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Sexualities, desire and lifestyle: masculinity constructs in three Greek mens lifestyle magazines

Alexandra Polyzou
a.polyzou@lancaster.ac.uk

Department of Linguistics and English Language Lancaster University Lancaster U.!." Paper presented at the #orkshop $Language and %exuality& '(hrough and) *eyond +ender, Department of %ocial Anthropology and -istory University of the Aegean .ytilene +reece %aturday / 0une 1223

A4stract
Unlike other forms of oppression and5or ine6uality a large part of gender ine6uality is hegemonically constructed and maintained through the construction and $management, of desire and emotional investment5cathexis '-oll7ay "839: ;onnell "83/& ""<: "88<& /9). And as gender in common perception is seen as grounded on 4iological sex carrying $4iological difference in domains in 7hich it is completely irrelevant, 'Eckert and .c;onnell=+inet 122>& "2) similarly the construction of sexuality desire and sexual identity involve sexualising o4?ects and traits associated 7ith conceptualisations of $masculinities, and $femininities, 7hich may 4e irrelevant to the 4ody or any sexual act in a metonymic $fetishistic, 7ay ';onnell "83/& ""<). (hus any kind of gender difference is normatively constructed as a source of heterosexual attraction 'Eckert "838& 1<>=1<9) often leading to the stereotyping of gay men as excessively $feminine, and les4ians as excessively $masculine,. @n my study @ am concerned 7ith lifestyle magazines as a fruitful site of research on the interplay of language gender and sexuality as they are not only explicitly gendered 'clearly divided in $men,s, and $7omen,s, 4y the discourse communities producing and using them) 4ut also heavily dra7ing on and re=producing constructs of sexuality as one of the 4asic elements of gender. Among other functions these magazines include an indirectly prescriptive didactic element offering suggestions a4out $ho7 to live your life, most strongly manifested in texts providing advice to the readers 'among other things on $ho7 to conduct your sex life,). Arom my 4roader research pro?ect aiming at studying gender ideologies as underlying and surfacing in +reek men,s and 7omen,s lifestyle magazines @ am here focussing on three sample texts one from each of the three magazines constituting the men,s magazines corpus ' Status Nitro and Playboy). @ am looking at gendered cognitive models and 4eliefs as elements of social cognition and conse6uently ideologies 'van Di?k "883) and ho7 'and 7hy) they surface in the texts in more or less 'in)direct 7ays as assertions advice5commands presuppositions and presupposed assumptions 'cf. ;hilton,s distinction of presupposition vs. presumption 1229& B9).

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Cesearch funded 4y the +reek %tate %cholarship Aoundation 'DEFGHI JFIKLMNO PQRKFRSLNO).

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Apart from the hardly surprising presupposed hegemonic assumption of heterosexuality in most of the data @ 7ould like to provide some illustrations '4y no means exhaustive) of ho7 hegemonic heterosexuality is constructed and ho7 it is dealt 7ith in relation to non=hegemonic constructs of masculinity. Each of the texts takes a different slant 7ith Playboy presupposing a stereotypical crude and rampant masculine sexuality self=pronounced $7omen respecting, and appearance conscious Status dealing 7ith the tensions of nevertheless having to assert a marketa4le $masculinity, and Nitro 4reaking the general ta4oo on homosexuality in men,s magazines 'cf. *en7ell 122>a& "3) 4ut only to exorcise it through humour and exaggeration. @nterestingly 7hereas heterosexuality is linked to attraction desire and sex homosexuality is only constructed as 'mainly) sex=unrelated lifestyle choices 'in a form of $de=sexualising sexuality, reverse to the heteronormative sexualisation of gender indexes mentioned 4y ;onnell) 7hich in my vie7 is yet another form of suppression through the tensions 4et7een hegemonic and $progressive, elements in the data. At the same time the $lifestyle, perception of male homosexuality and its representation in contrast to heterosexuality can also 4e seen as a strategy for the promotion of consumerism and reflexivity stereotypically associated 7ith femininity yet another tension to 4e dealt 7ith.

". @ntroduction *ucholtz and -all define sexuality as $the systems of mutually constituted ideologies practices and identities that give socio=political meaning to the 4ody as an eroticized and5or reproductive site, '1229& 9/2 my emphasis). $.utually constituted, is key here in recognising that ideologies practices 'including sexual and also discursive practices) and identities influence each other 4oth in ho7 7e perceive ourselves and the others and ho7 7e act in any given social context. @t is 4eyond the scope of this paper to discuss the issues arising from using $identity, as an analytical category '4ut see Talentine 1223) U 7e may or may not 7ant to focus more on the notion of $desire, 'see ;ameron and !ulick 122>a: 122>4). .y take here is that 7hatever definition of sexuality 7e adopt it is incomplete if 7e ignore $desire, as part of it = indeed !oller for example aligning herself 7ith *ucholtz and -all,s definition suggests that $to this it could 4e added that sexuality also encompasses desire and potentially sexual practice, '1223& "/). At the same time as @ hope to sho7 in my analysis 7hereas 7e may 6uestion 7hether $identity, is a relatively sta4le 4ut flexi4le entity or relatively fluid or 7hether such a thing exists at all 'replacing the notion 7ith $acts of identification, U see *ru4aker and ;ooper 1222: ;anakis 1223: Talentine 1223) in $commonsense, understandings of gender and sexuality certain constructs are still perceived talked a4out and represented as group identities. @ argue that the inclusion or exclusion of sexualities and specifically of desires and sexual practices in the discursive representations of gender is ideological 'as 7ell as the 7ay they are represented 7hen they are included) and thus of importance 7hen it comes to struggles for e6uality on the one hand and the preservation of the hegemonic status 6uo on the other. @n critically analysing discourse then 7e may not 4e a4le to $read off, actual practices and identities from the texts 4ut 7e can try to reveal underlying ideologies a4out gender and sexuality 7hich as pointed out a4ove may partly reflect and5or influence 4oth the readers, o7n practices 4ut also their attitudes and 4ehaviour to7ards $other, groups. @ am taking van Di?k,s definition of ideology as my starting point namely that ideologies are clusters of socially shared factual 4eliefs 'kno7ledge) and evaluative 4eliefs 'attitudes) and thus parts of social cognition 'van Di?k "883: 122>). #hat 1

makes certain mental representations54eliefs ideological is their relation to society: namely ideologies have to do 7ith social groups and their interests conflict among social groups domination and struggle 'van Di?k "883). @n the case of men,s lifestyle magazines the $Vther, social groups may 4e 7omen or gay men as opposed to the dominant social group's) of men follo7ing or displaying hegemonic heteronormative conceptualisations of masculinity and associated 4ehavioural traits. -egemonic masculinity is the common understanding 'the 7idely shared socio=cognitive representation) of the $currently most honoured 7ay of 4eing a man, ';onnell and .esserschmedt 122<& 3>1) and it is $al7ays constructed in relation to various su4ordinated masculinities as 7ell as in relation to 7omen, ';onnell "83/& ">3). @n popular culture in general and lifestyle magazines in particular practices related to sexualities and gender have also come to 4e parts of 7hat 7e may call $lifestyle,. Although the term lifestyle $in its original sense W4efore the 32,sX referred simply to an individual,s or group,s 7ay of living and 7as concerned primarily 7ith social practices such as 7ork interests or leisure pursuits, 'Ed7ards 122>& "91) in the 32,s it came to involve aesthetics and style 'and fashion in clothing and furnishings as a commodified version of these properties) as 7ell as consumerist goods in general 'i4id.). Apart from aesthetics sexuality has also 4een $commodified, 7idely represented and discussed in popular media used in advertising in order to promote products and services 4ut also in order to $sell, media texts such as magazines (T sho7s etc. (hese phenomena are also o4served in the +reek media and society 'cf. !osetzi 122/). @ndeed the English 7ord lifestyle is the term used also in +reek to la4el this 4road genre of magazines 7ith the same meaning as their English=speaking 7orld counterparts. 1. Data and .ethodology @n this paper @ am discussing three texts from the three men,s magazines of my corpus1. (he three magazines are Status Playboy and Nitro. @t is nota4le that even though all three texts analysed here construct normatively heterosexual masculinity models they relate to slightly different aspects of male hegemony = 7hich is thus not a homogeneous concept 4ut again a cluster of 4eliefs on 7hich one can dra7 selectively. Status is more formal and $cultured, in line 7ith the image of hegemonic masculinity dominant not only in terms of interpersonal relations = heterosexual romantic relations = 4ut also in terms of financial and professional position. Playboy is laddish and $rough, 'the only international title it 4ears many similarities to its English=speaking counterparts) 7hereas Nitro 7ould 4e the closest +reek e6uivalent to the *ritish $Ye7 Lad, 'see *en7ell 122>4 and also analysis 4elo7) U very similar to Playboy 4ut more reflexive and ironic some7hat more refined 4ut definitely not reaching the $seriousness, of Status 'Status also includes humour and irony it does not ho7ever reach $playfulness,). @n order to study ideologies in discourse U as kno7ledge and attitudes U@ employ the notion of presupposition in line 7ith %talnaker,s approach of presuppositions as related to interlocutors, 4ackground kno7ledge underlying discourse 'see e.g. "8/> 7hat ;hilton 7ould call presumptions 1229& B9). (his includes pragmatic kno7ledge that is kno7ledge a4out ho7 discourse 7orks including appropriacy functions and $felicity conditions, of speech acts kno7ledge of +rice,s conversation
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.any thanks to 0ohn -ey7ood for his very useful comments on an earlier version of the paper.

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maxims and so on 'see e.g. +offmann "88/& ;h. "> and Austin "8/<& <2=<"). (his 7ould also include all kno7ledge a4out the 7orld 7hich is shared or presumed to 4e shared 4y participants in any given interaction. Tan Di?k '122>) points out that if 7e 7ant to see 7hat is considered $common sense,5shared kno7ledge in a text '7hich is typically the case 7ith commonly accepted ideologies) 7e have to look at 7hat is presupposed since 7hat is ne7 kno7ledge has to 4e explicitly asserted and spelled out for the recipient. Cather than presupposition #odak uses the term allusions for the cases in 7hich stereotypical 4eliefs are not spelt out 4ut rather alluded to in discourse '122/) U the audience is presupposed to 4e familiar 7ith the stereotypes and kno7 7hat is 4eing talked a4out. @n cognitive linguistic terms 7e 7ould say that 7ords can trigger cognitive models or frames that is mental representations of the entities referred to including related entities and evaluations 'thus a stereotype is a kind of cognitive model) U $kno7ledge of WframesX is presupposed for the concepts encoded 4y 7ords, 'Aillmore and Atkins "882& /< my emphasis). As ideology operates on all levels of discourse @ look for ideological mental representations5frames triggered on 7ord level on sentence level and also on the level of the structure of the 7hole texts 7here the presuppositions arise from the pragmatics of the speech acts performed and the generic structure of the texts >. @ also look at 7hether and 7hat kno7ledge is represented as $given, or $contested5contesta4le,. At the same time it is interesting to see that assertions made through declarative sentences and directive speech acts 'like advice and permission) are not only used to convey neutral $ne7 information, 4ut also have pragmatic functions 7ithin a matrix of ideological shared kno7ledge. (7o of the three texts analysed 4elo7 are clearly $advice=providing, texts. 'PU( VY V@L AYD ;V.E @Y (-E ETEY@Y+) 4y Playboy has the form of a step=4y=step guide of ho7 the male reader can give his female partner a sensual massage '$oil, refers to massage oil) and !"# 4y Status has the 7ell=kno7n $agony aunt, format 7ith 6uestions a4out fashion and appearance presuma4ly posted to the magazine 4y readers and ans7ers provided 4y an $expert,. (he third text entitled $ %&$$' ($ $$ ) *$'$ &+ ,$-$ . $ ,$.(.$ .('/ '(-E DET@L,% ADTV;A(E= -V# +AZ DV .VDECY .EY %EE.[) 4y Nitro is a hy4rid 4et7een $advice, and $commentary, U it is not clearly or directly providing advice 4ut through commenting on men it indirectly guides men on $ho7 not to seem gay,. @n the analysis @ am focusing on selected examples rather than an exhaustive list. >. Analysis >." PU( VY V@L AYD ;V.E @Y (-E ETEY@Y+ 'Playboy Ae4. 122B pp ">B=">/)
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@n the analysis @ use the terms frames5cognitive models5socio=cognitive representations stereotypes 4eliefs kno7ledge perceptions conceptualisations conceptual metaphors 'metaphorical frames) etc. 7ithout strictly dra7ing theoretical distinctions among them. .y focus here is not so much the precise cognitive structure of these elements 'interrelated in cognition and constituting clusters 7e may call $ideologies, or $kno7ledge,) 4ut rather the fact that despite the mutual influence cognition and society have on each other 4eliefs stereotypes etc. do not necessarily represent the reality of the social 7orld accurately U they do nevertheless constitute the 4asis of reasoning and action for mem4ers of society legitimating sexist and discriminatory practices.

(he typical generic structure of advice of advice texts includes first presenting5setting up a pro4lem or 6uestion possi4ly follo7ed 4y ela4oration on ho7 it is a pro4lem or legitimation of 7hy this should 4e considered a pro4lem. (o7ards the end of the text 7e have the presentation of the solution to the pro4lem5issue again possi4ly ela4orated or legitimated 'Polyzou forthcoming 1223). %ome advice texts also present a similarity to ?ournalistic ne7s reporting namely they include a lead=in first paragraph 'in capitals) 7hich summarises the $main points, of the 7hole text 4efore moving on to ela4orate on the details 'cf. van Di?k "83<& 31). -ere the $pro4lem, is mentioned 4riefly in the text '$ho7 to satisfy a 7oman sexually,) 4ut the $main points, in the lead are the solution and its legitimation. (he ela4oration of the solution in the main 4ody of the text includes a step=4y=step guide on ho7 to give the massage. (he lead paragraph includes the follo7ing& '") 0' (%' . '*' 1($ ,'- , ($ $*$$ 2 '$ *$2 . $1. VAAEC -EC A %PE;@AL ECV(@; .A%%A+E #@(- #-@;- %-E #@LL %UCCEYDEC -EC%ELA (V ZVU UY;VYD@(@VYALLZ Already from the 4eginning of the text 7e have reference to a $her,. (his pronoun does not refer anaphorically to a person previously mentioned in the text U rather it evokes shared kno7ledge a4out the conventions of the discourse in lifestyle magazines namely that partners or prospective partners are referred to as $he, 'in 7omen,s magazines) and $she, 'in men,s magazines) 7ithout further explanations. @t also presupposes that the targeted male reader is heterosexual and has or should have a female sexual partner 'cf. Cich "832 on presupposed $compulsory heterosexuality, for 7omen). (he 7ords $offer, $surrender, and $unconditionally, trigger the related metaphorical frames of (CAY%A;(@VY and #AC 'see Lakoff and 0ohnson "83": Lakoff +. "83/ on conceptual metaphors). (he semantic frame of $offering, 4y itself does not necessarily include a transaction 4ut here the legitimation of offering the partner a massage includes receiving something in return U namely the 7oman herself. (his is o4?ectifying the 7oman and also in con?unction 7ith the expressions from the $7ar, domain '$surrender, $unconditionally,) preserves sexist 4eliefs a4out $the 4attle of the sexes, according to 7hich men and 7omen 4elong to different camps and only one can 7in 'cf. Polyzou 1229: %underland 1229). (hroughout the text runs the underlying 'presupposed5given) 4elief that the reader is male heterosexual and sexually active 7hich is never explicitly asserted or discussed. #e also have t7o other related 4eliefs& that male sexuality is $4eastly, unsophisticated and rough 'cf. -oll7ay,s discussion of perceptions of the $male sexual drive, "839) and that it is diametrically opposed to 7omen,s evoking stereotypes a4out $femininity, linked to sensitivity delicacy etc. 'cf. discussions a4out stereotypical 4eliefs a4out $gender differences, e.g. %underland 1229). %uch 4eliefs are parts of 4roader essentialist stereotypes a4out the $nature, of men and 7omen as 4eing fundamentally different and feeling heterosexual attraction exactly 4ecause of their differences 'cf. Eckert "838& 1<>=1<9).

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(hus in example '1) 4elo7 male sexuality is metaphorically represented and conceptualised as a $4east, 7hich is difficult to control and thus needs to 4e $locked up,& '1) 3456784 9:3; <= 9<>?=@ A=B 9CDE4F@ GH8: 8=BI 2: HCJ4F 9:F K 84FC; <=BL Lock up 7ell the 4east you are hiding inside you. @ts turn 7ill come too\ (he metaphorical frames of $hiding, and $locking up the 4east, presuppose on the one hand that female sexuality is not $4eastly, and hence men should hide and not express this kind of desire spontaneously 4ut also that 7here this difference is indeed the case '7hich is not self=evident despite 4eing presented as $given,) it is not a matter of changing or making an effort of convergence 4et7een the t7o partners 4ut rather a matter of $hiding, for strategic purposes. (his is also presupposed at numerous points in the text including the follo7ing examples& '>) 645M4 :B<=8BN9C;<K8K sho7 self=restraint '9) 6O 9F :? ACHA4F ?: 645M4F@ :B<=8BN9C;<K8KL (his is 7here you have to sho7 even more self=restraint\ '<) ,K? <K P=BQ<O?4F@ ;N:CGA: Don,t grope her loutishly 'B) ,K EF;R48:F Don,t hurry As one can see from the examples much of the stereotypes a4out male and female sexuality are not explicitly stated 4ut are presupposed as satisfying the felicity conditions of the directive speech acts. Aelicity conditions are the conditions '7e kno7) a speech act has to meet to 4e $felicitous, in other 7ords to $make sense, 'Austin "8/<: see also %earle "8B8: "8/"5"8/B on felicity conditions). All directives presuppose as part of their felicity conditions that the receiver of the directive 7ould not do the action any7ay. @n this case then it is presupposed that if men are not repeatedly told to control themselves to sho7 self=restraint to $lock up the 4east, etc. they 7ould 4e rough unrestrained loutish etc. 7hich stereotypes all men and constructs this stereotype as a given reality 7hich therefore has to 4e accepted. (he acceptance of $4eastly, 4ehaviour 'due to $4eastly nature,) is indicated 4y the assertions legitimating the temporary $taming, this sexual drive namely the 4enefits to 4e gained& that the 7oman 7ill surrender herself unconditionally 'example ") and that then it 7ill 4e the time to stop hiding and pretending to 4e nice 'example 1 U $its turn 7ill come too\). (his is encapsulated 4y the final permissive speech act namely& '/) *C=8P>G:<: <H3=@L A434BJHC784 4AF<H3=B@ <= 9<>?=@ A=B 9CDE4F@ GH8: 8=BL W!eeping upX appearances is over\ Celease at last the 4east you hide inside you\

(his strategic oscillation 4et7een apparent sensitivity5care and $real, roughness and o4?ectification of 7omen 4rings to mind the cultural construct of the $Ye7 Lad, in contemporary media representations of masculinity in the English=speaking 7orld 'see *en7ell 1221 and contri4utions in *en7ell 122>4). @n a nutshell the Ye7 Lad is often claimed to 4e a reaction to another construct5model of masculinity the Ye7 .an of the 32,s U the Ye7 .an 7as supposed to 4e narcissistic sensitive and sympathetic to 7omen and feminism 7hereas the Ye7 Lad represented a return to traditional 4eliefs of $male superiority, and misogyny 4ut at the same time in a playful 7ay esche7ing the values of responsi4ility and seriousness included in traditional masculinity models 'of the father and $4read=7inner, U cf. Cutherford 122>). +ill '122>& >8) points out that
some accounts of the ne7 lad W]X assert that the performance of a ne7 man sensi4ility is something that they kno7ingly enact to get 7omen into 4ed. Aor example %ean V,-agan W#rena magazine contri4utorX says that ne7 lad $aspires to Ye7 .an status 7hen he,s out 7ith 7omen 4ut reverts to old lad type 7hen he,s out 7ith the 4oys. ;lever eh[, '"88").

(his is exactly 7hat is happening here U old stereotypes are preserved 4ut $keeping up appearances, is $kno7ingly enacted, to achieve yet another $victory, over 7omen 'see also ;re7e 122>& 8>). >.1 !"# 'Coman characters in original) 'Status Ae4. 122B pp <9=<<) Status generally aligns itself 7ith Ye7 .an values 'in his Ae4ruary 122B editorial 'pg. "8) the editor ?uxtaposes Status to more $laddish, magazines 7hich construct themselves as $enemies of 7omen,) at the same time it maintaining male hegemony ideologies. @n this text advice is provided on issues of men,s fashion style and skincare. (hus 7e overall have promotion of consumerism 'specific designer 4rands are recommended) and a preoccupation 7ith appearance 4oth stereotypically associated 7ith femininity U and 4y extension 7ith 'male) homosexuality as the t7o are often conflated and assigned a su4ordinate position in hegemonic masculinity discourses 'and practices). As Ed7ards o4serves $WsXtereotypically $real, men don,t care 7hat they look like and ?ust thro7 things on 7hilst 7omen go shopping and agonize over matters of self=presentation, '122>& "91). @ndeed the Ye7 .an construct and men enacting 'parts of) this construct have often 4een criticised for not 4eing masculine enough '+ill 122>& 93). %o Status here is caught 4et7een keeping advertisers satisfied 4y promoting a consumerist lifestyle 'as the editor points out the main income of magazines like Status comes from advertising U editorial Ae4. 122B& pg "8) and the consumerist imperative of keeping its 'target) readers interested and satisfied 4y ensuring that neither the persona of Status or the 'ideal target) readers are represented as effeminate unmasculine etc. As 7ill 4e sho7n in the analysis 4elo7 here this tension is dealt 7ith 4y providing 'often seemingly irrelevant) assertions of heterosexuality 7hich in the previous text 4y Playboy 7ere not necessary as the heterosexuality and $machismo, of 4oth the readers and the expert persona providing advice 7ere uncontroversial. !"# as a 6uestion=and=ans7er section includes a num4er of texts each of them consisting of a 6uestion 'presuma4ly 4y a reader) setting up and potentially ela4orating on the $pro4lem, and an ans7er 4y a magazine contri4utor represented as /

an expert 7hich 4egins usually 4y further ela4orating on or reframing the pro4lem and then provides the solution's) and the legitimation5?ustification of the suggested solutions. @ am here concentrating on parts of three of the 6uestions in the section& '3) ^uestion& SP7 A:C:<KC>84F T<F =F <:3=5 Q=C;?4 9:QH A:A=D<8F: G4 N9CF 9=8<=DGFI :F GT3F@ ACT8Q:<: HG:J: <= 3TN=I $F <:3=5U 3=FAT?U F8PBC5R=?<:F T<F G:DC: A:A=D<8F: Q=C;?4 GT?= =F G:QFTR=F T<:? AKN:5?=B? 84 9K645:I :<; AT8=? F8PD4F 9;<F <H<=F=/ @ have noticed that @talian men 7ear 4ro7n shoes 7ith grey suits. And only recently did @ find out the reason. %o @talians claim that it is only mafiosi 7ho 7ear 4lack shoes 7hen they go to a funeral. (o 7hat extent is something like this true[ Ans7er& :<:CP>?U =Q4537 ?: A:C:64P<O T<F A4CF88T<4C= G4 :A:8P=3=D? =F <:3564@U A:C; =F <:3=5I HE:F:U <= 56F= 9;?=B? 9:F =F <:3=5I AFA3H=?U 9B93=Q=C=D? A4CF88T<4C: A:A=D<8F: :AT <:3564@I (o 4egin 7ith @ ought to admit that @ am more interested in @talian 7omen than @talian men. Vf course @talians do the same. .oreover there are more shoes around than @talian 7omen. '8) ^uestion& *=F: A:A=D<8F: J47C=D?<:F 4A58KG: 9:<; <K N?OGK 8:@/ B<; G4 <: 9=C6T?F: > <: A:?<=Q3H/ A:?<>8<4 NC>N=C: 9:F 8<:C;<:I #hich shoes are considered formal in your opinion[ (he laced ones or the slip=ons[ +ive Wpl.X a 4rief and direct reply. Ans7er& ? K 49R><K8K <=B A:?<=Q3H 8:@ 9;?4FU AC=<45?7 <: E43=D6F?: <=B Vom Word NF: <K? Xucci > <: pump 3=B8<CF?H?F: YN=E;9F:Z Waniel <=B [o\n ]obbI A58K@U GF: NB?:59: :AT E43=D6=U G4 9=C6T?F: 9:F TPF A:?<=Q3HIII ]@f the WeccentricityX of the slip=on suits you @ suggest the velvet WonesX 4y Vom Word for Xucci or the pump patent leather _pumpettes` Waniel 4y [o\n ]obb. .oreover a 7oman made of velvet 7ith laces and not a slip=on] @n 4oth examples '3) and '8) a4ove a reader is asking for advice on 7ardro4e and shoes. (heir $pro4lem, is ignorance a4out ho7 to select the appropriate shoes for each suit colour or occasion and thus the $ne7 information, provided 4y the expert should involve telling the readers 7hat to do in relation to these issues. *oth the three assertions in example '3) at the 4eginning of the ans7er '$@ am more interested in @talian 7omen than @talian men, $@talians do the same Wi.e. are also more interested in @talian 7omenX, and $there are more shoes around than @talian 7omen,) and the last piece of advice in example '8) 7hich is at the very end of the ans7er '$W@ suggestX] a 7oman made of velvet 7ith laces and not a slip=on]) are irrelevant to the pro4lem and don,t provide any of the moves of the genre of advice texts. (hat is they do not provide a solution to the reader,s pro4lem nor do they explain anything related to the pro4lem or the solution 'ho7ever actual solutions a4out suit5shoes com4inations are provided later on in the text). (here are t7o possi4le explanations a4out the insertion of this irrelevant information 7hich is not really $ne7, if 7e take into account the presupposed assumption of

heterosexuality underlying all three men,s magazines analysed here U it is self=evident that a heterosexual man 7ould have 'romantic) interest in @talian ^omen rather than men 'example 3) and that a 7oman 7ould 4e recommended as a romantic partner to a heterosexual man 'example 8)9. (he first explanation is that precisely in this context and co=text that is providing advice for $feminine, matters such as fashion and appearance heterosexuality is not self=evident 4ut rather in danger of 4eing 6uestioned and thus it needs to 4e deli4erately asserted to avoid the feeling of $getting dra7n into too feminine issues,. (he second explanation is that the author is ?ust trying to 4e entertaining rather than to $4e taken seriously, and the magazines often try to simulate everyday naturally occurring conversation in 4oth style and content. Especially in example 8 the reader is advised to find a 7oman $made of velvet, 'linking to the recommendation of velvet shoes in the previous sentence 7ho should not 4e a slip=on, U here the +reek 7ord used for $slip=on, A:?<=Q3H 'pantofle) has the same root as the 7ord $slipper, A:?<TQ3: 'pantofla) 7hich can 4e used in +reek humorously to descri4e ungraceful o4?ects or people. Even if 7e take the second explanation the presupposition of heterosexuality and omnipresent5continuous male interest in 7omen remains a presupposition used as a 4asis for the humorous remarks 7hich other7ise 7ouldn,t 4e funny 'clearly recommending to a gay man to find a 7oman could possi4ly include a humorous element depending on the context 4ut 7ould involve also a num4er of face=threatening and indeed discriminatory implications). (he third 6uestion @ am looking at here explicitly dra7s attention to the $dangers, of 4ecoming $effeminate, through caring a4out appearance too much& '"2) *=F: 45?:F <: 9BCFT<4C: 9:33B?<F9; A=B ACHA4F ?: PCK8FG=A=F45 H?:@ ;?<C:@U :? 64? 45?:F NB?:59:/ #hat are the main cosmetics a man must use if he is not a 7oman[ (he elements of the semantic frame of $7oman, relevant and therefore evoked here are not those of $femaleness, 4ut rather of $femininity, U thus the 6uestion is ho7 a man can use cosmetics 7ithout appearing to conform to the femininity stereotype of vanity delicacy insecurity and so on '7hich the reader asking the 6uestion takes as the $given, reality of ho7 7omen are). (he expert ans7ering initially discredits the desire of some men to use cosmetics 4y attri4uting it to a num4er of negative characteristics of the modern society and the modern individual& '"") 9C:5=@ :<=GF8GT@U 3B88:8GH?K 4AFJBG5: :J:?:85:@U 3:<C45: ?4T<K<:@U A3>CK@ :A434BJHC78K 9:F F8=<FG5: <7? NB?:F9O?U :?:8Q;34F:U 9:JKG4CF?T@ :?<:N7?F8GT@U =F9=NH?4F: A;A:3:_ Extreme individualism ravenous desire of immortality 7orship of youth complete li4eration and e6uality of 7omen insecurity daily competition family no more]

Another presupposition underlying lifestyle magazines in general so self=evident that it seems pedantic even to mention it is that references to people of the $opposite sex, to that of the target reader are usually related to romantic interest unless other7ise indicated U in examples 3 and 8 it is presupposed that the speaker is interested in or recommending 7omen as $o4?ects of desire, and not as friends colleagues or human 4eings in any other sense 'cf. $her, in example ").

(he assertion here is that the a4ove factors have resulted in men using cosmetics as much as 7omen 7hich evaluated negatively. (he assertion functions as de= legitimation of the practice of men using cosmetics and 4y extension de=legitimises any advice to a man on the issue. (he author ho7ever has to provide the advice keeping in line 7ith the interests of men,s cosmetics companies advertising in the magazine 4ut also promote the 'desire for a) generally consumerist lifestyle 7hich gives lifestyle magazines a reason of existence. %ome of the factors mentioned as illegitimate reasons for men using cosmetics are stereotypically associated 7ith femininity and indeed are used 4y 7omen,s lifestyle magazines as perfectly legitimate reasons for using cosmetics or even doing plastic surgery 'specifically $7orship of youth, and insecurity). (he author=expert of Status then provides a reason 7hich not only is perceived as not shared 7ith 7omen 'or gay men) 4ut actually emphasises the presupposed heterosexual desire and its importance for men that is men have to look after their appearance so that they 7ill 4e a4le to attract 7omen. -e focuses on specific parts 'he suggests) 7omen 7ould like 7hich therefore men should look after using cosmetics. '"1) =F NB?:594@ :CH89=?<:F 84 BA=ET89=B84@U :6CH@ GBC76FH@ 7omen favour su4tle rough smells 'a4out perfume deodorant etc.) '">) $F NB?:594@ G:N4D=?<:F :AT <: 8KG45: :B<;I _ (C43:5?=?<:FI 945 Y46C;R=B?Z <= E3HGG: <=B@ 9:F <: PHCF: <=B@ #omen 4ecome enchanted 4y these parts. ]. (hey get crazy. (his is 7here they _focus` their gaze and their hands. 'a4out $hands feet fingers ] nails] and ass,) '"9) '<=FP45= N=K<45:@ 8<= =A=5= ACHA4F ?: 6O84<4 G4N;3K 8KG:85:. Element of charm to 7hich you must pay much attention. 'a4out hair) '"<) And for some unnecessary 'not $main,) cosmetic usage& 49;C: 64 65?=B?I (hey don,t give a dime. 'a4out the skin around the eyes) (hese assertions in the form of declarative sentences may 7ell 4e providing ne7 information as the author claims to kno7 7hat 7omen like and don,t like presupposing that the reader doesn,t. At the same time it is also presupposed that the reader actually cares a4out 7hat 7omen like 7hich goes against more $laddish, and more traditional perceptions of 7omen as the o4?ects of gaze and evaluation and men as agents ?udging rather than 4eing ?udged. (hus for at least some readers this reason 'look after yourself in order to 4e attractive to 7omen) may need further ?ustification. As 7e can already see from example "> the desire to 4e attractive to 7omen is not framed in terms of insecurity anxiety etc. 'as is often the case 7ith representing 7omen,s desire to 4e attractive to men 4oth in men,s and 7omen,s magazines) and also not in terms of love or other emotions. Cather metaphorically it is legitimated through the effect male charm 7ould have on 7omen rendering them as losing their rationality and agency 4y 4ecoming $enchanted, and $crazy,. Else7here in the text the author descri4es the process of seducing a 7oman again metaphorically as a $game, <
<

'dra7ing on the conventional conceptual metaphor LVTE @% A +A.E similar to *lack,s discussion on the metaphorical representation of marriage as a $zero=sum game, '"88>) U here a relationship is a zero=sum game 7here one 7ins and the other loses)

"2

evoking yet another 7ell=esta4lished conceptualisation of men=7omen relationships in line 7ith the metaphorical frame of #AC discussed a4ove in the Playboy text. (hus in this text of Status 7e have some representations and advice that do not adhere to +reek masculinity stereotypes U ho7ever they all revolve around preoccupation 7ith appearance 'detailed discussion of colour com4inations for clothes and shoes 4rand names and cosmetic use) and the function seems to 4e the perpetuation of consumerist and upper=class stereotypes. (here is no attempt to overthro7 stereotypical hegemonic perceptions of $male superiority, $gender differences, or heteronormativity. Vn the contrary the less stereotypical elements of masculinity are positioned 7ithin the dominant ideological matrix ?ustified and legitimised in a 7ay that does not challenge 4ut rather reinforces the status=6uo. >.> $ %&$$' ($ $$ )*$'$ &+ ,$-$ . $ ,$.(.$ .('/ (-E DET@L,% ADTV;A(E=-V# +AZ DV .VDECY .EY %EE.[ 'Nitro Ae4. 122B pg. "3>) (his text appears to 4e a commentary on modern men 4ut at the same time can function as advice5guidance on the $pro4lem, of $appearing gay,. Presenting $appearing gay, as a pro4lem of course carries the ideological presupposition that appearing or 4eing gay is undesira4le and pro4lematic. .oreover 7e actually o4serve a dis?unction 4et7een masculinity and 'male) homosexuality& '"B) *$'$ &+ ,$-$ . $ ,$.(.$ .('/ -V# +AZ DV .VDECY .EY %EE.[ (he ver4 $HRLabRGO, can 4e translated as $seem, or $look, 7hich 4oth in +reek and in English under one interpretation can mean that something appears to 4e x 4ut is not. (he 6uestion also presupposes that it is a fact that certain straight men '$modern men,) seem gay and the 6uestion is to 7hat extent. (his on the one hand ?uxtaposes $modern men, to $traditional men, 4ut on the other hand presumes a $fixed, correlation 4et7een sexual orientation and certain 4ehavioural or appearance traits U modern men can seem gay 4ut not be gay and they only seem gay 4ecause they adopt elements of the $gay, stereotypes 'as if it 7ouldn,t 4e possi4le for modern gay men to exist\). (hus $gay man, is not included as a hyponym of the 4roader category $man, on a par 7ith $straight man, 4ut rather $gay, is represented as a grada4le attri4ute. ;learly this is not in any 7ay reflecting any theoretical concerns a4out the grada4ility of 4iological sex gender and sexuality 'see #odak "88/& 1=> ""=">: ;ameron "88/) or a4out the fluidity of $identity, = the 6uestion is one of appearance rather than essence relating $gay, to a gendered performance of lifestyle and not much else. As identity constructs $modern man, and $gay man, are very solidly separated not only 4y the 7ording of expressions such as example "B 4ut also visually as t7o very clear= cut distinct categories 'see examples 12=1>). (he text 4egins 4y a narration of ho7 the female author,s 4oyfriend complimented her on her outfit using the 7ord $cIHaKd, 'translated as $gorgeous,) and comparing her to pop singer 0ennifer Lopez 'a44reviated as 0.Lo)&

""

'"/) efIHaKd ghiIL... iIO KdO 0.Loj _+orgeous] like 0.Lo` (he author considers this expression $gay,. Pro4a4ly the reasons are stereotypes a4out 7omen using strong evaluative ad?ectives '$gorgeous, instead of $nice5good=looking,) 'cf. Lakoff C. "8/<) and also a4out $feminine, interest in pop music and cele4rities to the point of using their nicknames 'rather than the more $distanced, full or last names). (hrough conflating femininity 7ith male homosexuality thus this $feminine, expression is $gay,& '"3) H89:8: 8<: NH3F: 9:F 45A:` Y*C:NG:<F9;U AT8= N9HF :<;9:LZI a8<4C: H?F78: <Db4F@I &F:<5 = Q53=@ G=B 64? 45?:F N9HF cTPF T<F J:d<:? 9:9TU :A3O@ 64? J: <: 45P: G:R5 <=BeI 5?:F :A3O@ G=?<HC?=@I @ 4urst out laughing and said _Ceally 7hat a gay line\`. (hen @ felt guilty. *ecause my 4oyfriend is not gay 'not that it 7ould 4e 4ad @ ?ust 7ouldn,t 4e dating him). -e is ?ust modern. (he semantic frame of $guilty, includes $doing something 4ad, 'to feel guilty a4out) U it is $4ad, 'insulting etc.) to call some4ody gay 4ecause $gay, is $4ad,. Ela4orating on 7hy she felt guilty 'possi4ly a7are of the politically incorrect homopho4ic underpinnings of her remark) the author5narrator goes on 7ith three assertions& = my 4oyfriend is not gay = it 7ouldn,t 4e 4ad 'if he 7as gay) = @ 7ouldn,t 4e dating him 'if he 7as gay) (hese three assertions are entirely uninformative. @t is clearly shared kno7ledge that a 7oman and a man dating each other in today,s +reece are usually straight and that the man she refers to as $her 4oyfriend, 7ould not 4e her 4oyfriend if he 7as gay. (he fact that it 7ouldn,t 4e 4ad if he 7as gay and its expression here is interesting. Aor one thing if it 7as self=evident that 4eing gay is not 4ad it 7ouldn,t need to 4e stated. *ut it is not self=evident as sho7n from the guilt associated 7ith even assuming that a straight man seems gay. .oreover the assertion is phrased as a disclaimer& $not that it 7ould 4e 4ad], Disclaimers similar to this are often used to esche7 responsi4ility for discriminatory remarks 'van Di?k 1222& B") U here the narrator directly states that it 7ouldn,t 4e 4ad for her 4oyfriend 'or anyone for that matter) to 4e gay 4ut throughout the text constructs appearing gay as a pro4lem. @nterestingly she could have pointed out that for herself as a straight 7oman it could 4e a pro4lem determining if a man is gay and therefore not sexually interested in her or not. Zet she doesn,t ela4orate on ^\y appearing gay is 4ad 4ecause the underlying 7idely shared homopho4ic assumptions are 6uite self=evident& gay is 4ad and taking a straight man for gay is an insult. -er construction of a $pro4lem, of the $4alance 4et7een modern and gay, is 4oth sufficiently elo6uent and sufficiently vague& '"8) F 4A4F6> K F8=CC=A5: :B<> 45?:F 8:? <= A=C<=9:35 Q:?;CF cA=<H 64? 458:F 85N=BC=@ :? 45?:F AF= :8Q:3H@ ?: N9:RO84F@ 9:F ?: A4C;84F@ > ?: QC4?;C4F@ 9:F ?: A4CFGH?4F@eU 64@ G4CF9; A:C:645NG:<: NF: ?: 9:<:3;E4F@ <F 4??==DG4I And 4ecause this 4alance is like the yello7 traffic light 'you are never sure Wmasc.X 7hether it is safer to step on it and go through or to 4rake and 7ait) here are some examples to understand 7hat 7e mean.

"1

(hrough the novel metaphor of the $yello7 traffic light, 'conceptualising life as a ?ourney) the narrator here constructs the pro4lem through indicating uncertainty '$you are never sure,) and danger 'presupposed 4y looking for the $safer, option 4ut also 4y the 7ord $4alance, U another metaphorical framing = 7hich constantly faces the possi4ility of 4eing lost). %o 4eing a $modern, 'as opposed to a traditional) man is metaphorically conceptualised as a 4eing at a point of a ?ourney 7hen you don,t kno7 7hether it is safe to go on $4eing modern, '7ith the danger of overdoing it and thus appearing gay) or to stop '7ith the danger of not 4eing $modern, anymore or not 4eing modern enough). (he $solution, to this $pro4lem, 'not ela4orated on or legitimised) is the readers $understanding, the distinction 4et7een $gay, and $modern, so as not to mistake $modern, straight men for gay or so that readers 7ho 7ant to 4e modern men do not act $gay,. (hus $some examples, are provided to this effect some of 7hich are& '12) ,$.(.$'` *KN:5?4F NF: 3HFR4C :A=<C5P78K 8<K? A3;<KI &+` *KN:5?4F NF: 3HFR4C :A=<C5P78K 8<=? 9=CGTU 8<: AT6F: 9:F 8<: =A58JF:I .VDECY& -e gets laser hair removal for his 4ack. +AZ& -e gets laser hair removal for his trunk legs and 4uttocks '1") ,$.(.$'` =FG;<:F 84 84?<T?F: :AT :FNBA<F:9T E:GE;9FI &+` =FG;<:F 84 84?<T?F: :AT :FNBA<F:9T E:GE;9F 9:F MHC4F <K? AB9?T<K<: <7? F?O? <=B@I .VDECY& -e sleeps on Egyptian cotton sheets. +AZ& -e sleeps on Egyptian cotton sheets and kno7s the density of their fi4res. '11) ,$.(.$'` fP4F 89D3= A=B GBC5R4F 95<C= :AT <= 4F6F9T 8:GA=B;?I &+ ` fP4F 89D3= A=B GBC5R4F gior homme :AT <= 6F9T <=B ;C7G:I .VDECY& -e has a dog that smells of citron from the special shampoo. +AZ& -e has a dog that smells of gior homme from its o7n perfume. (here is a 7hole list in this format providing points of distinction 4et7een $modern, and $gay,. V4viously this list needs to 4e a4stracted from U as the narrator points out these are illustrative examples aiming to convey a general $spirit, or attitude rather than specifically descri4e actual practices applica4le to all $modern, or $gay, men. Appropriately these points are phrased in declarative sentences U assertions. (hese assertions indeed provide $ne7 information, as the $modern man, identity descri4ed here is neither $commonsensical, nor necessarily accepta4le in modern +reek society U here as in Status the masculinity constructed includes elements 7hich could 4e associated 7ith femininity. (his $ne7 information, to readers a4out ho7 $modern men, are 'or indirect indication of ho7 they should 4e) is legitimised through the ?uxtaposition of the construction of gay men. (hus the $modern man, cares a4out his appearance 'he may even engage in hair removal) 4ut the gay man cares a4out his appearance too much 'and 7ill have hair removal to the degree a 7oman might do) 'example 12). (he $modern man, is sophisticated clean caring 'he has fine 4ed sheets looks after his dog and makes sure it stays clean and smells nice) 4ut the gay man is concerned too much 7ith the details of fine living to the extreme point of having a special expensive 4rand perfume for his dog 'examples 1" and 11).

">

V4viously there may not 4e one single gay man 7ho has 4ought a gior perfume for his dog 4ut through stereotyping gay men in this 'exaggerated humorous5ironic B) 7ay the feminine=related $modern man, practices appear more $normal,. (he overall argument is that it is accepta4le and indeed desira4le to adopt elements hitherto considered feminine 'narcissism neatness sophistication) 4ut not to an exaggerated degree '7hich is associated then 7ith gay men). Another note7orthy characteristic of this list is that it is generally concerned 7ith lifestyle choices '4edding pets eating grooming exercising) U desire is very marginally included 'in example 1> the male model (ony #ard is paralleled to Pamela Anderson for straight men) and sexual practices not mentioned at all. '1>) ,$.(.$'` N:A;4F <=? :8:AH3 NF: <= AO@ E3HA4F <K? *;G43:I &+` N:A;4F <=? 5<8:C?<8=? NF: <= AO@ E3HA4F <=? 9:E;3= <=B (T?F $BTC?<. .VDECY& -e loves La;hapelle for the 7ay he sees Pamela WAndersonX. +AZ& -e loves Cichardson for the 7ay he sees (ony #ard,s crotch. As @ pointed out in the @ntroduction sex desire and sexual practices are very 7idely and 6uite explicitly depicted in pop culture 'as for example in the Playboy text analysed in section >.") U 4ut they al7ays concern heterosexual sex. .ale homosexuality is either completely ta4oo or surfacing in the form of insults and s7ear7ords/ U les4ianism is even more invisi4le. Nitro is the only mainstream men,s magazine to my kno7ledge that actually provides some representations of male homosexuality in a more ela4orate 7ay. Although not outright insulting '7hich could see as some7hat more progressive ideologically3) these representations are ?uxtaposed not ?ust to heterosexuality 4ut to masculinity in general and are limited to humour exaggeration and $harmless, lifestyle descriptions. (hus desire and sexual practices in these cases are eicluded from the representations of gay identities 4eing still a ta4oo in +reek society U their inclusion 7ould have 4een considered provocative and 7ould pro4a4ly have to involve the authors, taking a clear position either espousing or discrediting homopho4ia 7hich is carefully avoided in texts like the one analysed here 'although homopho4ia is surfacing in less direct 7ays as 7e sa7). 9. ;oncluding remarks @n examining discourse a4out gender and sexuality 7e can see the ideological stances taken in context 7hich 7ould depend on the participants, ideologies 4ut also the re6uirements of the situational context of the interaction studied. @n the case of lifestyle magazine aiming to ensure popular appeal and follo7 the consumerist imperatives of the capitalist context of their circulation it is 6uite unsurprising to see that they dra7 on 7ell= esta4lished dominant stereotypes of gender and sexuality. @ have looked at three different texts including a range of masculinity constructions in order to sho7 ho7 $hegemonic masculinity, is not a homogeneous entity 4ut rather a cluster of interrelated mental constructs one can dra7 on selectively. And vice versa

B /

;f. *en7ell '122>a& 12=1": 1229) on irony in men,s magazines. 'cf. Ed7ards 122>& ">8 !osetzi and Polyzou 122<) 3 Especially as homosexuality is $utter ta4oo, in 'mainstream) men,s magazines exactly to avoid charges of homopho4ia '*en7ell 122>a& "3).

"9

the very genre of $lifestyle magazines, creates tensions 7ith different aspects of these dominant ideologies some of 7hich can 4e seen in the data analysed here. (he first ma?or tension involves the relation of masculinity to the speech acts of advice prevalent in lifestyle magazines. *y definition the felicity acts of $advice, presuppose ignorance on the part of the receiver and kno7ledge on the part of the provider of advice 7hich makes it face=threatening for the readers. (his is accentuated 4y the common stereotypical perception that men are 'or should 4e) particularly sensitive 7hen it comes to 6uestioning their authority kno7ledge or competence and thus not 7illing to accept any advice 7ithout 4eing offended 'encapsulated 4y 0ohn +ray,s "881 magnum opus $.en Are Arom .ars #omen Are Arom Tenus, translations of 7hich have 4een circulating in +reece in many editions the earliest in "888 4y the pu4lishing house kGlRcLmn 5Psychogios). Aurther tensions arise from the specifics of giving advice on ho7 to sexually please a 7oman in contradiction to 4eliefs a4out men 4eing preoccupied 4y sex and 4eing o4livious to emotions including caring a4out their partners. (his is resolved in the Playboy text '%ection >.".) 4y fre6uent reminders of the $given, $4eastly nature, of the assumed reader an overall $laddish, tone o4?ectifying 7omen and pro?ecting the 7hole affair as ultimately for the 4enefit of the reader alone. Advice on appearance further distur4s the stereotypical dichotomies associating femininity and homosexuality 7ith narcissism insecurity and consumerism and $real, 'straight) masculinity 7ith security lack of sophistication and contempt for these $feminine, 6ualities. -o7ever historically there is also the legacy of $the sharp dressing heterosexually promiscuous and e6ually highly consumerist masculinity] @nterestingly men could get a7ay 7ith 4eing consumerist and stylish if they 7ere heterosexually promiscuous enough, 'Ed7ards 122>& "9>) U and this is exactly the representation constructed in Status '%ection >.1) and also in Nitro '%ection >.>) U 7ith references to female $sex sym4ols5o4?ects, like Pamela Anderson 'example 1>). (hus 7hereas these tensions could 4e used for the 6uestioning and 4reaking do7n of norms 4y promoting less stereotypical5'hetero)sexist gender and sexuality representations and practices in fact they are resolved in the texts exactly 4y falling 4ack on the dominant ideological patterns. -eterosexuality and promiscuity may serve as a presupposed 4asis 'Playboy text) or 4e asserted 7hen in danger of 4eing 6uestioned 'Status) 7hereas Nitro takes it one step further 4y contrasting explicitly the consumerism and reflexivity of 7hat they term the $modern man, 'avoiding the term $metrosexual, despite it signifying the same construct possi4ly to further fend off any $6uestiona4le sexuality, implications) to homosexuality. @n practical terms this means that a market is maintained 7here sexual representations advice and reflexivity are appealing and sold to men 7hile promoting a consumerist lifestyle certainly appealing to advertisers 4ut also to the audience 7illingly 4uying into the ideals of such a lifestyle. At the same time the magazines make sure not to threaten 4ut rather to reinforce the dominant ideologies 'and identities) presumed to 4e shared 4y the $readers W7hoX 4uy the magazine to have their perceptions of masculinity confirmed 4ut also added to, '*en7ell 1221& "<<).
Ceferences&

"<

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