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Chapter 2 Nutrition

a) Carbohydrates
-To supply energy
b) Protein
-To replace body tissues
-To build new cells
-Required for the formation of enzymes, hormones, haemoglobies and antibodies
c) Fats
-Help to keep our body warm
-Protects organ like heart and kidney from damage
-Dissolves vitamins A, D, E, and K
d) Vitamins
-To maintain a healthy body and to prevent diseases
(i)Vitamin Ato prevent night-blindness and skin infections
(ii)Vitamin Bto prevent beri-beri and pallegra and anaemia
(iii)Vitamin Cto prevent scurvy (bleeding gums)
(iv)Vitamin Dto prevent rickets and tooth decay
(v)Vitamin Eto prevent sterility
(vi)Vitamin Kblood clotting
e) Minerals
Mineral Source Function Deficiency disease
Calcium Cheese, milk, eggs, -Strong bones and -Rickets
green vegetables teeth -Osteoporosis
-blood clotting -Prolonged bleeding
-Muscle and nerve -Muscular cramps
Sodium Table salt, cheese, -Maintains body -Muscular cramps
meat fluid
-Proper functioning
of nerves
Iron Meat, eggs, green -needed to form -Anaemia
vegetables raemoglobin in red
blood cell
Iodine Seafood, iodised salt -Needed to make -Goitre (swelling of
hormones of the the thyroid gland in
thyroid gland the neck
Phosphorus Eggs, meat, milk, -Strong bones and )-Rickets
cheese, vegetables teeth -Weakness
-Muscle contraction
-Stores energy
Potassium Meat, nuts, bananas -Maintains body -Weak muscle
fluid -Paralysis
-Proper functioning
of nerves
-Regulations of
f) Water
-To dissolve chemicals in the body
- To regulate our body temperature
-To dispose waste substances like urea and salt through urine and sweat
g) Fibre
-To prevent constipation

Food Test
Food Tests Results
Starch Put a few drops of iodine on starchy food A blue black color is
formed if the substances
contains starch
Glucose A few drops of Benedict’s solution or A brick red precipitate is
Ehling’s solution and the food substances are form if the food substances
heated in a water bath contains glucose
Protein A few of Million’s reagent and the food A red precipitate is formed
substances are heated in a water bath if the food substances
contains protein
Fats Rub the food substances on a filter paper A translucent grease mark
is formed if the food
contains fat.

Human Digestive System

Organs Mouth Oesophagu Stomach Duodenum Small
s Intestine
Secretion Saliva - i)Gastric i)Bile -
juice ii)
ii)hydrochlo Pancreatic
ric acid juice
Enzymes Salivary - Protease i)amylase i)maltose
amylase ii)Protease ii)Protease
iii)Lipase iii)Lipase
Actions Starch Peristalsis Protein Emulsifies Maltose
Maltose Polypeptides fat into oil Glucose
-Kills the droplets Polypeptides
bacteria in Starch  amino
the food maltose acids
-Provides an Protein Fats Fatty
acidic Polypeptides Acid +
medium Fats glycerol
suitable for Fatty acid +
the action of glycerol