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HS201 / European History Mr.


No indication that Europe would dominate the world

in the future. Eastern Empires wealth & vast armies Europes landscape was not that fertile nor was it populousIce to the north and water north and west Europe was never united under one secular or religious leader. Up and coming powers: Spain, France, Englandall had internal struggles and considered each other rivals rather than a united front against Islam.

Ming China
Most advanced civilization of pre-modern

timespopulation of 100-130 million (Europe 50-55 million)advanced political and agricultural system. Printing press.huge libraries Trade and industryextensive trade routescommerce helped by the use of paper currencyIron industry 125,000 tons per annum (larger than the output of GB during the IR of the 1800s) Gunpowder / Cannons Magnetic Compass / helped with exploration & trade

Ming ChinaCont.
Naval warfareMing navy had 1,350 combat vessels

and many private ships Admiral Cheng Ho 1405 & 1433 overseas expeditionsInteresting point: the Chinese never plundered nor murderedunlike their European counterparts. After 1433 there was an imperial edict banning the construction of seagoing shipsCheng Hos ships wasted away as China turned to an isolationist position supported by their Confucian bureaucracy.

Ming ChinaCont.
Chinese did not like trade and the acquisition of private

capital because they had little control over the merchants. Despite these internal issues that would appear to stunt growth, there were still some tremendous technological advances. Unfortunately, some advisors believed that the canal system, ironworks and navy were not necessary so they began to decayuse of paper currency was discontinued Merchants suffered because overseas trade was banned. Even after the Ming Dynasty was replacedthe steady decline could not be stopped

The Muslim World

Ottoman Empire expansion=threat to Christendom
Formidable army domains stretched from the Crimea to

the Balkan Peninsulaby 1529 they were besieging Vienna. Also a threatOttoman Navyactive along the North African Coast and were raiding ports in Italy, Spain, and Balkan Peninsula. Official faith/culture/language = unity Advanced in Science & Industry 14 million strong / strong bureaucracy

Ottoman Empire 1580

The Muslim WorldCont.

Ottoman Turks would eventually become isolationist
Any further expansion would have an enormous cost in

men and money By the late 1500s, the empire was overextended After 1566, there reigned 13 incompetent sultans Too highly centralized Merchant class - taxes and seizure of property. Free thought forbidden Imports yes exports no

The Muslim World

Plagues hurt population because they did not adopt

new containment methods.

Mogul Empire
Sheer size / military genius / sophisticated banking &

credit system Muslim elite ruling poverty-stricken peasants Hinduism Became a victim of British imperialism Problems with unsanitary conditions because of religious taboosrodents and insects could not be killedbubonic plagues

Mogul EmpireCont.
Internal rather than external problems were the root of

the decay

Two Outsiders-Japan & Russia

Japan geography an asset protection from a land

invasion Power structure clan-based feudal lordships and the emperor Profit from East Asian trade Japanese pirates plundered Chinese and Korean coasts Welcomed goods from western traders Importation of European armaments would change the political landscapethose who could purchase muskets and cannons would have power

Warlord Hideyoshitried to conquer Korea

twicefaileddied in 1598civil strife in Japan After a few yearspower was consolidated in the hands of Ieyasu and fellow shoguns of the Tokugawa clan Shoguns decided to cut themselves off from the outside worldtrade and travel not encouraged samurai warriors now had a life of ritual and boredom

Far removed from the West
Muskets and cannons from the West would help

Russia become a Gunpowder Empire and throttle expansion. Despite borrowing some things from the West, Russia was still technologically and economically backward. Problems: Climate, Distances between cities, poor communication system, military absolutism of Czars, Monopoly of education by Church, serfdom Despite problemsRussia would survive & expand

The European Miracle: Thesis

There was a dynamic involved which contributed to

Europes commercial and military primacy in world affairs. This dynamic was driven chiefly by economic and technological advances and was always interacting with other variables such as social, structure, geography, and the occasional accident. The following factors served as vital forces in advancing the political, military and economic strength of Europe. Their interaction with one another collectively represents the dynamic which impacted the course of historical development in Europe.

Europe 1500

Political Fragmentation
Even the Romans had problems with this
Fractured landscape/Geography great plains,

mountains, multiple fertile zones, varied climates, waterways Scattered population centers usually centered in fertile valleys Variety of economic and military centers Religious antagonisms and national tensions Competition military and economic

Bulk products timber, grain, wine, wool, herring
Surrounded by ocean helped to promote the

shipbuilding industry Varied climate = varied products (regional product specialization) ex. Oranges/South Apples/North Growing population (labor is considered a resource and one of the factors of production)

Once people experienced the incentivesit could not be suppressed. Rough seas required strong 3 mast shipsslow---but could carry large

loads Incentivesprofitgloryrivalryproducts from the new world Mercantilism/Development of Mercantile economybankers, arms dealers and artisans became essential to society. Methodical development, financing (credit & banking system), organization for sea exploration(centralized nation-states) Some leaders tolerated merchants / some did notmost leaders began to see the benefits of a market economy

Antagonisms (proximity of states, religious and national

differences) helped to fuel the arms race, innovation and invention) Commercial success requires a strong militaryland and naval support for trade Nation-States=organization, administration, and strength Gunpowder Empires new techniques of warfare allowed for certain nations to dominate rivalsknowledge and possession of gunpowder Access to materials and knowledge available to all (trade routes, printing press, trade diffused information and goods)

Since shipbuilding skills were known by allit was

hard for any power to monopolize maritime power Printing Press Greek and Roman civilizations passed on heritage via educated elite Sense of Europe as a united Christendom against barbarians of the rest of the world infused continent with a feeling of purpose. Personalities (inventors, men of letters)

Misc. Part II
Medieval institutions (church, laws, class system,

educated clergy) Chance/Luck Snowball Effect Cannons on sailing vessels changed warfare helped Europe advance around the worldNew tactic no boarding fight with artillery Sense of adventure personal gain

Misc. Part III

Worldwide Products: gold, silver, whale oil, sugar,

tobacco, rice, furs, timber, potato, fish Bulk products created many jobs and stimulated the shipbuilding industry Beginnings of a primitive global economy??? Science & Technology Improvements: navigation tables, telescope, barometer, compass, iron industry, astronomy, medicine, physics, engineeringall helped to fuel expansion