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Settlement beneath cylindrical shells

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in which: t r (1 b1 ) b2 = 1 b b1 = 0.5 (13) (14)

and b (= 0.40 perhaps) is the value of under conditions of global bending (n = 1). The harmonic localisation at which there is no reduction in buckling strength as a result of imperfections is n = 1/b1 . Rotter (1987) used this procedure to assess the likelihood of failure for a steel water storage tank in Queensland, Australia. The shell was analysed under measured settlement patterns at different times and the calculated maximum compressive axial membrane stress was compared with the buckling strength to obtain the apparent factor of safety M = cr,Rk /xoEd . The nite element analysis also provided details of the deformed geometry, notably the radial displacements of the eaves. A key feature of the evaluation was a forecasting of the reduction of the safety factor with time, which could be projected into the future for forecasting purposes. It should be noted that it is difcult to forecast the magnitude of warping differential settlements before a tank is constructed, but when a tank is already differentially settling, observations at different times can be most usefully employed to evaluate the likelihood that they will eventually lead to failure. Yielding of the ring under circumferential stresses The circumferential stresses that develop in the ring are caused by bending of the ring about a vertical axis, which is known as circumferential bending. These stresses may lead to yielding in the extreme bres of the ring. When yielding occurs, the ring stiffness declines, leading to a relaxation of these stresses, and slightly larger out-of-round deformations of the tank eaves. The eaves ring may then become less effective in its other roles (e.g. as a wind girder), but rst yield of the eaves ring should not be considered a very serious condition. Buckling of the eaves ring Very little information is available on the possibility of buckling of the eaves ring due to differential settlements. However, Jonaidi and Ansourian (1997) reported that their calculations of an example tank structure became unstable at a certain amplitude of settlement because the eaves ring experienced distortional buckling (tripping). Moreover, this buckle could not be prevented by the use of stiffeners at 4.3 intervals. This nding matches the expectations from Jumikis and Rotter (1983) and Teng and Rotter (1988) who showed that such buckles in rings should