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Power Plant Fundamental

Piping System

Piping System - What is that?

  • Concept - Layout Development

    • Piping Components & their access requirement.

      • Straight length requirements.

        • Orientation of various tapings, components, etc.

          • Piping Drains & Vents

            • Insulation.

              • Material & Sizing, PDT/VDT selection.

                • Critical piping system consideration.

Pipe Stress Analysis.



1

Pipe Supports



Special Considerations



Piping Designer’s Input & Output

GET-DET Training Prog.,2003-Somnath Kundu

PIPING SYSTEM

Let us first Discuss about WHAT IS PIPE!

It is a Tubular item made of metal,

plastic, glass etc. meant for conveying Liquid, Gas or any thing that flows.

It is a very important component for any

industrial plant. And it’s engineering plays

a major part in overall engineering of a

Plant.

In next few pages we shall try to

familiarize about pipe and it’s

components.

PIPING SYSTEM

Now we will try to understand step by step how a piping system is

formed based on the requirements

We shall start with a plane white sheet

In any plant various fluids flow through pipes

from one end to other.

Now let us start with a plant where we see three tanks.

Tank-1, Tank-2 and Tank-3

We have to transfer the content of Tank no. 1 to

This is the plane white sheet we start with

the other two tanks.

We will need to connect pipes to transfer the

fluids from Tank-1 to Tank-2 and Tank-3

LET US BRING THE PIPES.

Let us start drawing a

simple piping system

We have just brought the pipes, now we

need to solve some more problems.

We have just brought the pipes, now we need to solve some more problems. Pipes are

Pipes are all straight pieces.

To solve these problems we need the pipe components, which are called

PIPE FITTINGS

We have just brought the pipes, now we need to solve some more problems. Pipes are

We need some branch

connections

We have just brought the pipes, now we need to solve some more problems. Pipes are

We need some bend connections

These are the pipe fittings,

There are various types of fittings for various

purposes, some common types are - Elbows/Bends, Tees/Branches, Reducers/Expanders, Couplings, Olets, etc.

These are the pipe fittings, There are various types of fittings for various purposes, some common

Anyway, the pipes and fittings are in place, but the ends are yet to be joined with

the Tank nozzles.

These are the pipe fittings, There are various types of fittings for various purposes, some common
These are the pipe fittings, There are various types of fittings for various purposes, some common

We now have to complete the end connections.

These, in piping term, we call

TERMINAL CONNECTIONS.

So far this is a nice arrangement.

But there is no control over the flow from Tank-1

to other tanks.

We need some arrangement to stop the flow if needed

So far this is a nice arrangement. But there is no control over the flow from

These are flanged joints

So far this is a nice arrangement. But there is no control over the flow from

This is a welded joint

So far this is a nice arrangement. But there is no control over the flow from

To control the flow in a pipe line we need to fit a special component.

That is called - VALVE

There are many types of valves, categorized

based on their construction and functionality,

Those are - Gate, Globe, Check, Butterfly, etc.

Other than valves another important

line component of pipe line is a filter,

which cleans out derbies from the flowing fluid. This is called a

STRAINER

Here we see a more or less functional piping

system, with valves and strainer installed.

Let us now investigate some aspects of pipe flexibility.

If this tank nozzle expands, when the tank is hot.

Here we see a more or less functional piping system, with valves and strainer installed. Let

In such case we need to fit a flexible pipe component at that location,

which is called an EXPANSION

JOINT

When some fluid is flowing in a pipe we may

also like know the parameters like, pressure,

temperature, flow rate etc. of the fluid.

To know these information we need to install INSTRUMENTS in the pipeline.

There are various types instruments to measure various

Next we shall look

into how to

SUPPORT the

pipe/and it’s

components.

parameters. Also there are specific criteria for installation

of various pipe line instruments.

Here are some of the pipe supporting arrangements.

There can be numerous variants. All depend on

piping designer’s preference and judgement.

Let us see some OTHER types of supports

We have just completed a pipe line design.

We shall rewind and check how it is really done in practice.

  • First the flow scheme is planned,

1) What,

2) From what point,

3) To which point

  • Pipe sizes are selected, pipe material and pipe wall thickness are selected.

  • Types of Valves are planned

  • Also the types of instruments required are planned

We represent the whole thing in a drawing which is called Piping and Instrumentation Drawing, in short P&ID. For P&ID generation we use CADME software.

By this time you have already come to know that while we prepare P&IDs in CADME, we enter all the pipe lines system information in the drawing.

So the CADME drawing is an Intelligent drawing which under it’s surface carries all

the information about a pipe like, Pipe size, Flowing Fluid, etc. Let us see a P&ID prepared in CADME

This is screen picture of P&ID made by CADME

If we click on any line it will

show the Data embedded.

These are the embedded

data of this line

These are the embedded data of this line
These are the embedded data of this line

Let us look in to a simple P&ID for understanding of P&IDs.

This is part P&ID for DM water transfer system Click to see Iso
This is part
P&ID for DM
water transfer
system
Click to see Iso

After the P&ID is ready we start the layout work.

Here we carryout pipe routing / layout in Virtual 3D environment.

We use PDWB software to route piping in the Plant virtual 3D space. We call this as piping modeling or physical design. While development of piping layout we have to consider the following

  • Piping from source to destination should be as short as possible with minimum change in direction.

  • Should not hinder any normal passage way. Also should not encroach any equipment maintenance space.

After the P&ID is ready we start the layout work. Here we carryout pipe routing /

Preferable

After the P&ID is ready we start the layout work. Here we carryout pipe routing /

Not Preferable

While carrying out pipe routing we also need to consider the following

  • Valves, strainers, instruments on the pipe should be easily accessible.

  • If needed separate ACCESS PLATFORMS to be provided to facilitate these.

  • Desired location and orientation of valves / instruments and other pipe components are to be checked and maintained, like some valves or strainers can only be installed in horizontal position.

  • Specific requirements for instrument installation to be checked, like temperature gauge can not be installed in pipe which is less than 4 inch in size.

  • Specific requirements of STRAIGHT LENGTH of pipe for some components to be maintained, like for flow orifice we need to provide 15 times diameter straight pipe length at upstream of orifice and 5 times diameter straight at down stream of orifice.

While carrying out pipe routing we also need to consider the following  Valves, strainers, instruments

Example of Straight length requirement for Flow Orifice

  • For Pipeline which shall carry liquid, we have to make sure that all air is allowed

to vent out of the line when the line is filled with liquid.

  • To achieve this a VENT connection with Valve is provided at the top most point of the pipeline.

Pipe line Vents and Drains
Pipe line Vents
and Drains
  • Also arrangement is kept in the pipeline so that liquid can be drained out if required.

  • To achieve this a DRAIN connection with Valve is provided at the lowest point of the pipeline

  • Pipes are also slopped towards low points.

Let us look into typical Vent and Drain arrangement in a pipeline

Let us have a look into a piping model done by PDWB The Term PDWB stands for Piping Design Work Bench

This is a PDWB model of Feed

water line along

with pumps and other accessories

Let us look in to a Piping Isometric Drawing

Let us look in to a Piping

Isometric Drawing

From the Piping 3D Model

From the Piping 3D Model we create the Piping Isometric drawings.

we create the Piping Isometric

drawings.

These piping isometric drawings are used to fabricate and erect the piping

These isometric drawings

at job site.

are used to fabricate and erect the piping at job site.

This is part

Isometric for DM

water transfer system

Click to see P&ID
Click to see P&ID

INSULATION - When hot fluid flows through pipe then generally pipe is insulated. There are two primary reasons for insulating the pipe carrying hot fluid.

 Containing the heat inside the pipe. Insulation preserves the heat of the fluid. It is
Containing the heat inside the pipe. Insulation preserves the heat of the fluid. It
is called Hot Insulation
Personnel safety, so that people do not get burn injury by touching hot surface
of pipe. It is called Personnel Protection Insulation
Cold pipes are also insulated
Cold or chilled fluid carrying pipes are insulated to prevent heating of cold fluid
from outside. It is called Cold Insulation.
Some times cold pipes are insulated to prevent condensation of atmospheric
water vapor on pipe surface. It is called Anti-Sweat Insulation.
Other types of Insulation
When gas flows through pipes at high velocity, it creates noise. In such cases
pipes are insulated to reduce noise. It is called Acoustic Insulation.

Some times pipe and it’s content are heated from outside, by heat tracing element. In that case pipe along with heat tracing element are insulated to conserve the heat of the tracer. It is called Heat Tracing Insulation.

INSULATION MATERIAL - The insulating material should be bad conductor of heat. There are two basic categories

1) Fibrous Material, which has large voids full of air between fibers - Cork, Glass Wool, Mineral Wool, Organic Fibers. Note stagnant air is a bad conductor.

2) Cellular Material, which has closed void cells full or air - Calcium Silicate, Cellular Glass (Foam Glass), Polyurethane Foam (PUF), Polystyrene (Thermocol), etc.

Some times Cast material like Cement Plaster or Plaster of Paris are also used. INSULATION CLADDING - Insulation materials are generally soft or fragile. So the outer surface of insulation are protected with Aluminum sheet or GI sheet

cladding.

Have a look at how pipes are insulated,

and general

components of insulation

Pipe Material Selection - to select appropriate pipe material based on flowing fluid property. Find out
Pipe Material Selection - to select appropriate pipe material based on flowing fluid property.
Find out type
of Fluid
flowing
Find out
Check Pipe
Select suitable
Check Mat.
Pipe
YES
Fluid Temp.
life
& Pressure
Expectancy
Material per
practice (Note-1)
Listed in
Material
Design Code
OK
NO
Note-1 : Material is selected per past experience with cost in
mind and per material listed in design code. If material is
not listed in code we may select next suitable material
listed.
See Note-
1
Pipe Sizing Calculation - to select required pipe diameter based on velocity and pressure drop.
Find out
Check Velocity
Allowable per
second
Calc. flow area
required and
Pipe size
Calc. Press.
Drop for that
Pipe size
Check Press.
Drop meets
Press. Budget
Pipe
YES
Flow volume
Size
per second
OK
NO
Increase
Pipe Size
Pipe Thickness Selection - to select appropriate pipe thickness based on flowing fluid property.
Decide on for Project new PDT Created for Project S&L PDT Selected allowance & Pressure as
Decide on
for Project
new PDT
Created
for Project
S&L PDT
Selected
allowance
& Pressure
as above
Corrosion
Fluid Temp.
& Diameter
YES
Find out
Select Mat.
Note-2 : S&L has a standardized sets of piping materials suitable for various
fluids and various service conditions, These are call - Piping Design
Table (PDT). If calculated pipe thickness do not match with standard
PDT, Project Specific PDT are created with PDTS software.
Thickness per
Code (Note-2)
Calc. Pipe
Create new
NO
PDT matches
requirement
Project
Check if S&L
PDT for

Piping Design Table and Valve Design Table

S&L has standardized sets of pipe and valves grouped based of various application.

These sets are call Piping Design Table (PDT) for pipes and fittings, and Valve Design Table (VDT) for valves.

These Tables with all their physical data are consolidated in the PLADES 2000 Database.

When we create piping 3D model by using PDWB software all Pipe and Valve data are fetched from Database and automatically inserted in the piping model based on the PDT selected.

While we select pipe or valve material for any intended service we try to select the best

suited S&L PDT already available in the Database.

If in any case we can not find a suitable match we have to create a new project specific PDT or VDT.

This creation of PDT and VDT is done through PDTS software. The created design table is reviewed and approved by authorized person.

As it is approved PLADES Database is updated, and the NEW PDT can be used in generation of piping model.

This is an example of project specific PDT
This is an example of
project specific PDT
This is an example of project specific PDT
  • In Power plant there are some piping which carries steam at high pressure and temperature. And also there are piping which carries water at High pressure. These pipes carries the main cycle steam and water of the steam power plant.

  • These pipelines are call the CRITICAL PIPING.

  • Very special care are taken for design of these piping.

  • First the pipe material selection for such piping is very important as it has to

withstand the high pressure and may be also high temperature.

 As these pipes carry the main system fluid of the power plant, they are given
As these pipes carry the main system fluid of the power plant, they are given
the right of way, and routed at beginning of the overall plant layout.
Steam pipes run at very high temperature and the hot pipes expand. We have to
built in flexibility in the high temperature pipe routing so that the expansion
force is absorbed within the piping.
  • Also there should be enough flexibility in these pipe routing so that high loads are not transferred to the nozzles of Turbine or Pumps

    • There are many recognized international codes which lay down guide lines and mandatory requirements for design of such piping.

    • The most important codes used by power plant piping engineers are

      • ASME ANSI B31.1- Power Piping Code & IBR - the Indian Boiler Regulation

Pipe Stress Analysis

  • We have already seen that some of the pipes are subjected to high pressure and high temperature. Also pipes carry the load of the flowing fluid.

  • We need to check and confirm the pipe is not going to fail with these loading.

  • This process of checking the stress developed in the piping due to various loading is called Pipe Stress Analysis/Flexibility analysis.

  • In the process of Analysis we apply various postulated loading on the pipe and find out the stress resulted from these loading.

  • Then we check with governing codes if those stresses generated are acceptable or not.

  • We check support load & movement for various loading condition.

  • We also check out the terminal point loading generated from pipe to the equipment connected to the pipe. This loading are to be within acceptable limits of the equipment suggested by the vendors.

  • We also find out the pipe growth due to change in temperature and need to keep the movement of pipe within acceptable limits.

  • Pipe Stress Analysis is an Interactive and Iterative process. Each step is checked

  • If a check fails we have to go back, modify the layout and restart the analysis.

PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS

Inputs

Tools we use

  • Geometric layout of Pipe

  • PIPSYS - is an integrated pipe stress

  • Pipe supporting configuration

analysis module of PLADES 2000

  • Pipe Diameter and Thickness

  • CEASER - Commercial Piping analysis

software

  • Pressure inside Pipe

  • There are many other commercial software

  • Cold and Hot temperatures of Pipe

available

  • Weight of Pipe and insulation

Outputs

  • Weight of carrying Fluid

  • Stress of the pipe at various loading

  • Pipe material Property (Young’s Modulus,

conditions

Thermal Expansion Coefficient)

  • Load at various supports and restrains.

  • Thrust on pipe due to blowing wind.

  • Movement of pipe at support locations

  • Thrust on pipe due to earthquake

  • Pipe terminal point loading.

  • Load of Snow on pipe

Codes and Standards

  • Any transient loading like Steam Hammer load

  • In general Power Plant Piping have to comply stipulations of ASME ANSI B31.1

  • Any other load on the piping

  • In India Power cycle Piping to comply IBR code requirements.

PIPSYS - the analysis module of PLADES 2000

It is a very powerful and flexible, integrated stress analysis module of PLADES 2000. We work
It is a very powerful and flexible,
integrated stress analysis
module of PLADES 2000.
We work in PIPSYS in close
interaction with PDWB piping
Models.
Here are some of the Screen
views
Geometry Plot screen - It
shows the model geometry
Opening screen - It has a Nick
name - The Blue Screen

Types of Pipe Supports

In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of pipe supports. Here is some elaboration

  • There are three general types

    • Rigid type (no flexibility in the direction of restrain)

    • Spring type (Allows pipe movement in direction of loading)

    • Dynamic Support (Degree of restrain depends on acceleration of load)

  • There are two types of spring support

    • Variable load type, here support load changes as the pipe moves.

    • Constant load support, the load remains constant within some range of movement.

  • Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of

    Rigid Support

    Constant Load Spring

    Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of

    Variable Spring

    Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of
    Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of

    Rigid Hanger

    Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of

    Dynamic Support, Snubber

    Rigid Support

    Types of Pipe Supports In the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of

    Some Typical Pipe Support Drawings

    Here is some typical Pipe support drawings showing some typical vendor supplied component numbers. (See Support Catalogues in G drive g:\snl\techdocs)

    Some Typical Pipe Support Drawings Here is some typical Pipe support drawings showing some typical vendor
    Some Typical Pipe Support Drawings Here is some typical Pipe support drawings showing some typical vendor
    Some Typical Pipe Support Drawings Here is some typical Pipe support drawings showing some typical vendor
    Some Typical Pipe Support Drawings Here is some typical Pipe support drawings showing some typical vendor
    Some Typical Pipe Support Drawings Here is some typical Pipe support drawings showing some typical vendor

    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs

    Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views

    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views
    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views
    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views
    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views
    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views
    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views
    Some Pipe Support Hardware DetaIs Here is some typical Pipe support hardware Pictorial views

    Some Special Considerations for Piping

    When pipes are routed UNDER GROUND (Buried) following points to be kept in mind:

    • Minimum pipe size to be routed under ground shall be not less than 1 inch.

    • Avoid flange joint in U/G piping.

    • Keep in mind if pipe leaks U/G, it will be difficult to detect, so avoid U/G routing of pipe carrying hazardous fluid.

    • Pipe to be laid below Frost Zone at areas where ambient temperature goes below freezing.

    • U/G, Buried piping should be properly protected from corrosion.

      • Pipe may be properly wrapped and coated to prevent corrosion.

      • Or U/G piping be protected by using Cathodic protection.

    Freeze Protection of outdoor Piping:

    • In the areas where the ambient temperature goes below freezing there is a possibility that the liquid content of pipe may freeze while the plant is under shut down.

    • For similar case pipes are wrapped with heat tracing elements to maintain the content

    temperature above freezing (around 4 deg. C) even when the ambient temp. is below freezing.

    • Electric Heat tracing is done by wrapping electric coil around pipe, which turns on as the ambient temperature goes down. Pipes are insulated over the heat tracing coils.

    • Heat tracing can also be done by winding Steam tubes around main pipes.

    Piping Designer’s Input & Output

    INPUTS TO PIPING DESIGNER

    OUTPUT OF PIPING DESIGNER

    From Process What Fluid From Where to Where. Pressure, Temp. and Flow rate.

    Type of Flow control. From Project What Project Specific Requirements. Any existing facility or U/G work From Mechanical Equipment Locations and terminal parameters

    From Civil

    Locations of foundations and structures

    From C&I

    Types of control and instrument installation, tapping requirements

    From Electrical

    Locations of electrical equipment, cable tray and bus ducts

    Piping Designer’s Input & Output INPUTS TO PIPING DESIGNER OUTPUT OF PIPING DESIGNER From Process 
    Piping Designer’s Input & Output INPUTS TO PIPING DESIGNER OUTPUT OF PIPING DESIGNER From Process 
    Piping Designer’s Input & Output INPUTS TO PIPING DESIGNER OUTPUT OF PIPING DESIGNER From Process 

    To Process Final Pipe Size and Pressure class Piping system Material To Project Plant Interface drawing Interface with existing facility To Mechanical Pipe layout both A/G and U/G Equipment terminal Loading To Civil Locations of Pipe supports Pipe support loading to foundations and structures Wall Penetrations To C&I Locations instruments, control valves on piping isometrics

    To Electrical

    Pipe layouts both A/G and U/G to match cable, duct bank routing

    Piping Designer’s Input & Output INPUTS TO PIPING DESIGNER OUTPUT OF PIPING DESIGNER From Process 

    Congratulations

    !!! We have come to the End of Session for Piping Hope you have gathered enough knowledge to talk intelligently on the subject of piping and also start work on piping