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Introduction

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Child development include the socio-emotional development is very important to
children to get the better life. Without the part of that development, the student or child
cannot gain the knowledge, movement, and communication and social interaction with
good and effectively.

Growth and development of a human is a focus on the research of the


developmentalpsychology. The psychologist search for the aspects of human growth
and development and try to find the connections with the factors that influence them.
They always questioned if nature or nurture influence the most in human growth and
development (nature versus nurture). For an example, if a child was abused, when he
grows up he also tend to abuse his child. Is this cause by the environment (he was
abused) or the nature from his father (an abuser)?

From my School Based Experiences (SBE) I collected the data about the socio-
emotional development. The students have involved to successfully my research from
the differential background and different class. It is easier to me to collect the cognitive
and physical development data when the students have different growth and
development.

Socio-emotional development is very important aspect in teaching and learning


process. Without it, the teaching and learning process is difficult for teachers to hanlde.

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1.0 Concepts and Principles of Child Development

1.1 Concepts of Child Development

Human development is changes that are in qualitative, not quantitative. These


changes cannot be measure, but we can see it clearly when we compare with an early
stage than the stage we are right now (Atan Long, 1980). For example, a new born
baby cannot say a word and ask for he wishes for, but eventually when he is one years
old, he started to talk one or two clauses like “ma…ma” or “pa…pa”. So, we can say
that this baby had developed himself.

These are the thoughts about what is human development:

“….the concept of development, the orderly, durable changes in a learner resulting from
a combination of learning, experience, and maturation.”
Eggan and Kauchak (1997)

Paul Eggan and Don Kauchak said that development is the changes that on-
going and permanent in our life resulting from learning, experience, and maturation.

“…. Orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime.”
Slavin (1997)

Slavin (1997) feels that development is connect with why and how an individual
develop and grow, adapt himself into the environment and change over the course. He
stated that an individual will develop over lifetime, from physically, personality, socio-
emotional to cognitive and language.

Child development refers to the biological and psychological changes that occur
in human beings between conception and the end of adolescence, as the individual
progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Developmental change may
occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result

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of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction
between the two. Pediatrics is the branch of medicine relating to the care of children.
Age-related development terms are, newborn (ages 0–1 month), infant (ages 1 month –
1 year), toddler (ages 1–3 years), preschooler (ages 4–6 years), school-aged child
(ages 6–12 years) and adolescent (ages 12–18) (Kail, 2006). The optimal development
of children is vital to society. Therefore the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational
development of children is important to understand. Increased research and interest in
this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that
promotes development within the school system. Along with all of these developments,
there are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that comprise
child development.

These are several names that are well-known as their made their theories about
the concepts of child development:

Confucius

Confucius, a Chinese teacher and educator, believed that moral principles, virtues and
discipline should be the very first lessons taught to a child, and that children need to
practice them daily. It was most important to the ancient Chinese parents that their
children learned moral principles and virtues first - before any other subjects, because
without these as a foundation, the learning of all other subjects would be futile. Di Zi
Gui, an ancient book based on the teaching of Confucius, had been for thousand of
years, the recommended standards for child moral development. Di Zi Gui in English
means Standards for being a Good Student and Child. When a child is instilled with
those values outlined in the book at a very young age, he will develop into a respectful
and virtuous person.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory delineated development from infancy onward into
five stages which centered on the particular area of the body which the libido was
gratified by at a given time. He further argued that, as humans develop, they become
fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the
oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage
(exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in evacuating his or her bowels), then in the phallic
stage. Freud argued that children then passed through a stage in which they fixated on
the mother as a sexual object (known as the Oedipus Complex) but that the child
eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its taboo nature. (The lesser
known Electra complex refers to such a fixation on the father.) The repressive or
dormant latency stage of psychosexual development preceded the sexually mature
genital stage of psychosexual development. In addition to Freud, other noted childhood
development theorists include Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Erikson, a
follower of Freud's, synthesized both Freud's and his own to create what is known as
the "Psychosocial" stages of human development, which spans from birth to death, and
focuses on "tasks" at each stage that must be accomplished to successfully navigate
life's challenges.

Jean Piaget

Piaget was a French speaking Swiss theorist who posited that children learn through
actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience. He suggested that the
adult's role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials for the child to
interact and construct. He would use Socratic questing to get the children to reflect on
what they were doing. He would try to get them to see contradictions in their
explanations. He also developed stages of development. His approach can be seen in
how the curriculum is sequenced in schools, and in the pedagogy of preschool centers
across the United States.

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Lev Vygotsky

Probably least well-known is Vygotsky, a theorist whose ideas only recently emerged
from behind what was known as the Iron Curtain, in the former Soviet Union. He
believed children learn through hands-on experience, as Piaget suggested. However,
unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is
on the edge of learning a new task (called the Zone of Proximal Development) could
help children learn to do new tasks. This technique is called "scaffolding," because it
builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help
the child learn. An example of this might be when a parent "helps" an infant clap or roll
his hands to the Pat-a-Cake rhyme, until he can clap and roll his hands himself.
Vygotsky (1978) was strongly focused on the role of culture in determining the child's
pattern of development. In 1978, he argued "Every function in the child's cultural
development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level;
first, between people (inter-psychological) and then inside the child (intra-
psychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the
formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between
individuals. An interesting point to note is that all but one theorist believed in stages of
development. Not many agreed on how these stages worked. Were there large jumps
from one stage to another, where a child at first did not know how to do something, and
then was suddenly able to do it? Or was it more like a continuous incline of knowledge a
child walked up gradually to adulthood, understanding more with every step? Vygotsky
did not believe in stages at all, but asserted that development was a process.

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1.2 Principles of Child Development

There is a set of principles that characterizes the pattern and process of growth
and development. These describe typical development as a predictable and orderly
process that is, we can predict how most children will develop and that they will develop
at the same rate and at about the same time as other children. Although there are
individual differences in children's personalities, activity levels, and timing of
developmental milestones, such as ages and stages, the principles and characteristics
of development are universal patterns.

1.2.1 Development proceeds from the head downward.

This is called the cephalocaudle principle. This principle describes the direction
of growth and development. According to this principle, the child gains control of
the head first, then the arms, and then the legs. Infants develop control of the
head and face movements within the first two months after birth. In the next few
months, they are able to lift themselves up by using their arms. By 6 to 12
months of age, infants start to gain leg control and may be able to crawl, stand,
or walk. Coordination of arms always precedes coordination of legs.

1.2.2 Development proceeds from the center of the body outward.

This is the principle of proximodistal development that also describes the


direction of development. This means that the spinal cord develops before outer
parts of the body. The child's arms develop before the hands and the hands and
feet develop before the fingers and toes. Finger and toe muscles (used in fine
motor dexterity) are the last to develop in physical development.

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1.2.3 Development depends on maturation and learning.

Maturation refers to the sequential characteristic of biological growth and


development. The biological changes occur in sequential order and give children
new abilities. Changes in the brain and nervous system account largely for
maturation. These changes in the brain and nervous system help children to
improve in thinking (cognitive) and motor (physical) skills. Also, children must
mature to a certain point before they can progress to new skills (Readiness). For
example, a four-month-old cannot use language because the infant's brain has
not matured enough to allow the child to talk. By two years old, the brain has
developed further and with help from others, the child will have the capacity to
say and understand words. Also, a child can't write or draw until he has
developed the motor control to hold a pencil or crayon. Maturational patterns are
innate, that is, genetically programmed. The child's environment and the learning
that occurs as a result of the child's experiences largely determine whether the
child will reach optimal development. A stimulating environment and varied
experiences allow a child to develop to his or her potential.

1.2.4 Development proceeds from the simple (concrete) to the more complex.

Children use their cognitive and language skills to reason and solve problems.
For example, learning relationships between things (how things are similar), or
classification, is an important ability in cognitive development. The cognitive
process of learning how an apple and orange are alike begins with the most
simplistic or concrete thought of describing the two. Seeing no relationship, a
preschool child will describe the objects according to some property of the object,
such as color. Such a response would be, "An apple is red (or green) and an
orange is orange." The first level of thinking about how objects are alike is to give
a description or functional relationship (both concrete thoughts) between the two
objects. "An apple and orange are round" and "An apple and orange are alike
because you eat them" are typical responses of three, four and five year olds. As

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children develop further in cognitive skills, they are able to understand a higher
and more complex relationship between objects and things; that is, that an apple
and orange exist in a class called fruit. The child cognitively is then capable of
classification.

1.2.5 Growth and development is a continuous process.

As a child develops, he or she adds to the skills already acquired and the new
skills become the basis for further achievement and mastery of skills. Most
children follow a similar pattern. Also, one stage of development lays the
foundation for the next stage of development. For example, in motor
development, there is a predictable sequence of developments that occur before
walking. The infant lifts and turns the head before he or she can turn over. Infants
can move their limbs (arms and legs) before grasping an object. Mastery of
climbing stairs involves increasing skills from holding on to walking alone. By the
age of four, most children can walk up and down stairs with alternating feet. As in
maturation, in order for children to write or draw, they must have developed the
manual (hand) control to hold a pencil and crayon.

1.2.6 Growth and development proceed from the general to specific.

In motor development, the infant will be able to grasp an object with the whole
hand before using only the thumb and forefinger. The infant's first motor
movements are very generalized, undirected, and reflexive, waving arms or
kicking before being able to reach or creep toward an object. Growth occurs from
large muscle movements to more refined (smaller) muscle movements.

1.2.7 There are individual rates of growth and development.

Each child is different and the rates at which individual children grow are
different. Although the patterns and sequences for growth and development are
usually the same for all children, the rates at which individual children reach

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developmental stages will be different. Understanding this fact of individual
differences in rates of development should cause us to be careful about using
and relying on age and stage characteristics to describe or label children. There
is a range of ages for any developmental task to take place. This dismisses the
notion of the "average child". Some children will walk at ten months while others
walk a few months older at eighteen months of age. Some children are more
active while others are more passive. This does not mean that the passive child
will be less intelligent as an adult. There is no validity to comparing one child's
progress with or against another child. Rates of development also are not
uniform within an individual child. For example, a child's intellectual development
may progress faster than his emotional or social development.
An understanding of the principles of development helps us to plan appropriate
activities and stimulating and enriching experiences for children, and provides a
basis for understanding how to encourage and support young children's learning.

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Principle of Child Development

Development proceeds from the Development proceeds from the


head downward center of the body outward

Development depends on Development proceeds from the


maturation and learning simple (concrete) to the more
complex

Growth and development is a Growth and development


continuous process proceed from the general to
specific

There are individual rates of


growth and development

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Mind Map 1.1 Principle of Child Development

2.0 Factors that Influence Child Development

There are two factors that influence a child development, which is endogen and
exogen.

2.1 Endogen

Endogen is a factor that carried since in the womb of a mother until birth.
Endogen is an inherited factor or carriage factor.

Nutrition
Nature
Mother’s Health

Smoking Drugs & Alcohol

Mother’s Age Blood Rh

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Mother’s Emotion
X-Ray

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2.1.1 Nature

Mind Map 2.1 The factor of endogen in child development


Physically, an individual inherited the physical of the parents such as height,
shape of body, skin colour, hair colour, eye colour, and many more (Buss & Plomin,
1997)

Some research said that most of the mental disorder is inherited. For example
the Tay-Sachs disease where children those posses this disease always die at the age
of 3 or 4 years old because of the malfunction of their enzymes in fat disposal.

Alfred Binet, Theodore and Guiford believe that intellectual was inherited and
cannot be improve by learning (Borich & Tombari, 1997). However, Howard Gardner et
al. (1996) do not agree with their thoughts and he said that inherited intellectual can be
improve by learning and giving the conducive environment for learning.

2.1.2 Nutrition

A balanced nutrition is a must for the mother and the fetus. If the nutritious are
not enough, the effect will takes where the brain cell development decrease.

2.1.3 Mother’s Health

A pregnant mother has to take a good care of her health by eating nutritious food
and less of sugar and salt usage in order to prevent disease such as high blood
pressure and preaklamsia (Shryock, 1991)

2.1.4 Drugs and Alcohol

A pregnant mother cannot take drugs and alcohol. If not, the born baby will suffer
mental disorder. Drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methadone will cause physical
disorder to the fetus.
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2.1.5 Smoking

If a pregnant mother smokes, the fetus will alami lack of oxygen because the blood
vessels shrink. Carbon monoxides that are inhale will increase the carbon in the
mother’s hemoglobin. This will cause brain damage (Miller, 1986)

2.1.6 Blood Rh

When a woman with negative Rh married a man with positive Rh, normally the born
child is positive Rh. During pregnancy, mother who possesses negative Rh will produce
antibody that can destruct the fetus blood cells that flows. For the first pregnancy,
nothing will happen. But, for the second and third pregnancy, maybe there will be
enough antibodies in mother’s blood cells that will destruct the fetus blood cells that will
cause anemia.

2.1.7 X-Ray

Research said that x-ray effect on pregnant mother can cause disorder for the fetus.

2.1.8 Mother’s Emotion

Emotions such as angry, worried, and anxiety can stimulate a hormone call adrenalin
and the effect is blood from the uterus will flow to other parts of body.

2.1.9 Mother’s Age

The pregnant mother’s age related to the risk of the fetus (Kessner, 1973). The younger
they are, the more risk for them to abolitions, early born baby, and the death of baby.
The age that most suitable for a mother to pregnant is in between 20 to 35 year old (Jas
Laile Suzana Jaafar, 1996)

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2.2 Exogen

Exogen is a factor that came outside an individual. Examples such as experiences,


family, environment and school.

Nutrition

Family

Friends

Religious House School

Mind Map 2.2 The factor of exogen in child development

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2.2.1 Nutrition

A balance and nutritious food is penting in children’s’ growth. the most suitable for
newborn baby is the mother’s breast feeding milk.

2.2.2 Family

Family also plays the role in children’s growth and development. Parents influence their
attitude. According to Baumrid (1995), the best way to educate children is authoritative,
which means giving the freedom for children to develop with limitations.

2.2.3 Friends

Friends are the most common factors that influence an individual since he started his
social lifestyle outside the house. According to Berk (1989), friends are they who are in
the same age of about the same age with the individual. An individual learns the skills
by stages and through games with friends (Ramlah Jantan & Mahani Razali, 2002)

2.2.4 School

School is the agent of socialization that has more scope such as friends, teachers and
many more. In school, an individual can learn about the norms and rules in big group,
similarly to the community. An individual can learn more about moral esthetics and how
to mingle wit them.

2.2.5 Religious House

Children who stay near the religious house are exposed with philosophy, moral
esthetics, and many more.

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3.0 Socio-emotional Development (Discussions)

Social development is a two-sided process in which children simultaneously


become integrated into the larger social community and differentiated as distinctive
individuals. One side of social development is socialization, the process by which
children acquire the standards, values, and knowledge of their society. The other side of
social development is personality formation, the process through which children develop
their own unique patterns of feelings, thinking, and behaving in a wide variety of
circumstances.

Emotions or sometimes referred as affect are the feelings, both physiological and
psychological, that people have in response to events that are personally relevant to
their needs and goals. Emotional states energize thinking and acting in ways that are
often adaptive to the circumstances (Goleman, 1995; Saar et al., 1998). Happiness,
anger, fear, anxiety, and other emotional responses focus children’s attention on
important aspects of their lives; they also help children develop new ideas, goals, and
plans. Emotions are not just a means for venting excess energy; rather, they help
youngsters redirect their actions and relationship. The ways in which children express
deeply held emotions – and to some degree the emotions themselves – change the
development.

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3.1 Analysis of the Socio-emotional development

Year 1
Student 1 Student 2 Student 3
Communication 1 2 4
Attitude 3 2 4
Confident 2 2 4
Leadership 1 3 4
Discipline 3 3 3
Involvement 3 2 4
Co-operation 2 2 3
Personality 3 3 3
Table 3.1.1 Socio-emotional development: Year 1

Graph 3.1.1 Socio-emotional development: Year 1 Analysis

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Graph 3.1.2 Socio-emotional development: Year 1 Average

Table above shows that the average of the aspects in socio-emotional


development for Year 1 students. The data was collected by observing 3 students in
Year 1.

As we can see, the highest average marks given to Year 1 is only 3 and the least
average marks given is only 2.333333333. Why?

As Erik Erikson said that during school age is the stage of competence. In the
age of 7 (Year 1), children begin to exposed themselves in the school community which
comes the meaning of meeting more friends, teachers, and the school staff. During this
age, they are still in pre-mature stage where some of them do not the ethics in class.
That is why their given marks are in the range of 2 until 3.

Based on the graph also, we can clearly see that these children are starting to
learn how the school community is, and try to adapt themselves in school. Most of the
children eventually will cry when their parents left them behind for school. That is
because by the emotional development that does not develop well enough in order for
them to control their feelings.
Year 2
Student 1 Student 2 Student 3
Communication 1 2 4
Attitude 3 2 4
Confident 2 2 4
Leadership 1 3 4
Discipline 3 3 3
Involvement 3 2 4
Co-operation 2 2 3
Personality 3 3 3

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Table
Graph
3.1.2
3.1.3
Socio-emotional
Socio-emotional
development:
development:
YearYear
2 2 Analysis

Table above shows that the average of the aspects in socio-emotional


development for Year 2 students. The data was collected by observing 3 students in
Year 2.

As we can see, the highest average marks given to Year 2 is only 4 and the least
average marks given is only 2.333333333. Why?

Some of the students still wandering around in finding their way in school. Year 2
Graph
is only older3.1.4 Socio-emotional
1 year that the Year 1development:
students. So,Year 2 Average
the social and emotional developments
of theirs are still not in control. In other words, most of the Year 2 students cannot
control their emotions.

Basically, the do not have their own identity. That is why most of the Year 2
students cannot be a leader or something that hardly for them to carry out.

Year 3
Student 1 Student 2 Student 3
Communication 1 2 4
Attitude 3 2 4
Confident 2 2 4
Leadership 1 3 4
Discipline 3 3 3
Involvement 3 2 4
Co-operation 2 2 3
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Personality 3 3 3
Table 3.1.3 Socio-emotional development: Year 3

Table above shows that the average of the aspects in socio-emotional


development for Year 3 students. The data was collected by observing 3 students in
Year 3.

As we can see, the highest average marks given to Year 3 is about 6.333333333
and the least average marks given is only 4.666666667. Why?

Year 3 is the most crucial time where some of the students are able to control
theirGraph 3.1.6 but
emotions, Socio-emotional development:
not 100%. This is the time Year 3 Average
where students know themselves, how
strong they are, what courage they have, which personality they in and many more.

That explain why the data had increased a little bit comparing to Year 1 where
they started to expose themselves. Students in Year 3 are starting to follow the foreign
culture and started to build their own personality.

Year 4
Student 1 Student 2 Student 3
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Communication 1 2 4
Attitude 3 2 4
Confident 2 2 4
Leadership 1 3 4
Discipline 3 3 3
Involvement 3 2 4
Co-operation 2 2 3
Personality 3 3 3
Table 3.1.4 Socio-emotional development: Year 4

Table above shows that the average of the aspects in socio-emotional


development for Year 4 students. The data was collected by observing 3 students in
Year 4.

As we can see, the highest average marks given to Year 4 is about 7.666666667
and the least average marks given is only 6.333333333. Why?

Year 4 is the second most crucial time because of the factors that influences their
Graph 3.1.8
personality. Socio-emotional
Some development:
of the male students Year 4 Average
are beginning to flirting around. But, in social
and emotional development they are able to build themselves such as confident, their
attitude and many more. This is the year where they had their own personality and
trying hard to develop it. That is why their marks are higher compared to Year 1.

Graph 3.1.7 Socio-emotional development: Year 4 Analysis

Year 5
Student 1 Student 2 Student 3
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Communication 1 2 4
Attitude 3 2 4
Confident 2 2 4
Leadership 1 3 4
Discipline 3 3 3
Involvement 3 2 4
Co-operation 2 2 3
Personality 3 3 3
Table 3.1.5 Socio-emotional development: Year 5

Table above shows that the average of the aspects in socio-emotional


development for Year 5 students. The data was collected by observing 3 students in
Year 5.

As we can see, the highest average marks given to Year 5 is only 8.333333333
and the least average marks given is only 6.666666667. Why?

As we know, Year 5 is older 1 year than Year 4, which means the development in
Year Graph 3.1.10 Socio-emotional
4 is extend development:
to Year 5. In Year 5, most ofYear
the5 students
Average know how to control
themselves in emotions, their personalities, their attitude, how to behave in class and
many more. According to Erik Erikson, at the age of 11 students are able to master the
social studies.

Year 6
Student 1 Student 2 Student 3
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Communication 1 2 4
Attitude 3 2 4
Confident 2 2 4
Leadership 1 3 4
Discipline 3 3 3
Involvement 3 2 4
Co-operation 2 2 3
Personality 3 3 3
Table 3.1.6 Socio-emotional development: Year 6

Table above shows that the average of the aspects in socio-emotional


development for Year 6 students. The data was collected by observing 3 students in
Year 6.

As we can see, the highest average marks given to Year 6 is about 9.333333333
and the least average marks given is only 7.333333333. Why?

As we can see, students in Year 6 got higher marks than Year 1. This means that
Graphin3.1.12
students Year 6Socio-emotional
have developeddevelopment: Yearwere
a lot since they 6 Average
in Year 1. Students in Year 6
know what they wanted to, that is why they can behave well during class and outside
the class. We can see the differences thinking if we compared a student in Year 6 with
himself back at Year 1. If he always biting his friends over mistaken pencil or ruler, in
Year 6 he will not bit any of his friends anymore because of the thinking and the feeling
Graph 3.1.11 Socio-emotional development: Year 6 Analysis
of shame. Plus, their cognitive thinking shows that Year 6 can think a solution for a
simple problem.

Average of socio-emotional development between Year 1 to Year 6

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Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
Communication 2.33333333 2.33333333 5 6.33333333 7.66666667 9.33333333
Attitude 3 3.66666667 4.66666667 7.33333333 6.66666667 7.33333333
Confident 2.66666667 3 5 6.33333333 7.33333333 8.66666667
Leadership 2.66666667 2.66666667 5 7.66666667 7.66666667 8
Discipline 3 3.33333333 5 7.33333333 7.33333333 8
Involvement 3 3 5 6.33333333 7.33333333 8.66666667
Co-operation 2.33333333 3.33333333 5 6.33333333 8.33333333 8.33333333
Personality 3 4 6.33333333 7.33333333 6.66666667 9

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Graph 3.1.13 Socio-emotional development: Average of Year 1 – Year 6

Based on the graph 3.1.13, we can see how the students develop during their
first entrance in school (Year 1) until Year 6. We can see that these students are really
developing themselves by using aids for observing social and emotional development.

We can see that students in Year 1 maybe will bit some of his friends if they take
pencils or rulers that he do not want to give. But, comparing to Year 6, the student can
think rationally and will came out a solutions for the problems.

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4.0 Five Activities and Examples

There are several activities that can be suggested when observing students’
socio-emotional development.

4.1 Group discussion.

In this activity, students are divided into 6 groups and will be given a topic. This
activity can only be done from Year 4 to Year 6 only because of their cognitive
development. In this activity, I observed 3 students in order to get their level of socio-
emotional development. Time given is 15 minutes in order to give some space for the
students to calm down.

Example, a group is given a topic about “My Dream House”. I will give order to
discuss about the topic, and eventually they will write a simple essay on the topic. In this
discussion, the student that I observed gives lots of idea during the discussion. He also
gives chances to other students for sharing some ideas. In the nut shell, the student has
a very good common sense on the topic because his emotion had giving him ideas and
he also dream on having a real dream house. He also has a good social sense because
he can interact with the other students.

In the other hand, another observes student is really a quiet person. He does not
talk much in the group discussion because he feels uneasy with the activity. When I
asked her why, she simply answered, “I’m not in the mood,” where I know she had a
little problem at her house. So, environment in house influences her emotion and social
development.

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4.2 The crazy train

The purpose of this game is for the students to recognize words involving simple
directions. Arrange the student as if they were a long train: one child standing behind
another. Each child keeps his arms on the shoulders of the one standing in front.

While the children move around give rhythm to their motion by saying:
Go slowly choo-choo train, go slowly choo-choo train.
Let them say: ‘Choo-choo train, choo-choo train’ while they moving around.

Speed up the rhythm little by little and say:


Go faster choo-choo train, go faster choo-choo train, and go faster choo-choo train.
Say it faster and faster. The children speed up their motion and say: ‘choo-choo train,
choo-choo train’ faster, too.

Lastly, teacher will said the train falls down.


The children fall on the floor and lie there for a few moments. Then the game starts
again.

When the children get ready for production, let them, in turn, take your role and give the
commands to the train.

If the train does not follow the order, meaning that the student do not have very
good social interaction with the students in the classroom. Emotions that indicate that
they do not like this activity are sulking, boring and many more.

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4.3 Face

The main purpose of this activity is to introduce children with normal human feeling and
emotional reaction. The steps of this activity are:

Step 1:
Teacher will show an angry face.
‘Everybody look at my face…’ (Show an angry face).

Step 2:
Students try to guessing the teacher’s feeling.
‘Can you guess what is my feeling now?’

Try with different kind of expressions. Try to attract them with story base on your
experience. Pick one of the children and ask him to make any expression. And other
students try to guest it.

Students who can show good expressions meaning that they know how to
express themselves when they are in bad mood. But, if they cannot show good
expressions, meaning that they cannot express themselves well enough. So, parents,
teachers and other students do not know when this type of students happy, angry, or
sulky in order to make them happy.

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4.4 First day at school

The main purpose of the activity is encouraging children to think of their first
school day and learn how to persuade.

First, tell the children to think about their first school day at school. Encourage them to
think and talk about it. What did they say? Who took them there: mothers, fathers,
grandparents, nannies? What did mothers, fathers, grandparents; nannies say when they had to
leave? What did the teachers say? Note down these expression. Tell them that, like them, L2
children do not always like to go to school the very first time.

Second, select some sample expressions that the children have mentioned. Say the
expression. Let them repeat. Write on the board:

Me Mother/Father/Nanny Teacher

Write the expressions that they have learned under the appropriate. Columns (e.g. the
children’s expressions under ‘Me’, the mothers’ expressions under ‘mother’, etc.). Help them
read the expressions.

Thirdly, divide the children into three groups. One group plays the role of ‘children’,
another plays the role of ‘mothers or fathers’, and the third group plays the role of ‘teachers’.
The three groups should know what expressions to use by now. The plays starts and it should
be a confusion of crying children who run away from their mothers, angry mothers pushing
them, smiling teachers who try to encourage the children to go to school.

Students who are capable of remembering those feelings had developed their
emotions while studying in school. Then, students are also building their personalities in
this game by using their thinking to express the feelings.

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4.5 Families

The main purpose of this game is to becoming more familiar with the word
related to the ‘family’. The game will be carrying out with a large set of papers and a set
of pictures of family.

Firstly, hang the sheet of paper on the wall. List your name and all the children on
the left side of it. Draw a rectangular box to each name. Draw the members of your
family in the box next to your name.

Teacher says:
This is my mother, this is my father, this is my husband, these are my two children and
this is me. (Obviously, change it according to your family situation.)

Invite the children-one after the other- to make drawings of all the members of their
families. Each child does a drawing and tells the relationship following your model. Ask
them question like:

Is this your brother? Brother? Yes, your brother. Say “this is my (touch your
chest) brother.

Make the children count the members of each family and write the number next to
each drawing under the heading ‘how many?’

This activity is fun because they can develop their feelings toward their family. In
the nut shell, they will overcome their feelings which sometimes sadness of being away
from their family.

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5.0 Implication of Socio-emotional Development

Physical development is important to the student. It is the symbol to the child in


healthy condition. If the physical is good may be their cognitive is also good, when both
of the developments are in good condition their socio-emotional development is also in
good condition. Refer to the data; we can see the differences of socio-emotional
development in the children at every stage or age. The development of socio-emotional
was influences by many factors such as environment, food and genetic. Socio-
emotional development is very important to the child in learning and teaching process.
As we know, the child has the different social and emotional level.

Student which has unstable emotion and social will give the implication in
teaching and learning process. In this situation, we can see the changes in the student
behavior. For example in the emotional scope, the student that has the higher cognitive
cannot give the fully attention in teaching and learning process. It is because the
method to teach them is different than normal student. So in emotionally, the student
feels very uneasy about the teacher’s teaching and learning for the day.

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Student B isPicture
a passive student in the class.
5.1 Socio-emotional He likes to bit his classmate in
development
classroom while teaching and learning process. The B’s victim was his classmate. Is
this the problem that can give the implication in teaching and learning process? Student
B that was biting his friend has a problem with his social and emotional development.
The teaching and learning process will be affected by the student behaviour. Student B
was biting his classmate because of his social development was not good for his age.
His emotions are not being well control for age like him. In this incident, student B will
disturb other children in the learning and teaching process.

The factor that influences the student for biting his friend is maybe his classmate
had taken something that he do not want to give. For example, if his friend takes a
pencil from him the B student may felt angry and began to act as his feelings tell them
so. In this case, his feeling said “bit him” and he began to bit his friend. This is the result
where the student cannot control his emotion. Teachers must take this example issue
seriously because it can give the implication to teaching and learning process,
classroom and the students’ social and emotional development.

Furthermore the implication of socio-emotional development will make students


more hyper-active in classroom. So, it will give the problem to the teacher in transferring
the information. Students which have emotional problem will get the full attention from
the teacher, so it gives the implication in the class teaching and learning because the
teacher only gives the attention to the problem students only. So, the teaching and
learning process will be affected. In this situation, may be other classmate will jealous
with the problem student. Also, it will effect the environment in the classroom.
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In the emotional scope, the implication of cognitive development in teaching and
learning process is different with others. We can see it be able to influences the student
and teacher behaviour. May be in the teaching and learning process, the students are
not give the fully attention because the emotion is not stable. So they cannot control the
situation in the classroom.

6.0 Conclusion and Suggestion

The development in child is happen with slowly without problem. The process
that can help the students in socio-emotional development must be happening with full
of balance and repeating. The socio-emotional are very important to the students in
teaching and learning process. From this assignment, I can conclude that the socio-
emotional development can be improved if the students take the initiative to change it
from weak to good.

To improve the students’ social and emotional development, several communities


have to put lots of effort such as the teachers, parents, students, and school
management.

Students have to eats nutritious food in order to make them healthy. When they
healthy, they are able to control their emotion and study in term of socially. If one of the
students is in bad mood, other students have to acknowledge the moody student in
order to make him regain his feelings. When the student has regained his emotion back,
he will feel the teaching and learning for the day is very fun.

For parents at home, they must know when their children in bad mood. If this
happen, parents have to cheer them. Parents have to be friends with their children.
When parents make friends with their children, children are tend to tell their problems
which had interrupt their feelings and social lifestyle. Then, the parents should give
advices to their children and give some moralities in order for them to regain
themselves. Then, if parents suspect that their children are in pain or some kind of

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illness, they should bring to the clinic or the hospital for medical check-up. Parents are
also advices to discuss with the class teacher in order to know how their children doing
well in the class.

When teacher give some moral values to the student, the students will do not
take it for grated more than their parent. In this situation, we can see that teachers can
influence their emotions and social lifestyle. So, teacher is an agent that can change the
students’ lifestyle in order to make them feel happy in school.

Based on the SBE, the discipline problem in rural are school is less than the city
school. In rural are school, students are only tend to smoking and skipping class. So the
teacher must have the initiative to control the discipline problem like having the seminar
how to change the student personality becoming better person. From the seminar,
students are able to get the stimulus how to change their lifestyle.
To develop emotional and social of the students, teacher and school must take
the way how to prevent the discipline issue. Teacher must give the attention to the
problem of the students in order to make students become more independent to build
their emotional, social and cognitive to be the good. Based on the research, the
undisciplined students become like that because more attention from their parent and
society.
In the nut shell, teachers, parents, and students themselves must have the
initiative to change and influences the student’s personality, hence to gain the students
social and emotional development.

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Reflection Mind Map 6.1 Suggestion

On the 6th March of the year 2008, our class received an assignment from the
Education Department. Our lecturer, Miss Guan had handed us an assignment based
on the Child Development. It requires us to do some research during the School Based
Experience (SBE) that held by the Unit Praktikum after the Mid Term Holiday.

At my first thought this assignment was easy as it looks. After Miss Guan handed
the assignment, I gather all the data wanted by the question and I also do some
collaboration with my friends in searching the data. During the holiday, I spend most of
my time surfing the internet searching for any related ideas on the Child Development. I
also searched for the socio-emotional development that can be observed in school.

Then I found out that this assignment was a lot tougher that I thought before. At
my first day during the SBE, I had to do some collaboration with the teachers, panel
heads, the headmaster, and senior assistant. I had to make a lot of question in order to
answer the topic, Socio-emotional Development. I also did many researches on the
topic.

At last, I finally completed this assignment with a lot of joyful moment of the
school. I had finished this assignment with the help of my friends and also the lecturer.

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Bibliography

Reference Books

Berk, E.L. (1989) Child Development, Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Mohd. Ali Albar (1992) Perkembangan Manusia Menurut Ilmu Perubahan dan Al-Quran.
Kuala Lumpur: Crescent News Sdn. Bhd.

Morrison S. Morrison, 1995. Early Childhood Education Today. Merrill Prentice Hall, United
States of America.

Poh Swee Hiang, 2005. Pedagogy Science volume 1. Kumpulan Budiman Sdn Bhd. Kuala
Lumpur.

V. Gregory Payne, Larry D. Isaacs, 2002. Human Motor Development A Lifespan Approach. The
McGraw, Hill Companies, Inc.

Internet

http://social.jrank.org/pages/336/Infancy-Socioemotional-Development.html

http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm.

http://www.cognitive.wikipedia.com.

http://physicaldevelopment.wikipedia.com.

http://www.physicalcognitive.com.

http://www.phycicalpsychology/developmen.htm.

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