will be given to provide protected drinking water supply in targetted SC/ ST habitations. A large number of Scheduled Castes are living in the existing slums. The Chennai Metro Water Sewerage Board is providing water supply and sanitation to the whole Chennai City and priority is given to slums and areas where Scheduled Castes are in large concentration. An amount of Rs. 1125 crores will be provided towards the provision of drinking water to Scheduled Caste colonies. Housing Housing facilities for SC/ST are provided through the Tamil Nadu Housing Board, the Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board, the Adi-dravidar and Tribal Welfare Department and the Rural Development Department. Tamil Nadu Housing Board reserves 18% of the plots developed, houses / flats constructed in all its schemes for allotment to SCs. This preferential treatment will be continued in the Tenth Plan also. The slum clearance scheme is for construction of multi storeyed tenements in the place of slums. With a view to provide tenurial security, tenements are allotted to slum dwellers on hire purchase system. Besides, 60% of slum families belonging to SCs are benefitting through various other housing programmes like Slum Clearance schemes, Eleventh Finance Commission, Flood Alleviation programme, Fire Proof Housing programme and Valmigi Ambedkar Awaz Yojana implemented by Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

287

Board. An amount of Rs. 312.50 crores will be provided towards housing schemes for poor Scheduled Caste population during the Tenth Plan. Urban Development The steady growth in the number of slums in the cities coupled with the lack of basic amenities and facilities to these slums have posed environmental and health hazards. The Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board provides basic amenities and slum improvement works like roads, street lights, drinking water supply, storm water drain, public fountains etc to make slum areas habitable for the families belonging to SCs. An amount of Rs. 562.50 crores will be provided for this purpose. Welfare of Scheduled Castes Under SCP, Adi-dravidar and Tribal Welfare Department is implementing educational schemes which are supplemental to the efforts of Education Department. Special coaching is given to the entire X and XII std. students and special guides are prepared and distributed to them so that they could perform well in the public examinations. Besides sanction of regular educational concessions, other measures are strengthening of infrastructural facilities, upgradation of schools and provision of basic amenities to the schools and hostels. An amount of Rs. 854 crores will be provided. Social Welfare The benefits of the Social Welfare schemes of vocational training, welfare of girl children, marriage assistance etc. flow to SC women also. Further, the Tamil Nadu Women Development Project will cover all the SC habitations in the Tenth Plan with the formation of women's self-help groups and by undertaking income generating activities for the empowerment of women. An amount of Rs. 80 crores will be provided for these activities. Nutrition Nutrition programmes of NMP, ICDS and WB-ICDS III cover the children in the age group of 0-36 months, 37-60 months, school children, adolescent girls, antenatal and postnatal mothers and pensioners and these programmes cover SC population also. The components of Nutrition programmes include noon-meal, supplementary feeding, health, preschool, training and communication. An amount of Rs. 237.50 crores will be provided. Tenth Plan Outlay The flow of funds from various development sectors and physical targets for Special Component Plan for the Tenth Plan are given in the following tables.

288

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Special Component Plan Flow of funds from State Plan


Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Sector Agriculture Crop Husbandry Soil and Water Conservation Animal Husbandry Dairy Development Forest Co-operation Special Area Programme Development Community Development Power Development Non-conventional sources of energy Village and Small Industries Roads and Bridges General Education Sports and Youth Services Art and Culture Medical and Public Health Water Supply and Sanitation Housing Urban Development Welfare of Scheduled Castes and scheduled Tribes Social Welfare Nutrition Labour and Employment Others Grand Total for Rural (Rs. in crores) Flow to SCP 375.00 360.00 13.50 2.50 490.00 14.25 1050.00 245.00 133.00 4.75 142.50 880.00 500.00 25.00 15.00 250.00 1125.00 312.50 562.50 854.00 80.00 237.50 7672.00

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

289

Special Component Plan for Scheduled Castes Physical Targets Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Forest Rural Development Agricultural Engineering Animal Husbandry Industries and Commerce Sericulture Adi-dravidar Welfare Co-operation Special Central Assistance Total Schemes Unit SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families SC Families Target 1,00,000 3,00,000 25,000 5,000 12,500 2,500 7,500 5,000 14,17,500 18,75,000

Tribal Sub Plan The tribal population habitations are located in difficult and isolated hill / forest areas and terrains. Their socio economic conditions are mostly bound with their unique nature of social and cultural heritage. Therefore it is imperative for the State to promote appropriate conditions that would enable the tribals to have an economic stake in the resources in their area so that they can achieve adequate levels of livelihood and well being. The main tribes in Tamil Nadu are Malayali, Toda, Kurumba, Paniya, Irular, Kattunayakan, Kanikar, Palaiyan, Sholagar, Kadar, Veddar etc., of which Toda, Kurumba, Kattunayakan, Paniya and Irular are primitive Tribes. There are 36 Tribes in all, whose combined population as per 1991 census is 5.74 lakhs representing 1.03% of the total population of the State which is 558.59 lakhs. Out of 5.74 lakh tribals, 2.78 lakhs are nonworkers and the remaining 2.96 lakhs are workers. Of the 2.96 lakh workers, 1.34 lakhs are cultivators, 0.93 lakh agricultural labourers, 0.04 lakh household workers, 0.47 lakh other workers and 0.18 lakh marginal workers. Out of the total tribal population, ITDP areas cover roughly 2 lakh tribals which is one third of the total tribal population. Operational holdings of tribals are 47,955 covering an area of 77,907 hectares. Although tribals are found in all the districts, their major concentration is in north, central and western regions of the State. Incidentally majority of the tribal population in Tamil Nadu live in forests. Irulars in Kancheepuram district form an exception to this general trend and are found to live in the plains.

290

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Tribal Sub Plan The Tribal Sub Plan was introduced to ensure that all general development sectors at the State level earmark funds in proportion to ST population so that adequate benefits from all the concerned sectors flow to the tribal groups. Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) strategy, which came into being in the Fifth Five Year Plan with the twin objectives of area and sectoral approaches, envisages protection of the interests of the Scheduled Tribes through legal and administrative measures and developmental and welfare activities through plan efforts. Empowerment of these historically disadvantaged tribal people requires more provision of the basic capabilities for integrating them into growth process. The Tribal Sub Plan has been under implementation since 1976-77 with the aim of (1) helping the Scheduled Tribe families to cross the poverty line and (2) to provide basic amenities and facilities in their areas. The size of the Tribal Sub Plan should be in proportion to Scheduled Tribe population to the States total population. As far as Tamil Nadu is concerned, the flow to Tribal Sub Plan should be not less than 1.03% of the State Plan outlay. The objective of the Tribal Sub Plan is to assist the Tribal families in improving their socio - economic and educational status. Economic Development Programmes in the fields of horticulture, animal husbandry, soil-conservation, minor irrigation, sericulture, small industries, bee-keeping etc. and area oriented development programmes like provision of drinking water, formation of roads, electrification, providing education and health facilities, improving forestry, communication, co-operation, social services etc. are taken up. The expenditure incurred for implementing the Tribal Sub Plan including the Special Central Assistance has increased steadily from Rs. 94 lakhs in 1976-77 to Rs. 17.55 crores in 2000-2001. The basic data on Tribals is given in Statement-I. Review of Ninth Five Year Plan An outlay of Rs. 274.55 crores was earmarked in the Ninth Plan for Tribal Sub Plan and the anticipated expenditure is Rs. 94.73 crores. In addition to this an amount of Rs. 131.79 crores has been released as special central assistance for implementing programmes under Tribal Sub Plan. On the whole, 37,876 families were assisted for their economic betterment under various programmes of Tribal Sub Plan as against the Ninth Plan target of 51,382 families. Infrastructural facilities like drinking water, street lights, roads connecting the tribal areas with the plains, opening of tribal schools, health sub centres, primary health centres etc. were also provided during the Ninth Plan period.

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

291

Tenth Plan Under Tribal Sub Plan, the resources available under various sources are pooled together and schemes are drawn up and implemented by various sectoral departments. The size of the State Plan is fixed at Rs. 40, 000 crores and the flow of funds to the tribal sub plan is expected to be Rs. 412 crores which constitutes 1.03% of the Tenth Plan outlay. In addition, it is expected that the Government of India would release a sum of Rs. 17 crores as Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub Plan, which will be used only for the economic development of the Scheduled Tribes. Besides the special central assistance, a sum of Rs. 27.50 crores is expected from the LAMP Co-operative Societies as Institutional Finance. In addition, an amount of more than Rs. 15 crores will also flow to the Tribal Sub Plan as Centres share under Centrally Sponsored Schemes. A total sum of Rs. 471.50 crores will be provided for the Tenth Plan for developmental activities of Scheduled Tribes as detailed below
Flow of funds to Tribal Sub Plan Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. Flow from State Plan Special Central Assistance Centrally Sponsored Scheme - Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana, Hill Area Development Programme (HADP) Institutional Finance Total Source (Rs. in crores) Outlay for 2002-07 412.00 17.00

15.00 27.50 471.50

4.

The flow of plan funds from various development sectors and physical targets for Tribal Sub Plan for the Tenth Plan are given in the following tables.

292

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Flow of funds from State Plan for Tribal Sub Plan Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Sector Horticulture Soil Conservation Animal Husbandry Village Industries Sericulture Minor Irrigation Forestry Cooperation Roads Housing Manpower and Empowerment Education Supply of uniforms Non Formal and Adult Education Social Welfare Basic amenities : Electrification and Drinking water Community Development Health Dispersed Tribes Primitive Tribes Housing under IAY Schemes under Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana Nutrition Welfare of STs Total (Rs. in crores) Outlay 14 7 15 8 15 4 17 20 70 8 8 40 4 2 1 20 2 20 25 25 25 9 8 45 412

Tribal Sub Plan - Physical Targets Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sectors / Schemes Horticulture Sericulture Animal Husbandry Khadi and Village Industries Board Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana Welfare of STs Soil Conservation Total Unit Tribal Families Tribal Families Tribal Families Tribal Families Tribal Families Tribal Families Tribal Families Target 21,000 9,000 9,000 4,000 18,000 6,000 6,000 73,000

The programmes are briefly described below. They are implemented out of the funds provided for different sectors in the State Plan. Horticulture In the Tribal areas, development of horticulture plays a vital role in improving the economy of the tribals. The economic condition of the tribals will be improved by increasing the productive level through distribution of

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

293

horticultural inputs like improved seedlings, fertilizers, pesticides coupled with extension services and raising demonstration plots. During the Tenth Plan, it will cover 21,000 families at a cost of Rs. 14 crores. Soil Conservation To protect the top soil from erosion and to increase the productive levels of the lands owned by the tribals, soil conservation measures viz., contour bunding, stone walls construction, bench terracing, land levelling and farm forestry will be carried out free of cost. In addition, check dams, percolation ponds etc., will be constructed. These programmes provide livelihood security to tribal people by generating employment opportunities. During the Tenth Plan, an amount of Rs. 7 crores will be provided to cover 5,500 hectares benefiting 6,000 Scheduled Tribes. Animal Husbandry The main objective of the programme under this sector is to augment the incomes of the tribals particularly the landless and the small farmers thereby enabling the target group to cross the poverty line. This programme will also make the tribals consume the surplus dairy products, meat etc. so as to raise their nutritional standards. The main activity under this sector is distribution of animals and birds at subsidised cost and provision of health cover by opening and maintaining veterinary dispensaries and sub centres. The local breeds are upgraded to increase the productivity. During the Tenth Plan, it is programmed to assist 9,000 Scheduled Tribe families, besides maintaining the infrastructure already created, at a cost of Rs. 15 crores. Village Industries In order to diversify the activities of tribal population from the total dependency on horticulture and collection of minor forest produce, bee keeping has been introduced among the tribals. Each family is given beehives at a cost of Rs. 8300/-. Besides, fruit processing units and training cum production units are also maintained to create employment opportunities for the benefit of tribals. During the Tenth Plan, 4,000 tribals will be covered. A sum of Rs. 8 crores will be provided. Sericulture Sericulture continues to be a popular, profitable and employment generating scheme for the tribals. Such beneficiary oriented programmes are being implemented in 9 hills under ITDP areas. During the Tenth Plan, 9,000 Scheduled Tribe families will be covered at a cost of Rs. 15 crores. Minor Irrigation The crops in tribal areas are cultivated in the cultivable lands that are in steep slopes and they are unable to retain water sufficiently for longer periods for the growth of the crops. To provide assured irrigation facilities to the lands held by the Scheduled Tribes, Minor Irrigation

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8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

programme will be continued during the Tenth Plan and 800 hectares of land held by Tribals would be covered at a cost of Rs. 4 crores. Forestry Tribals are at the centre of the forest eco system and their economy directly depends upon the forest resources. In order to create tree/ vegetation based assets in tribal and forest lands and to generate sustained benefits to tribals, income generating activities will be taken up during the Tenth plan. Under this head, supply of seedlings, soil conservation measures, formation of small link roads, drinking water, construction of school buildings etc. are being implemented. Supply of saplings free of cost to the tribals is undertaken. During the Tenth plan period, a sum of Rs. 17 crores will be provided. Co-operation To prevent the exploitation of tribals by money lenders and traders, 19 Large size Multi-Purpose Co-operative Societies (LAMPS) have been organised and these societies are permitted to issue short term, medium term and jewel loans free of cost. During the Tenth Plan, the LAMPS will provide loan to the extent of Rs. 27.50 crores under Institutional Finance. The LAMPS will supply agricultural inputs and essential commodities at reasonable prices. The societies will also procure minor forest collections from the tribals and offer reasonable prices to them. In order to discharge these functions effectively, the share capital base of the LAMPS will be strengthened and LAMPS will continue to get the support of the Government in the form of subsidy, interest, risk fund etc. A sum of Rs. 20 crores will be provided for this purpose. Roads One of the main objectives of the sub plan is to provide infrastructural facilities to these tribal areas, so that the pace of development could be accelerated. Creation of proper road network enables the tribals to have easy access for procuring their essentials and also to market their produce profitably. This road net work will also pave the way for the improvement of basic amenities like health facilities, schooling etc. Hence an amount of Rs. 70 crores will be provided for forming new roads and completing the spill over works. Housing Construction of pucca houses for tribals has been taken up under TSP. It is programmed to provide housing facilities to Scheduled Tribe families at a cost of Rs. 8 crores during the Tenth plan. Manpower and Employment Six vocational guidance centres are functioning to provide guidance in the matter of higher education and training for appearing in various competitive examinations. These centres will be maintained during the

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

295

Tenth Plan also. The mini ITI at Sankarapuram in Villupuram will also be continued. For providing training in trades like wireman, motor mechanic, etc., 10 industrial training institutes will be established. A sum of Rs. 8 crores will be provided for the maintenance of these centres. Education As education holds the key for the development of any community, priority is given to education to bring about improvement in the social and economic status of the scheduled tribes. At present, there are 247 GTR schools and 26 hostels catering to the needs of nearly 32,000 scheduled tribe children. The Education department, Forest Department and voluntary organisations are also running schools in the tribal areas. In these schools and hostels the children are provided boarding and lodging free of cost. These schools and hostels will be maintained during the Tenth Plan. Besides 50 new residential schools will also be opened and 150 GTR Schools will be provided with pucca buildings. A sum of Rs. 40 crores will be provided for the educational development of Scheduled tribes. Educational concessions: Supply of uniforms, books, slates, scholarships, incentives etc. Free supply of books and writing materials has made an impact on the enrolment of the tribal children in schools. Further, in both residential and non-residential schools, scholarships are awarded to all the ST students for Higher Secondary, Arts, Science, Commerce and Professional courses. Free Education up to post- graduate level, free supply of study materials, free boarding and lodging and incentive schemes providing financial assistance to the rank holders have made an impact on the enrolment and retention of the tribal students in the schools. Hence, an outlay of Rs. 4 crores will be provided to the tribal children during the Tenth Plan. Non-formal and Adult Education Non-formal education centres established earlier will be maintained during the Tenth Plan to eliminate illiteracy among the tribals. An outlay of Rs. 2 crores will be provided for this scheme. Social Welfare There are four training cum production centres functioning for the benefit of tribals. These centres will be revamped. The duration of the training period will be reduced from one year to six months. The rate of stipend will be raised to make the centres more effective. For this purpose, a sum of Rs.1 crore is provided. Basic amenities The infrastructural facilities and basic amenities such as housing, water, road and communication and electricity are still inadequate for the tribals. At the end of March 2001, there are 339 villages without drinking

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8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

water, 1003 habitations without electricity, 680 villages without roads and many habitations are not having other basic infrastructural facilities. Hence the following facilities will be provided during the Tenth Plan period: (1) drinking water, (2) street lights, (3) link roads, (4) nutrition centres, (5) primary schools, (6) fair price shops and (7) one hut one light. An outlay of Rs. 20 crores will be provided during Tenth Plan, out of which an amount of Rs. 10 crores will be for electrification and Rs. 10 crores for drinking water. The concerned departments will provide the remaining facilities. Community Development Under this head, radio sets and colour T.V. sets will be provided to tribal habitations at a cost of Rs. 2 crores. Health Government has laid emphasis on providing health care and medical facilities within the easy reach of the tribal habitations. For improving the health coverage to the tribals, 5 Government Dispensaries, 14 Primary Health Centres, 7 Siddha Dispensaries, 1 Mobile Medical Unit, 76 Health Sub Centres are being maintained at present. These centres will be continued during the Tenth Plan and new sub centres will be opened. An amount of Rs. 20 crores will be provided for the maintenance of these centres. Dispersed Tribes In Tamil Nadu, about 2.59 lakh tribals are dispersed tribes. They are poor, illiterate and unskilled. For the welfare and development of the dispersed tribes, special schemes like construction of houses, distribution of ponies, milch animals, provision of health cover, supply of sheep units, etc., are being implemented. During the Tenth Plan, a sum of Rs. 25 crores will be provided. Primitive Tribes The Government of India have approved six tribes as Primitive Tribes in Tamil Nadu. The population of these tribes is 1.58 lakhs. During the Tenth Plan, family oriented schemes like distribution of animal and birds, beehives, opening of vocational guidance centres, construction of houses, setting up pre-schools for the children etc., will be implemented at a cost of Rs. 25 crores. Nutrition Nutritious Noon Meal Scheme covers all the Scheduled Tribe children. For this scheme, a sum of Rs. 8 crores will be provided. Welfare of Scheduled Tribes For the Welfare of Scheduled Tribes, the existing schemes will be continued. New schemes such as art and culture, construction of storage points, fixing of minimum purchase price for minor forest products,

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

297

establishment of Data Centre, State level employment exchange, opening of show room at Chennai for selling the tribal art and artifacts, opening of flour mills for processing of paddy and other food grains in tribal areas, EDP to 2000 Tribal women will also be implemented during the Tenth Plan. For the implementation of these schemes a sum of Rs. 45 crores will be provided.
Statement - I Basic Data on Tribal Sub-plan 1991 Census (in lakhs) I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Population Total State Population Total Tribal Population of State Tribal Population in 9 Integrated Tribal Development Programmes Percentage of the State Tribal population to Total State Population Percentage of Integrated Tribal Development Programme Tribal Population to total Percentage of Integrated Tribal Development Programme Tribal Population to Total Tribal Population Level of Literacy Percentage of literate to total Population Percentage of literate among Tribal Population Integrated Tribal Development Programme areas Total number of Integrated Tribal Development Programme areas Districts covered by Integrated Tribal Development Programme Tribal Sub Plan Areas Salem District Namakkal District Vellore District Villupuram District Thiruchirappalli District Dharmapuri District Tiruvannamalai District 558.59 5.74 2.07 1.03 0.37 36.06

II. 1. 2. III. 1. 2. IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

63.72 27.89

9 7

Yercaud,KalrayanHills, Aranuthumalai & Pachamalai Kolli hills Elagiri hills Kalrayan hills Pachamalai Sitteri hills Jawadhu hills

298

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II. Welfare of Minorities

Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes

and

Tamil Nadu has been in the forefront in protecting the interests of the socially and economically disadvantaged groups of BCs, MBCs and DNCs and has been implementing various welfare programmes for their educational, economic and social advancement and integration with the society. Keeping the principle of social equality, earlier plans had aimed at bringing these underprivileged sections into the main stream of society by improving their education, economic and social status and this will be continued in Tenth Plan. Concrete steps have been taken to ameliorate the poor living conditions of these classes of people and to ensure that adequate protection is provided through reservation of posts in Government services and for admission in educational institutions at all levels. The State Minorities Commission has been constituted to advise the Government on various measures necessary to safeguard the interests of religious and linguistic minorities. The Tamilnadu Backward Classes Commission has been constituted as per the direction of Supreme Court of India to examine and to make recommendations on the request relating to inclusion and exclusion from the list of BCs / MBCs and to periodically revise the list of BCs, MBCs in the State. Earlier, in 1982 the Tamil Nadu Backward Classes Economic Development Corporation Ltd., (TABCEDO) was formed and the main objective of this Corporation is to promote economic development of BCs , MBCs and DNCs by providing loans for economically and financially viable schemes, trades or projects for individual groups or societies. Review of Ninth Five Year Plan In order to ensure the educational advancement, social emancipation and economic upliftment of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes, Denotified Communities and Minorities, various initiatives were undertaken during the Ninth Plan and several programmes formulated and implemented in the field of education, economic development and housing activities. (a) Financial An outlay of Rs. 225 crores was provided for the Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-02) and the anticipated expenditure incurred during the period is Rs.236.94 crores. The Department wise Ninth Plan outlay and anticipated expenditure are given below.

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

299

Ninth Plan Outlay and Expenditure Sl. No. I. Department/ Outlay/ anticipated Expenditure BCs & Minorities 1. IX FYP Outlay 2. Expenditure MBCs Welfare 1. IX FYP Outlay 2. Expenditure DNCs Welfare 1. IX FYP Outlay 2. Expenditure Total -IX FYP Outlay Total Expenditure Programme Economic Dev. 2.31 10.68 1.41 1.47 0.05 3.77 12.15 (Rs. in crores) Details Housing Total other. Sch. 45.87 21.64 50.23 34.70 0.09 96.19 56.34 97.25 111.88 107.86 115.18 19.89 9.88 225.00 236.94

Education

49.07 79.55 56.22 79.01 19.75 98.88 125.04 168.44

II.

III.

(b) Physical The physical performance during the plan period in respect of major schemes implemented for the welfare of these communities are indicated below:
Item I. Education 1. Prematric scholarships (in lakhs ) 2.Postmatric scholarshipsn (in lakhs) 3.Free education (degres courses) (in lakhs) 4. Free education (poly-technic) (in lakhs) 5. Hostels (including uniforms) (Nos.) 6. Boarding grants 7. General awards 8. Thanthai Periyar award 9. Peraringar Anna Award II. Economic Development 1. JOT hostels opened 2.No. of candidates trained - JOT 3. Supply of sewing machines III. Housing 1. Land acquisition - house site pattas distributed 2. Land acquisition for FCs - house site pattas distributed 2.99 2.72 2.58 0.50 93 2051 1258 1288 2115 2 12662 2000 57375 5786 750 2000 85469 No. of Beneficiaries BCs MBCs&DNCs 2.64 0.83 2.46 0.18 485 1209

During the Ninth Five Year Plan the ongoing schemes implemented and new schemes introduced are given below:

300

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Education As education is an important tool for overall development, major amount has been spent towards the educational advancement of these communities during the Ninth Plan. Out of 265 Kallar Reclamation Schools with a student strength of 5,071 functioning in Government owned buildings, drinking water facilities in 62 schools, electrification in 72 schools and toilet facilities in 72 schools have so far been provided. Computer education has been introduced in 8 schools out of the total 15 Kallar Reclamation Higher Secondary Schools. Apart from regular educational concessions, some new schemes were introduced during the Ninth Plan. Free education scheme for degree courses has been extended to MBC and DNC students studying in polytechnic diploma course, special incentive scheme to MBCs / DNCs girl students was introduced since 1999-2000 to reduce drop-outs among rural girl students studying in standards from III to VI, for award of scholarships, the income limit has been enhanced from Rs. 25,000 to Rs. 50,000 p.a. from 2000-2001 For encouraging meritorious MBCs / DNCs students who secure highest marks at the State level in the +2 examination, 500 boys and 500 girls are awarded incentives at the rate of Rs.1500/- p.a. to pursue higher studies for a maximum period of 5 years or till the completion of Degree courses whichever is less. Additional improvements like upgradation of KR schools, construction of additional class rooms, laboratories, supply of furniture, laboratory equipments were taken up during the period. At the end of Ninth Plan, there were 972 hostels for BCs / MBCs and DNCs which together could accommodate 52,751 inmates. Out of 972 hostels, 202 hostels are housed in Government buildings and the remaining 770 hostels are functioning in rented buildings. Construction of hostel buildings and opening of new hostels were taken up in a phased manner. During 2001-02 for the first time construction of 14 hostels has been taken up under CSS on 50:50 basis. Basic amenities / facilities such as water supply, electricity, sanitation facilities, gas connections, wet grinders, colour TV sets for college hostels, play materials and libraries were provided in a phased manner.

Sl.No. 1. 2. 3.

Hostels for BCs, MBCs and DNCs Details of College School ITI hostels hostels hostels hostels Backward 59 478 Classes Most Backward 17 284 2 Classes Denotified 7 122 3 Communities Total 83 884 5

Total No. of hostels 537 303 132 972

Hostellers are provided free accommodation and food (at approved rates). Boarding grants at Rs. 150/- per month (for 10 months) are provided to boarders belonging to BCs/ MBCs/ DNCs to stay in 39

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

301

private hostels. The rate of food charges has been enhanced from Rs. 180/- to Rs. 300/- per month per boarder. Similarly boarding charges for college hostels has been increased from Rs. 193/- to Rs. 400/- per month per boarder. Economic Development On the economic development front, the Job Oriented Training schemes implemented were modified and more number of result-oriented training programmes viz. Heavy vehicle Driver training, Computer training, Textile Designing etc. were introduced in order to enable the BCs/ MBCs/ DNCs students to acquire skills in specific courses / trades and thereby settle in self-employment. Housing Free house site pattas were distributed to families in rural areas living below poverty line and belonging to BCs, MBCs and DNC communities and the same scheme was extended to the poor houseless families belonging to forward communities from the first year of Ninth Five Year Plan. During 2001-02, importance was laid towards provision of basic amenities like street lights, drinking water and drainage facilities in the layouts already formed. Tenth Five Year Plan The welfare and development of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes and Denotified Communities including Minorities in the Tenth Plan will be by continuation of the existing policy and within this framework, focus will be laid on identifying and selecting the most needy among the needy. The existing ongoing schemes will be continued and new schemes will also be introduced for enlarging the welfare activities as well as for meeting the specific needs of the relatively disadvantaged section amongst these classes of people. The welfare programmes implemented for Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes and Denotified Communities are classified as Education, Economic Development and Housing and other activities. The objectives and strategies for the Tenth Five Year Plan are as follows: Education The objectives include improvement in the general literacy levels of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes and Denotified Communities, improvement in the female literacy level, increasing the enrolment rate of the children at the primary and at all levels, reduction in dropout and repetition rates, improvement in the pass percentage in X and XII standards, improvement in the performance of candidates in competitive examinations and improvement in the functioning of Kallar reclamation schools.

302

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

The above objectives will be achieved by widening the scope of educational schemes to benefit more number of persons with a view to eliminating socio-economic backwardness, recasting educational facilities to the advantage of minorities and women, strengthening of institutional set up with fullfledged facilities to schools and hostels, motivating students for studying technical courses, qualitative improvement in the living conditions of the hostellers and steps for effective and efficient functioning of the Kallar Reclamation schools. Economic Development The main objective is to improve the socio-economic status of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes and Denotified Communities. The focus will be on imparting training in new and result oriented areas, imparting training in reputed institutions so as to enable the students of these groups to compete with others in the job market and secure better management, provision of facilities to improve means of livelihood and supply of tools and machines to enable them to undertake their traditional occupation, revamping and widening the scope and activities of the Tamil Nadu Backward Classes and Economic Development Corporation and utilising the Job Oriented Training (JOT) scheme conducted by NGOs under Government of India assistance and increasing the number of JOT schemes through better channelisation to train more persons in various trades. Housing and other activities The objective is towards providing housing assistance to all the poor and downtrodden to fulfil the housing needs of these communities, to extend distribution of housesite pattas to the houseless poor in rural areas. Infrastructural facilities will be provided in layouts already formed by the Department. Financial Outlay for Tenth Plan The total outlay for Backward classes, Most Backward Classes and Denotified Communities for Tenth Plan is Rs. 682 crores comprising Rs. 565.97 crores for Education, Rs. 20 crores for Economic Development and Rs. 96.03 crores for Housing and other schemes. The major programmewise details are given below:

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

303

Financial Outlay for Tenth Plan (Rs. in crores) Sl. No. 1. Department Education Economic Development Housing and other activities 40.00 5.28 45.28 Total

Backward Classes and Minorities Welfare (a) Ongoing 144.26 schemes (b) New Schemes 145.79 290.05 Total : Most Backward Classes (a) Ongoing schemes (b) New Schemes Total Denotified Communities (a) Ongoing schemes (b) New Schemes Total Total 1+2+3

10.00 7.00 17.00

194.26 158.07 352.33

2.

107.76 131.88 239.64 15.17 21.11 36.28 565.97

2.50 0.50 3.00 20.00

50.00 0.75 50.75 96.03

160.26 133.13 293.39 15.17 21.11 36.28 682.00

3.

Ongoing programmes/ Schemes The ongoing programmes will be mainly maintenance of schools and hostels, grant of scholarships, awards to bright students, free supply of uniforms and text books, free education for degree course, diploma course and polytechnics, incentives to girl students studying in Std., III to IV, incentives to meritorious students, special training institute for coaching candidates to appear for civil services examinations, supply of sewing machines to poor families, job oriented training programmes, distribution of house site pattas and provision of infrastructural facilities in the layouts already formed. An amount of Rs. 369.69 crores will be provided for the implementation of the above schemes. New schemes The total allocation for new schemes will be Rs. 312.31 crores which may be considered under 3 heads viz., i) education, ii) economic development and iii) housing activities.

304

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Education Education Scholarships, free education and incentive programmes Construction of hostel buildings, drinking water, electrification and toilet facilities in all the remaining Kallar Reclamation Schools Out of the total 972 hostels, 770 hostels function in private rented buildings. Construction of 100 hostel buildings will be taken up every year mobilising all resources and also utilising Government of India assistance.

Emphasis will be given for the educational advancement of BCs, MBCs and Denotified Communities and substantial allocation will be considered for the implementation of educational programmes to benefit more number of persons. For new schemes on education the outlay consists of Rs. 145.79 crores for BCs and Minorities, Rs. 131.88 crores for MBCs and Rs. 21.11 crores for Denotified Communities. Major portion is allocated for award of prematric and postmatric scholarships, enhancement of postmatric scholarship rates proportionate to enhanced tuition fees rates, construction of hostel buildings, compound walls, additional class rooms in KR schools and construction of mini hostel blocks within school premises to encourage students to stay within the schools and provision of funds to Headmasters to meet the feeding charges of the students. In order to reduce dropouts, sanction of incentives to students studying in XI, XII Stds. in KR schools will be considered. The other schemes include renovation and maintenance of buildings of KR schools, strengthening the infrastructural facilities and manpower, providing basic amenities in KR schools and hostels and honorarium to school teachers for conducting coaching classes for hostel students. Economic Development

Economic Development Job Oriented Training Programmes Micro credit to one lakh women each year engaged in petty trade through TABCEDCO

The functioning of the existing Job Oriented Training programme will be evaluated and based on the evaluation study, necessary steps will be taken to upgrade the technical and entrepreneur skills. The other schemes include starting of special coaching centre each in 5 districts under the control of Universities for coaching BCs/ MBCs and DNCs candidates to appear for competitive examinations and starting of one centre of excellence for coaching BC/ MBC/ DNC and SC/ ST candidates to

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

305

appear for Entrance Examinations to get admission in professional courses. An amount of Rs. 7.50 crores will be provided for implementing the above schemes. Housing and other schemes Housing Provision of infrastructural facilities like streets, street lights, drainage and water supply in the acquired house sites

The ongoing schemes for housing activities will be continued. For other new schemes, the allocation will be Rs. 6.03 crores consisting of the activities of strengthening the Directorate, conducting evaluation studies through private agencies for evaluating the impact of implementation of the schemes for BC/ MBC/ DNCs and maintenance of Wakf Board properties. Total Outlay The total outlay provided for the Tenth Plan for the "Welfare of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes" will be Rs. 1,882 crores. The Departmentwise outlays are as follows:
(Rs. in crores) Department Welfare of SC and ST Welfare of BCs, MBCs and DNCs Total Ongoing 929.17 369.69 1298.86 New 270.83 312.31 583.14 Total 1200.00 682.00 1882.00

306

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-2007 Welfare Of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes And Other Backward Classes Abstract (Rs. in crores) Total 1044.16 155.84 1200.00 352.33 329.67

Sl. No. 1. 2.

Name of the Department Adi-Dravidar Welfare Tribal Welfare Total : ADW and Tribal

Ongoing Schemes 841.27 87.89 929.17 194.26 175.43

New Schemes 202.89 67.95 270.83 158.07 154.24

3. 4.

Backward classes and Minorities Most Backward Classes and Denotified Communities Total : BC, MBC and DNC Grand Total : SC, ST and OBC

369.69 1298.86

312.31 583.14

682.00 1882.00

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

307

Statement - I Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-2007 Welfare Of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes Financial And Physical Scheduled Castes Sl. No. Name of the Scheme (Rs. in crores) Physical Outlay ( Nos.)

State Sector Outlay A. Ongoing Schemes I. Education 1 Provision of lab equipment to Adi Dravidar Welfare High 64 HSS Schools 13.19 Construction of ADW School building - Major works, purchase 300class of lab equipments rooms 2 Hostel Buildings 172.11 Hostels salary and Feeding charges 24.99 Construction of Hostel for SCs. 411 hostels Hostel Construction 137.50 Compound Wall 4.12 Land Acquisition 5.50 3 Coaching of SC/ST students studying in Typewriting and 0.18 3000 students Shorthand under SCP 4 Loans to SCs/ STs for pursuing professional and Degree 24.75 37482 courses 5 Loans to SCC to Christianity for pursuing professional courses 0.55 students 6 Special Industrial Training Institute for SCs/STs 1.29 1 centre 7 Free Education to students of SC/ST/SCC to Christianity 4.83 88000 studying in B.A, B.Sc., and B.Com., courses. students 8 Adhoc merit grant for SC/ST students including Higher 3.51 117000 Secondary students students 9 Special incentive scheme to promote literacy among SC girls 26.50 265000 studying in Std. III-V students 10 Special incentive scheme to promote literacy among SC girls 26.50 265000 studying in Std. VI students 11 Chief Ministers merit award to Adi Dravidar students for 4.50 10000 pursuing college studies students 12 Provision of Jeeps to Special Tahsildars 2.35 55 Nos. 13 Opening of PG Hostel 2.13 6 hostels 14 Upgrading of Adi Dravidar welfare middle school into high 52.26 128 HS school 15. Abroad scholarship to SC/ST students for higher studies 1.65 50 students 16. Supply of free bicycles to all girls belonging to SC/ST/SCC 35.00 90000 studying in Std 11th and 12th in the Government/Aided Higher bicycle Secondary Schools 17. Free education to the girl students of SC, ST and SC converts 4.00 studying in PG courses Total - Education 375.30 II. Economic Development 18 Agriculture 0.83 165 SCs 19 Milk supply societies 20 Assistance to technically trained persons & petty trades Total - Economic Development 4.48 0.63 5.94 10000 SCs

308

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Sl. Name of the Scheme No. 21 Drinking Water 22 Provision of pathways and burial grounds Grants in aid Minor works Lands 23 Construction of community halls 24 House sites of landless rural workers including Adi Dravidars 25 Construction of Dhobikanas 26 Assistance for the construction of houses under rural housing schemes 27 Scheme for the construction of houses for Adi Dravidars as concrete houses. 28 Dr. Baba Sahib Ambedkar birthday centenary celebrations 29 House sites for Adi Dravidars from the Tamil Nadu special welfare fund under Tamil Nadu Raffle Scheme 30 Dr. Ambedkar award for persons promoting welfare of SCs 31 Share capital assistance of THADCO IV Total - Health, Housing and Other Schemes Special Component Plan

Physical ( Nos.) 1.93 500 habitations 12.94 0.34 2.53 10.07 1.10 20 halls Outlay 100.00 0.01 1.86 215.00 0.10 11.00 0.25 20.17 364.36 0.15 8.25 23.25 5.47 107 schools 37.12 782.72 3 centres 1550 houses 6000 houses 30 districts 1.00 lakh pattas

32 Strengthening of Educational wing of Adi Dravidar and Tribal Welfare department under SCP 33 Setting up of coaching cum guidance centre for Schedule Caste under SCP 34 Extension officers (ADW) to implement the programme 35 School Education under SCP Total - Special Component Plan Total (A) Ongoing schemes New Schemes Education Captive Teacher Training Programmes for SCs/STs Strengthening the monitoring mechanism through local participation Acquisition of land for schools Provision of Lab and Lab Equipments Extension of computer education to High School Promotion of private management schools for the benefit of SCs/STs Promotion of Private Sector participation in the hostel management Assistance to the students staying in hostels run by Private Institutions/Colleges/Universities a. Hostel / Building Room furniture b. Building improvement Free Education to students of SC/ST/SCC studying professional courses (Subject to the removal of income limit and number of children in family) Coaching to SC/ST students to join IIT New Hostels for ITI students Total Education

B. I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7 8 9 10

0.60 6000 students 0.30 5.00 12.30 2.45 0.50 5.00 4.00 2000 students 23.15 107 schools 0.75 29 schools 82 schools

11 12

0.04 0.60 54.69

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

309

Sl. No. II. 13 14 15 16 17 18 III. 19 20 21

Name of the Scheme Economic Development Special Economic Development Programme Skill Building Venture Capital Funding Vocational Training Talent search training programme for job placements in private sector Organisational Development of TAHDCO Total - Economic Development Housing Special self sufficiency programme Hut light programme Housing for Adi Dravidars engaged in unclean occupation (2000 houses at Rs. 60,000 each) Total - Housing Total B - New schemes State share of Centrally Sponsored Schemes Construction of buildings for boys and girls hostels Machinery for the enforcement of protection of civil rights act 1955 Educational concessions Prematric unclean occupation Book Bank Coaching to SC/ST candidates for Tamil Nadu professional courses entrance examinations Assistance to the people of SC/ST community affected by riots Total - State Share of CSS Total State sector outlay A+B+C : SCs Centrally sponsored schemes shared between State and Centre (Full Cost Shown) Construction of buildings for boys and girls hostels Machinery for the enforcement of protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 Educational concessions Coaching to SC/ST candidates for Tamil Nadu professional courses entrance examination Assistance to the people of SC/ST community affected by riots Total - CSS ( Full Cost Shown) Centrally sponsored schemes Government of India 100% Educational concession to SCs/STs Government of India Upgrading of merit of SCs students Special welfare schemes for SCs in the Integrated Rural Development Programme blocks. Total - CSS 100%

Outlay

Physical ( Nos.)

10.00 6000 Nos., 6.00 1.50 lakhs 5.00 100 units 25.00 50000 youth 5.00 500 Nos., 0.75 51.75 60.00 13.45 23.00 96.45 202.89 38.11 0.73 11.11 9.35 1.76 0.50 8.10 58.55 1044.16

1 lakh huts

1 2 3

4 5

1 2 3 4 5

76.23 1.45 22.22 1.00 16.20 117.10

1 2 3

171.32 0.24 300.00 471.56

310

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Scheduled Tribes Sl. No. A. I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. 6. 7. 8. 9. III. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Name of the Scheme State Sector Outlay Ongoing Schemes Education Schools Residential schools Houses for Teachers Loans to students for pursuing professional, post graduates courses and degree courses Opening of government hostel for ST students Total : Education Economic Development Agriculture Assistance to technically trained persons Assistance to petty traders Training cum production centre Total - Economic Development Tribal Area Sub Plan Minor Irrigation Scheme Tamil Nadu Tribal Development Authority Electrification Scheme Water Supply Scheme Tribal Research and Development Development of Primitive Tribes Development of Dispersed Tribes Provision of houses to Tribes under Integrated Rural Development Programme Formation of roads in Tribal areas Drinking water wells Development of individual Entrepreneur Scheme Assistance to NGVO Total - Tribal Area Sub Plan Hill Area Development Programme Total - A . Ongoing schemes New Schemes Education Art and culture Construction of building for boys and girls hostel Award of Research fellowship Total - Education Economic Development Storage point Minimum purchase price Data Centre Outlay (Rs. in crores) Physical ( Nos.)

11.00 40 buildings 10.00 30 GTR schools 0.91 60 houses 0.02 4.65 26.58 0.13 0.11 0.16 0.40 1.65 1.00 5.50 5.50 0.63 17.84 4.13 1.42 0.80 1.10 8.25 0.49 48.31 8.75 84.04 300habitations 300 habitations 40 works 75 hostels

10000 1700 1100

4000 4000

B. I. 1. 2. 3. II. 4. 5. 6.

5.25 56.65 1.00 62.90 1.00 0.10 0.10

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

311

Sl. No. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Name of the Scheme State level Empoloyment Exchange Show room at Chennai Opening of Flour Mills EDP to 2000 Tribal women Total - Economic Development

(Rs. in crores) Outlay for Physical 2002-07 ( Nos.) 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.02 1.82

III. Housing 11. Construction of Houses Total Housing Total - B. New Schemes C. State share of CSS 1. Construction of buildings for Government Girls' Hostels (Edn.) 2. Establishment of Tribal Research Institute (TSP) 3. Setting up of Museum in Tribal Research Centre, Uthagamandalam (TSP) Total - State share of CSS Total State Sector Outlay A+B +C :STs Centrally Sponsored Schemes shared between State and Centre 1. Construction of building for Government Girls' Hostels 2. Establishment of Tribal Research Institute 3. Setting up of Museum in the Tribal Research Centre, Uthagamandalam Total - CSS (Full cost shown ) Centrally Sponsored Schemes 100% 1. Government of India Restrictive scholarship to ST students 2. Upgrading of merit of ST students 3. Opening of Vocational Training Institute Total - CSS 100%

3.23 3.23 67.95 2.00 1.03 0.82 3.85 155.84

4.00 2.06 1.65 7.71 0.22 0.01 1.48 1.71

312

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Statement-II Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-2007 Welfare Of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes And Denotified Communities Financial And Physical Backward Classes Sl. No. A. I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. II. 10. III. 11. 12. (Rs. in crores) Physical ( Nos.)

Name of the Scheme State Sector Outlay Ongoing Schemes Education Pre-matric scholarships Post-matric scholarship Free Education (Degree Course) Free Education (Polytechnic) General Awards Thanthai Periyar Award Peraringar Anna Award Boarding Grants Maintenance of existing hostels (including uniforms) Total - Education Economic Development JOT schemes (Govt. of India scheme) Total - Economic Development Housing and other schemes House sites to BCs House sites to FCs / infrastructure Total - Housing and other schemes Total - A. Ongoing schemes New Schemes Education Govt. of India Prematric Scholarships scheme based on merit Govt. of India Postmatric Scholarships scheme based on merit Enhancement of postmatric scholarship rates proportionate to enhanced tuitition fees rates etc. Enhancement of B&L charges to students staying in hostels attached to educational institutions covered under postmatric scholarships Sanction of stipends to BC students studying in ITIs to encourage technical studies (Rs. 200 2000 10) Construction of additional buildings to BC hostels to provide accommodation to students living in congestion (Rs. 10.00 lakh 10) Provision of water facilities to BC hostels located in Govt. buildings (Rs. 1.00 lakh 20 5) Construction of toilet blocks to BC hostels without adequate toilet facilities (Rs. 4.00 lakhs 5 5) Special repairs to Govt. BCs hostels without adequate toilet facilities (Rs. 4.00 lakhs 10 Nos. pa) Renovation and maintenance of toilet blocks in BC

Outlay

12.21 18.33 45.79 8.26 0.26 0.52 0.77 0.76 57.36 144.26 10.00 10.00 35.00 5.00 40.00 194.26

875440 students 267410 students 294250 students 59390 students 1310 awards 1160 awards 2275 awards 3600 grants 537 hostels

12500 trainees 114000 pattas 16250 pattas

B. I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

15.00 15.00 20.00 2.00

50000 students 50000 students 330000 students 52500 students 10000 students 30 additional buildings 100 hostels 25 hostels 50 hostels 75 hostels

5. 6.

2.00 3.00

7. 8. 9. 10.

1.00 1.00 1.50 0.75

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

313

Sl. No. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Name of the Scheme hostels (Rs. 1.00 lakh 15) Periodic white washing of BC hostels located in Govt. buildings (Rs. 5000 100) Construction of compound walls to Govt. BC hostel buildings (Rs. 4.00 lakhs 15) Supply of LPG to BC hostels to avoid usage of firewood (Rs. 45000 50) Honorarium to school teachers for conducting coaching classes to hostel students (BCs) (Rs. 300 10 537) Construction of hostel buildings for BC hostels now in rented buildings (Rs. 32.00 lakhs 40) (+5%) Appointment of part-time scavengers to BCs hostels without regular scavenger for cleaning of toilets (Rs. 250 10 250) Construction of mini hostel blocks within school buildings to encourage students to stay within the school and provision of funds to HMS for feeding students (To avoid opening of new hostels) (Rs. 3.00 lakhs 25) Special schemes for students staying in Hill Areas in Govt. BCs hostels to avoid drop outs (Rs. 250 10 50 13) Supply of wet grinders to BCs hostels (Rs. 8000 50) Enhancement of toilet charges to hostellers from Rs. 10 p.m. to Rs. 20 p.m. (27800 10 10) Enhancement of food charges rates to hostels students with reference to escalation in cost during 5 year period Supply of steel almirahs to hostels (Rs. 5000 50) Total Education Economic Development Centre of excellence for coaching candidates from BC / MBC / DNC / SC / ST communities coaching for entrance examinations for various competitive examinations and Professional courses Supply of sewing machines to BCs, MBCs and DNCs Total Economic Development Housing and Other Schemes Provision of telephone connection to DBC and MWOs in the Districts (25 districts) Provision of WAKF Board schemes Total - Housing and other schemes B. New Schemes Total - State Sector Outlay A+B : BCs

Outlay 0.25 3.00 0.95 0.80

(Rs. in crores) Physical ( Nos.) 95 hostels 75 hostels 210 LPG connection 537 hostels

15. 16.

70.75 0.30

200 buildings 250 hostels

17.

3.00

100 hostel buildings

18.

0.90

13 hostels

19. 20. 21.

0.24 1.40 2.80

250 wet grinders 27800 students 27800 students 250 hostels

22. II. 23.

0.15 145.79 5.50

One centre

24. III. 25. 26.

1.50 7.00 0.28 5.00 5.28 158.07 352.33 25 Telephone connection Maintenance

314

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Most Backward Classes (Rs. in crores) Physical (Nos.)

Sl. No. A. I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. II. 8. III. 9.

Name of the Scheme State Sector Outlay Ongoing schemes Education Pre-matric Scholarships Post-matric Scholarships Free Education (Degree Courses) Free Education (Polytechnic) Hostels (including uniforms) Boarding Grants Incentives to Girl Children Total - Education Economic Development JOT schemes (Govt. of India scheme) Total : Economic Development Housing and other schemes House sites (L.A.scheme / infrastructure) Total - Housing and other schemes Total - A. Ongoing schemes New Schemes Education Govt. of India Prematric scholarships scheme based on merit Govt. of India postmatric scholarships schemes based on merit Enhancement of postmatric scholarship rates proportionate to enhanced tuition fees rates etc. Enhancement of B&L charges to students staying in hostels attached to educational institutions covered under postmatric scholarships Sanction of stipends to MBC/DNC students studying in ITIs to encourage technical studies (Rs. 200 1000 10) Construction of additional buildings to MBC / DNC hostels to provide accommodation to students living in congestion (Rs. 10.00 lakh 10) Provision of water facilities to MBC/ DNC hotels located in Govt. buildings (Rs. 1.00 lakh 20) Construction of toilet blocks to MBC / DNC hostels without adequate toilet facilities (Rs. 4.00 lakh 5) Special repairs to Government MBC / DNC hostel buildings and renovation Renovation and maintenance of toilet blocks in MBC / DNC hostels (Rs. 1.00 lakh 10) Periodic white washing of MBC / DNC hostels located in Govt. buildings (Rs. 4700 107) Construction of compound walls to Govt. MBC / DNC hostel buildings (Rs. 4.00 lakh 15) Supply of LPG to MBC / DNC hostels to avoid usage of firewood (Rs. 45000 1307) Honorarium to school teachers for conducting coaching classes to hostel students (MBCs/DNCs) (Rs. 300 10 435)

Outlay

7.93 3.04 44.20 5.15 32.03 0.41 15.00 107.76 2.50 2.50 50.00 50.00 160.26

568990 students 44565 students 283450 students 37345 students 303 hostels 1500 grants 150000 girls

2000 trainees

163000 pattas

B. I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

15.00 15.00 10.00 1.00

50000 students 30000 students 150000 students 25000 students

5.

1.00

5000 students

6.

3.00

30 buildings

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

1.00 1.00 1.25 0.50 0.25 3.00 0.59 0.65

100 buildings 25 hostels 50 hostels 50 hostels 107 buildings 75 hostels 130 LPG connection 435 hostels

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

315

Sl. No. 15.

Name of the Scheme Construction of hostel buildings for MBC / DNC hostels now run in rented buildings (Rs. 32.00 lakhs 40) (+5) Appointment of part-time scavengers to MBC / DNC hostels without regular scavenger for cleaning of toilets (Rs. 250 10 250) Construction of mini hostel blocks within school buildings to encourage students to stay within the school and provision of funds to HMS for feeding students (to avoid opening of new hostels) (Rs. 3.00 lakhs 25) Special schemes for students staying in Hill Areas in Govt. MBC / DNC hostels to avoid dropouts (Rs. 250 10 50 2) Sensitisation programme for MBC / DNC hostels staff including warden / matrons, cook / watchmen / scavengers for educating them for properly maintaining the hostels and for proper feeding of students (Rs. 20,000 30 districts) Supply of wet grinders to MBC / DNC hostels (Rs. 8000 50) Enhancement of toilet charges to hostellers from Rs. 10 p.m. to Rs. 20 p.m. (24700 10 10) Enhancement of food charges rates to hostel students with reference to escalation in cost during 5 year period Supply of steel almirahs to hostels (Rs. 5000 50) Total : Education Economic Development Starting of special coaching centers in 5 district centers under the control of universities for coaching MBC / DNC / BCs candidates to competitive exam (5 Rs. 2.00 lakh) Total : Economic Development Housing and other schemes Provision of funds for conducting evaluation studies through private agencies for evaluating the impact of implementation of schemes for MBCs / DNCs / BCs Strengthening of Directorate with adequate facilities for conducting meetings / conferences with officials Purchase of one jeep for the Directorate for the implementation of scheme Merger of BCs / MBCs / DNCs Directorate into one Directorate for effective administration and to economise expenditure Provision of residential phone connection to PA / AO in the Directorate Total - Housing and other schemes Total - B.New Schemes Total - State Sector Outlay A+B :MBCs

Outlay 70.75

(Rs. in crores) Physical (Nos.) 200 buildings

16.

0.30

250 hostels

17.

3.00

100 mini hostels

18.

0.15

2 hostels

19.

0.30

20. 21. 22.

0.24 1.25 2.50

250 wet grinders 24700 students 24700 students

23. II. 24.

0.15 131.88 0.50

250 almirahs

5 centres

0.50 0.35 Evaluation

III. 25.

26. 27. 28.

0.24 0.06 0.05

Directorate 1 jeep Directorate improvement 2 Telephones

29.

0.05 0.75 133.13 293.39

316

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

Denotified Communities

Sl. No. A. I. 1. 2. 3. 4. II. III. B. I. 1. 2.

Name of the Scheme State Sector Outlay Ongoing Schemes Education Pre-matric scholarships Post-matric scholarships Hostels (including uniforms) Schools (including uniforms) Total-Education Economic Development Housing and other schemes Total A. Ongoing Schemes New Schemes Education Enhancement of postmatric scholarships rates proportionate to enhanced tuition fees rates etc. Enhancement of B&L charges to students staying in hostels attached to educational institutions covered under postmatric scholarships Construction of compound walls to Kallar Reclamation schools (Rs. 4.00 lakhs 5 schools) Construction of library buildings for Hr.Sec. Schools / high schools and supply of books and magazines for the use of students and teachers (Rs. 5.00 + 1.00 lakhs) 6 Special repairs and maintenance of KR school buildings Construction of big size toilet blocks to KR Hr.Sec. schools / High schools with large students strength (Rs. 5.00 lakh 5) Improving water facilities in KR schools (Rs. 2.00 lakhs 5) Maintenance of water sources and water distribution lines in school / laboratory buildings Provision of Public Announcement System to all KR Hr.sec./High Schools (Rs. 10000 x 30) Supply of typewriters / roneo machines to KR Hr.Sec. / High Schools Provision of telephone connections to KR Hr.Sec. / High schools Sanction of one jeep to E.O.(KR) for effective supervision of schools Upgradation of posts of KR school supervisors from Secondary Grade to BT Grade for effective supervision of KR schools (Rs. 1000 12 6) Sanction of 2 DEO posts for effective administration of KR schools (Rs. 15000 12 2) Sanction of cash incentives to students studying in X, XI and XII standards in KR schools to avoid dropouts Enhancement of provisions for conducting excursions for KR school students

Outlay

(Rs. in crores) Physical (Nos.)

1.56 109360 students 1.26 17830 students 2.57 132 hostels 9.78 265 schools 15.17 Included Under MBCs Included Under MBCs 15.17

2.50 0.50

30000 students 15000 students

3. 4.

1.00 1.80

25 schools 30 schools

5. 6.

1.50 0.75

50 schools 15 toilets

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

0.58 0.25 0.03 0.15 0.11 0.06 0.05

25 schools 100 schools 30 schools 38 schools 30 schools 1 jeep 6 posts

14. 15.

0.05 6.25

2 posts 25000 students 265 schools

16.

0.25

8.1. Welfare of SC, ST and Other Backward Classes

317

Sl. No. 17. 18.

Name of the Scheme Supply of play materials to students in KR schools to improve sports activity (Rs. 25000 40) Upgradation of secondary grade teachers posts working in VI to VIII classes to B.T. grade for improving standards in KR Middle Schools (Rs. 1000 12 4 29 schools) Supply of laboratory equipments to KR schools Construction of additional class room to KR schools (Rs. 4.00 lakh 10) Electrification of KR schools (Rs. 30,000 x 50) Distribution of prizes to top rankers to KR schools and also distribution of common awards to KR schools students Provision of Basic amenities and minimum security facilities to Govt. Kallar Hr.Sec.schools at Checkkanurani, Rajadhani and Vilampatti for conducting X / XII Govt. Public examinations as per the norms of Education Department / Govt. Examination Department Supply of bicycles to girl students studying in XI and XII standard in KR schools Sanction of entrance fees to 200 students of KR schools for appearing for Professional College Entrance Examination (Rs. 500 200) Total I - Education Economic Development Housing and Other Schemes Total B . New Schemes Total - State Sector Outlay A+B : DNCs Welfare of BCs, MBCs and DNCs CSS 50:50 CSS 100%

Outlay 0.50 0.74

(Rs. in crores) Physical (Nos.) 265 schools 29 schools

19. 20. 21. 22.

0.25 2.00 0.33 0.25

38 schools 50 schools 110 schools 38 schools

23.

0.75

3 centres

24. 25.

0.41 0.05

1950 bicycles 1000 students

II. III.

21.11 Included Included 21.11 36.28 NIL NIL

Under MBCs Under MBCs