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4

Basement subject to uplift

Verification of stability against uplift (UPL)

One-storey basement

Design situation

Consider a three-storey building which applies a self-weight loading at

foundation level estimated to be w

Gk

30kPa = (permanent) and carries

imposed loads on its floors and roof amounting to q

Qk

15kPa = (variable). The

building is to be supported by a one-storey basement of width B 18m = and

depth D 4.5m = . The basement walls are t

w

400mm = thick, its floors

t

f

250mm = thick, and its base slab t

b

500mm = thick. The characteristic

weight density of reinforced concrete is

ck

25

kN

m

3

= , as per EN 1991-1-1.

The ground profile comprises 20m of dense sand and groundwater levels are

close to ground level. The sand's characteristic weight density is

k

19

kN

m

3

= ,

its angle of shearing resistance

k

38 = , and its 'superior' angle of shearing

resistance

k,sup

45 = .The weight density of water should be taken as

w

9.81

kN

m

3

.

Actions

The characteristic water pressure acting on the underside of the basement is

u

k

w

D 44.1 kPa = = , giving a resultant destabilizing action underneath the

basement of U

Gk

u

k

B 795

kN

m

= = . Characteristic actions from the

super-structure are W

Gk,sup

w

Gk

B 540

kN

m

= = (permanent) and

Q

Qk,sup

q

Qk

B 270

kN

m

= = (variable).O

Characteristic self-weight of the sub-structure (basement) is:

from the walls W

Gk,w

2 t

w

D

ck

90

kN

m

= =

from the floors W

Gk,f

t

f

B 2t

f

( )

ck

109.4

kN

m

= =

from the base slab W

Gk,b

t

b

B 2t

f

( )

ck

218.8

kN

m

= =

total weight W

Gk,sub

W

Gk,w

W

Gk,f

+ W

Gk,b

+ 418

kN

m

= = O

Total self-weight of the building is W

Gk

W

Gk,sup

W

Gk,sub

+ 958

kN

m

= = .

Effects of actions

Partial factors on destabilizing permanent and variable actions are

G,dst

1.1 = and

Q,dst

1.5 = and on stabilizing permanent actions

G,stb

0.9 = . Thus the destabilizing vertical action is

V

d,dst

G,dst

U

Gk

874.1

kN

m

= = and the stabilizing vertical action

V

d,stb

G,stb

W

Gk

862.3

kN

m

= = .O

Material properties

The sand's characteristic angle of shearing resistance is

k

38 = , giving an

active earth pressure coefficient K

a,k

1 sin

k

( )

1 sin

k ( )

+

0.238 = = and angle of

wall friction

k

2

3

k

25.3 = = . Thus

k

K

a,k

tan

k ( )

0.113 = = O.

The partial factor on the coefficient of shearing resistance

1.25 = gives

a design angle of shearing resistance

d

tan

1

tan

k

( )

32 = = . Thus the

active earth pressure coefficient increases to K

a,d

1 sin

d

( )

1 sin

d ( )

+

0.307 = =

while the angle of wall friction reduces to

d

2

3

d

21.3 = = . Thus

d,inf

K

a,d

tan

d

( )

0.12 = = .O

We need to check that a lower is not obtained with the superior angle of

shearing resistance

k,sup

45 = and partial factor

,sup

1

0.8 = = . The

superior design angle of shearing resistance is then

d,sup

tan

1

tan

k,sup

( )

,sup

51.3 = = , giving

K

a,d,sup

1 sin

d,sup

( )

1 sin

d,sup ( )

+

0.123 = = and

d,sup

2

3

d,sup

34.2 = = .

Hence

d,sup

K

a,d,sup

tan

d,sup ( ) ( )

0.084 = = O

Thus

d

min

d,inf

d,sup

,

( )

0.084 = =

Resistance

The average vertical effective stress down the basement wall is:

'

v

k

w

( )

D

2

20.7kPa = =

The characteristic resistance along the basement walls is given by:

R

k

k

k

w

( )

D

2

2

10.5

kN

m

= =

The design resistance along the basement walls is given by:

R

d

d

k

w

( )

D

2

2

7.8

kN

m

= =

Verification of stability against uplift

The degree of utilization is

UPL

V

d,dst

V

d,stb

R

d

+

100% = = .O

The design is unacceptable if the degree of utilization is > 100%

The traditional lumped factor of safety for this design situation is:

F

W

Gk,sup

W

Gk,sub

+ R

k

+

U

Gk

1.22 = = O

Two-storey basement

Design situation

The building considered above is now required to have a two-storey basement

with depth D 7.5m = .

Actions

The characteristic water pressure acting on the underside of the basement is

u

k

w

D 73.6kPa = = , giving a resultant destabilizing action underneath the

basement of U

Gk

u

k

B 1324

kN

m

= = . Characteristic actions from the

super-structure remain W

Gk,sup

540

kN

m

= (permanent) and

Q

Qk,sup

270

kN

m

= (variable). The characteristic self-weight of the two

floors is now W

Gk,f

2t

f

B 2t

f

( )

ck

218.8

kN

m

= = and of the walls

W

Gk,w

2 t

w

D

ck

150

kN

m

= = , resulting in a total weight of

sub-structure W

Gk,sub

W

Gk,w

W

Gk,f

+ W

Gk,b

+ 588

kN

m

= = . Hence the

total self-weight of the building is now W

Gk

W

Gk,sup

W

Gk,sub

+ 1128

kN

m

= =

.

Effects of actions

The destabilizing vertical action is V

d,dst

G,dst

U

Gk

1456.8

kN

m

= = and

the stabilizing vertical action V

d,stb

G,stb

W

Gk

1014.8

kN

m

= = .

Material properties

Are unchanged.

Resistance

The average vertical effective stress down the basement wall is:

'

v

k

w

( )

D

2

34.5kPa = =

The characteristic resistance along the basement walls is given by:

R

k

k

k

w

( )

D

2

2

29.1

kN

m

= =

The design resistance along the basement walls is given by:

R

d

d

k

w

( )

D

2

2

21.6

kN

m

= =

Verification of stability against uplift

The degree of utilization is

UPL

V

d,dst

V

d,stb

R

d

+

141 % = = O

The design is unacceptable if the degree of utilization is > 100%

The traditional lumped factor of safety for this design situation is:

F

W

Gk,sup

W

Gk,sub

+ R

k

+

U

Gk

0.87 = = O

Additional resistance from tension piles

To overcome the shortfall in stabilizing actions and resistance, the basement

will be held down by n 4 = rows of tension piles, each pile L 10m = long and

d 450mm = in diameter. The piles will be installed using a contiguous flight

auger. Pile rows will be spaced at s 5m = spacing along the building (i.e. into

the plane of the drawing). An earth pressure coefficient K

s

1 = is assumed in

order to determine skin friction along the pile shaft.O

The average vertical effective stress along the pile shafts is:

'

v,pile

k

w

( )

D

L

2

+

114.9 kPa = = .

The characteristic resistance of each pile is given by:

R

k,pile

d L '

v,pile

tan

k

( )

K

s

768.8kN = =

and the design resistance by:

R

d,pile

d L '

v,pile

tan

k

( )

K

s

615.1 kN = =

Hence the total characteristic resistance is now:

R

k

R

k

n

s

R

k,pile

+ 644.2

kN

m

= =

and the total design resistance is:

R

d

R

d

n

s

R

d,pile

+ 513.7

kN

m

= = O

Verification of stability against uplift (with tension piles)

The degree of utilization is

UPL

V

d,dst

V

d,stb

R

d

+

95 % = = G

The design is unacceptable if the degree of utilization is > 100%

The traditional lumped factor of safety for this design situation is:

F

W

Gk,sup

W

Gk,sub

+ R

k

+

U

Gk

1.34 = = G

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