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Overview: Communications technology affects all aspects of our lives in a fundamental way.

Having an understanding of communications technology is an important part of being both technologically and media literate. Communications technology courses are project-based and will provide students with opportunities to acquire the knowledge and skills required to design, use, and manage electronic, live, recorded, and graphic communications systems, specifically in the areas of T , video, and movie production! radio and audio production! print and graphic communications! photography! digital imaging! broadcast journalism! and interactive new media and animation. These courses will help students understand the effects of communications technology on the environment and society. "tudents will also e#amine standards and regulations governing communications technology, health and safety issues, careers in the field, and the importance of lifelong learning, and will learn about the $ssential "kills and work habits that are important for success in careers in the field. Unit 1 (Visual representation and Design concepts: Lettering, sketching, logo, icon, 2 D layout, etc. The most basic form of non-verbal communication is drawing and writing.
!he "raphic language:

%lthough people around the world speak different languages, a universal graphic language has e#isted since the earliest of times. The earliest form of writing were through picture forms, later these forms were simplified and became the abstract symbols used in our writing today. % drawing is a graphic representation of a real thing, an idea, or a proposed design for later manufacture or construction. &rawings may take many forms, but the graphic method of representation is a basic natural form of communication of ideas that is universal and timeless in character. isual 'graphic( representation has been developed along two distinct lines, according to the purpose) *( artistic +( technical

,rom the beginning of time, artists have used drawings to e#press aesthetic, philosophic, or other abstract ideas. -eople learned by listening to their and by looking at sculptures, pictures, or drawings in public places. $verybody could understand pictures, and they were principle source of information. The artist was not just artist in the aesthetic sense, but also a teacher or philosopher, a means of e#pression and communication. The other line along which drawing has developed has been technical. ,rom the beginning of recorded history people have used drawings to represent the design of objects to be built or constructed. .f these earliest drawings no trace remains, but we definitely know that drawings were used, for people could not have designed and built as they did without using fairly accurate drawings. 1.# Lettering: The designs of modern alphabets had their origin in $gyptian hieroglyphics '/0ha12r.34l1f/ HYR-o-GLIF(, were a formal writing system used by the ancient $gyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. $gyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood.

The phonetician alphabet was later adopted by the 5reeks, but it evolved into two distinct types in different sections of 5reece. 6n this manner the western 5reek alphabet became the 7atin alphabet about 2

899 :.C. .riginally the ;oman capital alphabet consisted of ++ characters, and these have remained practically unchanged to this day. The numerous modern styles of letter were derived from the design of the original ;oman capitals. $ingle stroke "othic lettering "ingle stroke 5othic lettering was created by <. C.=. ;einhardt. .ver time, the lettering got standardi>ed and in *?@A the %merican Bational "tandards 6nstitute C%B"6D suggested letters forms that are now generally considered as standard. 7ettering on drawings must be legible and suitable for easy and rapid e#ecution. The single-stroke 5othic letters shown in the below diagram meet these requirements. ,or the purpose of his course we only concentrate on upper case letters.

The following characteristics are important for proper lettering) Eniformity) Eniformity of lettering is always essential. Eniformity in height, proportion, inclination, strength of lines, spacing of letters and spacing of words insures a pleasant appearance. .ptical 6llusions) 5ood lettering involves artistic design, in which the white and back areas are carefully balanced to produce pleasing effect. 7etters are designed to look well and some allowances must be made for errors in perception. Bote in the diagram above that the width of standard H is less than its height to eliminate a square appearance, the numeral is

narrower at the top to give it stability and the width of letter = is greater than its height for the acute angles in the = give it a compressed appearance. "tability) 6f the upper portions of certain letters and numerals are equal in width to the lower portions, the characters appear topheavy. To correct this, the upper portions are reduced in si>e where possible, thereby producing the effect of stability and more pleasing appearance.

6t is important to pay attention to hand position and basic lettering strokes)

-osition of hand in 7ettering

7ettering -encils and -ens Lettering %encils and %ens: -encil letters are be best made with medium-soft lead with a conical point or with suitable thin-lead pencil. Today the majority of drawings are finished in pencil and reproduced. To reproduce well by any

process, the pencil lettering must be dense black as should all other final lines on the drawing. The best pencils for lettering on most surfaces are the H, ,, and H: grades. <echanical pencils will give more consistent results than traditional wooden ones. :ut if you use a wooden pencil, rotate it as you draw to keep wear it even on the point. 6f pen is used for lettering, the choice is determined by the si>e and style of the letters, the thickness of strokes desired, and the personal preference of the drafter. =e will only use pencils to do lettering in this course. &pplications o' lettering: There are many different places that lettering is used. $#amples include) mechanical drawings, architectural drawings, sketching, graphic design, web design, logo design, illustration, +& and @& layouts, etc. 2.# $ketching: &efine "F$TCH6B5 in one sentenceG "ketching is a rapid, freehand method of drawing without the use of drawing instruments. "ketching is also a thinking process and a method of communication. :eing another form of visual representation, like lettering, sketching also has two distinct forms) artistic and technical. ,or the purpose of this course we will only concentrate on technical sketching. $ketching techni(ues: %ny good technical illustration starts with well e#ecuted line art. =hen sketching lines, keep your eye on the endpoint and make quick light strokes at first. &arken only the lines you want. Ese very light construction lines H:o# inI the rough outline of the object. &arken only the lines you wish to keep. Clean up the edges and rough spots. Jou will need to have an understanding of the perspective drawing to be able to make sense of sketching drawings. Be#t we will go over some of the different forms of perspective drawing. %erspective drawing: a( *--oint -erspective is where all of the major vanishing points for the buildings or an object in the foreground converge at one central location '* point( on the hori>on line. The angle of view or -oint .f iew '-. ( is referred to as Bormal iew perspective.

$#amples of +-point perspective drawings include)

Understanding pro)ection and views:

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*.# Design +le,ents (-olor, line, space, 'or, and te.ture and %rinciples (/alance, rhyth,, proportion, contrast and 'low &esign elements and principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of good visual design. &esign elements are the basic units of a painting, drawing, design or other visual piece and include) Line % line is a fundamental mark or stroke used in drawing in which the length is longer than the width. Two connected points form a line and every line has a length, width, and direction if it is straight .

-olor Color can play a large role in the elements of design with the color wheel being used as a tool, and color theory providing a body of practical guidance to color mi#ing and the visual impacts of specific color combination.

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Color star containing primary, secondary, and tertiary colors. Eses Color can aid organi>ation so develop a color strategy and stay consistent with those colors. 6t can give emphasis to create a hierarchy &ttri0utes Hue alues and tints and shades of colors that are created by adding black to a color for a shade and white for a tint. Creating a tint or shade of a color reduces the saturation. "aturation gives a color brightness or dullness. $hape % shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space ne#t to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of differences of value, color, or te#ture. %ll objects are composed of shapes and all other K$lements of &esignK are shapes in some way.

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!e.ture

The treeKs visual te#ture is represented here in this image. <eaning the way a surface feels or is perceived to feel. Te#ture can be added to attract or repel interest to an element, depending on the pleasantness of the te#ture. $pace 6n design, space is concerned with the area deep within the moment of designated design, the design will take place on. ,or a two-dimensional design space concerns creating the illusion of a third dimension on a flat surface) 1or, ,orm is any three dimentional object. ,orm can be measured, from top to bottom 'height(, side to side 'width(, and from back to front 'depth(. ,orm is also defined by light and dark. There are two types of form, geometric 'man-made( and natural 'organic form(. ,orm may be created by the combining of two or more shapes. 6t may be enhanced by tone, te#ture and color. 6t can be illustrated or constructed.

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Principles of design -rinciples applied to the ele,ents o' design that bring them together into one design. How one applies these principles determines how successful a design may be. Unity23ar,ony %ccording to %le# =hite, author of The Elements of Graphic Design, to achieve visual unity is a main goal of graphic design. =hen all elements are in agreement, a design is considered unified. Bo individual part is viewed as more important than the whole design. % good balance between unity and variety must be established to avoid a chaotic or a lifeless design. /alance 6t is a state of equali>ed tension and equilibrium, which may not always be calm. !ypes

The top image has symmetrical balance and the bottom image has asymmetrical balance "ymmetry %symmetrical produces an informal balance that is attention attracting and dynamic.

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$cale2proportion Esing the relative si>e of elements against each other can attract attention to a focal point. =hen elements are designed larger than life, scale is being used to show drama. -ontrasts "pace o ,illed / $mpty o Bear / ,ar o +-& / @-& -osition o 7eft / ;ight o 6solated / 5rouped o Centered / .ff-Center ,orm o "imple / Comple# o :eauty / Egly o =hole / :roken &irection o "tability / <ovement "tructure o .rgani>ed / Chaotic o <echanical / Hand-&rawn "i>e o 7arge / "mall o &eep / "hallow o ,at / Thin Color o 5rayscale / Color o 7ight / &ark Te#ture o ,ine / Coarse o "mooth / ;ough o "harp / &ull &ensity o Transparent / .paque o Thick / Thin o 7iquid / "olid 5ravity o 7ight / Heavy o "table / Enstable

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4e'erences:
*( http)//www.kellscraft.com/$ssentialsof7ettering/$ssentialsof7etteringContentage.html

+( -rinciples of $ngineering 5raphics, 5iesecke, <itchell, "pencer @( http)//www.automotiveillustrations.com/tutorials/perspectivedrawing-basics.html L( http)//www.leslietryon.com/art9M9+/+ptdrawing.pdf A( http)//www.automotiveillustrations.com/tutorials/perspectivedrawing-basics.html N( http)//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/&esignOelementsOandOprinciples 8( http)//www.johnlovett.com/test.htm

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