You are on page 1of 66

UDELAR

School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-1-
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Lecture 7: Fiberline unit operations: pulp
washing and screening, pumping,
agitation & mixing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-2-
Pulp washing and screening
1. Pulp mill fiberline after cooking
2. Purpose of pulp washing
3. Terminology of pulp washing
4. Washing calculations
Mass balances and washing efficiency calculations
5. Industrial pulp washing practices
Washing equipment
Washing systems/Fray Bentos
6. Purpose of pulp screening
7. Theoretical aspects and terminology of screening
8. Screening equipment and screening systems;
location in the process
9. General unit operations of pulp suspensions
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-3-
Process stages pulp mill fiberline
Woodyard
Cooking
Washing & screening
Oxygen delignification
Bleaching
Pulp drying
Pulp baling
Unit operations with:
- Fiber suspensions
- Fiber beds
Unit operations with:
- Chips
- Chip beds
Unit operations with:
- Fiber suspensions
- Fiber beds
- Fiber sheets
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-4-
Brown stock fiberline
Woodyard
Cooking
Washing & screening
Oxygen delignification
Bleaching
Pulp drying
Connected to each other by:
- Counter-current washing
- Black liquor system
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-5-
Brown stock fiberline of a pulp mill
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-6-
Pulp washing
Objective of pulp washing:
Removing black liquor from the cooked pulp by
using as little fresh water as possible
The removed black liquor needs to be as
concentrated as possible in order to save steam
in evaporation (therefore as little fresh wash
water as possible!)
The washed pulp has to be as clean (of the
dissolved organic material of cooking) as
required in order to save chemicals in oxygen
delignification and bleaching
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-7-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-8-
Connecting pulp washing with the fibreline
Pulp washing is a multi-stage and countercurrently
combined separation process
Cooking
Chips
Black liquor to evaporation
White liquor
Screening
Rejects
Pulp
washing
O
2
-
delig.
Pulp
washing
Wash water
Bleaching
Drying Baling
Pumping to the paper mill (integrated production)
Baled market pulp
Brown stock fiberline
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-9-
Pulp washing is an optimization task where different cost
factors are compared. However, the limiting factor is
certain demand for the washing loss
Operational
costs, /ton pulp
Wash water, m
3
/ton pulp
Chemical costs
(bleaching, make-up chemicals)
Evaporation costs
Optimum operational costs
Demand for the washing loss
(Bleaching, environmental load,
Pulp quality factors)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-10-
What are the substances to be washed away
in pulp washing?
The total dissolved material in black liquor is the main target
to be washed away (dissolved solids, DS)
Often the result of washing the organic and inorganic matter is
measured separately from each other: The organic matter is
described with the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and the
inorganic matter eg. with the amount of sodium, often
calculated as sodium sulphate (Na
2
SO
4
)
The washing efficiency in terms of the COD correlates with
the performance of oxygen delignification and bleaching (1 kg
COD corresponds 0,6 0,8 kg act. Cl in bleaching) as well as
with the COD- ja organochlorine- discharges from bleaching
The Na-washing loss was earlier in the general use because
the sodium loss in the washed pulp represented one of the
main losses from the chemical circulation (in terms of the cost
effect)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-11-
Terminolgy of pulp washing
Washing loss (carry-over, soda loss):
Describes the amount of washable material entering
oxygen delignification or bleaching per ton of pulp
Can be expressed as COD-loss (kg COD/ ton pulp),
dissolved solids loss (kg DS/ton of pulp) or sodium
loss (eg. kg Na
2
SO
4
/ton pulp)
Determination of the washing loss is standardized
(eg. according to SCAN or Tappi standards). Many
mills have their own fast methods that may give
different results from the standard metods
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-12-
Washing terminolgy
Dilution factor (DF):
DF = total wash water amount (m
3
/ton pulp) the
water amount in the washed pulp (m
3
/ton pulp)
The dilution factor keeps constant in all the
equipment in the washing line provided that the
filtrates are connected in complete countercurrent
and if the washing line is completely in balance
The dilution factor is the main control parameter
of the pulp washing line
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-13-
Liquor amount in pulp
Assume: C = fiber consistency in the pulp
suspension, as % of fibers
Assume 100 kg of fiber suspension =>
we have C kg fibers
we have 100 C kg liquor
Liquid amount in the pulp suspension as
kg liquid/kg of pulp or m
3
/ton of pulp =>
L = (100 C)/C
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-14-
Liquor and Water amount in pulp:
Pulp consistency C as %
Pulp amount P as ODT or ADT (0,9 ODT)
Pulp suspension amount tons, S
P
= (P/C)*100
Water content in pulp suspension (m3) ton/ODT pulp L = S
P
- P
L = (P/C)*100 P
L = P* (100 C)
C
If P is 1 ODT, liquor L m3 or ton/ODT
c
c
L

=
100
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-15-
Washing terminology
Definitions of the washing efficiency:
E-factor, Nordn number: The most widely used
parameter for the washing efficiency. It expresses
how many ideal mass transfer stages (dilution-
thickening stages) there are in the washing system
or in a certain washing apparatus
Displacement ratio, DR: Traditional measure for
washing efficiency. Commonly used in many
countries (North America, Asia).
Recovery rate, washing yield: Expresses the
recovery rate of the washable substance in relation
to the input from cooking and oxygen delignification
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-16-
Principles of washing
The most simple pulp washing principle is the
dilution of pulp with the washing liquid followed by
thickening (consistency increase). Commonly used
in the washing of mechanical pulps and in small
production pulping lines
The most important washing principle is
displacement washing where the clean washing
liquor displaces the dirtier one from the pulp
suspension. Displacement commonly takes place
at a consistency of 10 12 % which often means
that there has to pre-thickening of pulp to the
desired consistency ahead of the displacement.
The third principle is pressing (> 30 % consistency).
The pressing may take place after displacement or
can be just directly thickening by means of pressing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-17-
Washing?
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-18-
Washing principles
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-19-
Principles washing
Dilution washing
Displacement washing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-20-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-21-
Wash water used in pulp washing
The wash water is commonly hot water of 70 80
o
C and it is obtained from the hot water system of
the pulp mill. Often also the secondary
condensates from the evaporation plant are used
but they may be unclean (rather high concentration
of COD) which needs to be taken into account when
evaluationg the washing loss to bleaching.
In unbleached mills producing unbleached pulp and
further eg. brown paper or carton board, the
circulation water of the paper/board machine may
be used as wash water.
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-22-
Washing efficiency
Pulp in
Feed consistency C
o
Liquid with pulp L
o
Washable material conc. x
o
Outlet consistency C
1
Liquid with pulp L
1
Washable material conc. x
1
Pulp out
Wash water in
Filtrate out
Wash water V
2
Washable material conc. y
2
Filtrate V
1
Concentration of washable material y
1
The principal drawing of a washing stage:
- All liquid streams m
3
/ton pulp
- All concentrations of the washable material in the same unit
(eg. g/l, w-% etc.)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-23-
Washing efficiency:
Balances
1 1 2 0
V L V L + = +
1 1 1 1 2 2 0 0
V y L x V y L x + = +
1 2
L V DF =
Total liquid balance
Balance of the washable material
Dilution factor
Pulp in
Feed consistency C
o
Liquid with pulp L
o
Washable material conc. x
o
Outlet consistency C
1
Liquid with pulp L
1
Washable material conc. x
1
Pulp out
Wash water in
Filtrate out
Wash water V
2
Washable material conc. y
2
Filtrate V
1
Concentration of washable material y
1
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-24-
Washing efficiency:
E-factor
|
|
.
|

\
|
(

=
1
2
2 1 1
1
ln
) (
) (
ln
L
V
y x L
y x L
E
o o
c
c
L

=
100
Pulp in
Feed consistency C
o
Liquid with pulp L
o
Washable material conc. x
o
Outlet consistency C
1
Liquid with pulp L
1
Washable material conc. x
1
Pulp out
Wash water in
Filtrate out
Wash water V
2
Washable material conc. y
2
Filtrate V
1
Concentration of washable material y
1
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-25-
y,x-diagram of pulp washing
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x
y
Equilibrium curve
y = x
Operational line
y = (L/V)x + A
Washable pulp
Washed pulp
The number of equilibrium stages =E-value
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-26-
Washing efficiency:
E-factor values
E-factor is practically constant regardless of dilution
factor
E-factor is characteristic of each washing equipment
type. It can be determined experimentally
Ideal displacement: E = indefinite
Dilution + thickening: E =1
In practice the E-value of washing equipment
varies between 2 - 10
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-27-
Washing efficiency:
Displacement ratio, DR
2 0
1 0
y x
x x
DR

=
Pulp in
Feed consistency C
o
Liquid with pulp L
o
Washable material conc. x
o
Outlet consistency C
1
Liquid with pulp L
1
Washable material conc. x
1
Pulp out
Wash water in
Filtrate out
Wash water V
2
Washable material conc. y
2
Filtrate V
1
Concentration of washable material y
1
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-28-
Washing equipment and their operational
principles
Digester washing:
Continuous cooking Hi-Heat washing
Displacement batch cooking (SuperBatch) terminal
displacement
Diffuser washing:
Single or two phase atmospheric diffuser
Pressure diffuser
Drum filters:
Vacuum filters
Pressure filters
Multistage displacement washers:
DD-washers
Flat wire washers
Wash presses:
Dilution-thickener presses (screw or roll presses)
Displacement presses (Twinroll-, Compact Presses, AWP)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-29-
Continuous cooking Hi Heat washing
- Wash temperature 130 160
o
C
- Washing time 2 4 h
- E-value at best >10, typically 6 8
-- In modern digesters washing zone shorter, E-value 3-4
- The washing stage is sensitive to the channeling of the
wash liquid, which can be emerged when running the digester
over the nominal capacity
>120
o
C
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-30-
The terminal displacement of the
SuperBatch cooking
Wash temperature 95 160
o
C
No heating of the wash liquid
Washing time 40 50 min
E-value = 2 - 3
The main purpose of the terminal displacement of
batch cooking is the heat recovery which is clearly
more efficient than the actual washing
phenomenon (mass transfer).
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-31-
Diffuser washers
- Feed consistency 8 12 %; outlet
consistency about the same
- The washing is based on
pure displacement
- Stepwise operation:
- Screens up =
washing stage
-Fast return down when the
screens are cleaned
- E-values:
- One stage 4 6
- Two stages 7 8,5
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-32-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-33-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-34-
Diffuser washers: the connection of an
atmospheric diffuser with the continuous
cooking digester washing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-35-
Pressure diffuser
- Washing can be performed in
120 130
o
C
- Displacement in overpressure
- Otherwise the same operational
principle as with atmospheric
diffusers
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-36-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-37-
Drum washers
- Traditonal pulp washer type,
still used in many pulp mills
- Washing is based on thickening
and displacment
- Outlet consistency 12 14 %
- The required pressure
difference either with vacuum
or overpressure
- E-values typically 2 - 4
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-38-
Wire washing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-39-
Wire washing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-40-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-41-
Drum filter washers
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-42-
Drum Displacer Washers
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-43-
Multistage washing: DD-washer
In the same washer
there can be 1 4
Washing stages
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-44-
Operation principle of 4-stage DD Washer
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-45-
1. web formation section
2. first washing stage
3. second washing stage
4. pulp discharging
1
2
3
4
1 2 3 4
Operation principle of 2-stage DD Washer
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-46-
Multistage washing: DD-washer
In the same washing apparatus 1 4 countercurrent
washing stages can be performed
Feed consistency either 3 4 % (LCDD) or
8 10 % (MCDD)
Max. capacity in the range of 5000 ton/d
E-value = 12 -15 (4-stages)
= 5 10 (1 2-stages)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-47-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-48-
Wash presses
Twinroll-press:
Feed pulp
Wash liquid Filtrate
Washed pulp
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-49-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-50-
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-51-
Wash Press (Metso)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-52-
Compact Press (GL&V)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-53-
AWP Wash press (Andritz)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-54-
Principle of the wash press - animation
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-55-
Wash presses (Metso Paper)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-56-
Wash presses
One-stage displacement-thickening
Feed consistency typically 3 5 %; also MC-feeding
applications available
Outlet consistency 30 35 %
Max. capacity up to 4500 ton/d
E-value = 4 5
A press is very well applicable especially at the end of the
washing line where the clean washing water is introduced.
The demand of washing water is small due to the high
discharge consistency:
BDT m L
c
/ 33 , 2
30
30 100
% 30
3
1
1
=

=
=
If DF =2,5 m
3
/BDT =>
Wash water =2,33+3,5 =4,83 m
3
/BDT
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-57-
The discharge consistency of the last
washing stage determines the washing water
amount:
BDT m L
c
/ 33 , 7
12
12 100
% 12
3
1
1
=

=
=
Discharge consistency 12 %:
Liquid in the pulp:
If DF =2,5 m
3
/BDT =>
Wash water demand =7,33+2,5 =9,83 m
3
/BDT
Discharge consistency 30 %:
Liquid in the pulp:
BDT m L
c
/ 33 , 2
30
30 100
% 30
3
1
1
=

=
=
If DF =2,5 m
3
/BDT =>
Wash water demand =2,33+2,5 =4,83 m
3
/BDT
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-58-
Washing systems
Suggested values for the Total washing efficiency:
E-value = 12 16 before the O
2
-stage
E-value = 6 - 8 after the O
2
-stage
COD-wash loss suggested values:
Before the oxygen stage < 100 kg/ton pulp
Into bleaching ca. 6 kg COD/ton pulp
Dilution factor: 2 3 m
3
/ton pulp
The selection of the washing equipment is based on many factors:
investment costs vs. washing performance, capacity, operational
availability etc.
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-59-
Washer Feed
consistency,%
Discharge
consistency,%
Typical E
10
for COD
at DF = 2.78 t/bdmt
Continuous digester 10 10 3 -- 6
Modified batch digester 7 -- 10 7 -- 10 1 -- 2
Pressure diffuser 10 10 4 -- 6
1-stage diffuser (AD) 10 10 3 -- 5
2-stage diffuser (AD) 10 10 7 -- 8
Wash press 3 -- 9 28 -- 35 3 -- 5
Pressurized filters 3 -- 4 12 -- 14 3 -- 5
Vacuum filters 1 -- 2 12 -- 14 2 -- 4
1-stage DD washer 4 -- 10 12 -- 14 4 -- 5
2-stage DD washer 4 -- 10 12 -- 14 7 -- 9
3-stage DD washer 4 -- 10 12 -- 14 9 -- 11
4-stage DD washer 4 -- 10 12 -- 14 12 -- 15
Typical feed consistencies, discharge consistencies and washing
efficiencies of different washing devices.
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-60-
Washing systems: traditional 4-stage drum
filter washing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-61-
Washing systems: modern fiberline with
SuperBatch cooking (Botnia/Rauma)
SB-keittm
Digester displacement
Wash press Wash press
DD-washer DD-washer O
2
-stage
Screening
SB-cooking
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-62-
Uruguay_fiberline_flowsheets_EN.ppt/8.7.2007KKn
Fiberline Division
Slide No. 1
Fiberline
Washing systems: modern fiberline with continuous
cooking (Botnia/Fray Bentos)
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-63-
Washing and Oxygen Delignification
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-64-
Washing
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-65-
Summary
The purpose of brown stock washing is the recovery of the
dissolved organic matter from cooking and oxygen
delignification as well as the inorganic delignification
chemicals and on the other hand to clean the pulp suspension
well enough before the oxygen stage and bleaching so that not
too much additional chemicals are needed in addition to the
actual bleaching chemicals
Well performed pulp washing reduces the environmental load
of COD and AOX from bleaching
A washing plant is a multistage operation that is connected in
countercurrent in terms of the filtrate connections. The excess
amount of wash water, i.e. the dilution factor is mainly
determined by the available capacity of the evaporation plant
and the target washing loss. The commonly used value for the
dilution factor is 2 3 m
3
/ton pulp
UDELAR
School of Engineering
Department of Forest Products Technology
Pulp Mill Fiber Line Processes
Olavi Pikka
-66-
Summary..
The measure for the washing efficiency is the E-factor. A well
operating brown stock washing plant shall reach an E-value of
12 16 before the oxygen stage and 6 8 after the oxygen
stage
The industrial washing equipment are based on the
displacement washing or the combination of displacement and
pressing
The first washing stage is carried out in the connection of the
cooking process (Hi-Heat washing or the terminal
displacement of SuperBatch cooking). In a modern washing
plant, different kinds of washing equipment can be used:
diffuser washers, DD-washers, press washers.