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# Schedule

16 September, Monday: 17 September, Tuesday: 23 September, Monday: 24 September, Tuesday: 30 September, Monday: 1 October, Tuesday: 7 October, Monday: 8 October, Tuesday: 14 October, Monday: 15 October, Tuesday: 21 October, Monday: 22 October, Tuesday: Intro, dimensional analysis Dimensional analysis, problems Head loss, friction factor, hydraulic diameter Problem solving Laminar & turbulent flow in pipes, channels Problems Pitot tubes, Venturi meters, rotameters Problems Pumps, valves and other fittings Net positive suction head, cavitation Test (50 mins, closed book) Solution of test, and problems
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ENGINEERING

## ChemMat 213 Transfer Processes

Measurement of flow
Murat Balaban 2013

Objectives
! To know the concepts, definitions, and terms ! To know the use of Pitot tubes, Venturi meters, orifice meters, etc. ! To solve problems related with these.

Observer effect
Measurements of certain systems cannot be made without affecting the system. So, why not affect the system on purpose, and measure affected variables? The price to pay to make such a measurement: loss of flow energy.

Throttles
A device that decreases the flow area (and causes extra flow resistance in a pipe) is called a throttle. Choke: Length of narrow section is long compared to diameter Orifice: Nozzle:

## Flow through a small hole

Orifice

Smallest cross-section of flow is at B, a small distance away from the orifice. This part of the flow is called the vena contracta.

Simplifying:

VB = 2 g H

## This is called Torricelli's theorem (Evangelista Torricelli 1644).

Coefficients
Coefficient of Contraction: Ratio of the areas: smallest cross-section of flow = AB; area of the hole: A

AB Coefficient of contractionCC = A
Coefficient of Velocity: Ratio of actual velocity V to the theoretical velocity VB:

V Coefficient of velocity CV = VB
Coefficient of Discharge: C = CC CV (about 0.6)

Flow rate Q = C A 2 ! g ! H
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Weir
Flow in a channel is restricted by a wall or a board, over which water flows. It is used to adjust flow rate.

## Flow over a weir

b is the width of the channel. We can assume a small orifice as the area b dz. From Bernoulli equation:

V = 2! g! z dQ = C b dz 2 ! g ! z

## For a coefficient of discharge C, the flow is: Integrating:

2 Q = C b 2 ! g H 3/2 3
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Orifice Meter
Placed inside a straight pipe. The difference in pressures across it is measured. Flow is calculated as:

"d Q =! 4

2 !P #

!: flow coefficient
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## d Orifice diameter != = D Pipe diameter

Define approach velocity coefficient E:

E = (1 ! ! 4 )!1/2
Then, the coefficient of discharge is C:

C=

! E

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Nozzle
Similar in principle to the orifice meter. The jet does not contract. Flow loss is much smaller than orifice meter. A discharge coefficient is not needed to correct the flow rate.

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Pitot Tube

1695 1771

## Simple device to measure local velocity of flow.

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Stagnation point

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Undisturbed flow at point A (VA, PA) At B, the flow is stopped (VB=0, PB) Apply Bernoulli equation (A,B):

PA VA2 PB VB2 + = + !g 2g !g 2g

PB ! PA VA = 2 !

In a parallel flow, the static pressure PA is the same on the streamline adjacent to A, and is detected by hole C normal to the flow. Thus, Pc = PA

PB ! PC VA = 2 = CV 2 g H !

CV = coefficient of velocity
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Pitot Tube
Point measurement. Location will make a difference in measurement: We need to know the location precisely.

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Venturi Meter
1746 1822

P1 V1

P2, V2

By continuity equation:

A2 V1 = V2 A1
By Bernoulli equation (horizontal pipe):

V22 ! V12 P1 ! P2 = 2g !g

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V2 =

2

P1 ! P2 2g !g

P1 ! P2 H= !g

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Flow rate:

Q = A2 V2 =

## A2 " A2 % 1! \$ ' # A1 &

2

2gH

To account for the loss of energy between points 1 and 2: Coefficient of discharge C:

Q=C

2

2gH

## C range: 0.6 1.0

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Problem

(McCabe p:217)

A Venturi meter is to be installed in a 100 mm diameter line to measure the flow of water. The maximum flow rate is expected to be 75m3/h at 15C. The manometer used to measure the differential pressure is to be filled with mercury, and water is to fill the leads above the surfaces of the mercury. The water temperature will be 15oC throughout. (a) If the maximum manometer reading is to be 1.25 m and the Venturi coefficient is 0.98, what throat diameter, to the nearest millimeter, should be specified for the Venturi? (b) What will be the power to operate the meter at full load if the pressure recovery is 90 percent of the differential pressure?
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Solution
Venturi equation:

Q=C

## A2 " A2 % 1! \$ ' # A1 &

2

P1 ! P2 2 !

2 2 A2 ! D2 / 4 D2 = = 2 2 A1 ! D1 / 4 D1

## m 3 1hr 75 = 0.0208 m 3 / s volumetric flow rate hr 3600 s

Assume density of the water =1000 kg/m3
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## Calculate H using mercury and water:

P1 ! P2 H= = 1.25 m !g

## P1 ! P2 = H ! g = (1.25 m )(9.81 m / s 2 )(13.6 ! 1.0 unitless )(1000 kg / m 3 ) = 154507 N / m 2

A2 " A2 % 1! \$ ' # A1 &
2

Q=C

P1 ! P2 !

0.0208 = 0.98

## A2 " D2 % 1! \$ ' # 0.1 m &

4

154507 2 1000

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0.03901

0.001207 =

! D2 2
" D2 % 4 1! \$ ' # 0.1 m &
4

or

0.001537 =

2 2 4

## " D2 % 1! \$ ' # 0.1 m &

0.03896 0.03895 0.03894 0.0375 0.038 0.0385 0.039 0.0395 0.04 0.0405

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## Numerical solution (Newton-Raphson)

Given a function f(x) = 0, calculate the roots (find x that makes f(x) = 0) Step 1: Express the function of the form f(x) = 0 Step 2: Express the derivative of the function d(f(x))/dx as f(x) Step 3: Guess an initial x value, x0 (critical step, inappropriate guess Step 4: Calculate f(x0) and f(x0) Step 5: calculate x1 = x0 f(x0) / f(x0) Step 6: If abs(x0-x1) < e then stop, and accept the value of x1 Step 7: Otherwise, replace x0 with x1, and go to step 4 Step 8: Stop when the difference between iterations becomes very small.
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## Apply to the problem

" D2 % 2 0.001537 1 ! \$ ' ! D2 = 0 # 0.1 m &
4% 4 %1/2 " " " % "x% x 2 2 \$ ' ' f ( x ) = 0.001537 1 ! \$ ! x = A\$ 1 ! ! x =0 ' \$ ' \$ #B& ' \$ # 0.1 m & ' # & # &
0.002

1/2

f '( x ) = !

2 Ax 3 B
2

0.0015

B !x

! 2x

0.001 0.0005 0

0.02

0.04

0.06

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(0.038976411)

## When it works, Newton-Raphson converges very rapidly.

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Thermal anemometers
An electrically heated wire, or a heated film is used. The heat loss from the heated element is correlated with the flow of fluid:

q = I 2 ! = a + b( ! V ) n
q: Heat loss I: current #: electrical resistance a, b: experimental constants n: 1/3 at low Re, ! at high Re

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## Area flowmeter (rotameter)

Pressure difference across measurement is constant. The level of restriction changes. A float is suspended vertically in a tapered tube. The combined forces of pressure drag, frictional drag, and buoyancy balance the weight of the float. Ignoring friction, the flow rate Q is given by:

Q = Cd aX

2 g v (! f ! ! ) ! ao

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Q = Cd aX

2 g v (! f ! ! ) ! ao

Cd: Coefficient of discharge aX: Area of the annulus through which the fluid passes outside the float ao: maximum cross sectional area of the float v: volume of the float \$f: density of the float \$: density of the fluid
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## Turbine flow meters

A rotating propeller is mounted in the conduit. The propellers speed of rotation is measured by electrical or magnetic means.

## The rate of rotation is proportional to the volume flow rate.

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Rotating sensors
Cup anemometers are widely used in atmospheric or oceanographic applications.

## The rotation rate is approximately proportional to flow velocity

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Others
Laser Doppler Devices: Scattering of laser light by particles in a moving stream is measured. Advantages: Small observation volume possible Velocity is measured directly Works for both gases and liquids Fluid not disturbed by measurement Disadvantages: Complex and finicky Expensive
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Magnetic flowmeter: Works for conducting fluids. No pressure loss, and regardless of viscosity, specific gravity pressure, or Re
A magnetic field of flux density B is applied normal to the flow direction. An electromotive force E proportional to the mean flow velocity V is induced in the liquid (Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction) Amplification of this emf permits computation of the volume flow rate Q.

## E = B DV units : Weber / m 2 = Tesla ! DE Q= 4B

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Ultrasonic flowmeter: Piezocrystals A and B are located a distance L. An ultrasonic pulse is sent from A to B and received after a time t1 Then a pulse is sent from B to A, and received after t2.

## L "1 1 % V= \$ ! ' 2 cos(! ) # t1 t2 &

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Problem
1- A Pitot tube is placed at 4 cm from the wall of a 10 cm diameter pipe in which water is flowing at a laminar regime. The height of the water head is read as 0.02 cm. Assume the coefficient of velocity is 1. a)! Confirm that the flow is laminar b)! What is the flow rate of the water in the pipe?

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Solution
V Radius r -R X +R

Flow

## If the flow is laminar, then the velocity profile will be parabolic.

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Method: 1- Calculate the local velocity at X using the Pitot equation. 2- Calculate Vmax 3- Calculate average V (Also calculate Re to confirm laminar flow) 4- Calculate flow rate

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## From Pitot equation:

PB ! PC VX = 2 = 2gH !
P1 ! P2 H= = 0.0002 m !g
P1 ! P2 = H ! g = (0.0002 m )(1000 kg / m 3 )(9.81 m / s 2 ) =1.96 kg / (m s 2 )

## PB ! PC (2 )(1.96) m 2 VX = 2 = = 0.063 m / s 2 ! 1000 s

(Or plug in H directly in Vx equation above)
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Develop the expression of the velocity V as a function of radius r. What we know: 1- When r = -R, V = 0 2- When r = 0 V = Vmax 3- When r = +R, V=0
V -R X Flow Radius r +R

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## Subtract 1-3: 0 = 0 -2 b R +0 Therefore, b = 0 Substitute in 1, solve for a: Equation is then:

2+ ( "r% !Vmax 2 Vr = 2 r + Vmax = Vmax * 1!\$ ' * # & R R ) ,

a=-Vmax/R2

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## Substitute r = 1 cm =0.01 m Calculate Vmax

V Radius r -R X +R

Vr Vmax = ( " r %2 + * ' *1 ! \$ # & R ) , 0.063 m / s 0.063 Vmax = = = 0.065 m / s 2 ( " 0.01 % + 0.96 * ' *1 ! \$ # & 0.05 ) ,

Flow

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Calculate Vav:

Flow rate:

## Q = Vav A = Vav ! D / 4 = (0.033 m / s )(3.1416)(0.01)2 / 4 = 2.6 cm 3 / s

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Problem
A weir placed on a rectangular conduit (2 m wide, 1 m deep), has a height of 0.5 m. The height of the water flowing over the weir is 30 cm. Assume the coefficient of discharge is 1. Calculate the Reynolds number in the conduit. What would change if the coefficient of discharge was 0.7?

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Solution
To calculate the Re for a non-circular conduit, we need to know the flow geometry:
y

## This is a partially filled rectangular channel.

Vav Deq ! Re =
In the channel: b=2m y = 0.5+0.3 = 0.8 m

## yb Deq = 4 Rh = 4 2y + b = 4(0.8)(2) / (1.6 + 2) =1.78 m

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To calculate Re, we need to calculate Vav. Approach: 1- Calculate the flow rate of the water over the weir by using the weir equation 2- By continuity equation, this must be the same flow rate in the channel. 3- Knowing the cross sectional area of the channel, calculate average velocity.

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## 2 Q = C b 2 ! g H 3/2 3 2 Q = 1 (2 m ) (2)! 9.81 m / s 2 (0.3 m )3/2 = 5.906(0.3)3/2 = 0.97 m 3 / s 3

In the channel:

Q = Vav A = Vav b y

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For C = 0.7:

## 2 Q = C b 2 ! g H 3/2 3 2 Q = (0.7)(2 m ) (2)! 9.81 m / s 2 (0.3 m )3/2 = 4.13(0.3)3/2 = 0.68 m 3 / s 3

0.68 m 3 / s Vav = = 0.42 m / s (2 m )(0.8 m )

## (0.42)(1.78)(1000) Re = = 472338 !6 160010

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Problem
3- A volume of 3.6 x 10-3 m3 /s of water flows from an orifice of diameter d = 50 mm in the side of a water tank. Water height from surface to orifice is 46 cm. The minimum diameter of the jet flow is d' = 40 mm. Obtain the contraction coefficient Ce, velocity coefficient Cv and discharge coefficient C of this orifice.

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Solution
AB Coefficient of contractionCC = A
V Coefficient of velocity CV = VB
V: Actual velocity VB: Theoretical velocity Coefficient of Discharge: C = CC CV

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## AB ! D / 4 ! DB \$ ! 40 mm \$ CC = = =# & =# & = 0.64 A ! D / 4 " D % " 50 mm %

2 B 2

VB = 2 g H = (2 )9.81 m / s 2 )(0.46 m ) = 3 m / s
Actual average velocity = vol. flow rate/area

## 3.6 x 10 -3 m 3 /s 3.6 x 10 -3 m 3 /s V= = = 1.83 m / s 2 2 ! D /4 ! D /4

V 1.83 Coefficient of velocity CV = = = 0.61 VB 3
Coefficient of Discharge: C = CC CV =(0.64)(0.61)= 0.39
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Problem
2- An orifice meter, consisting of a 0.1 m diameter orifice in a 0.25 m diameter pipe, has a coefficient of discharge of 0.65. The pipe transports oil with a density of 900 kg m"3 and the pressure difference across the orifice plate is measured by a mercury manometer, the leads to the gauge being filled with oil. If the difference in the mercury levels in the manometer is 0.76 m, calculate the flow rate of oil in the pipe line.

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Solution
Vav, B = C 2( PA ! PB ) ( " %2 + D ! f *1 ! \$ 2 ' * ) # D1 & ,

## PA ! PB = zm g ( ! mercury ! !oil ) = (0.76 m )(9.81 m / s 2 )(13.6 ! 0.9)1000 kg / m 3 3 kg = 94.69 x10 m s2

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2(94.69 x10 3 )kg / m s 2 Vav, B = 0.65 = 15.8 m / s 2 ( " 0.1 % + 3 900 kg / m *1 ! \$ '* ) # 0.25 & ,
Volumetric flow rate = Area at B x velocity at B = (3.14)(0.1)2/4 m2(15.8 m/s) = 0.12 m3/s

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2- A Venturi meter used to measure the volumetric flow rate of water has a throat diameter of 75 mm in a pipe diameter of 150 mm. Calculate the flow rate if the difference in level in a mercury U-tube manometer is 178 mm, the mercury being in contact with the water. Assume the coefficient of discharge to be 0.97.

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Solution
Q=C A2 " A2 % 1! \$ ' # A1 &
2

P1 ! P2 2 !

## Use H to calculate %P:

H=

P1 ! P2 = 0.178 m !g

## P1 ! P2 = H ! g = (0.178 m )(9.81 m / s 2 )(13.6 ! 1.0 unitless )(1000 kg / m 3 )

Plug in the numbers above.

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