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Principles of Mahatma Gandhi Need of the hour

Hidden India: Tipu Sultan & Mysorean SET INDIA FOUNDATION Rockets

Health: Anaemia Causes and effects

Science & Technology: Ion thrusters Page 1

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Table of Contents

Cover story A Vision of a Visionary SET INDIA FOUNDATION Hidden India Mysorean Rockets Sci & Tech Ion thrusters Editorial column Principles of Mahatma Health Anaemia: causes and effects Post Box True Indian Our Earth Air pollution in India Black Page Poor sanitation in India

: 03 : 05 : 07 : 09 : 10 : 12 : 14 : 15 : 17

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A vision of a visionary
I visualize a prosperous India well before the year 2020. We expect the people below the poverty line to come to near zero and our literacy must be nearly 100%. The Human Development Index of India will be less than 50 against the present 127. Every Indian will have either have a good university degree or quality training with globally competitive employable vocational skill. E-governance would be in position for all Government to Government (G2G) and Government to Citizens (G2C) transactions making the governance system transparent with a National ID card in position. Tele-density will reach over 75%. All our villages will have reliable, uninterrupted quality electric power supply. 600,000 villages will have all three connectivities such as physical connectivity, electronic connectivity, knowledge connectivity leading to economic connectivity through the programme of PURA. The interlinking of rivers and water bodies and use of technology for water collection, water recycling and water management will result in equitable distribution of water for drinking, irrigation, industry, navigation and as natural beauty. There will be no shortage of water in any part of the country nor will there be disasters due to floods, water logging etc. India would have realized energy security and would be working towards energy independence. Good sanitation facilities will be available in homes in every part of India and for all Indians and tourists. We will be using more of renewable energy such as solar energy, wind power, bio-mass, mini and micro Hydel and thorium based nuclear reactors which are environment friendly energy sources. Through responsive and innovative venture capital systems and entrepreneurial training both in schools and colleges, we will have more enterprises leading to a large number of employment generators rather than employment seekers. Before 2020, a pro-active healthcare system delivered through innovative schemes will
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provide quality healthcare access at an affordable cost to all the people including those living in remote areas. Everyone will have an opportunity to take up and complete courses of choice in higher education. I am sure you will all see prosperity in the country, which will replace scarcity and controls. In addition to the above economic, social and human development, India will also have a visible global presence in strategic sectors and will contribute to world peace. All our technological and economic advances while enhancing our prosperity would embed our value system derived from our civilizational heritage. This unique combination will make our growth robust and sustainable and will lead to a peaceful, secure, happy and prosperous society. For achieving Vision 2020 from the present ambiance, we need a measurement tool which can guide us in our growth path. Since we are looking for inclusive growth for our one billion people, we need a comprehensive measure of our growth in terms of the National Prosperity Index. The above is an excerpt from Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalams India 2020. He who encouraged young minds to dream and dream has self dreamt about the state of India a decade later. Dreams drive us, dreams fuel our desires and dreams imagine the unimaginable. But mere dreams are nothing more than a broken down vehicle that can hardly be pushed. We must cultivate the passion to pursue our dreams. The above citation gives us an insight into this visionarys mind. The main purpose is to kindle the young minds to dream, visualizing the growth of our Nation and pursue the same for a better personal well being and societal improvement. SETIF, with this visionarys thoughts in mind, we dream of bringing in a positive change in our rural surroundings and to reach where, we plan a lot of programmes and activities, classes for the students, renovation of heritage sites and the like. Come; lets join hands in transforming India. Lets make our fomer Presidents vision come true. Lets dream for a better India and tail it to success.

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SET India Foundation is a nonprofit and a non-governmental organization, active in the upliftment of the poor rural people in education and health, with active youth participation, savouring the flavour of service to mankind. SETIF focuses mainly on education, health and environment, providing quality education and health to the poor rural people. This being our prime motive. Also, it supports the students from poor background to pursue their higher studies. A special team named, Fight Against Tobacco (FAT) has been deployed to create awareness about the ill effects of tobacco.

Origin
What initially started as a friends group called Young Indian Society (YIS) on August 15, 2010, gave way to the now SETIF. The main source was the funds collected through the members. The first meeting was held in Thellar on December 5, 2010 headed by Mr. Kasi. Manoharan of Puthiya Thalaimurai. It was presided over by Mr. Krishnamoorthy, a High School Mathematics teacher, who has been all supportive in all our First meeting: (Seated from left) endeavors. More than 35 members Mr.Krishnamoorthy, Mr. Kasi. Manoharan and participated in the first meeting. All Mr. Sathyaseelan. members pledged to visualize our societys vision with utmost participation. The member band comprises of youngsters with a passion to contribute something back to their society that would transform it for the better. All the members are united with this like mindedness.

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Members of Young Indian Society (YIS) participated in the meeting

For more details please visit: www.setindia.webs.com

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Hidden India Mysorean rockets


Mysorean rockets were the first iron-cased rockets that were successfully deployed for military use. Hyder Ali, the 18th century ruler of Mysore, and his son and successor, Tipu Sultan used them effectively against the British East India Company. Their conflicts with the company exposed the British to this technology, which was then used to advance European rocketry with the development of the Congreve rocket. Technology and deployment Hyder Ali's father, the naik or chief constable at Budikote, commanded 50 rocketmen for the Nawab of Arcot. There was a regular rocket corps in the Mysore Army, beginning with about 1,200 men in Hyder Ali's time. At the Battle of Pollilur (1780), during the Second Anglo-Mysore War, Colonel William Baillie's ammunition stores are thought to have been detonated by a hit from one of Hyder Ali's rockets, contributing to a humiliating British defeat. Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan deployed them effectively against the larger British East India Company forces during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. These 'missiles', fitted with swords used to travel long distance, several meters above in air before coming down with swords edges facing the enemy. The British then took an active interest in the technology and developed it further during the 19th century. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). Although rockets existed also in Europe, they were not iron cased, and their range was far less than that of their oriental counterparts. While these hammered soft iron rockets were crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder
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was much higher than the earlier paper construction; thus a greater internal pressure was possible. In battles at Srirangapattana in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British. British adoption of the technology After the fall of Srirangapattana, 600 launchers, 700 serviceable rockets and 9,000 empty rockets were found. Some of the rockets had pierced cylinders, to allow them to act like incendiaries, while some had iron points or steel blades bound to the bamboo. By attaching these blades to rockets they became very unstable towards the end of their flight causing the blades to spin around like flying scythes, cutting down all in their path. These experiences eventually led the Royal Woolwich Arsenal to start a military rocket research and development program in 1801, based on the Mysorean technology. Several rocket cases were collected from Mysore and sent to Britain for analysis. Their first demonstration of solid-fuel rockets came in 1805 and was followed by publication of A Concise Account of the Origin and Progress of the Rocket System in 1807 by William Congreve, son of the arsenal's commandant. Congreve rockets were soon systematically used by the British during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. These descendants were used in the 1814 Battle of Baltimore, and are mentioned in the Star Spangled Banner.

Mysorean rockets in London museum

Tipu Sultan, the pioneer of Rockets (Courtesy: Wikipedia)

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Science & Technology


Ion thruster An ion thruster is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating ions. The term is strictly used to refer to gridded ion thrusters, but may often more loosely be applied to all electric propulsion systems that accelerate plasma, since plasma consists of ions. Ion thrusters are categorized by how they accelerate the ions, using either electrostatic or electromagnetic force. Electrostatic ion thrusters use the Coulomb force and accelerate the ions in the direction of the electric field. Electromagnetic ion thrusters use the Lorentz force to accelerate the ions. Ion thrusters create very small levels of thrust compared to conventional chemical rockets but achieve very high specific impulse, or propellant mass efficiencies, by accelerating their exhausts to very high speed. However, ion thrusters carry a fundamental price: the power imparted to the exhaust increases with the square of its velocity while the thrust increases only linearly. Normal chemical rockets, on the Ion thruster during a hot fire test at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. other hand, can provide very high thrust but are limited in total impulse by the small amount of energy that can be stored chemically in the propellants. Given the practical weight of suitable power sources, the accelerations given by ion thrusters are frequently less than one thousandth of standard gravity. However, since they operate essentially as electric (or electrostatic) motors, a greater fraction of the input power is converted into kinetic exhaust power than in a chemical rocket. Chemical rockets operate as heat engines subject to the Carnot limit that applies to every heat engine. Due to their relatively high power needs, given the specific power of power supplies, and the requirement of an environment void of other ionized particles, ion thrust propulsion is currently only practical in space.

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Principles of Mahatma Gandhi

The 2nd of October every year is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanthi, an International


Non Violence Day, globally. This year, we celebrate the 144th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. On this occasion, lets embrace all the values that this great soul propagated and understand these principles that maketh Our Nations Greatest Hero. The first principle which guided all his thoughts and activities is the complete unity and integrity of body, mind and soul in the individual human being. He was never tired of saying that the body should be controlled by the mind and the mind by the soul. But this control is not to be achieved by despising or neglecting either the body or the mind or in the mystic exaltation of the soul by itself. He attached to physical health and well-being as much importance as to plain and logical thinking or moral responsibility. He was one of the most logical and powerful writers; yet, he was never tired of decrying all idle and purposeless playing with words and ideas or deification of thought as such. He was convinced that real thought must be organically connected to moral purposes on the one side and useful and right action on the other. It has been claimed that the greatest achievement of Gandhi was the spiritualization of politics. This is undoubtedly true; but he had no faith in spirituality by itself as an abstract virtue. He conceived it as a kind of illumination or fragrance which should accompany every thought and action. It is difficult to define it, except, perhaps, through the verses of the Bhagavad-Gita which constituted his daily prayer. The second principle of Gandhian philosophy may be stated as follows: All social action should be governed by the same simple set of moral values, of which the main elements are selflessness, non-attachment, nonviolence and active service. It would be too long to define and elaborate his ideas with respect to each of these; but he believed that the growth of a mans personality is proportionate to his faith in, and practice of, these virtues. This is possible only when he identifies himself more and more with an ever-increasing circle till it embraces all humanity and even all living beings. He judged the value and vitality of social institutions by their capacity to foster such growth.
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His third conviction was that no society, state or any other institution has any worth or importance apart from its part in contributing to the growth of the individuals of which it is composed. The State, the Nation, the community and other traditional groupings had no intrinsic value for him. In the pages of Young India in the earlier years, he defended the caste system as a great scheme of social and sexual discipline; but in the light of actual experience he abandoned it as an impractical system, though to the end he believed in some kind of voluntary and ideal social groups based on qualifications and capacity for service. It was Gandhi's firm conviction that means are at least as important as, and often even more important than, ends. It is, of course, desirable that ends should be good and reasonable. But they merely give a direction to life while the means adopted constitute life itself. Therefore, if the means are right, that is, if they conform to the tests of truth and nonviolence, even mistakes, errors and failures aid the growth of the individual. On the other hand, wrong means corrupt the soul and no good can ever come out of them. Gandhi repudiated categorically the idea that ends justify the means. This implies the rejection of war, espionage and crooked diplomacy, even when they are adopted for the so-called noble ends of defending the country, religion or humanity. Faith in God is, according to Gandhi, the foundation of all moral values. He never defined God and was prepared to allow every person to have his own idea of God. For himself, he was inclined to think of Him as the Upanishadic Brahman. But, so long as a person believes in some source of spiritual life and holds it superior to the material universe, he is a believer in God. Gandhi had no objection even to a formal profession of agnosticism, so long as a person demonstrated by his attachment to moral values that this outlook was essentially spiritual in essence. I believe that the influence of Gandhi in the future will depend more and more on the realization that these fundamental principles constitute the core of his teachings and that all his actions were merely illustrations of their application. He considered his life as a series of experiments with truth. Therefore, it is his conception of truth that is central to his life and work. I do not claim that the principles I have indicated exhaust his conception; but I believe that they constitute its basic elements. (Courtesy: www.mkgandhi.org) - K. Santhanam
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Health & Life style:


Anaemia Anaemia is common throughout the world. Its main cause, iron deficiency, is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. Several infections related to hygiene, sanitation, safe water and water management are significant contributors to anaemia in addition to iron deficiency. These include malaria, schistosomiasis and hookworm. The disease and how it affects people Anaemia is a condition that occurs when the red blood cells do not carry enough oxygen to the tissues of the body. Anaemia affects all population groups. However the most susceptible groups are pregnant women and young children. In the milder form, anaemia is silent, without symptoms. In the more severe form, anaemia is associated with fatigue, weakness, dizziness and drowsiness. The signs include loss of normal colour in the skin (in fair skinned people) and also in the lips, tongue nail beds and the blood vessels in the white of the eye. Without treatment, anaemia can worsen and becomes an underlying cause of chronic ill health, such as impaired fetal development during pregnancy, delayed cognitive development and increased risk of infection in young children, and reduced physical capacity in all people. Low birth weight infants, young children and women of childbearing age are particularly at risk of anaemia. Women of childbearing age need to absorb 2-3 times the amount of iron required by men or older women. The cause The main causes of anaemia are nutritional and infectious. They usually coexist in the same individual and make anaemia worst. Among the nutrition factors contributing to anaemia, the most common one is iron deficiency. It is due to a diet that is monotonous, but rich in substances (phytates) inhibiting iron absorption so that dietary iron cannot be utilized by the body. Iron deficiency may also be aggravated by poor nutritional status, especially when it is

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associated with deficiencies in folic acid, vitamin A or B12, as is often the case in populations living in developing countries With regard to infections, malaria is another major cause of anaemia: it affects 300-500 million people, and in endemic areas it may be the primary cause of half of all severe anaemia cases (WHO, 2000). Hookworm infection and in some places schistosomiasis also contribute to anaemia. Approximately 44 million pregnant women have hookworm infections and 20 million people are severely infected with schistosomiasis. Anaemia can also be due to excessive blood loss, such as gastrointestinal infections associated with diarrhoea. The most important waterrelated causes of anaemia are malnutrition and water-borne or water-related infections. Distribution Anaemia is a common problem throughout the world and iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. It affects mainly the poorest segment of the population, particularly where malnutrition is predominant and the population exposed to a high risk of water-related infection. Scope of the problem Nine out of ten anaemia sufferers live in developing countries, about 2 billion people suffer from anaemia and an even larger number of people present iron deficiency (WHO, 2000). Anaemia may contribute to up to 20% of maternal deaths. Intervention Full discussion of strategies towards anaemia prevention is beyond the scope of this Fact Sheet. Because anaemia is the result of multiple factors, the identification of these factors and of the causes and type of anaemia is important. Important actions include addressing underlying causes correcting iron deficiency, treatment of underlying disease processes (in particular nutritional deficiencies - Folic acid, Vitamin A and B12). In children, promoting breastfeeding and proper complementary foods are important in controlling anaemia.Improving hygiene, sanitation and water supply; and improving water resource management to contribute to control of schistosomiasis and malaria where they occur are important contributory measures in prevention of anaemia. (Courtesy: WHO)
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Post Box (Your suggestions are highly valuable)

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Our Earth Air pollution in India By Shrikanth Parthasarathy


Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. India has a low per capita emission of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2012 Environmental Performance Index ranked India as having the poorest relative air quality out of 132 countries. Fuel wood and biomass burning Fuelwood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze and smoke observed above rural and urban India, and in satellite pictures of the country. This form of fuel is inefficient source of energy, its burning releases high levels of smoke, PM10 particulate matter, NOX, SOX, PAHs, polyaromatics, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and other air pollutants. India is the world's largest consumer of fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass for energy purposes. Fuel adulteration Some Indian taxis and auto-rickshaws run on adulterated fuel blends. Adulteration of gasoline and diesel with lower-priced fuels is common in South Asia, including India. Some adulterants increase emissions of harmful pollutants from vehicles, worsening urban air pollution. Adulterated fuel increases tailpipe emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM).Kerosene is more difficult to burn than gasoline; its addition results in higher levels of HC, CO and PM emissions even from catalystequipped cars. The higher sulfur level of kerosene is another issue. The higher
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levels of sulfur can deactivate the catalyst. Once the catalyst becomes deactivated, the amount of pollution from the vehicle dramatically increases. Traffic congestion Traffic congestion is severe in India's cities and towns. At low speeds, scientific studies reveal, vehicles burn fuel inefficiently and pollute more per trip. At average trip speeds between 20 to 40 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emission was twice as much as when the average speed was 55 to 75 kilometers per hour. The average trip speed on many Indian city roads is less than 20 kilometers per hour; a 10 kilometer trip can take 30 minutes, or more. At such speeds, vehicles in India emit air pollutants 4 to 8 times more than they would with less traffic congestion. Greenhouse gas emissions India was the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide in 2009 at 1.65 Gt per year, after China (6.9 Gt per year) and the United States (5.2 Gt per year). With 17 percent of world population, India contributed some 5 percent of human-sourced carbon dioxide emission; compared to Chinas 24 percent share. On per capita basis, India emitted about 1.4 tons of carbon dioxide per person, in comparison to the United States 17 tons per person, and a world average of 5.3 tons per person. A significant source of greenhouse gas emissions from India is from black carbon, NOx, methane and other air pollutants. These pollutants are emitted in large quantities in India every day from incomplete and inefficient combustion of biomass. India's poorly managed solid wastes, inadequate sewage treatment plants; water pollution and agriculture are other sources of greenhouse gas emissions.

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Black Page Public Sanitation - A Hazard not so Trivial By Aditi Ananthanarayanan


Public Sanitation, as a health hazard is one of the most critical discrepancies faced by the nation in todays time. On one end, where we are technically developing each day, on the other end we are ignoring basic health issues which are curbing our overall development. In a country like India, where more than 37% people live below the poverty line, assuring basic hygiene for one and all is a major task for the Government. In India, sanitation issues begin from lack of availability of clean drinking water, to improper disposal of human and other waste. Improper sanitation leads to various diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, malaria, dengue, etc. As per the UNICEF reports, in India, about 1000 children, under the age of 5, die every day due to diarrhea! The lack of public sanitation in the country is not exclusive to the rural sector, but it is clearly visible in the well developed cosmopolitans as well. Our top-notch metros are overflowing with small slums crammed up in every nook and corner, and these places are the birth place of majority of the sanitation issues being faced by the country. As per records, about 700 million people in India, defecate openly in public spaces! These maybe on footpaths, public gardens, open parks, open sewage, gutters, and so on. In order to conquer such issues, The Sanitation Act was put into action in 1993 which made dry latrine and its manual cleaning a punishable offence. This however went in vain, as over 13 million unsanitary bucket latrines are still being used illegally.
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Coming down to the basic amenities such as the toilets, it is shocking to reveal that out of a population of about 1.2 billion, only 336 million have access to toilets! In the slums of Mumbai, between 81 to 243 people share a single toilet. Poor sanitation is something that not only affects the health of the people of the country, but also affects the development of the nation. In fact, women are most affected by the hazards of lack of proper sanitation. For instance, in India majority of the girls drop out of school because of lack of toilets. Only 22% of them manage to even complete class 10. On economic grounds, according to the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, more than 12 billion rupees is spent every year on poor sanitation and its resultant illnesses. In fact, India is probably the only country where animals roam about freely on the roads, excreting wherever it may seem possible! These in turn add on to the sanitation issues of the country, and hamper its growth. These facts and figures make us realize how crucial the situation of public sanitation in our country is. Public sanitation has an impact on the overall working of the nation. The task of providing proper sanitation to the public is not an impossible feat. Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak brought about a revolutionary change through his Sulabh Sanitation Movement. Ever since its launch in 1970, Dr. Pathak has made more than 1 million public toilets. A task which was seen to be impossible even by the high ranked bodies, it was successfully accomplished by the Sulabh Sanitation Movement. This movement has been so successfully that it has received International acclamation as well. But this radical movement is just like a drop in the vast ocean. A lot more is required! Thus, there are solutions to cater to this problem, what is needed is hardcore commitment. Its time to realize that public sanitation is a grave environmental hazard that has engulfed the entire country. These ensnares need to be ripped apart. Its time to offer a happier and healthier life to our citizens. (Courtesy: The Viewspaper)
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