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: : LIGHT WAVES :

: PIONEER ACADEMY : : 10 : PHYSICS

LIGHT WAVES (PROPERTIES) : Light waves are transverse electromagnetic waves. They do not require material medium for their propagation. They can pass even through the vacuum. Wavelength of light is very short, of about 5x10 ! m. The frequency of light is very high. "t obeys the wave equation, v # f . The frequency is inversely proportional to the wavelength. "t travels in straight line. "t can produce shadows and inverted images. The speed of light in air or vacuum is $x10% m&s '$x105 (m&s) The speed of glass is *x10% m&s '$x105 (m&s) The speed of light in one medium is the same. The speed of light changes when it enters from one medium to the another. The speed of light decreases when it passes from rarer medium&optically less dense medium 'air) into the denser medium 'glass or water) and increases when it pass from denser to a rarer medium. of Light Waves : In c id e n t ra y N o rm a l R e fle c te d ra y

(1) Reflection

When light rays fall on a plane mirror or a plane shiny surface, it is reflected. "t obeys the laws of reflection. +uring the reflection of light, wavelength, frequency, speed and amplitude remains the same only direction of light changes.

Regular Reflection : When a parallel beam of light falls on a plane mirror, it is reflected as a parallel beam. This type of reflection is called a regular reflection. "t obeys the laws of reflection 'i # r). Irregular Reflection : When a parallel beam of light falls on a rough surface it is reflected in all directions. This reflection is called irregular or diffuse reflection. "t does not obey the laws of reflection 'angle of incident is not equal to the angle of reflection). Image Formed In A lane !irror : -

P la n e M irro r

Real Image : , real image is one which can be obtained on a screen and is formed by rays which actually pass through it. "irtual Image : , virtual image is one which cannot be obtained on a screen and is obtained by rays which seems to come from ob-ect but do not pass through it. , virtual image is obtained by e.tending the incident and reflected rays behind the mirror. "mage formed by a plane mirror is always a virtual image. ro#erties of Image Formed In a lane !irror : "mage is virtual. "mage is of same si/e as the ob-ect.

"t is laterally inverted. 0left hand 1 right hand2 "t as far behind the mirror as the ob-ect is in front of the mirror. Line -oining the ob-ect and image is perpendicular to the mirror.
I$%&&R A'A(&!) : *)+I'+ : 1, : -

(-)

Refraction of Light

Waves : -

The bending of light, when it passes from one medium to another medium is called refraction. The bending is caused because of the difference in density 'refractive inde.) between two medium. +uring refraction, speed, wavelength and direction of light changes but the frequency remains the same.
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When light passes from rarer 'air) to denser medium 'glass, water), it bends towards the normal. ,ngle of incidence 'i) is greater than the angle of refraction 'r). 3peed and wavelength decreases and frequency remains the same.

[ii] De%&er

e!i"

#$ Rarer

e!i" '

When light passes from denser 'glass, water) to rarer 'air) medium to it bends away from the normal. ,ngle of incidence 'i) is less than the angle of refraction 'r). 3peed and wavelength increases and frequency remains the same.

[iii] A% i%(i!e%# ra) %$r a* #$ #+e &"r,a(e $, &e-ara#i$% (i . /0 0)0 i& %$# re,ra(#e!0 i# -a&&e& e er1e& $"# a& a &#rai1+# ra)'
N$#e : - Rarer e!i" 2 O-#i(a**) *e&& !e%&er e!i" 3 De%&er e!i" 2 O-#i(a**) $re De%&er e!i" ' When light rays falls on a transparent surface, some part of it is reflected, refracted and absorbed as shown in 4ig.

D i ff u s e d li g h t

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[i4] D$"5*e Re,ra(#i$% :


When a ray of light falls on a glass slab, double refraction ta(es place. 4irst refraction is from air to glass 'at surface ,5) and the second refraction is from glass to air 'at surface 6+). The emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray but it is displaced from its original path.
In c id e n t R a y Ii A ir G la s s Ir SO S R e fra c te d R a y in G la s s

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E m e rg e n t R a y in a ir (R e fra c te d R a y )

(.) Refractive inde/ (+nell0s La1): 7efractive inde. is the ratio of the speed of light in air or vacuum to the speed of light in medium. "t is denoted by 8n9 and it has no unit.
Refractive index, n = Speed of light in air or vacuum Speed of light in medium

"t is also given by : '1) 7arer medium to +enser medium, '*) +enser to 7arer medium, '$) +enser to 7arer medium,
n = sin r sin i n = sin i sin r

n =

1 sin C

, where 6 # critical angle

;.amples : '1) What properties of light wave changes when it enters from air to glass < '*)

[i4] Re,ra(#i$% i% a Pri&

:
A n g le o f d e ia tio n

"n a triangular prism the deviation 'bending) of a ray due to refraction at the first surface is added to the deviation at the second surface, 4ig 'a) bellow. 2he angle 34 1hich an emergent ra4 is deviated from the actual #ath of the incident ra4 is called the angle of deviation.

T ria n g u la r p ris m ! ig " (A )

(5) (is#ersion of Light Waves : When sunlight 'white light) falls on a triangular glass prism a band of colors called spectrum is obtained. ' ( ite s c re e n R ed This effect is (nown as dispersion of light. O ran g e # e llo $ +ispersion occurs because white light is a mi.ture of S p e c tru m G reen many colors which are separated by the prism because % lu e T ria n g u la r p ris m In d ig o the refractive inde. of glass is different for each color. & io le t 7efractive inde. of glass is greatest for violet color, so it bends the most and lowest for the red color, so it bends the list. 3ir "ssac =ewton 1>>>.

: MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT :
A light of onl4 one color or one fre6uenc4 or one 1avelength is called monochromatic light. When a monochromatic light ray incidents on a prism it is -ust refracted from both the surface and deviates from its original path, as shown in the fig. bellow. ?onochromatic light @A incidents on the prism at point A is A refracted as ray A7 in the prism and is again refracted at % ) M o n o c ( ro m a tic lig ( t 7 and emerges out as ray 73. ,nother monochromatic ray ,5 enters the prism along the + * normal at 5 and it travels without refraction as ray 56 in R P the prism. S This ray is refracted at 6 by the prism and emerges out as ray 6+. "f the angle of incident inside the glass is B* o, it is refracted at C0 o to the 3D3. "f the angle of incident is greater than B* o , it is totally internally reflected.

: CRITICAL ANGLE AND TOTAL INTERNAL REFRACTION :


When light passes at right angle from a denser medium to a rarer medium, there is no A ir refraction and it passes straight. When light passes at small angle of incident R e ,r a ( #e ! r a ) N N N from a denser medium to a rarer medium, S O S /0 there is a strong refracted ray. Ii 6 ( When angle of incident increases, the angle of I i. ( refraction also increases. ,t certain angle of incident in the denser W a #er medium the angle of refraction in the rarer medium is C0 ,. C r i#i( a * a % 1 *e ( r . / 0 ) The angle of incident for which the angle of , refraction is C0 is called the critical angle 7c0. 4or the angle of incident i 8 c , all the rays will be reflected bac( inside the denser medium 'in the same medium) and this is called the total internal reflection.
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R e ,*e ( #e ! r a ) (#$ #a * i% #e r % a * r e ,*e ( #i$ % )

: OPTICAL FIBER :
"n fiber optics, the principle of total internal reflection is used. Dptical fibers are very light, fle.ible, and thin pipes made from thin glass or plastic threads.

When light stri(es the side of the tube it is usually at an angle greater than the critical angle so that it is totally internally reflected several times until it emerges from the far end. They are used in telecommunications and medical instruments 'endoscope).

: Totally REFLECTING PRISMS :


Light can be reflected by an angle of C0 o or 1%0 o using a B5 o glass prism as shown in the diagram bellow. The critical angle of an ordinary glass is B* o and a ray falling normally on the face @A hits face @7 at B5 o . 'Eere, the angle of incident is larger than the critical angle of the glass) Total internal reflection ta(es place and the ray is reflected through C0 o with the incident ray. 0 B5 o F B5 o # C0 o 2 Totally reflecting prisms replace mirrors in good periscopes. 4ig. 'a) When light falls normally on the face @7, 04ig. 'b)2 , it stri(es the surface @A at B5 o . Total internal reflection ta(es place and it stri(es the surface A7 at B5 o 9 again total internal ta(es place and the ray emerges out at an angle of 1%0 o to the incident ray. 4or this properties of prism it is used in a binoculars.
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I$%&&R A'A(&!) : *)+I'+ : 1,: LI;*2 WA"&+ : Wave length Cres t


t n e m c a l p s i D
Amplitude (a)

Cres t

Undisturbed pos ition

Distance B Trough Wave length C D E Trough