You are on page 1of 27

Chapter6 BonesandSkeletalTissues

TheSkeletalSystem

___________ + ___________

ReviewofCartilageBasics
CartilageisCT Abundantextracellularmatrix
Gellike Somefibers

Predominantcelltype=__________________

HyalineCartilage
Chondrocyteswithinlacunae Collagen__________within matrixunseen Locations:
Endsoflongbones Growthplateswithinbones Costalcartilages Respiratorystructures Embryonicskeleton

ElasticCartilage
Chondrocyteswithin lacunae Elasticfibersin matrixhighlyvisible Locations:
Epiglottis Outerear

Fibrocartilage
Intermediatebetweenhyaline cartilageanddenseregularCT
Rowsof________chondrocytes Rowsofcollagenfibersin parallel

Locations:
Intervertebraldiscs Articularcartilagesintheknee
menisci

Pubicsymphysis

FunctionsofBones
Support:frameworkofthebody Protection:bonesandcartilagedothis(e.g.,_____________) Movement:attachmentsitesforskeletalmuscles Mineralstorage:__________________________________ Hemopoiesis:bloodcellformation redbonemarrow _______________________:yellowbonemarrow Metabolism:regulationofinsulinandfatstorage

ClassificationofBones
Longbones Longerthantheyarewide Shaft+twodistinctends Namedforshape,notsize Flatbones Thin,flattened,curved Cranialbones,ribs, sternum,scapula

Irregularbones Variousshapes Vertebrae,Os Coxae

Shortbones Roughlycubeshaped Carpals/Tarsals Sesamoidbones(form withintendons)

Compact&SpongyBone
Dense,outerlayeris compactbonetissue

Internallyyoufind spongybonetissue(aka: ____________bone)

GrossAnatomyofaLongBone

Metaphysis = ____________ where diaphysisjoins epiphysis

Definetheseterms!!!
Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis regionwherediaphysismeetsepiphysis EpiphysealPlate EpiphysealLine ArticularCartilage hyalinecartilageattheendsofarticulatingbones MedullaryCavity NutrientForamen

BoneMembranes
__________________
Surroundstheexternalbonesurfacewhereitisnot coveredbyarticularcartilage Twolayers:
Superficiallayer=_________________________ Deeplayer=_______________
Osteoblasts depositbonetissue Osteoclasts destroybonetissue

SharpeysFibers
Perforatingfibersoftheperiosteumdiveintothebonematrix tosecureittothebone Atinsertionpointsofmusclestobone,theseperforatingfibers areverydense

BoneMembranes
_______________
Thinmembranethat linestheinternalbone surface Coversthetrabeculae ofspongybone
Medullarycavity Epiphyses

Osteogenic (osteoblastsand osteoclastspresent)

GrossAnatomyofShort,Irregular& FlatBones
Periosteum Endosteum (coveringtrabeculae)

MicroscopicAnatomyofCompactBone

HaversianSystem=Osteon
Anosteonisthe organizedunitof compactbonetissue.

HaversianSystem ACloserLook

Definetheseterms!!!
Osteon Lamella CentralCanal PerforatingCanal Osteocyte Lacunae Canaliculi InterstitialLamellae CircumferentialLamellae

MicroscopicAnatomyofSpongyBone
Trabecula=littlebeam Eachtrabeculaissolid
Nocavitiesorvessels inside Receivenutrientsfrom surrounding _________________

________bonemarrow foundinthespaces

ChemicalCompositionofBone
Organiccomponents:_________
Collagenfibers Cells Groundsubstance

Inorganiccomponents:_________
Mineralsalts
Tightlypackedcalciumandphosphatecrystalscoverthe longcollagenfibers Hardnessofbone

BoneDevelopment
Theprocessbywhichboneformsiscalled ___________________or________________ Boneformationoccursinfoursituations:
1. 2. 3. 4. Formationofboneinanembryo Growthofbonesuntiladulthood Remodelingofbonethroughoutlife Repairoffractures

Ossification
Boneformationfollowsoneoftwopatterns:
_________________________ossification
Boneformsdirectlywithinmesenchymearrangedin layersthatresemblemembranes Mostskullbonesandtheclavicles

_________________________ossification
Boneformswithinhyalinecartilage,replacingit Allbonesfrombaseofskulldown(exceptclavicles)

EndochondralOssification

HowdobonesgetLONGER?
Thelengtheningofbones involvestwosteps:
1. Cartilagegrowthonthe __________________ofthe epiphysealplate 2. Replacementofcartilageby boneonthe_____________

Atadulthood,theepiphyseal platescloseandbone replacesallthecartilage leavingabonystructure calledthe_______________

HowdobonesgetTHICKER?
____________________growth:
Ostseoblastsintheperiosteumaddbonetissueto theexternalbonesurface Osteoclastsremovebonetissuefromthe medullarycavityatthesamerate

BoneRemodeling
Oldboneiscontinuallydestroyedandnewboneis formedinitsplacethroughoutanindividualslife
Spongyboneisreplacedaboutevery_________________ Compactboneisreplacedaboutevery_________________

Abalancemustexistbetweentheactionsofosteoclasts andosteoblasts
Toomuchbonedepositionresultsinabnormalthickening, lengthening,anddensityofbones Toolittlebonedepositionresultsinfragilebonesthat fracturetooeasily

Remodelingrate:Diaphysisvs.Epiphyses

Osteoblastvs.Osteoclast
BoneDeposition ________________
Occurswhenboneisinjuredoraddeddemandis placedonthebone Essentialionsmustbepresent Mineralsaltcrystalspacktogetherinapatternthat reducestheriskofcracksinstressedbone

BoneResorption _______________
OsteoclastssecreteHClandlysosomalenzymes Asorganicmatrixisdegradedandthemineralsalts areleachedoutanddissolvedbytheacids,the releasedionsenterinterstitialfluidandthenthe blood