n v =
n
U = U
n
(given) where v =
n = U
n
n
= U
n
n
=
_
n
1
x
1
+ n
2
x
2
+ n
3
x
3
_
( )
3 2 1
n , n , n n =
( )
t
+
1
2
()
2
+ gy
_
+ C (t) (prescribed)
1
In general:
( )
( ) given t C gy
2
1
2
t
(
(
+


.

\

+ +
nonlinear
Free surface
0
2
=
(
given
n
=
( )
( ) given t C gy
2
1
2
t
(
(
+


.

\

+ +
nonlinear
Free surface
0
2
=
(
given
n
=
Linear Superposition for Potential Flow
In the absence of dynamic boundary conditions, the potential ow boundary value problem is
linear.
Potential function .
B on f U
n
n
= =
V in 0
2
=
Stream function .
2
V in 0
2
=
=g on B
Linear Superposition: if
1
,
2
, . . . are harmonic functions, i.e.
2
i
= 0, then =
i
, where
i
are constants, are also harmonic, and is the solution for the boundary value problem provided the
boundary conditions (kinematic boundary condition) are satised, i.e.
n
=
n
(
1
1
+
2
2
+ . . .) = U
n
on B.
The key is to combine known solution of the Laplace equation in such a way as to satisfy the K.B.C.
(kinematic boundary condition).
The same is true for the stream function . K.B.C.s specify the value of on the boundaries.
Example:
i
_
x
_
is a unitsource ow with source at
x
i
i.e.
i
_
x
_
source
_
x,
x
i
_
=
1
2
ln
x
i
(in 2D)
=
_
4
x
i
_
1
(in 3D),
then nd m
i
such that:
=
i
m
i
i
(
x) satises KBC on B
Caution: must be regular for x V , so it is required that x / V .
3
1
x
2
x
4
x
3
x
V in 0
2
=
f
n
=
Figure 1: Note: x
j
, j = 1, . . . , 4 are not in the uid domain V .
Laplace equation in dierent coordinate systems (cf Hildebrand 6.18)
1. Cartesian (x,y,z)
v =
_
i
u,
j
v,
k
w
_
= =
_
x
,
y
,
z
_
2
=
_
x
2
+
2
y
2
+
2
z
2
_
z
x
(x,y,z)
y
2. Cylindrical (r,,z)
4
r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
,
= tan
1
(y/x)
v =
_
e
r
v
r
,
e
,
e
z
v
z
_
=
_
r
,
1
r
,
z
_
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
r
2
+
1
r
r
. .
1
r
r
(
r
r
)
+
1
r
2
2
+
2
z
2
_
_
_
_
_
y
z
x
r
z
) z , r, (
3. Spherical (r,,)
r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
,
= cos
1
(x/r) or x = r (cos )
= tan
1
(z/y)
v = =
_
e
r
v
r
,
e
,
e
_
=
_
r
,
1
r
,
1
r(sin )
_
5
2
=
_
_
_
_
_
_
r
2
+
2
r
r
. .
1
r
2
r
(
r
2
r
)
+
1
r
2
sin
_
sin
_
+
1
r
2
sin
2
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
z
x
y
r(sin)
) , (r,
3.7  Simple Potential ows
1. Uniform Stream:
2
(ax + by + cz + d) = 0
1D: = Ux + constant = Uy + constant
v = (U, 0, 0)
2D: = Ux + V y + constant = Uy V x + constant
v = (U, V, 0)
3D: = Ux + V y + Wz + constant
v = (U, V, W)
2. Source (sink) ow:
2D: Polar coordinates
2
=
1
r
r
_
r
r
_
+
1
r
2
2
, with r =
_
x
2
+ y
2
An axisymmetric solution: = ln r (verify)
6
Dene 2D source of strength m at r = 0:
=
m
2
ln r
It satises
2
= 0, except at r =
_
x
2
+ y
2
= 0 (so must exclude r = 0 from ow)
=
r
e
r
=
m
2r
e
r
, i.e. v
r
=
m
2r
, v
= 0
source
(strength m)
x
y
Net outward volume ux is
_
C
v nds =
__
S
vds =
__
S
vds
_
C
v nds =
2
_
0
V
r
..
m
2r
d = m
..
source
strength
7
C
S
S
n
x
y
If m < 0 sink. Source m at (x
0
, y
0
):
=
m
2
ln
_
(x x
0
)
2
+ (y y
0
)
2
=
m
2
ln r (Potential function) =
m
2
(Stream function)
y
x
= 0
1
=
2
m
V
r
=
2
m
3D: Spherical coordinates
2
=
1
r
2
r
_
r
2
r
_
+
_
,
_
, where r =
_
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
8
A spherically symmetric solution: =
1
r
(verify
2
= 0 except at r = 0)
Dene 3D source of strength m at r = 0:
=
m
4r
, then V
r
=
r
=
m
4r
2
, V
, V
= 0
Net outward volume ux is
__
V
r
dS = 4r
2
m
4r
2
2
=
1
r
r
_
r
r
_
+
1
r
2
2
Another particular solution: = a + b (verify
2
= 0 except at r = 0)
Dene the potential for a point vortex of circulation at r = 0:
=
2
, then V
r
=
r
= 0, V
=
1
r
=
2r
and
z
=
1
r
r
(rV
) = 0 except at r = 0
Stream function:
=
2
ln r
Circulation:
_
C
1
v d
x =
_
C
2
v d
x +
_
C
1
C
2
v d
x
. .
S
z
dS=0
=
2
_
0
2r
rd =
..
vortex
strength
9
C
1
C
2
S
0 =
z
ln
_
(x )
2
+ y
2
=0
=
2
x
x
2
+ y
2
=
2
x
r
2
2D dipole (doublet) of moment at the origin oriented in the +x direction.
NOTE: dipole =
(unit source)
unit
source
x
unit
source
unit
source
x
=
2
x cos + y sin
x
2
+ y
2
=
2
cos cos + sin sin
r
3D dipole:
=lim
a0
m
4
_
_
1
_
(x a)
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
1
_
(x + a)
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
_
_
where = 2ma xed
=
4
1
_
(x )
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
=0
=
4
x
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)
3/2
=
4
x
r
3
11
3D dipole (doublet) of moment at the origin oriented in the +x direction.
5. Stream and source: Rankine halfbody
It is the superposition of a uniform stream of constant speed U and a source of strength
m.
U
m
2D:
= Ux +
m
2
ln
_
x
2
+ y
2
D
U
U
x
m
stagnation point 0 v =
Dividing
Streamline
u =
x
= U +
m
2
x
x
2
+y
2
u
y=0
= U +
m
2x
u = 0 at x = x
s
=
m
2U
12
For large x, u U, and UD = m by continuity, D =
m
U
.
3D:
= Ux
m
4
_
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
div. streamlines
stagnation point
u =
x
= U +
m
4
x
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
3/2
u
y=z=0
= U +
m
4
x
x
3
u = 0
v=w=0
at x = x
s
=
_
m
4U
For large x, u U and UA = m by continuity, A =
m
U
.
6. Stream + source/sink pair: Rankine closed bodies
13
U S S
x
y
+m m
a
dividing streamline
(see this with PFLOW)
To have a closed body, a necessary condition is to have
m
in body
= 0
2D Rankine ovoid:
= Ux +
m
2
_
n
_
(x + a)
2
+ y
2
n
_
(x a)
2
+ y
2
_
3D Rankine ovoid:
= Ux
m
4
_
_
1
_
(x + a)
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
1
_
(x a)
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
_
_
For Rankine Ovoid,
u =
x
= U +
m
4
_
x + a
_
(x + a)
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
_
3/2
x a
_
(x a)
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
_
3/2
_
u
y=z=0
=U +
m
4
_
1
(x + a)
2
1
(x a)
2
_
=U +
m
4
(4ax)
(x
2
a
2
)
2
u
y=z=0
=0 at
_
x
2
a
2
_
2
=
_
m
4U
_
4ax
14
At x = 0,
u = U +
m
4
2a
(a
2
+ R
2
)
3/2
where R = y
2
+ z
2
Determine radius of body R
0
:
2
R
0
_
0
uRdR = m
7. Stream + Dipole: circles and spheres
U
r
2D:
=Ux +
x
2r
2
, where x = r cos
=cos
_
Ur +
2r
_
then V
r
=
r
= cos
_
U
2r
2
_
So V
r
= 0 on r = a =
_
2U
_
(which is the K.B.C. for a stationary circle radius a) or choose
= 2Ua
2
.
Steady ow past a circle (U,a):
15
= U cos
_
r +
a
2
r
_
V
=
1
r
= U sin
_
1 +
a
2
r
2
_
V

r=a
= 2U sin
_
= 0 at = 0, S
A
and S
B
stagnation points.
= 2U at =
2
,
3
2
maximum tangential velocity
2U
2U
Illustration of the points where the ow reaches maximum speed around the circle.
3D:
16
y
x
r
z
U
= Ux +
4
cos
r
2
, x = r cos
V
r
=
r
= cos
_
U
2r
3
_
V
r
= 0 on r = a
. .
K.B.C. on
stationary
sphere of
radius a
a =
3
_
2U
or = 2Ua
3
Steady ow past a sphere (U, a):
= Ucos
_
r +
a
3
2r
2
_
V
=
1
r
= U sin
_
1 +
a
3
2r
3
_
V

r=a
=
3U
2
sin
_
= 0 at = 0,
=
3U
2
at =
2
x
2
3U
17
8. 2D corner ow
Potential function: = r
sin
(a)
2
=
_
2
r
2
+
1
r
r
+
1
r
2
2
_
= 0
(b)
u
r
=
r
= r
1
cos
u
=
1
r
= r
1
sin
u
= 0 { or = 0} on = n, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
i.e. on =
0
= 0,
,
2
, . . . (
0
2)
i. interior corner ow stagnation point origin: > 1.
e.g. = 1,
0
= 0, , 2, u = 1, v = 0
x
y
= 0
18
(90
o
corner)
= 0
= 0
y 2 v , x 2 u 2 ,
2
3
, ,
2
, 0 , 2
0
= =
= =
(120
o
corner)
=0, = 0
=2/3, = 0
=2, = 0
=4/3, = 0
120
o
120
o
120
o
= = 2 ,
3
4
,
3
2
, 0 , 2 3
0
19
ii. Exterior corner ow, v at origin: < 1(
1
/
2
< 1).
0
= 0,
only. Since we
need
0
2, we therefore require