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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development Road Safety Unit

Road Safety Audit Guidelines


October 2007

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Table of Contents
FOREWORD....................................................................................................................III 1. OVERVIEW OF ROAD SAFETY AUDIT.......................................................................1
1.1. What are Road Safety udits!.............................................................................................................................1 1.". #ey $lements.........................................................................................................................................................1 1.%. Why are Road Safety udits necessary!............................................................................................................." 1.&. udit Team............................................................................................................................................................." 1.'. (ost and )enefits ................................................................................................................................................%

. CO!DUCTI!G ROAD SAFETY AUDITS....................................................................."


".1. The udit *rocess..................................................................................................................................................& ".". Initiatin+ the udit................................................................................................................................................' ".%. *rovidin+ the )ac,+round Information..............................................................................................................' ".&. Studyin+ the *lans and Inspectin+ the Site.........................................................................................................' ".'. -oldin+ a (ommencement Meetin+ .ith the Desi+ner and (lient..................................................................' "./. Underta,e the udit............................................................................................................................................../ ".0. Writin+ the udit Report...................................................................................................................................../ ".1. -oldin+ a (ompletion Meetin+............................................................................................................................1 ".2. 3inal udit Record................................................................................................................................................1 ".14. 3ollo.5up..............................................................................................................................................................2

#. TY$ES OF SAFETY AUDIT........................................................................................1%


%.1. Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................14 %.". Sta+e 1 udits 5 3easibility Studies....................................................................................................................14 %.%. Sta+e " udits 5 *reliminary Desi+n..................................................................................................................14 %.&. Sta+e % udits 6 Detailed Desi+n.......................................................................................................................14 %.'. Sta+e & udits 5 Road.or,s................................................................................................................................11 %./. Sta+e ' udits 6 *re57penin+............................................................................................................................11 %.0. Sta+e / udits 5 *ost57penin+ and $8istin+ Roads..........................................................................................11 %.1. udit of Traffic Mana+ement Schemes.............................................................................................................1" Safety Audit Guidelines October 2 ! i

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development %.2. udit of )uildin+ Development..........................................................................................................................1"

". C&EC'(ISTS..............................................................................................................1" ). A$$E!DI* 1 + OUT(I!E TER,S OF REFERE!CE FOR A ROAD SAFETY AUDIT ......................................................................................................................................... -

A./no0led1e2ents
This Manual draws extensively on the recommendations contained in the report "Development of Road Safety Audit System for Tanzania" produced by M/S Desi n !artnership for the former Ministry of "or#s in $%%&' (ther sources are listed below) and the contribution made by the authors of these documents is ac#nowled ed' Austroads) $%%$) Road Safety Audit) Second "dition' Sydney) Australia Asian Development *an#) $%%&) Road Safety Audit for Road #ro$ects% An Operational Tool&it% Manila) !hilippines Ministry of "or#s) +ousin and ,ommunications) $%%-) Road Safety Audit Manual% Republic of . anda

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

FOREWORD
Road crashes are a rowin menace' /n $%%0) road deaths reached an all1time hi h of $)22-) and behind this simple statistic is a hu e amount of human pain and sufferin ' 3conomic losses are estimated to be at least Tshs 4)5%% billion per year' The 6overnment is committed to developin and maintainin a safer road transport system) and this is reflected in the 7ational Transport !olicy and the forthcomin 7ational Road Safety !olicy' /n support of this) the Roads Act $%%5 places a le al duty on all road authorities to ensure that their roads are desi ned) built) maintained and operated with proper re ard for safety' Road authorities must wor# to improve safety throu h a combination of crash reduction and crash prevention' ,rash reduction pro rammes involve monitorin the location of crashes) identifyin blac#spots) and then treatin them with remedial measures' ,rash prevention wor# involves havin specialists chec# the safety of road schemes before they are finalised and built 8 this is called road safety auditing, and is the sub9ect of these 6uidelines. 3xperience elsewhere has shown that safety audits are a simple and hi hly cost1effective way of reducin crashes on new and improved roads' These 6uidelines explain the principles and practice of safety auditin ) and ive technical advice on what can be a complex and demandin tas#' They have been written specifically for those involved in road safety audits) but they will also be of interest to hi hway desi ners) and supervisors of road construction pro9ects' Some safety audits have been done in recent years) but) because they were informal) the audit recommendations were not always ta#en seriously' :rom now on safety auditin will be a mandatory step in the plannin and desi n process for ma9or road pro9ects) and my Ministry will monitor how well it is wor#in ' Trainin in safety audit will be provided) and road authorities should consider collaboratin with each other when puttin to ether safety audit teams' Some small schemes can cause bi safety problems) and it will be for road authorities to decide which of these needs to be audited' Safety auditin involves one set of professionals chec#in the wor# of other professionals' /t is important that those doin the auditin approach the tas# with sensitivity) and that those whose wor# is bein audited accept that this is necessary and worthwhile' / challen e everyone to ta#e road safety auditin seriously so that our new road infrastructure is as safe as possible'

+on' ;ohn !ombe Ma ufuri <M!= Minister for /nfrastructure Development

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

1.
1.1.

OVERVIEW OF ROAD SAFETY AUDIT


What are Road Safety Audits?

Road safety audit 9RS : is a systematic and formal safety performance e8amination of a road pro;ect. The ob9ective is to identify potential safety problems) so that) where possible) the desi n can be improved to eliminate or reduce them' The audit is carried out by trained and experienced auditors who are independent of the scheme desi ners' The reatest benefits will come from auditin ma9or road construction pro9ects) but the safety of all road pro9ects can be improved throu h auditin ' Road safety audits are a vital tool in a road authority>s safety mana ement system' They provide an opportunity for road safety professionals to ensure that all road users> safety needs are ade?uately addressed at various sta es of road pro9ect development' They do not replace ?uality control and standards compliance) or ma#e it any less necessary to be safety1conscious when plannin ) desi nin ) constructin ) maintainin ) and operatin road and traffic systems'

1.2.

Key Elements

The 7ational Transport !olicy places clear emphasis on the provision of safe transport infrastructure' (ne of the tools that may be used to achieve safety is the auditin of road schemes' The 7ational Road Safety !olicy contains a commitment to "ensure that a formal) independent road safety audit is carried out on all road pro9ects before they are finalised"' Road safety auditin follows the principle of prevention is better than cure. An audit conducted at the plannin or desi n sta e allows a line on a plan to be chan ed) which is much cheaper than havin to alter asphalt or concrete once the scheme has been built' The earlier a road pro9ect is audited within the desi n and development process the better' The followin sta es <types= of audit are reco nised@ Sta e 4 1 :easibility Study Sta e $ 1 !reliminary Desi n Sta e & 1 Detailed Desi n Sta e - 1 Roadwor#s Sta e A 1 !re1(penin Sta e 0 1 !ost1(penin and 3xistin Roads Audit of Traffic Mana ement Schemes Audit of *uildin Development <e' ') shoppin malls) sports stadia= Safety audits involve three parties) each with a defined role@ the Audit Team is composed of safety specialists who are commissioned by the client to perform the audit and produce an audit report that identifies the potential safety problems and su ests what should be done about themB the Design Team is the party responsible for the desi n <an in1house team or a firm of consultants=B they will be as#ed to comment on the audit report and) if necessary) will be instructed by the client to alter the desi nB these duties should be included in their terms of referenceB The Client is the representative of the road authority <TA7R(ADS and local overnment authorities= who commissions the audit and decides whether the audit recommendations should
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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

be accepted or re9ected' /t is important to reco nise that@ safety audits are not technical audits 1 they are only concerned with road safety and they do much more than chec# on compliance with standards safety audits are not informal chec#s or desi n reviews 1 these may still be useful safety auditors will not redesi n aspects of the scheme that they consider to be unsafe 1 this is the responsibility of the desi ner safety audits are not 9ust for bi schemes 1 even small pro9ects can ive rise to serious safety problems safety auditin helps sensitise road en ineers to safety issues) and feedbac# from audits will lead to improved desi n standards :inal responsibility for chan in the desi n rests with the client 1 it is not necessary for the client to have the a reement of the auditor or the desi ner' Road safety auditin can produce si nificant benefits at low cost if carried out in a formal and coordinated manner at all sta es in the plannin ) desi n and implementation of a road pro9ect' The process re?uires stron mana ement commitment) s#illed auditors) cooperation from desi n teams) and an on1 oin trainin pro ramme'

1.3.

Why are Road Safety Audits necessary?

"hy should audits be needed when the road a encies employ professional hi hway desi ners and insist on the use of ood desi n standardsC There are a number of answers to this ?uestion) includin @ compliance .ith standards does not +uarantee safety 8 althou h conformity with standards and uidance is helpful for safety) there will be many situations that are not covered by the standards 8 and sometimes a number of individual elements) all desi ned to standard) may) when combined) be unsafeB safety can be unduly compromised in the trade5off bet.een conflictin+ re<uirements 1 it can be difficult for hi hway desi ners to produce a desi n that meets all the pro9ect ob9ectives) and sometimes safety is ne lectedB =ac, of ,no.led+e of crash causation 5 hi hway desi ners may not have the necessary understandin of human1vehicle1road interactions to be able to detect potential safety problems' Road safety audit is more concerned with "fitness for purposeD than compliance with technical standards' This means chec#in that the scheme meets the safety needs of everyone' Special attention is iven to whether the needs of vulnerable road users have been met) because experience indicates that hi hway desi ners focus lar ely on the needs of motor vehicle traffic' The vulnerable road users include pedestrians) motorcyclists) pedal1cyclists) the passen ers waitin for transport) and the roadside vendors' Another important part of safety auditin is chec#in that the desi n ta#es account of the realities of the operatin environment) includin road user indiscipline) the difficulty of law enforcement) the lac# of access control) and the hi h proportion of vulnerable road users'

1.4.

Audit Team

/deally) road safety audits should be performed by a small team of people who have a variety of experience and expertise) such as hi hway desi n) traffic en ineerin ) road construction and maintenance) and road user behaviour' At least one member of the team) normally the team
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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

leader) must have expertise in road safety auditin ' This means havin attended a course in road safety auditin and havin ta#en part in several audits <trainin exercises do not count=' ,ompetence in safety auditin comes throu h hands1on experience' Trainin is helpful at the start but is only a base on which to build experience' The benefits of havin a team are that they are more li#ely to spot safety problems that one person mi ht miss' /f the team members have different areas of expertise so much the better' Traffic policemen) urban planners) and #nowled eable local people may have a lot to contribute' Audits at different sta es call for different s#ills' :or example) at the Detailed Desi n sta e it is helpful to have someone who has sufficient desi n experience to chec# the details of si ns) safety barrier) street li htin ) etc' And for a !re1(penin audit it is usual to include a traffic police officer with local #nowled e' /t is always useful to have people on the team who have ood #nowled e of the local travel patterns) traffic problems) and crash history' 3very audit can serve as a trainin exercise for novice auditors) and be an opportunity for all team members to ain more experience' A ood auditor is one who can read en ineerin drawin s and visualise what the scheme will loo# li#e' They will be able to Eput themselves in the shoesD of each road user and ima ine what it will be li#e) for example) for a pedestrian to cross the road at ni ht) or for a motorist to turn ri ht in the 9unction' Road authorities have three options for ettin audits done@ In5house audit teams 6 this option has the advanta e that it is ?uic# and easy to arran e for an audit to be done) and means that the auditors can see the scheme throu h till completionB if staff from outside the authority can be recruited to help) it will ma#e the team more independentB Instructin+ the desi+n consultant to do the audit 6 if this option is selected) the client must instruct the consultant to use auditors that have not been involved in the desi n wor# 1 nevertheless it may be difficult for the auditors to be completely ob9ective because of the conflict of interest 1 it is recommended that someone from the client>s en ineerin staff) or other independent party) be on the audit teamB Independent consultant 5 this option ensures that the audit is independent) and over time may lead to a competitive mar#et in providin audit services to road authorities'

1.5.

ost and !enefits

Audits do not cost very much) and a typical audit is li#ely to ta#e no more than a few wee#s to complete' Many audit recommendations will cost little or no extra money) and may even save money' The evidence from countries that have adopted safety auditin su ests that the costs of chan es introduced as a result of a safety audit are si nificantly outwei hed by the safety benefits) namely less1crashes) less severe crashes) and less dama e to road furniture' Direct benefits to road authorities include avoidance of expensive reconstruction to remedy safety deficiencies) and lower liability claims' Fifecycle costs may also drop) because safer desi ns often carry lower maintenance costs'

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

.
2.1.

CO!DUCTI!G ROAD SAFETY AUDITS


The Audit "rocess

The steps in the audit process are illustrated in the flow chart in :i ure 4' /t is important to broadly follow this process in order to ensure that the audit is done in a systematic way' The process is the same whatever the type and scale of pro9ect bein audited) but the amount of wor# involved in each step will vary'
Fi1u3e 1 Ste4s in t5e Audit $3o.ess

T 5 e s te 4 s
In itia te t5 e a u d it

R e s p o n s ib ility o f:
C lie n t ( P r o je c t m a n a g e r )

$ 3 o 6 id e in f o 3 2 a t io n

D e s ig n e r

S tu d y t 5 e 4 la n s + 6 is it t5 e s ite C o 2 2 e n . e 2 e n t 2 e e tin 1

A u d it T e a m

C lie n t a n d D e s ig n e r a n d A u d it T e a m A u d it T e a m

U n d e 3 ta / e t 5 e a u d it

W 3 ite t5 e a u d it 3 e 4 o 3 t

A u d it T e a m

C o 2 4 le tio n 2 e e tin 1

C lie n t a n d D e s ig n e r a n d A u d it T e a m

D e . id e o n 3 e s 4 o n s e

C lie n t

F in a l A u d it R e . o 3 d

C lie n t

I2 4 le 2 e n t . 5 a n 1 e s

C lie n t a n d D e s ig n e r

Source: adapted rom !"oad Sa et# Audit$% Austroads% 2002

Safety Audit Guidelines

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

2.2.

#nitiatin$ the Audit

The client will initiate the process by issuin written instructions that will typically state the terms of reference for the audit) the composition of the audit team) the format for presentin the results) and what the deadline is for submission of the audit report' These instructions should be copied to the desi ner' The process should be started immediately after the desi n has been submitted to the client' Road authorities should ensure that their desi n contracts re?uire the desi ner to@ a= respond to the findin s of safety audits) and b= underta#e any necessary re1desi n' /f the pro9ect bein audited is an old one the desi ner may no lon er be available' /n this case the client will have to rely on his own en ineerin 9ud ement to assess the audit recommendations) and arran e for any necessary re1desi n'

2.3.

"ro%idin$ the !ac&$round #nformation

The client or desi ner will provide all relevant information to the audit team' Much of it can be found in the pro9ect reports' :or a desi n audit the information should include@ a pro9ect description An account of the desi n principles and standards that were used <e' ') desi n speed) standards for radii of horizontal curves) superelevation) standards for crest and sa curves) stoppin si ht distance) overta#in si ht distance) percenta e of route where safe overta#in si ht distance is obtainable) etc'= a description of any departures from approved standards and the reasons for them traffic data and traffic forecasts data on pedestrian movement information on public transport services) includin the location of stoppin places crash history full set of drawin s showin details of the horizontal and vertical ali nment and other features si nin and mar#in plans <essential for Detailed Desi n audits= a copy of the previous audit reports <if any= and an account of any chan es since the previous audit <if any='

2.4.

Studyin$ the "lans and #ns'ectin$ the Site

The auditors will study the plans and other information) and try and understand what is proposed' /t is essential for the audit team to visit the site in order to chec# for undocumented problems and visualise the future proposals and their effects' A ni ht1time inspection is also hi hly desirable) as it will often show up extra problems' *ased on their experience) and a chec# on whether desi n standards and eneral safety principles have been followed) the auditors will then ma#e a provisional assessment of the safety problems'

2.5. (oldin$ a ommencement )eetin$ *ith the +esi$ner and lient


A ,ommencement Meetin is normally held between the audit team) client and the desi ners' The ob9ectives of the meetin are@ to familiarise the audit team with the pro9ect scope to clarify roles and responsibilities To set up lines of communication' The client should inform the audit team of the pro9ect scope and hi hli ht any problems and issues that are relevant for road safety' The terms of reference for the audit and the roles/responsibilities durin the audit should be clearly spelt out' Any special re?uirements should be identified and discussed' The meetin is also an opportunity for the auditors to clear up any doubts about what
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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

is proposed and what standards have been used' They may also want to reactions to any problems that they have already identified'

et the desi ner>s

:or a small pro9ect that re?uires one auditor) a telephone call followin delivery of bac# round information may suffice' A bi er pro9ect would re?uire a formal meetin with representatives of the client and desi ners and the entire audit team'

2.,.

-nderta&e the Audit

There are various ways of or anisin the wor#) and this is a matter for the audit team leader and the team members' +owever) one method that is usually effective is for the team members to study the pro9ect reports and drawin s independently) and then come to ether for the site visit' They meet later to discuss their findin s) and draft the audit report' Auditors should bear in mind the followin #ey principles for achievin a safe road environment@ !R(G/D3 safety for all road users <includin pedestrians <especially children=) cyclists) and motorcyclists= in all weathers and li htin conditions MA7A63 speeds by careful desi n of the road environment 37S.R3 that there are no nasty surprises 6./D3) /7:(RM and "AR7 the driver about the road ahead *3 ,(7S/ST37T in the way roads and intersections are desi ned and si ned ,(7TR(F the driverHs passa e throu h conflict points and other difficult sections :(R6/G3 the driverHs mista#es or inappropriate behaviour' Auditors should remember to@ be thorou h and comprehensive be realistic and practical <thou h they should not be too concerned about costs) as it is for the client to decide whether the cost can be 9ustified= #eep to road safety aspects ,hec# compliance with approved standards and uidelines whilst rememberin that compliance with standards does not uarantee that the road will be safe' /t has been found that the use of chec#lists or memory prompts is a valuable tool in ensurin that nothin is for otten durin the audit' A provisional set of chec#lists is iven in Section - 8 one for each audit type / sta e' These will need to be refined as more audit experience is ained' 7ote however that they do not cover every possible safety problem) and they are not a substitute for #nowled e and experience' 7ovice auditors may wish to record their findin s a ainst every item in the chec#list' More experienced auditors may prefer to 9ust read throu h the chec#list before they start auditin 8 and perhaps afterwards as well'

2...

Writin$ the Audit Re'ort

The audit report must set out clearly what the problems are and ma#e outline recommendations on corrective action' /t will usually refer first to eneral problems 1 for example) inade?uate cross1 section) or lac# of si nin plans 1 and then move on to problems at specific points alon the road) presented in se?uence from one end of the pro9ect to the other' :or each problem there will be findin+s and recommendations@ Findings 8 refer briefly to the problem) and) if it is a specific feature) locate it precisely < ive the chaina e) or mar# it on a copy of the scheme drawin =B explain briefly but clearly why the feature increases the crash ris#B Recommendations 8 ive a clear indication of what needs to be done) but do not be too specific
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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

or provide a detailed desi nB that is the 9ob of the desi ner' The findin s and recommendations should be presented in tabular form <see Table 4= with a column for the client>s response' This helps #eep the findin s and recommendations short and ma#es it is easier for the client to respond' /n some cases there may be no obvious solution to the problem) but the problem should still be identified in the report'
Table 1 E7a24le of an Audit Findin1s Table
Ref8 A& Findin1s 'er# man# pedestrians (ill be (al)ing along t*e road on t*e section rom c*+ 0,000 to &,0-0 (C*og(e centre) #et t*ere is no pro.ision or t*em ot*er t*an a (ide s*oulder+ T*ere (ill be a *ig* degree o con lict bet(een pedestrian mo.ement and .e*icles par)ing / unpar)ing and crossing t*e s*oulder to access t*e roadside commercial de.elopment+ T*ere is no pro.ision or street lig*ting on t*e section t*roug* C*og(e centre (c*+ 0,000 to &,0-0) #et t*is area is bus# at nig*t and dar)ness (ill increase t*e ris) o collisions% especiall# bet(een pedestrians and .e*icles At c*+ &,020 t*e e1isting pipe cul.ert carr#ing t*e 2isooga stream is to be replaced b# a 0m (ide bo1 cul.ert+ T*e speci ic design is not indicated but% i it is constructed to t*e t#pical design s*o(n on D(g+ T"34DT4025c% it (ill *a.e no parapet+ 6it*out a parapet t*ere is a ris) t*at pedestrians (including c*ildren rom t*e nearb# sc*ool) ma# all into t*e stream+ 3rom c*+ &,800 to 2,0-0 (Ti#enga .illage) t*ere is an open side drain (&+7m (ide and &m deep) along bot* sides o t*e road 4 t*is (ill be a dangerous trap at nig*t or t*e man# pedestrians and c#clists t*at (ill use t*is road 4 and could also be a *a9ard or stopping .e*icles+ T*e bend at c*+ 2,:00 *as a radius (70m) t*at is (ell belo( standard% and t*e .ie( o t*e bend or tra ic coming rom C*og(e (ill be obscured b# t*e crest at c*+ 2,--0+ Dri.ers (ill not see t*e bend in time to slo( do(n su icientl# to be able to negotiate t*e bend sa el#+ T*ere are no signs or delineators s*o(n on t*e dra(ings Re.o22endations Segregate t*e pedestrians rom t*e .e*icles and control access Client9s Res4onse Comment designer to produce a
detailed design for a footway with limited openings for vehicular access to roadside development insufficient funds for street lighting - road will be illuminated by lights of roadside commercial buildings

A2

Pro.ide street lig*ting

A0

Pro.ide a pedestrian parapet on bot* sides o t*e cul.ert

A7

Co.er t*e drain

A-

"e4align t*is section to remo.e t*e crest and bend% or% i t*is cannot be done% pro.ide a *ig* standard o signing and delineation

realigning the road would not be costeffective but warning signs and delineators will be installed

The audit report should be thorou h and comprehensive) but also concise' There is no need to describe the safety situation in Tanzania) nor discuss eneral safety and hi hway desi n issues' There is also no need to refer to the ood points of the desi n) because the audit report is not ivin hec&list an overall assessment' The report should detail the specific safety concerns about the for audit re'orts scheme) nothin else' (nce the report is ready it should be si ned by the audit team leader and submitted to the client' Int3odu.tion : details o :
(*o re;uested t*e audit names o persons in t*e audit team dra(ings and documents submitted constraints% e+g+% no signing plans a.ailable (*en t*e audit (as done < date and time o site .isits dates o meetings t*e tec*nical terms used in t*e report

Safety .on.e3ns 3e1a3din1 1ene3al as4e.ts of t5e desi1n suc* as design speed% cross4section% superele.ation% speed management% signing% etc+ Safety .on.e3ns 3e1a3din1 featu3es at s4e.ifi. lo.ations % suc* as an a()(ard bend% or a dangerous junction+ Con.ludin1 se.tion Safety Audit Guidelines T*e audit team leader s*ould sign and date t*e report+
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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

2./.

(oldin$ a om'letion )eetin$

!rior to the ,ompletion Meetin the client will send a copy of the audit report to the desi ner with a re?uest for a response on each of the reportHs recommendations' (nce the desi nerHs responses have been received the client will re?uest the audit team leader and the desi ner to attend the ,ompletion Meetin ' The ob9ective of the ,ompletion Meetin is to foster a constructive dialo ue centred on the audit report findin s' The meetin provides an opportunity to@ formally present the audit findin s and clarify or elaborate their meanin Discuss possible remedial measures for problems identified' 3ssential elements of a successful ,ompletion Meetin include the followin @ A positive) constructive and co1operative attitude on the part of all participantsB Desi ners must appreciate that the audit is not a criti?ue of their individual or team performanceB Auditors and desi ners must respect the fact that the client alone will ma#e the decision on whether and what action is to be ta#en to correct the safety problems identified in the auditB it is not necessary for all three parties to be in a reement' The client will usually ma#e a decision on each audit point at the meetin ) but he may prefer to wait for further consultation or investi ation' The desi ner may be as#ed to research the feasibility and cost of remedial measures and report bac# to the client'

2.0.

1inal Audit Record

The :inal Audit Record is a copy of the Audit Report in which the audit findin s table <Table 4= contains the client>s response' The client can@ Accept the audit recommendation) or Re ect the audit recommendation 1 in which case he must ive his reasons' The client should try to be as ob9ective as possible when considerin his decision' A refusal to accept an audit recommendation may be because he doubts whether there is a safety problem or it could be that he does not li#e the proposed remedy' /n the latter case the client must indicate what alternative remedy he prefers' The client is responsible for preparin the :inal Audit Record'
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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

The client must si n a statement in the :inal Audit Record committin himself to follow up the decisions recorded in the response column of the audit findin s table' The desi ner should also si n a statement to the effect that he accepts the client>s decisions and will amend the desi n accordin ly' ,opies of the :inal Audit Record will be sent to the audit team leader and the desi ner'

2.12. 1ollo*3u'
The client will instruct the desi ner to ma#e the necessary amendments to the desi n' /t is important that these instructions be clearly recorded to avoid confusion' .sually what happens then is that the audit team disbands and has no further involvement with the pro9ect' +owever) where the audit is of a Detailed Desi n) it is desirable for the audit team leader to continue to provide advice and technical support to the desi ners and those responsible for supervisin the construction' /t is ?uite li#ely that the desi n will be chan ed durin implementation) because of site difficulties or other unforeseen problems' /f possible) the audit team leader should try and monitor construction pro ress) and) if he feels that chan es are bein made that compromise safety) he should alert the client of the need to audit these chan es'

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

#.
3.1.

TY$ES OF SAFETY AUDIT


#ntroduction

(ne road pro9ect can have up to six road safety audit sta es) but most pro9ects will have less' Audit sta es 4 to & focus on the pre1construction phase 1 the feasibility study and the preliminary and detailed desi ns/ /t needs to be stressed that the earlier a road pro;ect is audited the better' A Sta e - audit chec#s the safety of the contractor>s plans for the roadwor#s' A Sta e A audit is done as a final chec# 9ust before the road is opened to traffic' After the road has been open for a year a Sta e 0 audit can be done to assess what) if any) safety problems have arisen' Safety audits can also be useful for chec#in traffic mana ement schemes and ma9or buildin developments'

3.2.

Sta$e 1 Audits 3 1easi4ility Studies

Audits at this sta e can influence fundamental issues such as desi n standards) cross1section) route choice) impact on surroundin road networ#) and the number) location and layout of intersections' /f a wron or inappropriate decision is made) it will probably be impossible to correct the problem at a later sta e in the desi n process' :easibility studies sometimes recommend phased construction 8 for example) desi nin a road as a dual carria eway but with only one carria eway bein built in the first sta e' Auditors should be aware that this often involves desi n compromises that adversely affect safety' /nterim desi ns need more attention) not less'

3.3.

Sta$e 2 Audits 3 "reliminary +esi$n

The preliminary or draft desi n will determine the standards) the cross1section) the ali nment) and the intersection type' The audit will chec# all these elements' !articular attention will be paid to any departures from standards) and the interaction between pro9ect elements that have been desi ned to minimum standards' The audit will also loo# at the wider issues) such as@ +ave the needs of all li#ely road users been consideredC /s property access catered forC Are local traffic movements catered for safelyC Are the connections to the existin road networ# ade?uate and safeC "ill the pro9ect sta in ) if any) affect safetyC /t often happens that the auditors will identify problems that stem from decisions made durin the feasibility sta e) such as the cross1section) the route and the intersection type' /f there was an audit at the feasibility sta e and these concerns were raised but re9ected by the client) it will not be appropriate to raise them a ain' +owever) if there was no audit at the feasibility sta e) the auditors must include these concerns in the audit findin s) even thou h it may be too late to chan e thin s'

3.4.

Sta$e 3 Audits 5 +etailed +esi$n

This audit occurs on completion of the detailed road desi n but before the construction contract documents are prepared and the land ac?uisition fixed' Auditors should loo# for anythin that has been missed durin previous audits) and see how any issues identified in previous audits have been dealt with' /t is a chance to chec# all the details) includin si ns and mar#in s) safety barrier) roadside obstacles) li htin ) landscapin ) pedestrian facilities) and connections to existin roads'
Safety Audit Guidelines October 2 ! '

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

,hec# also the interaction of the detailed elements 8 for exampleB chec# that the li htin columns are behind the safety barrier not in front' Attention to detail at this sta e can help reduce the cost and nuisance of last1minute chan es durin construction' +owever) it is often difficult to et sufficiently detailed information) because many minor decisions will be left for the supervisin en ineer to ma#e durin the construction phase' This is why Sta e A <!re1(penin = audits are so important'

3.5.

Sta$e 4 Audits 3 Road*or&s

Roadwor#s tend to have an above1avera e number of crashes' The Ministry>s Standard Specifications for Roadwor#s) $%%% <,lause 4A%&= state that before startin wor# the ,ontractor must submit a detailed "!ro ramme for the !assin of Traffic" that includes details of all si nin ) protection measures and arran ements for traffic control' ,ontractors are reminded to follow the provisions of the Road Traffic Si ns Manual' The 3n ineer supervisin the construction on behalf of the road authority has to approve the !ro ramme before the ,ontractor is allowed to proceed' There is also a re?uirement for the ,ontractor not to revise the !ro ramme without the prior written permission of the 3n ineer' /f all parties follow this procedure carefully the number of crashes can be minimised' /n most cases the 3n ineer should be capable of ma#in his own assessment of the !ro ramme) but with bi pro9ects or complex situations <such as ma9or roadwor#s in towns= it will be advisable to arran e for a safety audit' The focus of roadwor#s audits should be@ advance warnin uidance by means of si ns and devices speed control clear and efficient traffic control protection of wor#ers Safe access for construction vehicles'

3.,.

Sta$e 5 Audits 5 "re36'enin$

This audit ta#es place immediately before the road is opened to traffic) and involves a detailed inspection of the road and all the si ns) and other road furniture' The ob9ective is to chec# for any hazardous feature that was not apparent at previous sta es) that all the desi n details have been correctly implemented) and that the si nin is ?uite clear' ,hec# too that the roadway is free of construction e?uipment) buildin materials) etc') and that any temporary si na e is ready to be removed when the road is opened to traffic' /t is useful to have a local traffic police officer ta#e part in the inspection) as they are li#ely to have a ood understandin of how the local people will cope with the new road' They can also be as#ed to arran e for an increased police presence in the first few days after openin ' An Iimmediate post1openin H audit can also be done after the road has been open for a few days' This will show how the road is actually bein used) and) if there are any problems) they will probably be apparent already' /t may be possible to ma#e minor chan es before the contractor demobilises'

3...

Sta$e , Audits 3 "ost36'enin$ and E7istin$ Roads

Safety audits of existin roads help identify unsafe) inconsistent) outworn) and outdated elements in the road environment' They are an opportunity to review how the various desi n elements interact) how road users are actually usin the road facility) and what problems) if any) they are experiencin ' This ma#es Sta e 0 audits especially useful when plannin ma9or maintenance or
Safety Audit Guidelines October 2 ! ''

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

rehabilitation pro9ects' The audit team should inspect the road to ether) from the viewpoint of all road users' /t is not sufficient to 9ust drive alon the road 1 wherever pedestrians are found the team must et down from the vehicle and chec# what it is li#e to wal# alon the road and to cross it' The inspection should be done without first chec#in the crash data) so as not to bias the findin s' The aim is to identify safety deficiencies of desi n) layout and road furniture' A two1sta e inspection process is recommended for lon road sections of about 4%%1#m or more' The first sta e should focus on identifyin the main problems of the route and where they are located' This is followed by the detailed sta e durin which a close examination of the selected problem areas is done' (nce the preliminary assessment has been completed the results should be chec#ed a ainst the crash history' Sometimes a site that loo#s unsafe may be found to have had no crashes' The auditor should be cautious about recommendin corrective action) because of the ris# of ma#in thin s worse) but note that@ crash history is not necessarily a ood indicator of future crashes) especially on li htly1 traffic#ed rural roads !olice crash records are not very reliable 1 and crash locations may have been mis1recorded pedestrians and cyclists may be ma#in lon detours to avoid the site because of its perceived dan er if it is a #nown and obvious safety problem <e' ' an unprotected brid e parapet end on a hi h1 speed trun# road= it is probably worth treatin it' Sta e 0 audits are not a substitute for blac#spot studies' The most economic way of treatin the safety en ineerin problems of the busier sections of the trun# road networ# is probably by doin blac#spot studies' Sta e 0 audits are more appropriate for the less traffic#ed parts of the networ# where there is not much crash data'

3./.

Audit of Traffic )ana$ement Schemes

/t is advisable to do safety audits of ma9or traffic mana ement schemes' "hen the existin circulation patterns are altered by means of one1way systems) road closures) par#in restrictions) etc') there is always a ris# that the number of conflicts / collisions will increase' Audits of traffic mana ement schemes should focus on@ potential problems with one1way systems) especially the increased speeds and the connections with two1way streets whether there is clear si nin 8 for both drivers and pedestrians potential problems with drivers and pedestrians not noticin and understandin unusual layouts) such as contra1flow bus lanes) even when they are well si ned whether the streets that will receive additional traffic can handle the increase safely'

3.0.

Audit of !uildin$ +e%elo'ment

Far e buildin and land use developments usually enerate considerable vehicular and pedestrian traffic) so they have a ma9or impact on the surroundin road networ#' The layout of the site) and the desi n of the car par#s) access roads) footpaths) etc') is critical for the safety of both visitors and the passin traffic on the surroundin networ#' Those responsible for plannin control must consult the road authority when considerin whether to rant development permission' The road authority may decide that a traffic impact assessment and safety audit is needed' Sometimes the developer is as#ed to provide or pay for this) but such reports can lac# ob9ectivity because of the conflict of interest' Audits of buildin development will typically focus on@
Safety Audit Guidelines October 2 ! '2

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

the vehicular and pedestrian access the safe provision of public transport services the safety impact of any con estion caused by the vehicles enterin or leavin the development the eneration of pedestrian movements across surroundin roads the ade?uacy of the par#in provision <to avoid par#in overflow onto surroundin roads= speeds within the site and at access points pedestrian / vehicle conflicts within the site and at access points

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

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C&EC'(ISTS

Road Safety Audit hec&lists 3 Sta$e 1 5 1easi4ility Studies


Issue 1.1 *ro;ect function and scope> /s the scheme consistent with the development plans for the areaC /s the scheme consistent with the planned road hierarchy for the areaC "ill the scheme ade?uately cater for@ 1 carsC1 motorcyclistsC1 pedal cyclistsC1 pedestriansC1 heavy vehiclesC1 busesC Ma;or +enerators of traffic Does the scheme serve ma9or enerators of traffic safelyC Are there any developments) planned or committed) that may affect the new roadC ?et.or, effects> "ill the scheme alter the volume and speed of traffic on the surroundin road networ#C 1 if so) will these effects result in safety problemsC ,an any safety problems be ade?uately dealt withC "ill local vehicle and pedestrian movements be cut by the schemeC 1 if so) will this result in safety problemsC Does the scheme relieve crash1prone routes or sitesC @eneral desi+n issues> /s the desi n appropriate for the roadHs function) cate ory) traffic mix) desi n year traffic volume) etcC /s the desi n speed appropriateC +as a clear zone been defined and) if so) is it ade?uateC ,an any sudden chan e in the speed environment be safely accommodatedC Are there li#ely to be safety problems where the new / improved road connects with the existin road networ#C "ill the route permit the achievement of ali nment standards <horizontal and vertical=C Does the route fit in with the physical constraints of the landscapeC "ill the road be affected by adverse weather 1 hi h winds) mist) etc'C Does the road cross areas where wild animals are present <e' ' par#s and ame reserves=C Are standards <e' ') cross1sections= consistently appliedC Intersections and access control> /s the fre?uency of intersections and their type appropriate for the road function) desi n speed) traffic volumes and turnin movementsC Are the proposed intersections at locations where si ht distances and other desi n re?uirements can be metC Are there any properties with direct accessC /f so) are they necessary) and in safe locationsC Sta+in+> "ill the scheme be carried out in sta esC "ill intersections be built in interim or final formC +ave desi n compromises been made which mi ht affect the safety of the interim sta esC $valuation of alternatives> /s the road safety performance one of the evaluation criteriaC

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Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Road Safety Audit hec&lists 3 Sta$e 2 5 "reliminary +esi$n


Issue ".1 @eneral topics> +ave the circumstances chan ed since the last audit <e' ' traffic volume) traffic mix) development plans) etc'=C +as the eneral form of the pro9ect desi n remained unchan edC @eneral desi+n issues> /s the desi n appropriate for the roadHs function) cate ory) traffic mix) desi n year traffic volume) etcC /s the desi n speed and speed limit for each section of the road appropriate to the function of the road) the traffic mix) and the road environmentC (ross5sections Are the widths of the lanes) shoulders) medians <if any= in accordance with standards and ade?uate for the function of the road and the mix of traffic li#ely to use itC Does the cross1section help to reinforce the speed limitC Are the needs of pedestrians and cyclists ade?uately catered forC /s there a need to separate throu h traffic from access traffic in townsC Are there narrow sections <e' ' at brid es) culverts=C Are these avoidableC /f they are unavoidable) are they handled as safely as possibleC Are overta#in / climbin lanes provided if neededC Are chan es in cross1section <e' ' at terminal points= handled safelyC "ill the carria eway drain ade?uatelyC Shoulders and roadside areas Are the shoulders of appropriate width and constructionC +as a clear zone been defined and) if so) is it ade?uateC ,hec# emban#ment hei hts and steepness of foreslopes 1 if they are too hi h / steep) will they be protected by safety barrierC +as ade?uate provision been made for bus lay1bys) rest areas) etc'C li+nment Does the horizontal and vertical ali nment ive sufficient forward visibility for the selected desi n speedC Are there any substandard <inconsistent= elementsC Does the horizontal and vertical ali nment fit well to etherC Does the ali nment provide re ular) safe overta#in opportunitiesC Does the ali nment avoid creatin situations where the forward visibility is mar inal for safe overta#in <dilemma zones=C Does the ali nment help to reinforce the speed limitC Intersections> ,an the number of intersections be reduced to improve safetyC Are intersections so close to ether that there may be a Esee1throu hD problemC /s the intersection in a safe location <especially re ardin visibility re?uirements=C /s the type of intersection <priority) control) etc'= suitable for the function of the two roads) the traffic volume) the traffic movements <vehicular and pedestrian=) the approach speeds and the site constraintsC /s it the safest alternative 8 for all road usersC Are the intersections all of the same typeC /f not) will this be confusin for driversC "ill the layout and function of the intersection be understood by drivers as they approachC Does the layout conform to established Tanzanian practiceC /s the route throu h the intersection as simple) clear and lo ical as possibleC /s there ade?uate provision for channellin <and protectin = where necessary the different streams of trafficC /s there proper Elane balanceD) and Ethrou h lane continuityDC Are there any Etrap lanesD <i'e' a turnin lane that is not clearly si ned and so may be mista#en for a throu h lane=C /s the layout of the intersection ade?uate for all permitted vehicular movements and for all types of vehicleC
October 2 ! '*

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Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

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Does the layout encoura e slow) controlled speeds at and on the approach to ST(! and 6/G3 "AJ si ns / linesC /s there ade?uate provision for pedestrians and cyclistsC Does the intersection desi n permit ade?uate si nin C *edestrians and other special road users +ave pedestrian needs been satisfactorily considered <chec# whether there is evidence of a survey havin been done=C +ave the needs of cyclists and motorcyclists been considered) especially at intersections <chec# whether these vehicles were covered by the traffic surveys=C +ave the needs of bus users been consideredC Ma;or traffic +enerators A access control Does the route serve ma9or enerators of traffic safelyC Are accesses to ma9or traffic enerators located near to hazards <e' ' intersections) sharp bends) sections with restricted visibility=C Ris# of ?ueuesC ,an accesses to existin properties be used safelyC Are there any properties with direct accessC /s there an alternative to direct accessC )rid+es /s the outline desi n satisfactory from a safety viewpoint <continuation of full carria eway and shoulder width) provision for pedestrians) cyclists) etc=C Rail.ay crossin+s /f the road crosses a railway) is an at1 rade crossin acceptable iven the road function) speed) traffic volume) etcC /f an at1 rade crossin is acceptable) is it located where visibility is ade?uateC "ill there be ade?uate visibility to ?ueue tailsC Does the crossin need to be e?uipped with barriers and si nalsC Sta+ed development "ill the scheme be carried out in sta esC "ill intersections be built in interim or final formC +ave desi n compromises been made which mi ht affect the safety of the interim sta esC

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Road Safety Audit hec&lists 3 Sta$e 3 5 +etailed +esi$n


Issue %.1 @eneral topics> ,hec# for ma9or chan es since the last audit' Are there any safety implicationsC ,hec# that the circumstances for the proposals still apply' +ave there been any si nificant chan es to the networ# or area to be servedC /s the proposed function of the road still as intendedC Are future improvements planned that will affect the safe use of the roadC Detail of +eometric desi+n> Are the desi n details <e' ' lane and shoulder widths) crossfall) superelevation) footway desi n) etc'= consistentC (ross5sections +ave there been chan es to the cross1sections that affect safetyC /s the desi n still free of undesirable chan es in cross1section desi nC Are the clearances in accordance with standardsC +ave overta#in / climbin lanes been desi ned in a safe manner <particularly the lane ain and lane drop=C /f there are narrowin s for speed mana ement purposes) are they safe <chec# whether cyclists mi ht et s?ueezed=C Draina+e "ill the new road drain ade?uately <particularly at sa curves=C Are the road rades and crossfall ade?uate for satisfactory draina eC Are flat spots avoided <chec# at start/end of superelevation=C Are roadside drains of a safe desi n <can they be traversed safely by out1of1control vehiclesB are they a hazard to pedestrians=C "ill pedestrian areas) cycleways) lay1bys and other paved areas drain ade?uatelyC ShouldersB ed+e treatment and roadside areas Are the shoulders of appropriate desi n <width) crossfall) construction) avoidance of ed e drop=C +ave the clear zone standards been metC /f not) can the hazards be removedC /f not) have ade?uate arran ements been made to protect vehicles from the hazardsC Are there any Eopen windowsD throu h which out1of1control vehicles could fallC /f so) can they be closed) or shielded by safety barrierC /f there is a median) is it free of hazardous ob9ectsC /f not) can they be removed) or protectedC +as ade?uate provision been made for bus lay1bys) rest areas) etc'C Are any lay1bys) rest areas) etc' located and desi ned to safe standardsC Are culvert ends <headwalls= located outside the clear zone) or have they been desi ned not to be a hazard) or has ade?uate protection been providedC /s the desi n of #erbs appropriate for the speed of traffic and the road environmentC li+nment Does the horizontal and vertical ali nment ive sufficient forward visibility for the selected desi n speedC Are there any substandard <inconsistent= sectionsC Are substandard sections ade?uately si nedC Are chan es in speed handled safelyC Does the horizontal and vertical ali nment fit well to etherC Does the ali nment provide re ular) safe overta#in opportunitiesC Does the ali nment avoid creatin situations where the forward visibility is mar inal for safe overta#in <dilemma zones=C Does the proposed treatment at bends ma#e appropriate and safe provision for@ transition curves) superelevation and carria eway widenin C Does the ali nment help to reinforce the speed limitC /s the desi n free of si ht line obstructions <fences) street furniture) safety barrier) si ns) landscapin ) brid e abutments) par#ed vehicles=C /s visibility ade?uate at any pedestrian crossin sC
October 2 ! '!

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Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

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/s there sufficient visibility on the approach to intersectionsC ,hec# that drivers will be able to read the road ahead' Are there any aw#ward surprises or visual illusions that could confuse driversC /f so) can they be avoidedC /f not) are they handled safelyC Does the vertical ali nment put excessive demands on the power of heavy vehiclesC +as it been desi ned so that maximum rades are interspersed with recovery radesC Intersections> "ill the layout and function of the intersection be understood by drivers as they approachC Does the layout conform to established Tanzanian practiceC /s there proper Elane balanceD) and Ethrou h lane continuityDC Are there sufficient lanes for the volume of trafficC /s the route throu h the intersection as simple) clear and lo ical as possibleC /s there ade?uate provision for channellin <and protectin = where necessary the different streams of trafficC /s the layout of the intersection ade?uate for all permitted vehicular movements and for all types of vehicleC Are the lane widths ade?uate <chec# need for widenin on curves=C Are the traffic islands sufficiently lar e to avoid bein a hazard <especially at ni ht=C Does the shape uide vehicles into the correct travel pathC Are there any Etrap lanesDC ,an they be avoidedC /f not) are they si ned ade?uatelyC Does the layout encoura e slow) controlled speeds at and on the approach to ST(! and 6/G3 "AJ si ns / linesC Are the si ht lines at and on the approach to ST(! and 6/G3 "AJ lines and other critical decision points ade?uate and unobstructedC Are there are aw#ward differences in level on the approach to and within the intersectionC /f there is li#ely to be ?ueuin ) will approachin vehicles be able to see the ?ueue tails in time to stop safelyC Are there any IlocalH features that may affect the safe use of the 9unctionC /s there a need to provide for .1turnsC /f so) does the layout permit safe .1turnsC /s there ade?uate provision for pedestrians <clear) convenient crossin points) refu e islands) dropped #erbs) etc'=C /s there a need to use pedestrian barrier to channel pedestrians to safe crossin pointsC /s the intersection safe for cyclistsC Are there acceleration and deceleration lanesC /f so) are they lon enou h for traffic to use them safelyC /s the intersection ade?uately and correctly si ned in accordance with the Traffic Si ns ManualC Does the intersection need to be litC /f li htin is to be provided) are the li htin columns in a safe placeC dditional chec,lists .here intersections include> Traffic Si+nals ,an the si nals be clearly seen on the approach to the intersectionC Do measures need to be ta#en to reduce speeds on approach to the intersectionC /s there any confusion when roups of si nals are placed close to ether <see1throu h effect=C /s there a need to fit si nal hoods to prevent drivers seein si nals that do not apply to themC "ill the si nals be hidden in bri ht sunshineC Are the si nal heads fitted with bac#in boardsC Are the si nal lamps the correct sizeC Are there at least two si nal heads <primary and secondary= controllin each traffic movementC /f there are two or more lanes on the approach) is there a need to provide a second primary si nal 1 on a traffic islandC /s there li#ely to be any confusion over which si nal controls each movementC /s there sufficient lateral clearance between si nal heads and the carria ewayC Do the si nal colours) arran ement) si nal se?uence) and si nal timin s conform to accepted practiceC Are they in accordance with the Traffic Si ns Re ulations and the advice in the

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

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United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Traffic Si ns ManualC Does the si nal phasin prevent any unexpected conflict situationsC /s it necessary to have protected ri ht turnsC /s the Einter reen timeD between conflictin phases sufficient for safe operationC ,an the 9unction be used safely if the si nals are not wor#in or are switched to flashin amberC /s there a phase to accommodate pedestriansC Are the settin s and timin s ade?uate for safe useC ,an pedestrians et confused about which si nal applies to themC /s the intersection properly mar#ed in accordance with the advice in the Traffic Si ns ManualC /s the stop line perpendicular to the centre lineC /s the control e?uipment located in a safe place where it will not interfere with visibility and is unli#ely to be hit by errant vehiclesC /s there safe par#in for the maintenance vehicleC Roundabouts /s the eometry simple and easily understood by drivers on the approach to the roundaboutC /s the size of the roundabout sufficient for the volume and mix of traffic and the number of entriesC /s the central island sufficiently conspicuousC Are there too many entries for safe) efficient operationC Are the entries and exits spaced far enou h apartC Does the desi n deflect enterin traffic sufficiently to ensure that entry speeds are no reater than A% #m/hC /s the visibility for enterin traffic and circulatin traffic ade?uateC +as the centre island been desi ned to be for ivin to errant vehiclesC +as ade?uate provision been made for pedestrians to cross the arms of the roundaboutC +ave the needs of cyclists been consideredC /s the si nin and mar#in in conformity with the uidance iven in the Traffic Si ns ManualC Are the mar#in s ade?uateC /s there a need for dedicated lanesC @rade separated /s the vertical ali nment ade?uateC ,an the drivers see the intersectionC /f there are mer e situations) are they arran ed so that the traffic 9oins the mainline from the nearside) i'e' from the leftC /s the mer e/diver e point clearly identifiable for drivers on the mainlineC Are the acceleration lanes of ade?uate len th and desi nC Are the deceleration tapers of ade?uate len th and desi nC /s 9oinin traffic inter1visible with the mainlineC /s the desi n speed for the ramps ade?uateC Does the desi n of the ramp provide ade?uate forward visibilityC Are there sharp bends on the rampsC <consider use of chevron si ns and safety barrier= Are there any accesses on the rampsC ,an they be relocatedC Are the off1ramps lon enou h to accommodate pea# traffic flows without ?ueues extendin bac# onto the mainlineC ,hec# whether safety barrier is needed on emban#ed ramps and other road sections' Traffic Si+ns> /s the level of si nin appropriate for the roadC /s there an over1reliance on si ns <instead of better eometric desi n=C Do the si ns <incl' road mar#in s= conform to the Traffic Si ns Re ulations and the advice iven in the Traffic Si ns ManualC ,an the si ns be seen and are they of sufficient sizeC Do the si ns convey the correct messa eC Are si ns located in appropriate and safe placesC Do si ns ive ade?uate information to driversC Do the si ns need to be protected with safety barrierC Are antry si ns neededC
October 2 ! '.

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Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

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/f antry si ns are used can they be seen at ni htC Do they need to be externally illuminatedC Does the scheme ma#e provision for removin unnecessary) wron or outworn si nsC Are the road mar#in s correctC Are the criteria for the use of no overta#in centre lines specified) and) if they are) are they correct for the traffic speed on each sectionC "ill traffic island mar#in s need to be reinforced by rumble strips or flexible traffic cylindersC "ill reflective pavement mar#ers <road studs= be neededC Should roadside mar#er posts <delineators= be provided in order to improve the EreadabilityD of the roadC )rid+es /s the desi n satisfactory from a safety viewpoint <continuation of full carria eway and shoulder width) provision for pedestrians) cyclists) etc'=C "ill pedestrians have a clear and safe path onto and off the brid eC Does the parapet need to function as a safety barrierC /f so) will it perform satisfactorilyC +as the parapet been desi ned for safety <hei ht) level of containment) limit on size of openin s) etc'=C Are the parapet ends properly shieldedC Safety barrier Are safety barriers provided where necessaryC Are they lon enou h to prevent an out1of1control vehicle from reachin the hazardC Are the terminal arran ements <upstream and downstream ends= safeC Do safety barriers restrict visibilityC Do safety barriers bloc# pedestrian desire linesC +as steel beam uardrail been desi ned correctly <chec# beam hei ht) post spacin ) lateral clearance) spacer bloc#s) nuts and bolts) reflectors) terminal pieces) and whether the beams are overlapped correctly=C ,hec# that transitions between barrier types <e' ' steel beam uardrail to concrete brid e parapet= are safe' Are there any features that could create a safety problemC *rovision for *edestrians Are footways provided where neededC /s there a networ# of footways and safe crossin points servin the main pedestrian movementsC /s there a need for special provision outside schools) hospitals and other ma9or enerators of pedestrian movementC Does the footway networ# enable pedestrians to avoid ma9or conflicts with vehicular trafficC Are the main crossin points in safe locationsC /s there ood intervisibility between pedestrians and driversC Do the main crossin points have features / facilities to help pedestrians <e' ' Edropped #erbsD) refu es) Ebuild1outsD) zebra crossin s) si nal1controlled crossin s) etc'= /s there li#ely to be any confusion about who has ri ht of way at crossin facilitiesC Does the si nin and mar#in conform to the Traffic Si ns Re ulations and the advice in the Traffic Si ns ManualC Are there any obstructions <si ns) li htin columns) safety barrier) etc= in the footwaysC /f so) can they be removed or movedC /s it necessary to channel pedestrians to safe crossin points usin pedestrian barrierC /f pedestrian barrier is used is it of a safe desi n <not dan erous when hit by vehicles=C ccess to *roperties> ,an accesses to existin properties be used safelyC Are there any special measures that need to be incorporated into the desi n to ensure safety <i'e' near schools) public areas) or commercial centres= Utilities> /s there ade?uate clearance for overhead power linesC ,an utility apparatus be accessed safelyC ,an maintenance vehicles be par#ed safelyC
October 2 ! 2

Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Are power boxes and access chambers located in a safe place <e' ' away from traffic lanes= %.1& Ce+etation and landscapin+> Are there any trees/ve etation/landscapin located where they may interfere with visibility and affect the safety of road usersC =i+htin+> /s li htin re?uired and) if so) has it been ade?uately providedC Does the li htin ade?uately illuminate critical points) such as pedestrian crossin s) refu es) mer e and diver e areas) ST(! and 6/G3 "AJ lines) etc'=C "ill the li htin scheme mislead drivers in any way <e' ' re ardin priorities at intersections) or ali nment=C /f there are sites with ni ht1time accident problems) are these covered by the li htin schemeC Are the li htin columns located where they are less li#ely to be hit by out1of1control vehicles <as far as the need for even illumination allows=C Are the li htin columns of a desi n that ma#es them as little a hazard as possibleC /s there ade?uate clearance between the li htin column and the ed e of the carria ewayC Do li htin columns on a median need to be protected by safety barrierC Rail.ay crossin+s> /s the crossin located where visibility is ade?uateC "ill there be ade?uate visibility to ?ueue tailsC /s there a need for speed mana ement measures on the approaches to the crossin C /s there a need for barriers and si nalsC /f so) have these been correctly desi nedC +as the Tanzania Railways ,orporation iven its approvalC Maintenance> ,an access to structures be carried out safelyC ,an maintenance vehicles stop in a safe placeC *ublicity and trainin+> /f the pro9ect will brin bi chan es to the traffic environment <e' ' more traffic) faster traffic= is it necessary to underta#e a road safety awareness campai n amon st roadside communitiesC

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Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

2'

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Road Safety Audit hec&lists 3 Sta$e 4 5 Road*or&s


Issue &.1 *rovidin+ safely for everyone> Do the roadwor#s proposals cater safely for the passa e of all types of traffic and road usersC ,hec# that pedestrians and cyclists will be safe when crossin the siteC ,an local people access their properties on foot and by vehicleC Si+nin+ Does the si nin provide sufficient advance warnin of the roadwor#sC /s all the si nin in accordance with the provisions of the Traffic Si ns ManualC Safe traffic movement throu+h the site> Do the arran ements for the passa e of traffic encoura e smooth flow of traffic at safe speedsC "ill speed humps) speed limit si ns) or other speed control measures be re?uiredC Does the si nin and channelisation provide clear uidance to drivers on which way they should oC Are traffic lanes of sufficient width) ta#in account of vehicle mix) li#elihood of wide vehicles) etc'C Are the barricades) mar#ers and other channelisation devices ade?uate <chec# size) robustness) colour) visibility) spacin ) etc'=C Diversion roads Are any diversion roads desi ned to safe standards <chec# width) ali nment) draina e) ed e mar#ers) side slopes) intersections) si nin ) surfacin ) etc'=C "ill there be a need for speed humps) speed limit si ns) no overta#in si ns) or other speed control measuresC Wor, areas Are all wor# areas) excavations) stoc#piles of materials) etc') ade?uately fenced off and protected from movin trafficC +as sufficient space been left for wor#ers and plant to operate without comin into conflict with movin trafficC 7ne5.ay .or,in+ /s one1way wor#in acceptable) iven the road>s traffic function) traffic volume and speedC /s the advance si nin ade?uate <chec# visibility to ?ueue tails=C "ill the traffic ?ueues obstruct intersections and accesses) or cause other problemsC +ow will traffic be controlled C <traffic si nals or ST(!/6( boards are much safer than fla men= /f one1way wor#in will operate at ni ht) what will be the traffic control arran ementsC 1 is there li#ely to be abuse by impatient driversC "ill the ST(!/6( si ns or traffic si nals be clearly visible to approachin trafficC /s the shuttle lane excessively lon C "ill the traffic control lead to unacceptably lon delays to trafficC ccess for .or,s traffic Are the accesses for wor#s vehicles safe <chec# location) si nin ) need for control) etc'=C Safety at ni+ht "ill the site operate safely at ni htC "ill li htin be neededC

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Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

22

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Road Safety Audit hec&lists 3 Sta$e 5 5 "re36'enin$


Issue '.1 @eneral topics> +ave any chan es been made durin construction that may lead to safety problemsC +as the desi n been correctly translated into physical formC ,hec# that no roadside hazards have been installed or overloo#ed' /s safety ade?uate for@ pedestrians of all a es) bicycles) truc# and bus movements) motorcycles) carsC Draina+e> /s the draina e of the road and its surroundin s ade?uateC "ill the dischar e from the drains cause problems <e' ' washaways of rail trac# or roads=C $nvironmental> /s plantin located to avoid obstruction to visibility and si ht linesC "ill plantin cause problems when mature <i'e' size of trun# or canopy spread=C Does plantin obscure pedestrian movements near the ed e of the roadC ,hec# that no natural feature creates a dan er by its presence or loss of visibility' Roadside> Are there any obstructions or other hazards remainin in the clear zoneC Are there any Eopen windowsD throu h which out1of1control vehicles could fallC +ave the appropriate types of #erbs <if any= been usedC Safety barriers> Are safety barriers provided everywhere they are neededC Are they lon enou h to prevent an out1of1control vehicle from reachin the hazardC Are the terminal arran ements <upstream and downstream ends= safeC Do safety barriers restrict visibilityC Do safety barriers bloc# pedestrian desire linesC +as steel beam uardrail been desi ned and installed correctly <chec# beam hei ht) post spacin ) lateral clearance) spacer bloc#s) nuts and bolts) reflectors) terminal pieces) and whether the beams have been overlapped correctly=C ,hec# that transitions between barrier types <e' ' steel beam uardrail to concrete brid e parapet= are safe' Are there any features that could create a safety problemC ccess to property and developments> Are all accesses safe for their intended useC Are all accesses ade?uate) in terms of desi n) location and visibilityC Services> Are access chambers) lines) boxes) li htin columns etc' located in a safe placeC <i'e' clear of traffic lanes and behind any safety barrier=' /s there a safe place for maintenance vehicles to stopC li+nment> ,hec# that the route has no safety problems in each direction' Are there any problems at ni ht that are not apparent durin the dayC /s there ade?uate visibility/stoppin si ht distanceC ,hec# that the form of road and its traffic mana ement are easily reco nised under li#ely traffic conditions' ,hec# the need for more si ns and mar#in s' ,hec# that the ed e delineation of the ed e of the carria eway is clear' Are drivers misled by any visual illusionC ,ould the ali nment of the old road mislead driversC /s the transition from the old) unimproved road to the new road satisfactory < ood delineation) no aw#ward manoeuvres=C Intersections> /s the intersection clearly visible to approachin driversC
October 2 ! 2(

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Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

/s the form and function of the intersection clear to drivers on all approachesC Are the ST(! and 6/G3 "AJ lines visible at a safe stoppin distanceC Are there any problems at ni ht that are not apparent durin the dayC dditional items to consider for specific types of intersection> Traffic si+nals> ,an the si nals be seen clearly on all approachesC /s the ali nment of the si nal heads correctC Are the si nal lamps bri ht enou hC or too bri ht < lare=C ,an the si nals be seen by only those who need to see themC /s the se?uence of operation correctly setC <include pedestrian phases if appropriate=' Are lane mar#in s for dedicated turns ade?uateC Are all pedestrian si nals functionin correctly and safelyC Roundabouts> ,hec# that the roundabout is fully visible and reco nisable from all approaches' ,hec# that all si ns and mar#in s are correctly placed' Traffic si+ns> Are the correct si ns used and are they correctly placedC ,hec# the visibility) le end and le ibility in both dayli ht and in dar#ness' Are there spellin or desi n errorsC Do they ive the correct messa e to driversC Are they readableC Are they located in a safe placeC Are they interferin with visibility at intersectionsC Are clearance standards metC Do the si ns obstruct footwaysC Are safety barriers needed to protect posts from vehicle impactC Are any more si ns re?uiredC Are all the road mar#in s placed correctly and fully visibleC Are reflective pavement mar#ers correct and visibleC ,hec# that all redundant si ns <includin mar#in s= from the old ali nment and temporary si ns used durin construction have been removed' Surface treatment Does the surface appear to have ade?uate s#id1resistanceC Are there any areas where there is excessive bleedin of bitumenC *edestrianA?on Motorised Users> /s there an ade?uate networ# of footways and safe crossin pointsC Are there any obstructions that may affect safe passa e of pedestriansC Are there Edropped #erbsD at crossin pointsC Are there any aps in the networ# of footwaysC /s there sufficient pedestrian uardrailin C +as it been installed correctlyC Does it obstruct visibilityC Are there any places where cyclists may be particularly at ris#C

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Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

2)

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Road Safety Audit roads


Issue /.1

hec&lists 3 Sta$e , 3 "ost36'enin$ and e7istin$

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@eneral topics> Review previous road safety audit <if carried out=' Are there any issues still causin concernC Do the !olice have any concerns over accidents that may have occurred since openin <is there a predominant accident type that could indicate a particular problem=C /s there any confusion between the road and the ad9acent networ#C /f a service road is present does the service road operate safelyC /s there any problem with headli ht lareC +as there been any chan e of use of existin developments on or near the road that has affected traffic safetyC /s the surface of the road free from defects that may result in safety problems <i'e' loss of control or s#iddin =C (ross5section> Are the lanes) shoulders) medians etc') of ade?uate widthC /s there a pavement ed e drop <i'e' shoulder is lower than carria eway=C Does the cross1section chan e with different speed limitsC Draina+e> /s the draina e of the road and its surroundin s ade?uateC +ave the side drains been desi ned to a safe standard for vehicles and pedestriansC Are culverts and headwalls outside the clear zone) or are they protected by safety barriersC Roadside> Are the shoulders of an appropriate desi n <width) profile) surfacin ) etc=C Are there any obstructions or other hazards in the clear zoneC 1 if so) can they be removedC 1 if they cannot be removed do they need to be protected by safety barrierC Are the #erbs <if any= of the appropriate type for the speed environmentC Safety barriers> Are safety barriers provided where necessaryC Are they lon enou h to prevent an out1of1control vehicle from reachin the hazardC Are the terminal arran ements <upstream and downstream ends= safeC Do safety barriers restrict visibilityC Do safety barriers bloc# pedestrian desire linesC +as steel beam uardrail been desi ned and installed correctly <chec# beam hei ht) post spacin ) lateral clearance) spacer bloc#s) nuts and bolts) reflectors) terminal pieces) and whether the beams have been overlapped correctly=C ,hec# that transitions between barrier types <e' ' steel beam uardrail to concrete brid e parapet= are safe' Are there any features that could create a safety problemC li+nment> /s si ht distance ade?uate for the speed of traffic usin the routeC /s the horizontal and vertical ali nment suitable for the 2Ath percentile speed of trafficC /f not@1 Are there sufficient warnin si nsC +ave speed limits been imposedC 1 are they correctly si nedC Are there any sections of road that may cause concernsC ,onsider@ /s the ali nment clearly definedC +ave all old road mar#in s been removedC Are there sufficient clear overta#in sectionsC Are there sections with mar inal visibility for overta#in <dilemma zones=C Are there sections where the ali nment is dan erous <e' ' sharp curves after lon strai ht sections) sharp curves after crests) lon down rades=C /s the desi n of curves ade?uate <chec# superelevation) transitions) carria eway widenin =C
October 2 ! 2*

Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

Are there lon / steep hills where climbin lanes would help prevent unsafe overta#in C /.0 Speed mana+ement Does the eometric desi n <cross1section) ali nment) etc'= reinforce the speed limitC /s the traffic exceedin the speed limitC /s there a need for speed mana ement measuresC Are speed humps and other speed control devices of a safe desi n and are they ade?uately si nedC Intersections> Are intersections located in safe placesC <,hec# in relation to horizontal and vertical ali nments= /s the layout of intersections obvious on each approachC Does the layout accommodate all types of vehicleC /s the visibility from the side road ade?uateC /s the method of control appropriateC <!riority/si nalled= Are dedicated turnin lanes ade?uate <i'e' len ths and widths= to accommodate volume and mix of trafficC /s the si nin on the approach to an intersection ade?uateC /s there ade?uate provision for pedestrians and cyclistsC /f the intersection is a roundabout is it desi ned to control speeds to A%#m/hC Where there are si+nals> Do they operate correctlyC Are they clearly visible <in all conditions=C ,an si nals only be seen by those who should see themC Are control boxes located in a safe placeC *edestrian and cyclists Are there ade?uate) safe facilities for pedestrian movementC Are pedestrian facilities used as intendedC Are there any places where cyclists are particularly at ris#C )us and par,in+ facilities Are there sufficient roadside bus stop and par#in facilitiesC Are stoppin areas located and desi ned to safe standardsC Are bus stops and par#in facilities used in a safe mannerC ccess to properties /s there any roadside activity that may cause road safety problemsC /s the number of roadside accesses compatible with the function of the road and the volume and speed of trafficC Are all accesses ade?uate in terms of desi n) location and visibilityC )rid+es /s the cross1section of the approach road maintained across the brid eC Are there many pedestrians and cyclists crossin the brid eC ,an they cross safelyC /s the brid e parapet safe <hei ht) desi n) level of containment) limit on size of openin s) etc'=C Are the ends of the brid e parapet ade?uately protectedC Traffic si+ns Are all the necessary si ns in placeC Are they readableC <consider in all conditions=' Are they located in a safe placeC Do they ive the correct messa eC /s there any confusion in the messa e they iveC Do posts need protectionC /s ed e delineation ade?uateC Are road mar#in s correct and in ood conditionC Are reflective pavement mar#ers <road studs= correct and in ood conditionC
October 2 ! 2,

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Safety Audit Guidelines

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

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$nvironmental> Does ve etation obstruct@ Traffic si nsB Gisibility at 9unctionsB Stoppin si ht distances on the mainlineB :ootways / crossin pointsC

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

2!

United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Infrastructure Development

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A$$E!DI* 1 + OUT(I!E TER,S OF REFERE!CE FOR A ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

Int3odu.tion
The ob9ective of this assi nment is to carry out a Sta e KLM Road Safety Audit <RSA= of the proposed 0insert name of pro$ect1 so that potential road safety problems can be minimised' The conduct of the audit shall broadly follow the procedure set out in the latest edition of the Ministry of /nfrastructure Development>s document) "Road Safety Audit 6uidelines"' The followin information will be made available for the audit@ 0list reports% dra2in+s% data% etc/1

S.o4e of Se36i.es
The scope of services include) but are not necessarily limited to) the followin tas#s@ 4= Review the reports) drawin s) etc') provided by the road authority $= +old a ,ommencement Meetin with the desi n team in order to obtain further information and understand the bac# round to the desi n &= Gisit the site <entire len th= so as to et a better understandin of the existin situation and how the pro9ect will loo# -= !roduce a concise Road Safety Audit Report identifyin safety concerns) and in each case recommendin how the desi n should be chan ed to eliminate or minimise the potential problem' The auditors should consult the appropriate chec#list in the "Road Safety Audit 6uidelines" but not limit their audit to the concerns listed therein' They must loo# at the needs of all road users) especially vulnerable road users' The audit findin s should be presented in tabular form) as per Table 4 of the "Road Safety Audit 6uidelines"' A= Attend the pro9ect mana er>s ,ompletion Meetin in order to answer ?uestions on the Audit Report and discuss the recommended chan es'

;ualifi.ations and E74e3ien.e


The services will be provided by a team comprisin two or more road safety specialists) at least one of whom <the team leader= must have experience of underta#in road safety audits' Nnowled e and experience of hi hway desi n will be an advanta e'

Re<ui3ed In4uts
The assi nment is expected to ta#e about 4A days) as follows@ 1 A days reviewin the reports and drawin s) etc') and holdin the ,ommencement Meetin 1 A days visitin the site 1 A days preparin the Road Safety Audit Report' /n addition) it will be necessary for the audit team leader to attend the ,ompletion Meetin ' This will normally be held within one month of the Audit Report bein submitted' 0Ad$ust t3ese re4uirements to suit t3e scale and comple5ity of t3e pro$ect1

Re4o3tin1
The auditors will submit <x= copies of the Road Safety Audit Report to the road authority) to ether with an electronic copy in MS "ord'

Safety Audit Guidelines

October 2

2-